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ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

BIOGAS PLANT AND ITS BENEFITS


Presented by:Mihir Shah (A-26) Mithun Pardesi(A-28) Muzammil Deshmukh (A-29) Neha Naik (A-30) Pawan Panjwani (A-34)

INTRODUCTION
Biogas is an important renewable energy resource for rural areas in India.
It is produced by anaerobic digestion of biological wastes.

It is an environment friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel.


Biogas generally comprise of 55-65 % methane, 35-45 % carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of water vapour. Biogas like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be liquefied under normal temperature and pressure.

BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY STATUS


India has been pioneering country in developing simple and easy to operate biogas plants.
The government of India has been running National Biogas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP) for the welfare of the weaker section of the society. 100% Biogas engines are in operation in the country.

Other urban waste projects include a 1 MW project based on cattle dung at Haebowal, Ludhiana; a 0.50 MW project for generation of power from biogas at sewage treatment plant at Surat, Gujarat; and a 150 kW pant for vegetable market and slaughter house waste and Vijaywada. Another 300 kW project based on vegetable market waste in under commissioning at Chennai. Besides, about 25 waste-to-energy projects with an aggregate capacity of about 30 MW from a variety of industrial wastes also been setup in the country.

BIOGAS- FERTILIZER PLANTS: MOST IMPORTENT TOOL TO HANDLE METHANE


Methane (Green house gas) released from three Landfills of Delhi during 2008: (Indian Express 29.01.2010) Effect of methane is higher than from CO2 by: 74,000 tonnes

21 times

Percentage of methane in harmful green house gas:

18%(approx.)

Annual CO2 Emission Reduction from 1.5 lakh biogas plants:

70.5375 tonnes

BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FROM DIFFERENT WASTES

THE BENEFITS OF BIOGAS

PRODUCTION OF ENERGY
The calorific value of biogas is about 6 kWh/m3 - this corresponds to about half a litre of diesel oil. The net calorific value depends on the efficiency of the burners or appliances. Biogas use, replacing conventional fuels like kerosene or firewood, allows for the conservation of environment.
Biogas is able to substitute almost the complete consumption of firewood in rural households. The biogas generated from small and medium sized units is used for cooking and lighting purposes. Large units can be used to power engines and generators for mechanical work

FERTILIZER
The output from the polythene bio gas digester (digested manure) is actually a high quality organic fertilizer. This fertilizer is very important, especially in a country like INDIA Fertilizer which comes from a bio-gas plant contains three times more nitrogen than the best compost made through open air digestion. The bio-gas plant does not make extra nitrogen; it does not create nitrogen, it merely preserves the nitrogen that is already there. The bio gas plant is the perfect fertilizer-making machine and it has been tested all over the world. There is no better way to digest or compost manure and other organic material than in a bio-gas plant. Bio-fertilizers also secrete growth promoting substances like hormones, vitamins, amino acids and anti-fungal chemicals, as well as improve seed germination and root growth. Bio-fertilizers, thereby also aid in the better establishment of plants.

HEALTH BENEFITS, THE IMPROVEMENT OF HYGIENIC CONDITIONS


The following are the principal organisms killed in biogas plants: Typhoid Paratyphoid, Cholera and dysentery bacteria (in 1 or 2 weeks), Hookworm and bilharzia (in 3 weeks). Tapeworm and roundworm die completely when the fermented slurry is dried in the sun.

Dung cakes are no longer stored in the homes.

REDUCTION OF WORKLOAD
Biogas plants also improve health conditions in the homes:
Since biogas burns clean, homes do not fill with smoke and ash.

Cooking with gas takes less time than with wood or charcoal or any other commonly used fuel.
It is easier to cook with gas stove.

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES
With digestion, a renewable source of energy is captured, which has an important climatic twin effect:
The use of renewable energy reduces the CO2-emissions through a reduction of the demand for fossil fuels. At the same time, by capturing uncontrolled methane emissions, the second most important greenhouse gas is reduced

NEED FOR THE BIOGAS ENRICHMENT AND BOTTLING


Potential of biogas is not fully utilized and commercialized so far. For commercialization, its area of application may widen; from cooking fuel to vehicle fuel. For use as a vehicle fuel, it should be bottled like CNG. Before bottling, it should enriched in methane content from 55 % to 95 %; similar to CNG.

THREE WHEELER RUNNING ON ENRICHED BIOGAS

HOW BIOGAS WORKS

BIO GAS PROMOTION IN INDIA


In India the First Biogas Plant was commissioned in the year 1962.
This was known as KVIC Floating Dome Model.(Popularly known as Indian Model).

Till 79, the promotion was not in serious way ;and in 79, the First
Fixed Dome Model (Janata) was commissioned. In 82, Govt. of India launched National Biogas Programme countrywide thro Ministry of Nonconventional Energy Sources. Potential of Domestic Biogas Plants in India 12 million.

CENTRAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE


The Ministry provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) for
a) Construction and maintenance of biogas plants, b) Training & Awareness creation, Technical centres, c) Service charges or salary support to implementing agencies. d) The financial assistance for construction of biogas plants is enhanced

for a few categories of beneficiaries mainly to accommodate the increase


in cost of construction. e) The central subsidy offered to different categories of

beneficiaries/areas for construction of biogas plants .

MODELS THAT ARE PROMOTED


1. Floating Dome KVIC Model.
2. Fixed Dome Deenbandhu Model.

3. Bag Type portable digester made of rubberized nylon fabric.

4. Low cost fixed dome models made of alternate construction materials, like the pre fabricated Ferro Cement or Reinforced cement and in-situ built Ferro cement materials. All these are promoted by the states in the country by State Nodal Agencies Of MNES(Ministry of Non conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India.

AWARENESS CREATION
In many States, village panchayats and local bodies, such as Mahila Mandals (Women Organizations)and Yuvak Kendras (Youth Centres)are actively associated for such activities. Some States have linked the implementation of the biogas programme with Rural Development schemes, such as Rural Sanitation Programme , Watershed Development and Integrated Tribal Development Programmes.
As a part of publicity campaign leaf lets developed in regional languages are widely distributed by BDTCs( Biogas Development &Training Centres). Popular articles on the benefits of biogas plants are published in regional and local dailies and magazines.

CENTRAL SUBSIDY
The Pattern of Subsidy is not uniform. This has been decided to help
out a) Hilly and inaccessible areas of the country

b)Scheduled Castes and Schedule Tribes, Desert districts, Small &


Marginal Farmers, Landless Labourers c) All others. Maximum Financial help has been extended to the poorest farmers as well the lower middle class villagers as well for inaccessible areas.

Subsidy is also applicable to Urban Biogas Plant owners in par with


their status of caste and income.

FURTHER R&D WORK FOR BIOGAS DEVELOPMENT


Biogas production using easily available local waste material preferably agricultural wastes.
Development of new and low cost improved designs of biogas plants for large sizes.

The effect of bio-wash (liquid from digested slurry) on vegetables and crops. Design of kitchen waste biogas plant for restaurants

CONCLUSIONS
India has second largest biogas programme in the world at rural and as well as urban levels.
Many technologies/models have been successfully developed in India for biogas programme. There is need to develop a sustainable renewable energy programme on biogas for replacing petroleum products by utilization of biogas in the country.

This will help in green energy technology and reducing green house gases emissions.
Biogas is a potential renewable energy source for rural India and other developing countries.

BIOGAS FLAME

BIOGAS LAMP

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