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3/12/2012

EIM 605/ INF619 Business Intelligence


by Prof. Butakov

Week 11: Collaborative ComputerSupported Technologies and Group Support Systems

Learning Objectives
Understand the basic concepts and processes of groupwork, communication and collaboration Describe how computer systems facilitate communication and collaboration in enterprises Know the concepts and importance of the time/place framework Be aware of the underlying principles and capabilities of groupware (e.g., GSS) Know the process gains and losses and how GSS increases/decreases each of them Describe indirect support for decision making, especially in synchronous environments
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

3/12/2012

Learning Objectives
Become familiar with the GSS products of the major vendors (e.g., Lotus, Microsoft, WebEx, Groove) Understand the concept of GDSS and describe how to structure an electronic meeting in a decision room Describe the three settings of GDSS Describe how a GDSS uses parallelism and anonymity and how they lead to process/task gains and losses Understand how the Web enables collaborative computing and group support of virtual meetings Describe the role of emerging technologies Define creativity and explain how it can be facilitated by computers
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Opening Vignette:
Procter & Gamble Drives Ideation with Group Support Systems Company background Problem description Proposed solution Results Answer and discuss the case questions

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Collaboration
What is it? making joint effort toward achieving an agreed upon goal. Meeting is a common form of collaboration Why collaborate?

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Why Collaborate? Make Decisions


Synergy Build Trust

Review

Share the Vision


Share Information
Solve Problems

Share Work Build Consensus

Socialize

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Collaboration is Difficult
Waiting to speak Domination Fear of Speaking Misunderstanding Inattention Lack of Focus Inadequate Criteria Premature Decisions Missing Information Distractions Wrong People Groupthink Poor Grasp of Problem Ignored Alternatives Lack of Consensus Poor Planning Hidden Agendas Conflict Inadequate Resources Poorly Defined Goals

Ineffective Collaboration

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Collaboration is Expensive
15 Million formal Sessions / day ? Million Informal Sessions / day 4 Billion Sessions / year 30-80% Managers time
Fortune 500 Companies 3M Corporation Study

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Collaboration is Essential
No one has all the
Experience Knowledge Resources Insight, and Inspiration

to do the job alone


Bottom line: Collaboration is difficult, expensive, and yet essential for todays organizations
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

How Do People Collaborate?


Low

3 Levels of Collaboration Capability


Sprinters

Level 1 Collected Work : Uncoordinated Individual Efforts Level 2 Coordinated Work: Coordinated Individual Efforts

Degree of Collaborative Effort

Relay

Crew

High

Level 3 Concerted Work: Concerted Team Effort

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Meetings (a form of collaboration)


Joint activity Equal or near equal status Outcome depends on participants knowledge, etc. Outcome depends on group composition Outcome depends on decision-making process Disagreement settled by rank or negotiation

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

The Ideal Meeting


Dozens of people attends Everyone talks at once hears everything understands remembers The impossible dream?
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Traditional Meetings

Only ONE person can speak at a time


Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

GSS Meetings

By using the computer everyone can SPEAK and be understood simultaneously


Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Communication Support
Vital Needed for collaboration Modern information technologies provide inexpensive, fast, capable, reliable means of supporting communication Internet / Web

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Supporting Communication
Evolution of Communication
Word of mouth Delivery persons Horseback Snailmail Telegraph Telephone Radio Television Videoconferencing Internet / Web

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

3/12/2012

A Time/Place Communication Framework

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Groupware
Lotus Notes / Domino Server
Includes Learning Space

Netscape Collabra Server Microsoft NetMeeting Novell Groupwise GroupSystems TCBWorks WebEx

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

3/12/2012

Group Support Systems


Goal: to support groupwork Increase benefits / decrease losses of collaboration Based on traditional methods
Nominal Group Technique
Individuals work alone to generate ideas which are pooled under guidance of a trained facilitator

Delphi Method
A structured process for collecting and distilling knowledge from a group of experts by means of questionnaires

Electronic Meeting System (EMS)

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

GSS Important Features


Process Gains: Parallelism Anonymity Triggering Synergy Structure Record keeping ( simultaneous contributions ) ( promotes equal participation ) ( stimulates thinking ) ( integrates ideas ) ( facilitates problem solving ) ( promotes organizational memory )

Larger groups can participate Focus on content not personalities

Process Loses: Free-riding Flaming


Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Benefits of Anonymity

Ideas considered on merit not source Overcome fear of speaking up More ideas leads to more quality ideas Defuses tough political discussions
9#

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

GSS Enabling Technologies


Decision room Multiple use facility Web-based

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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The Decision (Electronic Meeting) Room


12 to 30 networked personal computers Usually recessed into the desktop Server PC Large-screen projection system Breakout rooms Need a Trained Facilitator for Success

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Cool Decision Rooms

IBM Corp.
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Cooler Decision Rooms

US Air Force
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Mobile Decision Rooms

Murraysville School District Bus


Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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On-Demand Decision Rooms

4
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Few Organizations Use Decision Rooms


High Cost Need for a Trained Facilitator Requires Specific Software Support for Different Cooperative Tasks Infrequent Use Different Place / Different Time Needs May Need More Than One

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Other Technologies
Multiple Use Facility
Cheaper Still need a facilitator

Web-based
Cheaper: no extra hardware needed Still need facilitator

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

GroupSystems, Inc.
From GroupSystems.com, Tucson, AZ Comprehensive groupware Windows and Web versions Leading software Tool: ThinkTank

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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ThinkTank: Supported Activities


Supported tools and activities:
Agenda and Other Planning Activities Electronic Brainstorming Group Outliner Topic Commenter Categorizer Vote

Others

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

GSS Meeting Process


Iterate until the solution is reached

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Visit a GSS Meeting

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Step 1: Prepare an Agenda


Prepare an agenda

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Step 2: Collect Information

think about the risks to the company if they launch a new line of sports drinks Brainstorm

Risk

Think about the risks to company if they launch a new line of products

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Step 3: Refine Information

Gather Additional Information Capture important issues for the listed items

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Step 4: Prioritize Options

Prioritize Risk Based on Likelihood and Impact Use of Alternative Analysis Ballot for two Criteria

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Step 5: Review Prioritized Options

View and Discuss Results of Voting

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Step 5: Review Prioritized Options

Chose Risks for Further Analysis

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Step 5: Review Prioritized Options

Collect Additional Input On Risks Collect additional comments on top three risks

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Step 5: Review Prioritized Options

Review Comments on Risks

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Step 6: Create an Action Plan

Create an Action Plan

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Step 7: Distribute Session Transcripts

Create and Distribute a Final Report

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Last Words about GSS?


Why Successful?
Parallelism Anonymity Synergy Structure Record keeping Organizational commitment Executive sponsor Dedicated well-trained facilitator Good planning

Needs

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Collaborative Networks
Integrated supply-chain
Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) Collaborative design and product development

Vendor Managed Inventories


Wal-Mart,

Collective Intelligence Animal Intelligence (swarm intelligence)

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR)


An industry-wide project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in planning and demand forecasting in order to ensure that members of the supply chain will have the right amount of raw materials and finished goods when they need them

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Collective Intelligence

A shared intelligence that emerges from the intentional cooperation, collaboration, and/or coordination of many individuals. Examples: Wikipedia, video games, online advertising, learner-generated context, In order for CI to happen: Openness For more info see Peering Center for Collective Sharing Intelligence at MIT (cci.mit.edu) Acting globally

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

A Taxonomy of Collective Intelligence

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Creativity
Is it a fundamental human trait or something that can be learned? Definition: Creativity is a characteristic of a person that leads to production of acts, items and/or instances of novelty Creativity is the product of a genius vs. an idea generation environment Creative people tend to have creative lives CREATIVITY INNOVATION Idea Generation via Electronic Brainstorming
Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

Creativity
What variables affects creativity
1. Cognitive variables: intelligence, knowledge, skills, etc. 2. Environmental variables: cultural and socioeconomic factors, working conditions, etc. 3. Personality variables: motivation, confidence, sense of freedom, etc.

Creativity is fostered by
Freedom Permission-to-fail Allow and Enable rather than Structure and Control

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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Creativity
Software that shows creativity
Intelligent Agents (Softbots) Creativity is an intelligent behavior

Software that facilitates human creativity


ThoughtPath: promotes outside-the-box thinking Creative WhackPack (Creative Think): whack you out of your habitual thought process IdeaFisher: provides language specific universality thesaurus

Freedom, Collaboration, Prototyping

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

End of the Chapter


Questions / comments

Prof. Sergey Butakov, SolBridge Int. School of Business, Spring 2012, butakov@solbridge.ac.kr, Slides 2012 Pearson, Inc.

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