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01-May-12 Submitted to Rajesh Kumar Sir Submitted by Hanish Jain

1. With the aid of suitable diagram discuss the operation of Injection LASER. In early 1960s injection laser was developed, which was of the form of a FabryPerot cavity often fabricated in Gallium Arsenide with electroluminescent properties at the approximate wavelength of the first generation systems. The basic structure is shown in the figure.

Here the cleaved ends of the crystal act as partial mirrors in order to encourage stimulated emission in the cavity when the electrons are injected into the p=type region.

1. Briefly describe the advantages and drawback of LED in comparison with injection LASER.
Injection LASER has several major advantages over other semiconductor sources (e.g. LED): High radiance due to the amplifying effect of stimulated emission. Injection LASERs will generally supply mW of optical output power. Narrow line width on the order of 1nm or less which is useful for minimizing the effects of material dispersion. Modulation capabilities which at present extend up into the GHz range and will undoubtedly be improved upon. Relative temporal coherence which is considered essential to allow heterodyne (coherent) detection in high capacity system, but at present is primarily of use in single-mode system. Good spatial coherence which allows the output to be focused by a lens into a spot which has a greater intensity than the dispersed unfocused emission. LED are of interest for fiber optics due to the following reasons: They possess high radiance (i.e. they emit lot of light in a small area.) They have a very long life, offering high reliability They can be modulated (turned off and on) at high speeds.

Table 1 Comparison of LEDs and Lasers Characteristics Output Power Current Coupled Power Speed Output Pattern Bandwidth Wavelengths Available Spectral Width Fiber Type Ease of Use Lifetime Cost LEDs Linearly proportional to drive current Drive Current: 50 to 100 mA Peak Moderate Slower Higher Moderate 0.66 to 1.65 m Wider (40-190 nm FWHM) Multimode Only Easier Longer Low ($5-$300) Lasers Proportional to current above the threshold Threshold Current: 5 to 40 mA High Faster Lower High 0.78 to 1.65 m Narrower (0.00001 nm to 10 nm FWHM) SM, MM Harder Long High ($100-$10,000)

2. Estimate the external power efficiency of GaAs planer LED when the transmission factor of GaAs-Air interface is 0.68 and internally generated optical power is 30% of electric power applied. The refractive index may be taken as 3.6. The optical power is given below in which the refractive index for air is 1. Pe = Pint Fn2 4nx2 = Pint 0.68x1 4x (3.6)2 = Pint 0.013 The optical power generated internally is given by: Pint = 0.3 P The external power efficiency is nep = Pe x 100 P = 0.013 Pint x 100 P = 0.013 Pint x 100 2.33 Pint = 0.39%