Está en la página 1de 33

Cng ngh truyn dn DWDM Chung 1: Cng ngh truyn dn DWDM 1.

Tng quan cng ngh truyn dn DWDM 1.1 Cc cng ngh truyn dn trong si quang Hin nay, mng thng tin ang c trin khai trn nhiu mi trng truyn dn khc nhau nh mng ngoi vi cp ng, cp ng trc, dy xon i hoc mi trng truyn dn khng dy. Tng ng vi chng l cc thit b u cui s dng dch v ca truyn dn. Gia cc thit b , mng truyn dn quang c trin khai nhm mang i cc lung lu lng ln, ng thi m bo tnh bo mt, cht lng cao, chng nhiu v khong vt ln. Cc cng ngh ghp knh c s dng trong mng truyn dn cp quang bao gm: - Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) - Ghp knh phn chia theo khng gian (SDM) - Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng (WDM) 1.1.1 Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) Trong cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM), thng tin c truyn qua mi trng ti cc thi im khc nhau cc khe thi gian. Trong TDM, th t truyn gia cc khe thi gian c quy c c nh t trc, trong cc khe thi gian c th c s dng truyn dng d liu s. Tuy nhin, mt trong nhng nhc im ln nht ca cng ngh TDM l kh nng s dng bng thng knh truyn thp. Do c im l th t truyn ca cc khe thi gian c quy c c nh t trc. Mt hn ch khc ca cng ngh TDM l kh nng tng tc ca knh truyn b gii hn bi kh nng ca cc thnh phn in v quang trong h thng ghp knh lm h thng ghp knh s dng cng ngh TDM ch c kh nng to ra cc knh truyn c tc ti a 40Gbps.

1.1.2 Ghp knh phn chia theo khng gian (SDM) Trong cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo khng gian (SDM), thng tin ca cc kt ni khc nhau c truyn trn cc truyn khc nhau. Nh vy khi mun tng thm thng lng cho kt ni, chng ta s dng thm cc si li trong mt tuyn cp hoc s dng thm cp quang. Nh vy thng tin c truyn tch bit trn cc knh truyn khc nhau, m bo cht lng truyn dn tt nht. Tuy nhin nhc im ln nht ca cng ngh SDM l hiu qu u t thp do khi mun tng s knh truyn trong mng chng ta li cn thm mt kt ni vt l mi khin s kt ni tng nhanh theo s knh truyn. 1.1.3 Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng (WDM) Ghp knh WDM l cng ngh ghp knh cho php s dng nhiu bc sng quang khc nhau truyn trn cng mt tuyn cp. Nh vy ghp knh WDM gip s dng trit hn bng thng ca cp quang ng thi gii quyt nhu cu tng dung lng knh truyn m vn m bo hiu qu u t. C 3 loi cng ngh ghp knh WDM ang c s dng hin nay: Ghp knh bc sng 1310/1550nm: Cng ngh c s dng nhng nm trc 1970, s dng 2 sng mang c tn s trung tm l 1310nm v 1550nm. Ghp knh theo bc sng dng tinh (DWDM): DWDM l cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng vi khong cch gia cc sng mang nh. Thng thng cc sng mang c s dng trong ca s c bc sng trung tm l 1550nm. Vi cng ngh ghp knh DWDM, chng ta c th s dng cng lc t 8 n 160 bc sng truyn trn cng mt si quang. DWDM thng c s dng vi cc tuyn truyn dn c khong vt ln. Ghp knh theo bc sng dng th (CWDM): CWDM l cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng tng t nh DWDM tuy nhin trong CWDM, khong cch gia cc sng mang con c s dng ln hn (thng ln hn 20nm). CWDM s dng cc sng mang nm trong ca s t 1200nm n 1700nm. CWDM thng c s dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn c khong vt nh, dung lng thp nh mng truyn dn trong cc ta nh hay gia cc ta nh vi nhau. Kt lun: Trong phn 1.1 gii thiu tng quan v cc cng ngh truyn dn v ang c s dng trong mng truyn dn cp quang. So snh v u, nhc im ca cc cng ngh chng ta c th thy DWDM th hin s u vit so vi cc cng ngh khc vi cc u im:

Khong vt ln S dng trit bng thng ca cp quang Tng hiu qu ca vic u t mng truyn dn Trong phn tip sau s i tm hiu mi quan h gia cng ngh DWDM v cng ngh SDH.

1.2

Quan h gia DWDM v SDH Ta c s tng qut mi quan h gia DWDM v SDH nh sau:

Theo hnh v trn, SDH l thc hin chuyn mch, u cho v kt ni trn cc knh in trong khi DWDM thc hin chuyn mch trn cc knh quang. Nh vy SDH l mt dch v c cc tn hiu trong mng DWDM mang i. Trn thc t SDH ch l mt trong nhng dch v hay c s dng trn mng DWDM nht hin nay, tuy nhin bn cnh SDH, DWDM cn c kh nng mang i cc dch v khc trn cc bc sng khc nhau ca cng 1 tuyn cp quang. S tng qut quan h gia DWDM v cc dch v khc:

Kt lun: Trong phn 1 trnh by nhng nt tng qut v cng ngh truyn dn DWDM: L cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng vi khong cch gia cc bc sng con nh.

Thng thng s dng cc bc sng trong ca s bng C c bc sng trung tm 1550nm. L cng ngh truyn dn c kh nng truyn a dch v trn cc bc sng con khc nhau trong cng mt tuyn cp quang. SDH l mt trong nhng dch v c truyn nhiu nht trn mng DWDM. Trong phn tip theo s i su vo cc c im chnh ca mng truyn dn DWDM. 2. Cc c im chnh ca cng ngh truyn dn DWDM 2.1 Cu trc h thng truyn dn DWDM n gin Cu trc h thng DWDM n gin:

B pht v thu trong h thng D WDM: TX1 n TXn l cc ngun pht trong h thng DWDM vi cc bc sng pht khc nhau to thnh cc knh quang trong h thng DWDM. Mi knh quang trong h thng DWDM c kh nng mang i cc dch v khc nhau bao gm SDH, Ethernet, ATM Cc knh quang ny c ghp knh ti b ghp knh quang OM, sau c khuch i trc khi c a vo knh truyn quang. Ti u thu, tn hiu quang c khuch i trc khi i vo khi gii iu ch tch tn hiu thnh cc knh quang ring bit. B khuch i quang OLA: B khuch i c lp t gia cc tuyn truyn dn DWDM nhm khuch i cc tn hiu quang. Knh gim st quang: Trong h thng DWDM s dng bc sng 1510nm lm knh quang mang i cc thng tin gim st v qun l mng. H thng qun l mng: H thng ny khng c v trong hnh trn, h thng DWDM NMS c kh nng qun l cc khi khuch i quang (OBA, OLA v OPA), cc b ghp knh, cc khi thu pht quang. 2.2 Ngun pht trong h thng truyn dn DWDM 2.2.1 Cc loi ngun pht trong h thng truyn dn quang Ngun pht trong h thng truyn dn quang hin nay thng thng s dng ngun pht Laser v ngun pht LED:

Ngun pht LED l nhng ngun pht c chnh xc thp, cng sut thp, rng ph ln v tc iu ch thp. Ngun pht LED c p dng cho cc h thng tc thp v cc tuyn truyn c khong vt ngn. Ngun pht Laser l nhng ngun pht c chnh xc cao, cng sut cao, rng ph nh v tc iu ch cao. Ngun pht Laser c p dng cho cc h thng c tc cao v cc tuyn truyn c khong vt ln. Ngun pht Laser c s dng trong h thng DWDM 2.2.2 c im ca ngun pht c s dng trong h thng DWDM Ngun pht quang chnh xc v n nh: H thng DWDM yu cu ngun pht quang c chnh xc rt cao, hin tng tri bc sng s gy ra mt n nh v gim tin cy ca h thng. Tng cng kh nng chng chi ca h thng i vi hin tng tn sc: Truyn dn quang b hn ch ch yu bi cc hin tng suy hao v tn sc. Khi tc truyn dn tng, nh hng ca hin tng tn sc cng tng theo nhanh chng. gim nh hng ca hin tng tn sc ln cht lng ca tuyn quang, chng ta c th s dng cc loi cp quang t chu nh hng ca tn sc v s dng cc b pht quang c rng ph ca xung nh. 2.3 Ghp knh v gii ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng 2.3.1 Tng quan b ghp knh v gii ghp knh B ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang phn chia theo bc sng, cn c gi l b ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang c bn cht l cc b lc quang. B ghp knh quang (OM) cho php kt hp cc tn hiu quang c bc sng xc nh thnh mt chm tn hiu quang, sau pht chng i trn mi trng si quang. Ti pha thu, b gii ghp knh quang (OD) cho php tc cc tn hiu quang c bc sng xc nh trc ra khi chm tn hiu quang, v a mi tn hiu tch c n cc b thu tng ng. xc nh phm cht ca cc cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh, chng ta quan tm n suy hao, lch v nhiu xuyn knh. Mt s loi ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang: Ghp knh v gii ghp knh cch t: B ghp v gii ghp knh s dng cch t tng hp v tch cc tn hiu quang nhng bc sng khc nhau. Thng thng cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh s dng cch t c phm cht cao, cho php phn bit c cc tn hiu quang khc nhau c khong cch nh nht l

0.5nm. Tuy nhin, do vic sn xut cch t yu cu chnh xc cao v gi thnh cao, kh sn xut cng nghip rng ri, v th thng thng phng php s dng cch t c s dng trong cc phng th nghim. Ghp knh v gii ghp knh s dng mng phim mng (TFF- Thin Film Filter): TFF bao gm nhiu mng phim mng c cu to t cc vt liu khc nhau vi h s phn x v dy khc nhau. Do cc mng phim mng ng vai tr nh cc b lc thng gii, cho php tch ra cc tn hiu quang c bc sng khc nhau. Cc b ghp knh v gii ghp TFF thch hp cho cc thit b quang tch hp, nh gn. Phng php s dng TFF cho phm cht lc tt ( lc nh phng), nhiu giao thoa thp. Ghp knh v gii ghp knh s dng mng cc ng quang (AWG-Array WaveGuide): B ghp knh s dng k thut giao thoa nh sng ghp v tch cc tn hiu quang ti cc b ghp knh (gii ghp knh). Cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh AWG c kch thc nh v phm cht tt, do thng thng c s dng cho cc h thng trong thc t. Ta c tm tt cc phng php ghp knh v gii ghp knh: Kh nng ghp knh Kh nng gii ghp knh Phng Nh hn Ln hn Nh hn Ln hn php s 40 bc 40 bc 32 bc 80 bc 32 bc 80 bc dng sng sng sng sng sng sng AWG TFF Cch t

2.3.2 c im chnh ca b ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang S lng knh quang: S lng cc knh quang c th c ghp v gii ghp knh ti cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh. Suy hao chn: L hin tng suy hao gy ra bi b ghp knh, hin tng ny nh hng trc tip n khong vt ca h thng. Cc phng php khc nhau s cho cc gi tr suy hao khc nhau. Khong cch knh: L khong cch bc sng gia cc knh quang trong b iu ch v gii iu ch DWDM.

H s phn x: Ti u vo ca cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh lun xy ra hin tng phn x, mt phn nng lng ca tn hiu quang b phn x quay tr li cp quang. T s gia cng sut tn hiu quang b phn x vi cng sut quang u vo l h s phn x. Thng thng h s phn x cng nh cng tt. H s nhit: L hin tng dao ng ca bc sng trung tm ca cc knh quang khi chu nh hng ca nhit mi trng. H s nhit ca h thng cng nh, h thng cng n nh trc s thay i nhit ca mi trng. Bng thng: L gii tn s lm vic ca cc b gii ghp knh. Gi tr ca bng thng thng c chia thnh 2 loi, gi tr bng thng ti suy hao -0.5dB v ti suy hao -20dB. Bng thng ti suy hao -0.5dB l chnh lch gia bc sng lm vic ln nht v nh nht ca b gii ghp knh khi gi tr suy hao chn ti b gii ghp knh nh hn -0.5dB. ng c tnh bng thng ca b gii ghp knh ti suy hao -0.5dB cn phng v b rng cng ln cng tt. Bng thng ti suy hao -20dB l chnh lch gia bc sng lm vic ln nht v nh nht ca b gii ghp knh khi suy hao chn ti b gii ghp knh nh hn 20dB. ng c tnh ca bng thng ca b gii ghp knh ti suy hao -20dB cng hp cng tt. 2.4 Pht p quang trong h thng DWDM B pht p quang trong h thng DWDM lm nhim v chuyn i cc bc sng ca tn hiu quang u vo h thng DWDM thnh cc tn hiu quang c bc sng ph hp vi chun G.692 trong khuyn ngh ca ITU-T to thnh lung DWDM. 2.4.1 Nguyn l lm vic ca b pht p: Nguyn l lm vic ca b pht p quang c trnh by trong hnh sau:

Ti u vo b pht p quang thc hin vic chuyn i t tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in trc khi thc hin cc x l khc (Bao gm ti to hnh dng tn hiu, ng b, ti to d liu). Sau qu trnh x l, b pht p quang thc hin chuyn i cc tn hiu thnh cc tn hiu quang theo khuyn ngh G692 to ra tn hiu DWDM.

Trong qu trnh x l, nu b pht p quang ch thc hin vic ti to dng tn hiu v ng b th y l cc b pht p quang ch thc hin vic chuyn i dng tn hiu quang c s dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn c khong vt nh. Mt s b pht p quang thc hin cc chc nng ti to dng tn hiu, ng b v ti to d liu. Cc b pht p quang ny thc hin chc nng ging nh cc b lp ti to tn hiu. 2.4.2 Phn loi v ng dng ca cc b pht p quang Ty thuc vo v tr c s dng trong h thng DWDM, cc b pht p quang c th phn loi thnh cc 3 loi: OTUT, OTUR v OTUG. V tr v ng dng ca cc b pht p c th hin trong hnh sau:

OTUT: y l cc b pht p nm gia thit b ca khch hng v b ghp knh quang. Cc b pht p quang OTUT thc hin cc chc nng chuyn i tn hiu quang/in, ti to dng tn hiu, ng b. u ra ca cc b pht p quang OTUT l cc tn hiu quang theo khuyn ngh G.692 to ra cc tn hiu DWDM. OTUR: y l cc b pht p quang nm gia b gii ghp knh quang v cc thit b khch hng. u vo ca cc b pht p OTUR l cc tn hiu quang theo khuyn ngh G.692. B pht p quang OTUR c chc nng tng t chc nng ca b pht p quang OTUT bao gm chuyn i quang/in, ti to tn hiu v ng b. OTUG: B pht p quang OTUG hot ng gia cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang. Cc b pht p quang loi ny thc hin cc chc nng chuyn i in/quang, ti to hnh dng tn hiu, ng b, ti to d liu. Cc b pht p quang OTUG hot ng nh cc b lp quang trong h thng DWDM. 2.5 Khuych i quang trong h thng DWDM. Trong cc tuyn truyn dn quang c khong cch ln, cng sut ca tn hiu quang suy gim dn theo khong cch truyn. Tuy nhin, thng thng tn hiu quang u ra b pht tn hiu khng vt qu 3dBm. Mt khc, ti u thu, cc

b thu ch c th thu tn hiu c cng sut ln hn mt mc nht nh m bo chnh xc. V vy c th thy vn v cng sut quang l vn chnh xc nh khong cch truyn dn. Trong h thng truyn dn DWDM cng nh cc h thng truyn dn quang khc, cc b khuch i quang c s dng gii quyt vn trn. Trong thc t c nhiu loi cng ngh khuch i quang khc nhau, tuy nhin hin nay trong mng truyn dn Viettel s dng cc b khuch i quang EDFA, v th trong phn ny ti xin trnh by tp trung vo cng ngh khuch i quang EDFA. 2.5.1 Nguyn l lm vic ca b khuch i quang EDFA Nguyn l lm vic ca b khuch i quang EDFA c trnh by trong hnh sau:

Trong b khuch i quang EDFA s dng loi cp quang c pha tp Ion Er3+. Trong iu kin thng cc ion Er3+ tn ti mc nng lng thp (N1), y l mc nng lng n nh. B khuch i hot ng, cc bm quang hc to ra ngun sng kch thch a cc ion tp cht ln mc nng lng cao hn (N3). Tuy nhin, y l trng thi khng bn vng, do cc ion tp cht nhanh chng chuyn v mc nng lng thp hn (N2). y l trng thi bn bn vng ca cc ion tp cht. c bit trong qu trnh chuyn trng thi t N3 v N2, cc ion tp cht khng gii phng photon. Khi tn hiu quang cn khuch i i qua on cp quang EDF ca b khuch i quang, chng kch thch cc ion tp cht chuyn v mc nng lng thp (N1). Trong qu trnh ny, cc ion tp cht gii phng photon, hay ni khc i, gii phng tn hiu quang c bc sng bng tn hiu quang cn khuch i. Do , tn hiu quang c khuch i khi i qua b khuch i EDFA. 2.5.2 Thnh phn b khuch i EDFA B khuch i quang EDFA bao gm cp EDF, ngun sng kch thch, phn kt ni, b cch ly.

Phn kt ni (coupler) c s dng kt hp gia nh sng t ngun bm quang v tn hiu quang u vo. B cch ly (isolator) c s dng nhm trit tiu s phn x nh sng ti u vo v u ra ca b khuch i quang. Bm laser to ra ngun nh sng kch thch.

2.5.3 Cc thng s chnh: H s khuch i (G): L t l gia cng sut tn hiu quang u ra v cng sut tn hiu quang u vo. H s khuch i cng ln th kh nng khuch i ca b khuch i quang cng ln. H s nhiu (NF Noise Figure): L t l gia h s SNR ca u vo b khuch i quang v h s SNR u ra ca b khuch i. Gii thng: Trong h thng DWDM s dng cc bc sng ca knh quang cc ca s bc sng C v L. Cc b khuch i cn m bo khuch i tt c cc bc sng ca cc knh quang, do , gii thng ca cc b khuch i cn ln. H s khuch i nh phng: Tng cng sut vo ra: Trong b khuch i quang chng ta quan tm n khong cng sut vo ra ca b khuch i quang. Trong h thng WDM, cc b khuch i quang phi khuch i mt nhm cc bc sng, do di cng sut ca b khuch i quang phi ln, c bit l cc b khuch i quang trong cc knh ln, nhiu bc sng. Mt khc, m bo khuch i phng v gim nhiu, b khuch i quang EDFA nn hot ng trong gii cng sut tn hiu khng qu ln, hay chnh l cng sut u vo v u ra ca b khuch i khng .c qu ln. Thm na, chng cc hiu ng phi tuyn trong cp quang, cng sut quang ca knh quang khng c qu ln. Do , cn xc nh cng sut quang thch hp ph thuc tc truyn dn v loi cp quang. H s khuch i phn cc (PDG Polarization Dependent Gain): Do b khuch i quang EDFA to ra cc h s khuch i khc nhau i vi cc tn hiu quang c phn cc khc nhau, v th nh gi s ph thuc ca b khuch i quang vo s phn cc ca tn hiu chng ta c h s khuch i phn cc (PDG). PDG chnh l gi tr thay i ln nht ca h s khuch i khi trng thi phn cc ca tn hiu quang thay i. Nh vy PDG cng nh th s ph thuc ca b khuch i quang vo tnh phn cc ca cc tn hiu quang cng nh, h thng cng n nh. T l d cng sut nh sng: Nh ni trn, ti u vo v u ra ca cc b khuch i quang c lp cc b cch ly nhm lm gim hin tng phn x nh sng ti u vo v u ra ca b khuch i gy suy hao cng sut quang. Tuy nhin trong thc t vn xy ra hin tng phn x gy suy hao cng sut quang. T

l gia cng sut suy hao v tng cng sut quang ti u vo (hoc u ra) ca b khuch i quang l t l d cng sut nh sng. T l ny cng nh cng tt. T l phn x nh sng ti u pht (hoc thu): l t l gia tng cng sut u vo (hoc u ra) b khuch i quang v cng sut phn x. T l ny cng ln cng tt. 2.5.4 Phn loi khuch i quang EDFA Ty thuc vo v tr ca b khuch i EDFA v loi bm quang m chng ta c th phn loi cc khuch i quang EDFA: 2.5.4.1 Phn loi theo v tr ca b khuch i trong h thng Da vo v tr ca b khuch i quang trong h thng c th chia b khuch i quang EDFA thnh 3 loi: khuch i pht (BA), khuch i thu tin khuch i (PA), khuch i ng (LA)

Khuch i pht (BA Booster Amplifier): B khuch i pht c t sau cc u cui quang v cc ngun pht truyn dn hoc t trc cc tuyn lp. B khuch i pht c s dng khuch i tn hiu quang trc khi truyn trong mi trng cp quang, lm tng khong cch truyn. Khuch i thu (PA Pre-Amplifier): Cc b khuch i thu c t cui tuyn truyn quang v ng trc b thu quang. B khuch i thu khuch i cc tn hiu quang thu c vn c cng sut nh do suy hao trn tuyn truyn nhm cc tn hiu quang sau khuch i c cng cut ln hn ngng cng sut thu nh nht ca b thu. Khuch i ng (LA Line Amplifier): Cc b khuch i ng c chn vo cc tuyn truyn c khong cch ln. Ty thuc vo khong cch truyn v suy hao trn tuyn m chng ta c th chn mt hoc nhiu b khuch i ng. 2.5.4.2 Phn loi theo loi bm quang Hin nay trong cc b khuch i quang ang s dng 2 loi bm quang s dng cc bc sng kch thch 980nm v 1480nm. Cc bm quang s dng bc sng kch thch 980nm c h s nhiu thp hn cc bm quang s dng bc sng kch thch 1480nm. Tuy nhin cc bm quang s dng bc sng kch thch 1480nm cho cng sut khuch i cao hn. Do ty theo iu kin ca h thng m chng ta quyt nh cc loi bm quang c s dng.

i vi h thng WDM nh hn 8 knh, thng thng s dng bm quang bc sng 980nm do nh hng ca hin tng tn sc ln si G.652 c s dng trong h thng mnh m hn so vi nh hng ca hin tng suy hao trn si. Ngc li, i vi cc h thng WDM c nhiu hn 16 knh quang, thng s dng cc loi bm quang c bc sng kch thch 1480nm nhm lm tng cng sut nh mc ti u ra b khuch i quang. 3. Mt s c im ca cp quang s dng trong h thng DWDM 3.1 Tng quan v cp quang 3.1.1 Cu trc si quang Cp quang l 1 loi si thy tinh vi kh nng truyn dn nh sng tt, kch thc ng knh nh. Cp quang c cu trc bao gm li (fible core), v (cladding) v v bc ngoi (coating).

Li cp quang: Li cp quang c cu thnh t SiO 2 c pha tp tp cht nhm tng chit sut ca li. Li cp quang thng thng c ng knh t 5m ~ 50m ty theo loi cp quang. V: Thng thng v cp quang cng c cu thnh t SiO2, c ng knh 125m. Chit sut ca v cp quang phi nh hn chit sut li. V bc ngoi: V bc ngoi c cu thnh t vt liu c bn c hc, thng thng l cc v cao su silicone. V bc ngoi gia tng bn c hc, tng tui th ca li cp quang. 3.1.2 Phn loi si quang 3.1.2.1 Phn loi theo dng phn x Trong qu trnh truyn tn hiu trong si quang, nh sng c truyn vo si quang i n lp tip xc gia li cp quang v v. Khi chit sut ca li ln hn chit sut v, ng thi khi nh sng truyn vo trong si quang m bo iu kin

phn x ton phn, nh sng s c phn x ti lp tip xc v i tr li bn trong li cp quang. C nh vy nh sng c phn x lin tip ti lp tip xc gia li v v truyn i trong si quang. Ph thuc vo s phn b chit sut gia li v v cp quang, ta c th chia cp quang thnh 1 loi: Cp quang chit sut nhy bc: L loi cp quang c chit sut ca li v v cp quang bin i t ngt. Do nh sng truyn qua loi cp quang ny s i theo cc ng zig-zac. Cp quang chit sut bin i: L loi cp quang c chit sut ca bin i t li n v. nh sng truyn qua loi cp quang ny s i theo cc ng cong.

3.1.2.2

Phn loi theo mode truyn dn Trong thc t ch c mt s bc sng nh sng c th truyn qua cp quang mt cch hiu qu. Nhng bc sng c gi l cc mode truyn dn. Trong truyn dn quang, s lng mode truyn dn quang ph thuc vo cu trc cp v s phn b chit sut ca cp quang. Nu cp quang ch h tr 1 mode truyn dn th l cp quang n mode. Ngc li, cc cp quang h tr t 2 mode truyn dn tr ln th l cp quang a mode. Ta c bng so snh gia cp quang n mode v cp quang a mode: Si n mode Si a mode H tr truyn hn 1 mode S Mode truyn dn 1 mode truyn dn truyn dn Kch thc li 5m ~ 10m ~50m Gy ra do tc truyn Gy ra do tc truyn dn ca cc thnh phn dn ca cc tn hiu Mc nh hng ca tn tn s khc nhau trong quang cc mode truyn sc tn hiu quang. dn khc nhau. nh hng cng tng Tn sc trong si a mode

khi rng ph ca tn hiu quang tng Gm 3 loi: Si n mode thng Si n mode dch tn sc Si n mode b tn sc 1310nm v 1550nm Dng trong cc tuyn c khong vt ln, dung lng cao.

nh hng trc tip n bng thng ca si v khong cch truyn.

Loi

Ch c 1 loi: Si a mode thng

Ca s bc sng lm vic ng dng

850nm v 1310nm Dng trong tuyn truyn c khong vt nh, dung lng thp.

3.1.3 Cc loi si n mode v c tnh C 3 loi si n mode thng c dng nht hin nay l cc si G.652, G.653, G.655: - Si n mode thng s dng trong ca s 1310nm ch s dng trong mng SDH. Khi s dng bc sng trong ca s 1550nm, cp quang n mode thng c th c s dng trong mng DWDM v SDH. Tuy nhin, khi tc truyn dn vt qu 2.5Gbps cn phi c b tn sc. - G.653 (Si n mode dch tn sc): Si n mode dch tn sc cho suy hao v tn sc nh nht trong ca s bc sng 1550nm. G.653 c th c s dng trong cc tuyn truyn n bc sng c khong vt ln v tc cao. Khi s dng trong trong h thng DWDM, trong vng tn sc bng 0 gy ra hin tng FWM gy suy hao tn hiu quang v nhiu xuyn knh. - G.655 (Si n mode b tn sc): Trong ca s bc sng 1550nm, tn sc ca cp G.655 khc 0 trong nhng khong nht nh. Do , loi cp ny trnh c hin tng FWM. Cp G.655 thch hp vi cc h thng truyn dn c tc cao v khong vt ln, thng thng c s dng cho cc h thng DWDM. 3.2 c im ca cp quang 3.2.1 Suy hao cp quang

Suy hao cp quang xut hin trong h thng truyn dn DWDM do nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau bao gm cu trc ca cp quang, do tp cht trong cp quang, ngoi ra cn do cc nguyn nhn v cu trc mng, cht lng cc kt ni. Mt s gi tr suy hao cp quang c cho trong bng sau: Loi cp G.652 G.653 G.655 Ca s lm 1310nm v 1550nm 1550nm 1550nm vic Suy hao trong 0.3 ~ 0.5dbm/km ca s 1310nm Suy hao trong 0.19 ~ 0.15 ~ 0.25dbm/km 0.19 ~ 0.25dbm/km ca s 1550nm 0.25dbm/km 3.2.2 Tn sc trong si quang Tn sc trong si quang l hin tng gin xung nh sng khi i qua si quang. Hin tng tn sc tng dn theo khong cch truyn v cu trc ca si quang. Hin tng tn sc s gy ra giao thoa tn hiu nh hng n cht lng ca tn hiu quang ti u thu. Hin tng tn sc trong si quang c chia thnh 2 loi chnh l: Tn sc mu v tn sc phn cc H s tn sc: l tn sc tnh cho mt n v b rng ph ca ngun pht v mt n v chiu di ca si v thng tnh bng ps/(nm.km).

Phn loi tn sc: Tn sc mu (tn sc bc sng): L hin tng m cc bc sng khc nhau s lan truyn trong si quang vi nhng vn tc khc nhau. Tn sc bc sng l c tnh ca si quang, nhng n cng ph thc vo rng ph ca ngun quang, nu ngun quang pht c rng ph hp, chng ta c th gim c phn ln m rng xung trong h thng do tn sc bc sng.

Hnh 1.7 Hin tng tn sc sc th

Tn sc bc sng bao gm 2 loi tn sc: Tn sc vt liu: y l loi tn sc xut hin do s thay i chit sut ca si theo bc sng, l mt hm phc tp ca bc sng v ph thuc vo tng loi vt liu. Tn sc vt liu c du (+) v (-), du ny cho bit m rng xung, l: bc sng ngn hn hay di hn s truyn nhanh hn trong si. Tn sc ng dn sng: cng l mt hm ca bc sng, s thay i ca bc sng nh hng ti vic nh sng c truyn dn nh th no trong si. Trong si n mode th tn sc dn sng nh nhng nh hng ca n c th l quan trng. Tn sc dn sng t thay i theo bc sng hn tn sc vt liu nhng lng tn sc dn sng c th thay i bng cch sa i thit k si. Tnh cht ny c ng dng thit k ra cc loi si quang n mode vi cu trc khc nhau, ph hp vi yu cu truyn dn khc nhau. Tn sc mode phn cc (Polarization Mode Dispersion): Nng lng tn hiu bt k bc sng no cng c phn tch thnh hai thnh phn phn cc trc giao. Vi cu trc hnh hc v s phn b ng sut khng i xng ln si quang to ra hin tng lng chit quang trong si. Hin tng ny s lm cho hai thnh phn phn cc trc giao lan truyn vi nhng tc khc nhau gy ra tr nhm vi sai DGD (Differential Group Delay) ti pha thu. DGD l mt s kin tc thi v bin i ngu nhin ti mi bc sng v khong thi gian, bi vy DGD lm mt thng s thng k, vic tnh ton tun theo nguyn l xc sut. V tn sc phn c mode (PMD) l gi tr trung bnh ca tr nhm vi sai DGD. n v ca PMD l: ps/km1/2.

nh hng ca PMD c th v ging nh tn sc CD, nhng c mt s khc nhau quan trng gia hai loi tn sc ny. Tn sc CD l mt hin tng tng i n inh. Tn sc CD tng ca tuyn thng tin quang c th c tnh ton v lp k hoch t trc. Ngc li, do s xo trn ngu nhin ca lng chit sut sy ra dc theo si, nn PMD ca mt si quang n mode ti mi bc sng bt k no

l khng n nh, iu ny to ra mt sc p buc nh thit k phi tin hnh cng vic d bo thng k v cc nh hng ca PMD v khng th tin hnh b tn sc theo phng php th ng c. Khi so snh PMD vi cc hin tng tn sc khc th hu ht PMD c th c b qua, nhng n cng khng th trit tiu hon ton, v cng khng gim c n mc ti thiu khi i qua cc thnh phn quang. Trong cc h thng truyn thng quang tc cng cao v khong cch ln c rng xung rt hp th nh hng ca PMD l rt ln, bi vy, trong h thng SDH 10Gbit/s v DWDM, ngoi thng s suy hao v tn sc mu (CD) th PMD cng l mt hin tng quan trng, khng th b qua. Hin tng tn sc CD v PMD l c tnh t nhin vn c ca si quang, n c sinh ra do nhiu nguyn nhn nh: do bn thn vt liu lm si, do trong cc qu trnh ch to si khng c hon ho, do trong qu trnh thi cng, lp t, v khai thc cp hoc l do s bin i ca mi trng (nhit , kh hu, m) cng nh hng ti cc h s tn sc ca si quang. Hin tng tn sc nh hng rt ln ti h thng thng tin quang, c bit l nhng h thng thng tin quang tc cao, khong cch ln. lm gim s nh hng ca tn sc ti h thng th chng ta cn phi nm c cc thng s v tn sc CD v PMD ca si quang, m bo cho vic tn ton, b tn sc, d phng cho tng lai. Bi vy, cng vic o v kim tra tn sc ca si quang trc khi a ln mng li v kim tra nh k l rt quang trng, m bo cho vic lp t v duy tr s hot ng tt ca mng li hin ti v trong tng lai.

Chng 3: Thit b ECI-XDM 1000 v XDM 40 1. Gii thiu chung thit b ECI-XDM Thit b ECI-XDM 1000 v XDM 40 l mt trong nhng thit b trong dng thit b XDM ca ECI. y l dng thit b mi nht ca ECI c kh nng tch hp hon chnh cc tnh nng cho nn tng mng quang hi t th h tip theo. Cc thit b XDM c th p ng c nhu cu v bng thng cho cc ng dng d liu, ng thi m bo tnh tng thch mm do cn thit p ng nhu cu truyn dn ca cc loi dch v khc nhau bao gm dch v thoi, ATM, ethernet v d liu. XDM kt hp kh nng ln v bng thng ca h thng DWDM, kh nng qun l, bo v nhanh chng ca TDM; kh nng linh ng, tc vt tri ca b u cho v tnh hiu qu trong truyn dn ca cc h thng Ethernet, IP, ATM. XDM cung cp kh nng kt ni a dng theo cc hnh t vng ring n hnh li. Cc kh nng trn c kt hp trong cng mt thit b to nn nn tng mnh, mm do v kh nng tch hp cao. 1.1 V tr ca thit b XDM 1000 v XDM 40 trong mng XDM 40 h tr iu ch C/DWDM v cung cp nn tng mng truyn dn quang cho lp metro access v cc ng dng CPE. XDM 1000 cung cp mt nn tng mng quang a dch v p ng cho cc ng dng chuyn mch trung tm tc cao.

1.2 Chc nng v c im chnh ca thit b XDM1000 v XDM40 Cung cp a knh mt cch mm do

2.

Kh nng m rng mng linh hot, cho php m rng khong vt ln n 200km vi cc ng dng metro v 1500km vi cc ng dng khu vc v quc t m khng cn n cc trm lp. Nng cp s knh quang mm do, linh hot. H tr a dng cc dch v mt cch trong sut: SDH, PDH, ATM, FE, GE, IP, SAN, digital video Tng thch hon ton vi cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T v Telcordia dnh cho thit b quang. C h thng qun l cht ch gip khai thc h thng c th d dng iu khin, gim st v bo tr h thng. H tr lung FE v dch v Ethernet over SDH. H tr ATM cho 3G H tr truyn dn cc dch v trc tip trn nn quang. H tr truyn dn HO cho mng IP (truyn GE LAN to LAN); mng ATM H tr truyn dn LO (VC3, VC2, VC11, VC12) Thit b ECI XDM 1000 2.1 Cu trc thit b ECI XDM 1000 Thit b XDM 1000 ca ECI c thit k hng module, trong , mt hoc mt s chc nng nht nh c h tr bi 1 loi card ring bit. Cc card ny c phn loi theo cc nhm chc nng, bao gm: Cc card c chc nng x l lu lng: Bao gm cc card vo ra (I/O card), cc card ny c kt hp cng vi cc card x l u cho lung HO/LO (HLXC) hoc cc card c tch hp ma trn u cho HO/LO cng vi cc giao din vo ra I/O (XIO). Cc card HLXC v XIO ng thi cng m nhim cc chc nng nh thi v ng b. Card c chc nng kt ni v iu khin: Do cc card xMCP v MECP m nhim. Card cp ngun v iu khin ngun: Do cc mch cp ngun trn mi card chc nng m nhim v n v iu khin ngun chung ca thit b XDM (xINF). Qut lm mt: n v qun l qut (xFCU) m nhim chc nng qun l, gim st qut lm mt cho thit b XDM. S subrack ca thit b ECI XDM 1000 c b tr gm cc phn sau:

Kt ni ngun vo bao gm cc n v iu khin ngun xINF v xINF-H Phin kt ni ph tr: Bao gm ch th bo cnh, kt ni qun l v kt ni d phng cho bo tr Modules Cage: Bao gm 11 khe cm c nh nhn t M1 n M11: Cm cc card giao tip in. Cc card giao tip in phc v cho mt card I/O ti mt khe trong card cage c nhn tng ng. Cm cc module h tr DWDM bao gm khuch i quang, OADM, Mux, Demux. Cc module ny c th c cm vo bt c khe cm ri no trn Modul Cage. Card cage: Bao gm 12 khe cm c nh nhn t I1 n I12 c dng cm cc card I/O sau: PDH card cho cc lung E1, E3, DS3. Cc card PDH yu cu giao din in do cn c cc card giao tip c ci t trn modules cage. SDH card cho cc lung STM1, STM4, STM16, STM64 vi giao din quang. Ngoi ra vi cc lung STM1&4 c th s dng giao din in vi card giao tip c ci t trn modules cage. Card I/O d liu c giao din ethernet. Card h tr 4 hoc 8 giao din FE hoc GE hoc 6 giao din GE v 1 giao din STM16 Card h tr chuyn mch lu lng ATM

Card pht p quang v card quang ph: Khi cc card giao din quang c ci t vo cc khe card cage, cc khe tng ng trn modules cage c th c s dng ci t cc card h tr WDM. Khe cm X1, X2 c s dng ci t cc card HLXC v XIO, cc khe cm ny cn c th c s dng ci t cc card h tr DWDM Cc khe cm C1, C2 c s dng ci t cc card xMCP. Mt khe cm c s dng cho card MECP, MECP_OSC, MECP_OW, MECP_OSC_OW. Cc card MECP_OSC v MECP_OSC_OW cung cp giao din qun l quang out-of-band cho 2 card xMCP. - Phn qun l qut vi 3 n v qun l qut c t di cng ca thit b XDM.

2.2 Cc card DWDM trong thit b XDM1000 B pht p quang: Cc thit b ECI XDM h tr a dng cc loi pht p quang vi cc tc khc nhau t 2.5Gbps n 10Gbps. Cc b pht p h tr a dch v bao gm SDH, Ethernet, ATM, IP, SAN v video. XDM 1000 h tr cc loi b pht p quang: - TRP25_2: H tr 2 pht p quang tc 2.5Gbps - TRP25_4: H tr 4 pht p quang tc 2.5Gbps - TRP10_2: H tr 2 pht p quang tc 10Gbps - CMBR25D (Dual): Card kt hp h tr tc 2.5Gbps - CMBR10 v CMBR10D (Dual): Card kt hp h tr tc 10Gbps B ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang: Cc thit b ECI XDM h tr a dng cc b ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang 40/80 knh DWDM v 8/16 knh CWDM. Cc loi ghp knh v gii ghp knh c s dng trong thit b XDM 1000: - MO_CW2+OM_CWM8C+OM_CWD8C: Card ghp knh v gii ghp knh 8 knh CWDM. - DW16VMDRE-AG: Card ghp knh v gii ghp knh 16 knh DWDM s dng phng php AWG; c s dng cho cc tuyn truyn c khong vt ln. - DW16VMDB-AG: Card ghp knh v gii ghp knh 16 knh DWDM s dng phng php AWG; c s dng cho cc tuyn truyn c khong vt ln. - MO_DW16MDRE: Card ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang 16 knh DWDM; c s dng cho cc tuyn truyn metro. - MO_DW16MDB: Card ghp knh v gii ghp knh quang 16 knh DWDM; c s dng cho cc tuyn truyn metro. - MO_DW40MC: Card ghp knh quang 40 knh DWDM s dng cho cc tuyn truyn metro. - MO_DW40DC: Card gii ghp knh quang 40 knh DWDM s dng cho cc tuyn truyn metro. Card Add/Drop Trong mng truyn dn, mt s ng lu lng c truyn qua cc tuyn truyn c khong cch ngn im im. Tuy nhin khng cn thit phi truy nhp tt c cc knh ti mi node trn tuyn truyn. Cc thit b XDM cung cp cc card Add/Drop c kh nng ghp thm hoc tch mt hay mt s knh nht

nh ti mi node m khng lm nh hng n cc knh quang khc truyn qua node . Cc card v module Add/Drop c s dng trong thit b XDM 1000: - MO_CW2 + MO_OADMC1AB_xx: Card Add/Drop 1 knh CWDM. - MO_CW2 + MO_OADM4GEWxx: Card Add/Drop 4 knh DWDM dng cho cc kt ni khng c khuch i quang, cu hnh EW. - OADM4EW + OM_AD1Ewxx: Card Add/Drop 1 knh DWDM dng cho cc kt ni c khuch i quang, cu hnh EW. Card khuch i quang B khuch i quang c s dng khuch i cng sut quang trn cc tuyn truyn dn c khong vt ln. B khuch i c th s dng 1 trong 2 cng ngh khc nhau: - Khuch i quang EDFA, h tr khuch i cho cc tn hiu quang trong di tn s bng C. Danh sach cc card khuch i s dng cng ngh EDFA: OFA_2: Card khuch i ny c th c s dng nh card khuch i pht, khuch i thu v khuch i ng vi h s khuch i ng MO_BAC: Card khuch i pht c ci t vo modules cage. Card khuch i ny c h s khuch i tnh MO_PAC: Card khuch i thu c ci t v modules cage. Card ny c h s khuch i tnh OFA_M: Card khuch i quang c h s khuch i ng MO_BAS: Module khuch i pht n knh. MO_PAS: Module khuch i thu n knh. - Khuch i quang Raman, OFA_R c cng sut quang bm ti a 0.5W s dng cho cc cp G.652, G.653, G.655. OFA_R h tr khuch i a knh bao gm tn hiu quang bng C v knh qun l vi bc sng 1510nm.

3. Thit b ECI-XDM40 3.1 Cu trc thit b ECI-XDM40

S i subrack thit b ECI XDM 40 c b tr gm nhng phn sau: - Cc khe cm M1; M2 c dnh cho cc module DWDM v khuch i quang - Kt ni ngun cho thit b XDM 40 ti 2 khe PW1; PW2 - Module kt ni ngoi, cung cp kt ni cho bo cnh, LCT v giao din OW. - Card cage c s dng ci cc card sau: Cc khe I1, I2 c s dng cho cc b pht p quang, khuch i quang. Khe C1 c s dng cho card xMCP_B Khe C3 c s dng cho card MECP_OSC v MECP_OSC_OW Khe F2 c s dng cho card cp ngun cho qut lm mt cho thit b (PSFU) Khe F1 c s dng cho card iu khin qut (xFCU40) 3.2 Cc card DWDM trong thit b XDM40 Card khuch i quang Tng t thit b XDM 1000, XDM 40 h tr cc card khuch i quang s dng cng ngh EDFA v Raman bao gm: OFA_2, MO_BAC, MO_PAC, OFA_M, MO_BAS, MO_PAS, OFA_R. Khi b tn sc Khi b tn sc c s dng b li nhng nh hng ca hin tng tn sc gy ra trn tuyn truyn di. Cc khi b tn sc c ci t ngay trn rack. C nhiu loi khi b tn sc tng ng vi nhng khong cch truyn khc nhau

Chng 4: Phng php cn chnh bc sng trong h thng DWDM ECI 1. Cn chnh cng sut cc knh quang trong h thng DWDM Xt hng pht ti thit b DWDM:

Hinh 4.1:sfjhgsdjfgsdfj Trc khi c a vo b ghp knh M40, cc knh quang c cn bng cng sut sao cho m bo iu kin sau: Pmax Pmin< 2 (dB) Trong Pmax l cng sut ln nht ca mt knh quang Pmin l cng sut nh nht ca mt knh quang Vic cn chnh cng sut cc knh quang trc khi a vo b ghp knh khc phc cc hin tng sau: - Hin tng chn p tn s gia cc knh quang ln cn: - Trong trng hp s dng cc b khuych i c h s khuch i c nh, nu cc knh quang khng c cn bng cng sut s dn ti vic khng thu c cc knh quang c cng sut nh ti u thu - Trong trng hp s dng cc b khuch i c h s khuch i thay i v cng sut u ra c nh cng gy ra hin tng mt cc knh quang c cng sut nh ti u thu. 2. Tnh ton cng sut trong h thng DWDM Trong phn ny s trnh by phng php tnh ton cng sut cho h thng DWDM i vi knh OSC v ti tng on ca knh lu lng (OTM, OLA, OADM) 2.1 Tnh ton cng sut cho knh OSC trong h thng DWDM:

Xt kt ni cho knh OSC nh hnh trn, thng thng cng sut pht ca cc card MECP_OSC l 2~5dBm v ngng thu nh nht l -37dBm. Do , thng khng cn thit phi thc hin tnh ton cng sut cho knh OSC. 2.2 Tnh ton cng sut cho knh lu lng 2.1.1 Tnh ton cng sut trong kt ni OTM - OTM Xt on kt ni nh trong hnh sau:

Kt ni t u cui n u cui, khng c trm lp. Ta tnh ton cng sut trn tng u cui. tnh ton cng sut cho knh lu lng thng thng phi tnh cho 2 hng: - Tnh ton cng sut hng lu lng t u cui A n u cui B - Tnh ton cng sut hng lu lng t u cui B n u cui A Trong phn ny s trnh by v phng php tnh ton cng sut cho hng lu lng t u cui A n u cui B, hng ngc li c thc hin tng t. Nhn xt: Trong h thng ECI, h s khuch i ca cc card khuch i quang khng c nh, cc card c cu hnh vi cng sut u ra c nh, trong qu trnh hot ng, h s khuch i c iu chnh a ra cng sut mong mun. Tuy nhin, cng sut u ra ca cc card khuch i v h s khuch i c gii hn trong mt khong nht nh. Thng s ny quyt nh s knh quang c th ghp cng lc trn thit b. a) Xt ti u cui A:

Gi s suy hao trn cp quang trong 60km l -18dB. Gi s cc thng s ti u cui A nh sau: Suy hao ti OSC MUX l LOSOSC_MUX= 1 (dB) Suy hao ti b ghp knh l LOSMUX= 6 (dB) Cng sut pht thng thng ca cc b pht p quang l POTU= 5 (dBm) Tnh ton cng sut ra cc i cho mi knh ca card khuch i:

Cng sut pht cc i ca card khuch i quang l 20dBm. S knh ghp c l 40 knh Gi cng sut mi knh quang l P, ta c: P+10lg40 20 =>P4 (dBm) Tng cng sut cc i ca card khuch i quang l POBA_out_A= 4+10logN (dBm) (N40) Cng sut pht ti u ra OSC_MUX: POSC_MUX_out_A=4+10lgN LOSOSC_MUX=3+10lgN (dBm) Tng suy hao cn t ti u cui A: Cng sut ti u vo b khuch i quang: POBA_in_A=POTU + 10lgN LOSMUX LOS= -1 + 10lgN LOS (dBm) Vi LOS l suy hao c t ti u cui A Ta c cng sut ti u ra ca card khuch i c tnh bng POBA_out_A=POBA_in_A + GOBA_A => 4+10lgN= -1+10lgN + GOBA_A - LOS => GOBA_A LOS= 5 Vi GOBA_A l h s khuch i ca b khuch i quang Suy hao LOS c t ti u cui A s quyt nh im lm vic ca b khuch i quang. Tuy nhin, trong qu trnh hot ng, h s khuch i ca b khuch i c th c thay i t ng m vn m bo cng sut u ra. V vy chng ta la chn LOS sao cho h s khuch i thay i trong khong ln nht. H s khuch i quang trung bnh ca b khuch i l 17, chng ta chn LOS= 12 (dB). H s khuch i ca b khuch i quang l GOBA_A=17 (dB). Suy hao c b tr thnh 2 phn t trc v sau b ghp knh quang tng tnh mm do trong qu trnh cn chnh cng sut quang vo b ghp knh. Trn y trnh by phn tnh ton cho u cui A, t ta cc thng s cu hnh cho u cui A: b) Xt ti u cui B:

2.1.2

Gi s cc thng s ti u cui B nh sau: Suy hao ti OSC DMUX l LOSOSC_DMUX_B= 1 (dB) Cng sut thu thng thng mong mun ti b pht p quang l P OTU_in_B= -15 (dBm) Suy hao ti b gii ghp knh l LOSDMUX_B= 6 (dB) Cng sut ti u vo b OSC_DMUX POSC_DMUX_in_B=POSC_MUX_out_A - LOSKnh= -15+10lgN (dBm) Cng sut ti u ra b OSC_DMUX POSC_DMUX_out_B= -15 +10lgN - LOSOSC_DMUX = -16 +10lgN (dBm) Tng suy hao cn t ti u cui B: Cng sut mong mun ti u ra b khuch i OPU: POPU_out_B= POTU_in_B + 10lgN + LOSDMUX (dBm)= -11 +10lgN (dBm) Cng sut u vo b khuch i POPU_in= -16 +10lgN - LOS (dBm) =>-16 - LOS +GOPA_B = -11 =>GOPA_B LOS= 5 Tng t bn pht, gi tr trung bnh ca b tin khuch i l G=19 (dB), chng ta chn suy hao bng LOS = 14 (dB). Trong mt s trng hp khi khong vt ln, bn cnh nh hng ca suy hao tuyn, tn hiu thu c ti bn thu cn nh hng bi hin tng tn sc. Do chng ta cn s dng cc b b tn sc. Khi s dng b tn sc, ta cn ch cc b b tn sc cng gy ra suy hao cho tn hiu. Ty tng trng hp chng ta s dng 2 b khuch i cho trng hp ny (VD: Ti V06 tuyn 1C s dng b b tn sc t gia 2 b khuch i quang) Tnh ton cng sut trong kt ni s dng khuch i OLA Xt on kt ni nh sau:

Kt ni s dng mt trm lp, ta s dng cc thng s ca u cui A, trong phn ny ch trnh by cc tnh ton ti trm lp B. Xt ti trm lp B:

Cng sut pht ca OSC_MUX u cui A l POSC_MUX_out_A=3+10lgN (dBm) Cng sut u vo OSC_DMUX: POSC_DMUX_in_B= POSC_MUX_out_A - LOSknh=3 +10lgN 30= -27 +10lgN (dBm) Cng sut u ra OSC_DMUX: POSC_DMUX_out_B= POSC_DMUX_in_B LOSOSC_DMUX_B= -28 +10lgN (dBm) Tng t phn trn ta c cng sut u ra mong mun ti b khuch i OBA l: POBA_out_B=4 +10lgN (dBm) Nh vy cung cp h s khuch i cn s dng 2 b khuch i ghp ni tip. Mt khc, tuyn truyn c khong cch ln (100km) s gy ra hin tng tn x nh hng n tn hiu quang v th cn s dng khi b tn sc cho tn hiu quang ti trm lp. Gi s s dng khi b tn sc 80km, khi tn hiu quang i qua khi b tn sc b suy hao 7 (dB). B tn sc c t vo gia 2 b khuch i quang nhm trnh nh hng n cng sut quang ti u vo v u ra ca 2 b khuch i. Ta c quan h gia suy hao c chn vo trm lp v h s khuch i -28 +10lgN - LOS - LOSDCF_B+ GOPA_B+ GOBA_B= 4 +10lgN =>GOPA_B+ GOBA_B - LOS= 39 (dB) Tn hiu ra khi b khuch i pht s c truyn trn si quang. trnh nh hng n cht lng tn hiu quang c truyn trn si quang, thng thng h s khuch i ca b khuch i pht c chn trong gii lm vic tt nht cho hnh dng tn hiu u ra tt nht. Gi s trong phn tnh ton ny s dng b khuch i quang OFA_HBC c h s khuch i trung bnh l 17 (dB). Ta chn GOBA_B= 17 (dB). Nh vy ta c: GOPA_B LOS= 22 (dB) Ta cng la chn LOS sao cho h s khuch i ca b khuch i thu bin i trong gii rng nht. Gi s trong phn tnh ton ny ta s dng b khuch i quang OFA_PC c h s khuch i quang nm trong khong 12< GOFA_PC<27. Ta chn LOS= 0 (dB) c h s khuch i ca b tin khuch i GOPA_B= 22 (dB)

3. Tnh ton b tn sc trong h thng DWDM Khi tn hiu quang i quang tuyn truyn c khong cch ln s chu nh hng bi hin tng tn sc. khc phc nh hng ca hin tng tn sc ln tn hiu, c sau 1 khong cch truyn nht nh, chng ta s dng b b tn sc. Khong cch t b b tn sc ph thuc vo c tnh cp truyn v kh nng chng chu tn sc ca thit b. Cc b b tn sc c thit k cho nhng khong cch truyn nht nh. Thng thng cc b b tn sc c t ti cc trm lp v khng nht thit phi chnh xc gi tr khong cch tng ng b b tn sc . Khi t cc b b tn sc cn ch bn thn cc b b tn sc cng gy suy hao tn hiu quang. V th trnh nh hng ti cng sut vo v ra ca cc b khuch i ti trm lp, cc b b tn sc c t vo gia b khuch i pht v khuch i thu ca trm lp.Cc b b tn sc ang c s dng trong h thng 1C: Gi tr b tn Loi Suy hao (dB) sc DCF-40 DCF-80 DCF-80-S DCF-95 700 ps/nm 1400 ps/nm 1400 ps/nm 1600 ps/nm 5 7 7 10