Está en la página 1de 2

AP Chapter 27 Vocabulary Alexander I: The czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia

were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825).

Alexander II: The son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881). Anarchists: Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government;
particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881. Bolsheviks: iterally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution. Congress of Vienna: Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes Count Witte: Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia. Crimean War: Fought between 1854 and 1856; began as Russian attempt to attack Ottoman Empire; opposed by France and Britain as well; resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology; led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander II. Decembrist rising: Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I. Diet: Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it. Duma: National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution. Dutch Studies: Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan. Emancipation of the serfs: Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land. Holy Alliance: Alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe. Intelligentsia: Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class; 19th century group bent on radical change in Russian political and social system; often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West. Kulaks: Agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin and later NEP reforms to increase agricultural production and buy additional land. Matthew Perry: American commodore who visited Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854. Meiji Restoration: The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868. Nicholas I: czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War

Russian revolution of 1905: Consisted of strikes by urban workers and widespread

insurrections among the peasantry; resulted in some temporary reforms such as the creation of the duma. Russo-Japanese War: War between Japan and Russia over territory in Manchuria beginning in 1905; Japan defeated the Russians, largely because of its naval power; Japan annexed Korea in 1910 as a result of military dominance. Sino-Japanese War: War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaotung peninsula. Stolypin reforms: Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry. Terakoya: Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan to teach reading, writing and the rudiments of Confucianism; resulted in high literacy rate, approaching 40 percent, of Japanese males. Trans-Siberian railroad: Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov: Better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells; leader of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Yellow peril: Western term for perceived threat of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased Western imperialism in region. Zaibatsu: Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization. Zemstvoes: Local political councils created as part of reforms of Tsar Alexander II (1860s); gave some Russians, particularly middle-class professionals, some experience in government; councils had no impact on national policy.