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Krakow, Poland, May 25-27, 2008

Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) in Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) Using an Interactive Multiple Model Augmented Unscented Kalman Filter (IMMAUKF)

Nicolae Tudoroiu†, Mohamed Zaheeruddin†, Elena-Roxana Tudoroiu‡ , and Victor Jeflea‡ † Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada ‡West University –Politehnica Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania ‡Spiru Haret University Constanta, Timisoara, Romania

tnicolae@excite.com, zaheer@encs.concordia.ca, tudelena@excite.com, jefleavf@yahoo.com

Abstract-Nowadays monitoring and controlling the modern and sophisticated Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) building systems under a wide variety of occupancy and load related operating conditions is becoming a difficult and challenging task. Their complexity drastically increases and the control becomes more difficult task due to the several control loops that interact between them. Among these control loops the discharge air temperature (DAT) loops, the static pressure loop (SP), and the Variable Air Volume (VAV) terminal unit loop are the candidate loops requiring frequent re-tuning. Equipment failures and loss of control leading to less than acceptable indoor environment conditions is a common problem reported in these systems. In our paper we consider the degradation in the DAT loop performance caused by a gradual increase in backlash of the valve actuator and several disturbances that occur in the process. The main objective of this paper is to describe the application of an interactive multiple model (IMM) [9] based on an augmented Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) estimation algorithm (IMMAUKF) [2] to the problem of fault detection diagnosis and isolation (FDDI) of the valve actuator failures in DAT loop of the HVAC systems [4]. The proposed algorithm is an alternative to the interactive multiple model (IMM) developed in the literature based on the Extended Kalman Filter standard technique [2], [3][5], [7]-[11], the most popular estimation technique used in the last 40 years. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is the less computation, consequently faster, high accuracy, robustness and eliminates completely the linearization of the system dynamics.

severe equipment operating problems. To increase the energy efficiency and equipment reliability, there is a need to develop robust fault detection and diagnosis tools capable of detecting and isolating any sensor, actuator or system component faults so that remedial actions could be taken as soon as possible. The proposed algorithm deals directly with the nonlinear dynamics of the system, the unanticipated valve actuator failures and statistic properties of the process noise and measurements such as the mean and covariance matrices in the most general formulation based on the Unscented Kalman filter estimation theory. The FDDI based on the IMM algorithm is implemented in a simulation environment, and the fault diagnosis results are presented for several fault scenarios in terms of mode probabilities and mode probability indices. From the preliminary simulations [3]-[5] for different scenarios we found that the IMM algorithm is robust to the choice of the matrix probability and to the small changes in process and measurement noise level, a result that is also confirmed by [6]. As tools we use MATLAB with SIMULINK toolboxes from control systems, system identification and signal processing.

II. THE DISCHARGE AIR TEMPERATURE SYSTEM

Keywords - Fault Diagnosis and Detection (FDD), HVAC Systems, Interactive Multiple Model (IMM) , System Estimation Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF).

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Physical System Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a DAT loop of a HVAC system. A central air supply provides air at a controlled temperature and flow rate for use in heating coil, Ta 0 and Q respectively. A heating coil interposed in the central air supply space heats the discharged air using hot water. The temperature of the air leaving the heating coil Ta is controlled by regulating the rate at which the hot water flows through the heating coil as shown by the feedback control loop. The discharged air flow rate is regulated to maintain a

In the most HVAC systems several failures caused by malfunctions in components, actuators, and sensors can be as result of unexpected interference, or gradual aging of system components. Consequently these failures have a great impact on the energy consumption, thermal comfort and generate

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y(k).39483 p2 (k ) + 0. c2 = −38. c5 = 1.in [0 C ] -the inlet water supply ⎡ kg ⎤ ⎡ kg ⎤ & & temperature.4926 ×10 .predetermined static air pressure within the temperature controlled space.2023. leaving the heating coil. Ta . is the DAT loop subsystem input and temperature Ta .8 .16375m a 0.39483ma + 0. Tw. The sensible efficiency quadratic functions ηs . x2 ( k ) = 2 2 where x1.9(1 − ηs (k )) ha (k ) = −17.in (k ) ma (k ) Tw.92805 . and the air and water heat transfer coefficients ha .9(1 − ηs ) . y (k ) = [Ta (k )] is the DAT subsystem output.ηov are given by: & & ha = −17.in .in ∈ [35.1796 . & ηs = − 0.in ) (2) dt dTt 1 − ηs c & = [c6 ma (Ta − Ta .in (k ).in .8995 ×10−4 . T w. mw . ηov = 1 − 0. c4 = −0. ma ⎢ ⎥ -the input air flow rate. & and the control input mw . Ta .2(mw ) &2 0.2. and will be represented by a nonlinear block with backlash characteristic of dead zone width =2r.in ) (1) dt dTw & = c3 hw (Tt − Tw ) + c4 mw (Tw − Tw.9034. DAT System Control Oriented Structure The DAT system was modeled as a SISO system as shown by the block diagram in Fig.in Tw + Tw. c7 = −1. Tw [0 C ] the hot water supply temperature. Hot water supply temperature Tw[oC] and the average tube temperature Tt [oC] act as disturbances on the DAT loop of HVAC system. c9 = 4. u (k ) = mw (k ) is the DAT subsystem input.92805 ηov (k ) = 1 − 0. C. Tw. 22][0 C ].50][0 C ] ⎣ s ⎦ The variables that appear in this DAT model have the following significance: Ta [0 C ] -the air temperature leaving the heating coil.1192. In this representation the heating coil output temperature set point is more directly related to the overall DAT subsystem performance. Ta [oC]. ⎡ kg ⎤ & ma ∈ [0. Discrete time DAT System Model The discrete time space system representation version of the DAT subsystem (1)-(7) has the following form: x1 (k + 1) = x1 (k ) + c1ha (k )ηov (k )Ts ( x1 (k ) − x3 (k )) + (8) c2Ts ( x1 (k ) − p1 (k )) p2 (k ) x2 (k + 1) = x2 (k ) + c3 hw (k )Ts ( x3 (k ) − x2 (k )) + c4Ts ( x2 (k ) − p3 (k ))u (k ) x3 (k + 1) = x3 (k ) + 1 − ηs Ts [c6u( x1 (k ) − p2 (k )) p1 (k ) + ηs + c5 10) (9) B.2046. Tw = . and x2. 0.8] ⎢ ⎥ . Also such as input disturbances could be considered & ma . and & p(k ) = [ p1 (k ) p2 (k ) p3 (k )]T = [Ta . x1 (k ) + x1.9034.in (k ) ]T represents the disturbance input vector.8 The average values of the states x1 (k ) and x2 (k ) are given by x2 (k ) + x2. c6 = 38. and Tw. The input of the simplified SISO model is hot water & flow rate. c3 = 4.in (k ) .in [0 C ] -the inlet air temperature leaving the heating coil.in (k ) = Ta . the sensible efficiency quadratic functions ηs . hw . The entering air Ta 0 is considered as a disturbance on the system. are given by: y (k ) = x1 (k ) (11) where x(k ) = [ x1 (k ) x2 (k ) x3 (k )]T = [Ta (k ) Tw (k ) Tt (k )]T represent & s the state space vector.in (k ) (16) The dynamics of the valve actuator is integrated in the plant dynamics. Ta . and the model uncertainties are due to variable heat and mass transfer rates. The model is nonlinear and described by he following equations: dTa & = c1haηov (Ta − Tt ) + c2 ma (Ta − Ta .58 p2 2 (k ) + 70. and mw ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ s ⎦ ⎣ s ⎦ the water flow rate. In practice the hot water flow rate is regulated such that the temperature of air leaving the heating coil is maintained close to a chosen set-point. is the DAT output.ηov and the (12) (13) (14) (15) time variable water heat transfer coefficients ha . hw .1796 hw (k ) = 1403.in (k ) . with their average values Ta + Ta . In Figure 1.in . become: & The variation ranges for the disturbance inputs ma . 2 −5 c7 hw (k )( x3 (k ) − x2 (k )) p2 (k ) + 1 − ηs (c8 + c9 )ha (k )ηov (k )( x1 (k ) − x3 (k ))] 1 − ηs (4) (5) (6) (7) & hw = 1403. and the output is the temperature of air η s (k ) = 0.562 p2 (k ) + 8.in .1.58ma + 70.2046.5714 × 10−5 . u the hot water flow rate.in ∈ [16. The input- 335 . Tt [0 C ] . Ta .in Ta = . In our simulations we consider the sampling time Ts =4 seconds.562ma + 8.in ) + 7 hw (Tt − Tw ) + dt ηs + c5 1 − ηs (3) c9 + (c8 + )haηov (Ta − Tt )] 1 − ηs For the simulations we use the following values for the coefficients: c1 = −1. u(k).the given by 2 2 average tube temperature.16375 p2 2 (k ) − 0.in (k ) = Tw.2(u (k )) x1 (k ) = 0. c8 = 1.

. C. u k ) + v k (21) (22) ⎡ P0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣ 0 Qw 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ Rv ⎥ ⎦ (26) The random variables w k and v k representing the process and measurement noise injected to drive the system dynamics are generated by the additive noise sources..1. and with normal probability distributions: p(w ) ~ N (0...-1 ] for k ∈ {1. where L = dim( X ) + dim(W ) + dim(V ) . UKF Algorithm procedures/steps [ 1]-[3]. Q w ) (23) p( v) ~ N (0. t )) = Φ[ x.xa )(xa ˆ0 . R v ) (24) The covariance matrices Q w (process noise covariance) and where ˆ x0 = E[x0 ] ˆ ˆ P0 = E[(x0 . zero mean.{6] Step 1.1] − α L + λ Pκ -1 k 1 24 4 3 dim( X ) (30) Step 3. These sample points completely capture the true mean and covariance of the Gaussian random state variable x k ∈ R n . but in our approach we assume they are constant.1. The main advantage of the UKF estimator is that does not require the calculation of the Jacobean matrices that could lead to implementation difficulties. hysteresis output at any given time is function of the entire history of the input.3.. [9]. and the initial condition of the output. and are propagated through the true nonlinear system dynamics. T ] . φ0 . III..x0 )(x0 .output behavior of the backlash nonlinearity can be described by two modes of operation.-1 = x a -1[1. Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) Methodology The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique is based on the unscented transformation (UT) [1]-[2]. Prediction Step (Time Update) 336 . . φ0 ](t ) .1.x a )T ] = x k +1 = f (x k .x0 ) ] T (27) (28) Step 2. u k ) + w k y k = g (xk . according to w(t ) = φ (φ0 . Initialization The Gaussian random variable x is augmented with the process noise w and measurement noise v .1]+α L+λ Pk-1 k 123 44 dim(X) a ˆk Z .. ∞} k k R v (measurement noise covariance) might change with each time step or measurement.1. t ∈ [0. They are assumed to be independent.[7]. [9] and addresses the general problem of state estimation x k ∈ R n of a discrete-time controlled process that is governed by the nonlinear stochastic difference state-space equation with a measurement y k ∈ R m that is given by the output equation xa = [xT w T v T ]T .and through the system dynamics.. and (18) dx dy w = µ ( y + r ) for <0 (19) dx Dead zone described by the following differential equation: w = µ ( y − r ) for & (20) w = 0 | w − µ y |≤ µ r where r is the dead zone width and µ is the slope of tracking region such as depicted in the Fig. Due to the process noise injected in the state space equation the state vector x k ∈ R n becomes random variable with its distribution approximated by a Gaussian distribution function: ˆ p(x) ~ G (x. UKF Architecture In our research we developed an augmented UKF architecture [2]. Px ) (25) The vital operation performed in the Kalman Filter is the propagation of a Gaussian random state variable x k ∈ R n (29) a ˆk Z+-1 =xa-1[1... as either tracking or in the dead zone: Tracking described by the following differential equation: & & w= µy with the solution given by: (17) dy >0. B. specially for nonlinear systems. the UKF estimator yields superior performance compare to EKF estimator. Unlike memory less nonlinearities. Sigma Points Matrix Computation The set of sigma points are created for the augmented state vector using the following relationships: + ˆk X a -1 = [xa -1 Z k -1 Z. Using the principle that a minimal set of carefully chosen sample points can be used to parameterize mean and covariance. The algorithm is developed to compute a collection of sigma points corresponding to the state vector x k or noise signals w k and v k stored in the column of the L × (2 L + 1) sigma point matrix X k −1 . x([0.... The new augmented Gaussian random state variable xa is initialized with the mean T ˆ a = E[xa ] = [x0 0 0]T and the covariance matrix as follows: x0 a P0 = E[(xa 0 ˆ0 0 . white. UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER APPROACH A. with y = φ ( x) ..

hard and random decisions. R v = 1 × 10 2 k=0 . Q w = 2 × 10 I 3 .The predicted priori mean x − and the predicted a priori covariance matrix as weighted averages given by ˆ− xk = Pk− are computed covariance matrices Pxk yk .. k k −1 − x k )T ] + Q w ) x ˆ− Pxk yk = (W0( c ) + 1 − α 2 )( X0. 2 Wi ( m) = 0... The root cause of these fault modes is the valve backlash described by the relations (17)-(20). p2 = ma .2n (35) ( W0 c ) = W0( m) + (1 − α 2 + β ) (36) Wi( c ) = 0.. [7]. k k −1 − ˆ− yk )T + (33) ∑W i =1 2n (c ) i ˆ− ˆ− [(Yi . k k −1 − yk )T + (42) ∑W i =0 2n (m) i Xix. labeled by the index j = 1. The a priori output mean now given by ˆ y k− is ˆ y = ∑ Wi Yi . k the prediction step is performed by first propagating each column of this matrix through the nonlinear function f (.k k −1 − k (m) i =0 2n (39) P0 (k | k ) . FDDI assumes that the actual 337 . Parameter selection/settings α = 0.. p3 = Tw.k k −1 − yk )T ] + Rv (43) ∑ i =1 ˆ− ˆ− Wi(c ) [( Xix.k k −1 − x − )(Y0.. Pyk yk . x0 (k | k ) .in . k k −1 − xk )( Xix. 2.k k −1 − yk )(Y0. 5. k k −1 − yk )T + ˆ ˆ k where the weights are defined deterministically by ( W0 m) = ∑W i =1 2n (c) i ˆk ˆ− [( Xix.. the estimate ˆ state at the time t .. FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS METHODOLOGY .k k −1 − yk )(Yi . and the disturbances p1 = Ta . Theoretical aspects and computation steps in this algorithm are well developed and documented in [1]-[3]. Correction Step (Measurement Update) Once the new measurement state estimate y k is available the a posteriori ˆ x k and covariance Pk are computed as follows ˆ ˆk ˆ− x k = x − + K G ( yk − yk ) Pk = Pk− − K G Pyk yk K T ˆ ˆ G (40) (41) = f x w ( X k −1 .001 .5 ( L + λ )α 2 .. k Y = g (X x . i = 1. first mode will be normal mode corresponding to the healthy system.. X k −1 ) (31) where X w−1 k represents the set of sigma points corresponding where the Kalman gain KG and covariance and cross- ˆk to the process noise vector w k .. respectively.. Consequently there are only five modes. Each of these filters at time tk+1 = k+1 has its own input. Xv ) (38) k k −1 k k −1 k k −1 where Xv −1 represents the sigma points matrix corresponding k to the measurement noise v k . which form a good quasi-sufficient statistic of all old information and the assumption that the model of each filter matches the system mode. 3. The interactive estimation algorithm runs each of the four parallel filters bank corresponding to the normal and the fault modes (j =1. 3. uk . and its covariance matrix.5 ( L + λ )α 2 . 4. labeled by the indexes j = 2. uk . are defined by ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ K G = Px y (Py y )−1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ k k k k (c) 2 ˆ− ˆ− = (W0 + 1 − α )(Y0. and the last four modes will be the faults modes.5 × 10 −6 I3 .. u k .2n (37) Furthermore. u . P0 = 1. the columns of the transformed sigma point matrix X a k −1 will be propagated through the nonlinear k function g (. According to the different scenarios only three possible approaches could be developed: soft.Once the augmented sigma points matrix X a −1 is computed. i = 1. 4) only once in each cycle.) to yield In this paper we assume a DAT subsystem having one single actuator valve and three potential disturbances that could generate faults.in that appear explicitly in the model equations (8)-(10). β = 2.k k −1 − yk )T ] (44) λ ( L + λ )α 2 +1− 1 α 2 (34) Step 5.) and obtain the transformed sigma points matrix for the state variable x according to: Xx k k −1 x X k k −1 Step 4.k | k −1 − x− )(Yi . IV.. k k −1 − x ˆ− yk )( X0.k k −1 (32) Pyk yk ˆ ˆ Pk− = (W0 2n (c) +1−α 2 x )( X0.

[6] We consider in our paper the following scenario: z = [z1 z3 z2 z5 z2 z5].. ∑ π ij ( k ) = 1. 2... additive. .yy(k+1| k))−1νj (k+1 )( j %% )]. corresponding to the step 4.2 Compute the mixing estimates at k.4 Compute the mixing covariance from at k: T ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Pj0(k | k) = ∑ [P (k | k) +(xj0(k | k) − xi (k))(xj0(k | k) − xi (k | k)) ]×µij (k). N .. µ (k + 1) . relations (40)-(44) of the augmented UKF algorithm described in Section 3... (45) (46) (47) x(0) ) N ( x0 . N j .4-5. m j ∈ S Prediction step corresponding to the steps 1-3.... white Gaussian noises of zero mean and covariance matrices Q(k ) and. m(k + 1))u(k ) + T (k .. [250..4 Fault decision – FDD logic [1]-[3]. m(k + 1)). mN } represents the set of all possible system modes... Fault detection 4. 2.. j ) µi ( k ). Model conditional filtering [1]-[3]. i = 1. N (53) 1..1 Compute the likelihood function at k+1. N N (60) (51) 1. ∀j = 1.. for j =1. developed in Section 3.. Step3.1 Compute the predicted mode probability from k to k+1. j =1 2... j ) × µ i ( k ) ˆ µ j (k + 1 | k ) . N FDD max j 4. N µ ij (k ) : (52) ˆ 1. that (57) [ ] 4. µij ( k ) = π (i .. . In the relation (48) P{} denotes the probability operator. of the augmented UKF algorithm. .. Model-conditional reinitialization (interacting or mixing the estimates): 1. u = [u1 u3 u2 u5 u2 u5 ] . The interactive multi-model algorithm is a recursive estimator that consists in each cycle of four steps [1][3]. j = 1. 2 . i j =1.... N .. 2 |(2 )P... 2. (ii) Correction step. Update the mode probability at k+1.. that is x(k | k ) : ˆ ˆ x j 0 ( k | k ) = ∑ xi ( k | k ) × µij ( k ). Due to the linear approximation of the DAT system the results obtained could degrade in accuracy. i = 1... and are independent of the initial state x(0) .. N (54) Step2.1 Compute the mode probability vector at r is µ ( k + 1) : r µ ( k + 1) = µ1 ( k + 1) µ 2 ( k + 1) µ3 ( k + 1). [200.. and S = {m1 . P0 ) z (k ) = H (k .. N Step 4.. N . j = 1. N 3..[7]. The simulation results are presented in Fig.. ∑ π j = 1 j =1 (56) (50) where x(k ) is the state vector.. when the first fault mode occurs inside the time horizon windows [70. 150].. 70].. the second fault mode inside the time horizon windows [30. m(k )) The mode (normal or fault mode) of the system at time k is selected by a discrete process m j and modeled as a discrete time. relations (26)-(39)..system at any time can be modeled sufficiently accurately by the following jump Markov hybrid linear system: x(k + 1) = F (k . first-order Markov chain with transition probabilities π ij (k ) given by: π ij ( k ) = P{m j ( k + 1) | mi ( k )}.. 300].. where N 0 ≤ π j ≤ 1. 2.3. [2].. 200].. The process noise and noise measurement vectors ξ (k ) and η (k ) are mutually independent. 250]. The results obtained in this paper are very similar to those obtained for the linear case in [4] using the standard Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). [7] 3. Determine the index of the maximum value of the mode probability vector component r r j = find ( µ == max( µ )) (59) 4. The event that m j is in effect at time k j = 1. ∀mi .[6]: if µ FDD max > µThreshold then the fault occurs otherwise no fault occurs V. ∑ µ j ( k + 1 | k ) L j ( k + 1) 1 The initial state distribution of the Markov chain is π (0) = [π 1 π 2 π 3 . u (k ) is control input vector.. that is L j (k + 1) : (i) (48) (49) ) Lj (k +1 = 1 exp[− νjT(k +1 P. The system modes may jump from one to another at a random time.[9]: Step1. SIMULATION RESULTS is denoted as m j (k ) = {m(k ) = m j } . However the gain of the developed algorithm is for nonlinear cases.2 Update the mode probability at k+1. [1].µ N ( k + 1) k+1. i . s-state. m(k + 1)) x(k ) + G(k . 2. that is µ j (k + 1) µ j ( k + 1 | k ) L j ( k + 1) µ j ( k + 1) = N . i . but in many cases it is very difficult to obtain the analytical model of the nonlinear system. ˆ that is µ (k + 1| k ) : ˆ µ j ( k + 1 | k ) = ∑1 π (i ..π N ] .2 Obtain the maximum value of the mode probability vector components: µ = (58) max{µ j ( k + 1)) . j = 1..yy(k +1| k)| π j %% (55) 1 and 0 ≤ π ij ( k ) ≤ 1. m(k + 1))ξ (k. m(k )) x(k ) + η (k .. z (k ) is the mode-dependent measurement vector. .. the fourth fault mode inside the time horizon windows [150.. R (k ) . m2 . j = 1.2 Compute the mixing probability at k... However the superiority of the IMM and 338 .

No. pp. Energy Conversion and Management. 2007.5.Tudoroiu. “ Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Valve Actuators in HVAC Systems”. “Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Valve Actuators in Discharge Air Temperature (DAT) Systems. The approach is probabilistic and gives results more accurate than the spectral analysis very well spread in the literature.Chan. The evolution of the mode probability for the sequence z = [ z1 z3 z2 z5 z5 z 2 z5 ]. Vol. Zaheerudin .2.554-560.27-32. we develop an interactive multi-model approach first to detect the fault valve actuator and the fault modes generated by the possible perturbations in the HVAC systems. Divakaran. Uhlman. [9]. Canada. Fig. Peker.HVAC& RESEARCH. [3]. Y. Y. Schematic diagram of DAT system u= mw DAT System y=Ta Fig. “Adaptive filter theory . 2003. A.B. [8]. REFERENCES Ta0 Heating Coil Ta=y discharge air temperature Fig. . S. and in our research in [3]-[5]. M. 2005. October 1998.T. 2004. “Detecting and Diagnosing Faults in HVAC equipment”.3. [4]. pp. Y. Nikovski. Xin Qiao Jin.K. ” Fault Detection and Diagnosis of the Valve Actuators in HVAC Systems Using Interactive Parallel Kalman Filters Bank”. Schein. USA Patent 20080033674.Tudoroiu.Cheug. September 7-12. Kadir . January 2006. D. Radhakrishnan Regunathan. M.5 0 0 50 100 150 samples 200 250 300 Fig. J.H. vol. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics . The 11th International Symposium on Aerospace/Defense Sensing.5 2 1. [2]. pp 395-398.24 0. N.. Applied Soft Computing.22 u i m miu3 0.Fourth edition”.4. pp. Vol. “Detection and Diagnosis of Sensor and Actuator Failures using IMM Estimator”. P. Proceedings. IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.The backlash nonlinearity (the dead zone width =2r) The mode probability 0. February 2008. M. S. Chetovani. Canada. Tudoroiu. 84. IChemE. VI.Lo. ASHRAE. [11]. Proceeding of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications.The index of the mode probability for the sequence z = [ z1 z3 z2 z5 z2 z5]. “Detection and Diagnosis for Sensor Fault in HVAC Systems”. 9-13 July 2006. J.K.48.12 miu1 miu2 miu5 0 50 100 150 samples 200 250 300 Fig. March 2007. Rong-Li Xiao . “Fuzzygenetic Algorithm for Automatic Fault Detection in HVAC systems”.Haykin. No. 693-702. T. Issue B1. Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories.3 0.14 0.1. A.5 1 0.12. [6]. Julier.5 4 3. Bochum. [6]. N.5 x e d n i y t i l i b a b o r p e d o m 3 2. CONCLUSIONS entering air temperature u controller In this paper.28 0. Vol. pp. pp.UKF algorithms is well documented in literature [2]. August 29-31. N. Prentice Hall..26 0. No.J.34. The results obtained are encouraging and the performance of the IMMAUKF algorithm will be tested. Issue 2. The 29th Annual Congress of the American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences (ARA).3. January 2006. ISBN:07803-9354-6. Vol 7. “A Hierarchical Rule-Based Fault Detection and Diagnostic Method for HVAC Systems”. Bushby.K. [10].Zaheeruddin. Zhang.Rad.1.18 0. S. Germany. Elsevier. using Interactive Unscented Kalman Filter Estimation”. “Fault Detection in a Chemical Reactor by Using the Standardized Innovation”. 1293-1311. Zhirmin Du. Simulation and Controls.The block scheme of the DAT system [1]. [5]. Montreal.Wong. Inc. C. u = [u1 u3 u 2 u3 u5 u 2 u5 ] (d)-Robustness to PImatrix 5 4. Toronto. The recovery mode development to complete the IMM algorithm in order to avoid the degrading in performance of the closed-loop DAT subsystem during the failures periods will be explored in the future work. CD-ROM . Proceedings of Aero Sense. “A New Extension of the Kalman Filter to Nonlinear Systems”.L.Zaheeruddin .16 0. [7].4.182-193. 1997.2 miu4 0. ISIE2006. u = [u1 u3 u2 u5 u2 u5 ] 339 .

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