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In this section, we divide connecting devices into five different categories based on the layer in which they operate in a network. network.
Passive Hubs Active Hubs Bridges Two-Layer Switches Routers Three-Layer Switches y Gateways

Lecture 7
Connecting LANs, Backbone N t B kb Networks, k and Virtual LANs

Figure 15 1 Fi categories of connecting devices 15.1 Five t i f ti d i

Figure 15 2 A repeater connecting t segments of a LAN 15.2 t ti two t f

Note Note A repeater connects segments of a LAN LAN. Figure 15 3 F ti of a repeater 15. .3 Function f t Note A repeater is a regenerator regenerator. not an amplifier. it has no filtering capability. A repeater forwards every frame.

Hubs Figure 15 4 A hi 15. .4 hierarchy of h b h f hubs … physical-layer (“dumb”) repeaters: bits coming in one link go out all other links at same rate all nodes connected to hub can collide with one another no frame buffering no CSMA/CD at hub: host NICs detect collisions i d i twisted pair hub Figure 15.5 A bridge connecting two LANs Note A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions.

uses CSMA/CD to access segment Switch: allows multiple simultaneous transmissions t i i A hosts have dedicated direct dedicated. forward Ethernet frames examine incoming frame s MAC address. Switch link-layer device: smarter than hubs. but no collisions.5. p each link is its own collision domain C’ 6 1 23 5 4 B transparent hosts are unaware of presence of switches C A A’ switch with six interfac (1.6) (1 2 3 4 5 6) B’ switching: A-to-A’ and B to A to A B-toB’ simultaneously. full duplex . self-learning switches do not need to be configured .Figure 15. take active role store.3. selectively frame’s forward frame to one-or-more outgoing links when frame is to be forwarded on segment.2. without collisions not possible with dumb hub plug-and-play.4. connection to switch switches buffer packets Ethernet protocol used on each incoming link.6 A learning bridge and the process of learning Note A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame.

index switch table using MAC dest address 3.5. record link associated with sending host 2. “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment records sender/location pair in switch table Source: A Dest: A’ A A A A’ C’ 6 1 23 5 4 C B’ A A’ Switch table (initially empty) B (MAC address of host.6) (1 2 3 4 5 6) MAC addr interface TTL A 1 60 Switch: frame filtering/forwarding When frame received: 1. if entry found for destination then { if dest on segment from which frame arrived then drop the frame else forward the frame on interface indicated } else flood forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived Self-learning.Switch Table Q: how does switch know that A’ reachable via interface 4. interface to reach host. maintained in switch table? A A’ switch with six interfac something like a routing protocol? (1.2. Self learning forwarding: example l frame destination unknown: flood destination A location known: selective send Source: A Dest: A’ A A A A’ C’ 1 6 2 A A’ 3 5 4 A’ A B’ A A’ A A A’ 1 4 60 60 B C MAC addr interface TTL Switch table ( (initially empty) y p y) .4.3. time stamp) looks like a routing table! Q: how are entries created created. each entry: Switch: self-learning g A C’ 6 1 23 5 4 C B’ B switch learns which hosts can be reached through which interfaces when frame received switch received. B’ reachable via interface 5? A: each switch has a switch table.

10 Forwarding and blocking ports after using spanning tree algorithm .8 A system of connected LANs and its graph representation Figure 15.7 Loop problem in a learning bridge Figure 15.9 Finding the shortest paths and the spanning tree in a system of bridges Figure 15.Figure 15.

p g. S3. learning algorithms . I responds to C 1 S1 A B C S2 D E F G H 2 S4 S3 I Q Q: sending from A to G . implement routing tables algorithms switches maintain switch tables. implement filtering. Routers both store-and-forward devices routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) switches are link layer devices routers maintain routing tables. S2.Interconnecting switches switches can be connected together S4 S1 A B C S2 D E F G H S3 I Self-learning multi-switch example Suppose C sends frame to I. . S4 Institutional network to external network mail server router web server IP subnet Switches does S1 know to g forward frame destined to F via S4 and S3? A: self learning! (works exactly the same as in single-switch case!) i l it h !) Q: show switch tables and packet forwarding in S1.

11 Routers connecting independent LANs and WANs BACKBONE NETWORKS A backbone network allows several LANs to be connected. of the backbone is a bus. no station is directly connected to the backbone. part of a LAN. the stations are backbone. LANs. In a backbone network. and the backbone connects the LANs. .Figure 15. connected.12 Bus backbone Note In a bus backbone the topology backbone. Bus Backbone Star Backbone Connecting Remote LANs Figure 15.

bridges . the topology of the backbone backbone is a star.Figure 15 13 St b kb 15.13 Star backbone Note In a star backbone.14 Connecting remote LAN with b id ti t LANs ith bridges Note A point to point link acts as a LAN in a point-to-point remote backbone connected by remote bridges. Figure 15 14 C 15. the backbone is just one switch switch.

efficiency issues) Port-based VLAN: switch ports grouped (by switch management software) so that single physical switch …… 1 7 8 9 10 15 16 Virtual Local Area Network Switch(es) supporting VLAN capabilities can be configured to define multiple virtual LANS over single physical LAN infrastructure. wiring. but wants connect to CS switch? single broadcast domain: all layer-2 broadcast traffic (ARP.15 A switch connecting three LANs Membership Configuration Communication between Switches IEEE Standard Advantages VLANs: motivation What’s wrong with this picture? VLANs What happens if Wh t h if: CS user moves office to EE. Figure 15.VIRTUAL LANs We can roughly define a virtual local area network (VLAN) as a local area network configured by software. DHCP) crosses entire LAN (security/privacy. not by physical wiring. 2 … Electrical Engineering (VLAN ports 1-8) … Computer Science (VLAN ports 9-15) … operates as multiple virtual switches 1 2 7 8 9 10 15 16 Computer Science Electrical Engineering Computer Engineering each lowest level switch has hl tl l it h h only few ports in use … Electrical Engineering (VLAN ports 1-8) … Computer Science (VLAN ports 9-16) .

Port-based VLAN traffic isolation: frames to/from ports 1-8 can only 18 reach ports 1-8 can also define VLAN based on MAC addresses of endpoints endpoints.8 belong to CS VLAN dynamic membership: ports can be dynamically assigned y y g among VLANs forwarding between VLANS: done via routing (just as with separate switches) in practice vendors sell combined switches plus routers … Electrical Engineering (VLAN ports 1-8) … Computer Science (VLAN ports 9-15) trunk port: carries frames between VLANS defined over multiple physical switches frames f f forwarded within VLAN b t d d ithi between switches can’t be vanilla it h ’t b ill 802. rather than switch port 1 2 7 8 VLANS spanning multiple switches router 1 2 7 8 9 10 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 16 … Electrical Engineering (VLAN ports 1-8) … Computer Science (VLAN ports 9-15) Ports 2.3.5 belong to EE VLAN Ports 4.16 A switch using VLAN software Figure 15.1q protocol adds/removed additional header fields for frames forwarded between trunk ports f d db t t k t Figure Two switches in a backbone using VLAN software .1 frames (must carry VLAN ID info) 802.

.Note VLANs create broadcast domains.