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A Study on Anxiety among Orphan Adolescents

INTRODUCTION
ORPHAN An orphan is a child permanently bereaved of his or her parents. Common usage limits the term to children who have lost both parents. In certain cases where the father typically abandons the mother and young at or prior to Birth, the young will be called orphans when the mother dies regardless of the condition of the father. DEFENITION Various groups use different definitions to identify orphans. One legal definition used in USA is a minor bereft through Death or Disappearance of abandonment or desertion by or separation or loss from, both parents. In the common use, an orphan must not have any surviving parent to care for him or her. However, the United Nations childrens fund [UNICEF], Joint United Nations programme on HIV and AIDS [UNIDS] and other groups label any child that has lost one parent as an orphan. In this approach, a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died, a parental orphan is a child whose father has dies, and a double orphan has lost both parents. This contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children that had lost only one parent.

ADOLESCENCE
Period of life from puberty to adulthood (roughly ages 12 20) characterized by marked physiological changes, development of sexual feelings, efforts toward the construction of identity, and a progression from concrete to abstract thought. Adolescence is sometimes viewed as a transitional state, during which youths begin to separate themselves from their parents but still lack a clearly defined role in society. It is generally regarded as an emotionally intense and often stressful period. The period of human development between the onset of puberty and adulthood. This period is generally marked by the appearance of secondary sex characteristics, usually from 11 to 13 years of age, and spans the teen years.

Food and Fitness of the Adolescence


Adolescence, the period between childhood and adulthood, begins after secondary sexual characteristics (e.g. pubic hair) appear and continues until sexual maturity is complete. It is a period during which bones are still growing and there is a high risk of skeletal injuries. Rapid physical changes are accompanied by important psychological changes relating particularly to the way the adolescent perceives himself or herself. This can be a turbulent time. Active Adolescent boys may need up to 4000 calories a day, about twice the normal adult requirement. The protein, vitamin, and mineral requirements of adolescents of both sexes are also higher than for adults. Adequate calcium intake is especially important during adolescence to maximize bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life. Eating habits acquired during adolescence are often retained for life. Therefore, adolescents should be encouraged to eat a well balanced diet not to skip meals.

Definition
According to Children Health Encyclopedia sometimes referred to as teenage years, youth, or puberty, adolescence is the transitional period between childhood and maturity, occurring roughly between the ages of 10 to 20.

Description
The word adolescence is Latin in origin, derived from the verb adolescence, which means to grow into adulthood. Adolescence is a time of moving from the immaturity of childhood into the maturity of adulthood. There is no single event or boundary line that denotes the end of childhood or the beginning of adolescence. Rather, experts think of the passage from childhood into and through adolescence as composed of a set of transitions that unfold gradually and that touch upon many aspects of the individuals behavior, development, and relationships. These transitions are biological, cognitive, social, and emotional.

Common Problems
Generally speaking, most young people are able to negotiate the biological, cognitive, emotional, and social transitions of adolescence successfully. Some orphans, adolescents, however, are at risk of developing certain problems, such as: Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, or obesity Drug or alcohol use Depression or suicidal ideation Violent behavior Anxiety, stress, or sleep disorders Unsafe sexual activities

Adolescent on Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders


Every one experiences anxiety. It is natural and important emotion, signaling through stirrings of worry, fearfulness, and alarm that danger or a sudden, threatening change is near. Yet sometimes anxiety becomes an exaggerated, UN healthy response. Given the array of changes and uncertainties facing a normal adolescent, anxiety often hums along like background noise. For some adolescence, anxiety becomes a chronic, high pitched state, interfering with their ability to attend school and to perform up to their academic potential. Participating in extracurricular activities, making and keeping friends, and maintaining a supportive, flexible relationship within the family become difficult. Sometimes anxiety is limited to generalized, free-floating feelings of uneasiness. At other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias.

Identifying the Sings


Anxiety disorders vary from adolescent to adolescent. Symptoms generally include excessive fears and worries, feelings of inner restlessness, and a tendency to be excessively wary and vigilant. Even in the absence of an actual threat, some adolescent describe feelings of continual nervousness, restlessness, or extreme stress. In a social setting, anxious adolescent may appear dependent, withdrawn, or uneasy. They seem either overly restrained or overly emotional. They may be preoccupied with worries about losing control or unrealistic concerns about social competence. Adolescent who suffer from excessive anxiety regularly experience a range of physical symptoms as well. They may complain about muscle tension and cramps, stomachaches, headaches, pain in the limbs and back, fatigue, or discomforts associated with pubertal changes. They may blotch, flush, sweat, hyperventilate, tremble, and startle easily.

Anxiety during adolescence typically centers on changes in the way the adolescents body looks and feels, social acceptance, and conflicts about independence. When flooded with anxiety, adolescents may appear extremely shy. They may avoid their usual activities or refuse to engage in new experiences. They may protest whenever they are apart from friends. Or in an attempt to diminish or deny their fears and worries, they may engage in risky behaviors, drug experimentation, or impulsive sexual behavior.

Social Performance
Several studies have revealed an increase in school avoidance in middle-school or junior-high years. With school avoidance, excessive worries about performance or social pressures at school may be at the root of the reluctance to attend school regularly. This leads to a cycle of anxiety, physical complaints, and school avoidance. The cycle escalates with the worsening of physical complaints such as stomachaches, headaches, and menstrual cramps. Visits to the doctor generally fail to uncover general medical explanations. The longer a teenager stays out of school, the harder it becomes for him to overcome his fear and anxiety and return to school. He feels increasing isolated from school activities and different from other kids. Some youngsters are naturally more timid than others, As their bodies, voices and emotions change during adolescence, they may feel even more self-conscious. Despite initial feelings of uncertainty, most teens are able to join in if given time to observe and warm up. In extreme cases, called social phobia, the adolescent becomes very withdrawn, and though he wants to take part in social activities, hes unable to overcome intense selfdoubt and worry. Gripped by excessive or unreasonable anxiety when faced with entering a new or unfamiliar social situation, the adolescent with social phobia becomes captive to unrelenting fears of other peoples judgments or expectations. He may deal with his social discomfort by fretting about his health, appearance, or overall competence. Alternatively he may behave in a clowning or boisterous fashion or consume alcohol to deal with the anxiety.

Because so much of teenagers social life gets played out in school, social phobia may overlap with and be hard to distinguish from school avoidance. Some teens with social phobia may try to sidestep their anxious feelings altogether by refusing to attended or participate in school, classroom and academic performance falls off, involvement in social and extracurricular activities dwindles, and as a consequence self-esteem declines. Some teens may be experience such a high level of anxiety that they cannot leave the house. This disorder, agoraphobia, seems to stem from feelings about being away from parents and fears of being away from home rather than fear of the world. Infact, a number of children who demonstrate severe separation anxiety in early childhood go on to develop agoraphobia as adolescents and adults.

Life on the Inside [orphanage life]


The orphanage facilities are divided into baby homes and childrens homes. The baby homes host children from birth to approximately 3 years of age. On the positive side there are many orphanages run by directors and care givers who sincerely care for the children and strive to create a nurturing environment. The children in these orphanages are affectionate and spirited, and often very creative despite scant resources. Some are exceptionally talented in the areas of music, art and sports. Unfortunately, these state run institution are not in a position to do anything to prepare these children for successful adulthood. Educational standards very widely due to limited budgets and other priorities. Children have few, if any, opportunities to develop the life or work skills necessary to integrate back into society. At a time when children should become increasingly independent, the stultifying nature of these schools inhibits personal growth and self-reliance.

Two essential life skills that orphans typically lack are critical thinking and decision-making skills. The state makes all significant decisions for them and orphanage directors rarely solicit their opinion on matters concerning them. The only thing required of an orphan in obedience. As a result, these children who are already plagued with self-worth issues and low self-esteem due to being abandoned by their own parents-have never learned how to make positive decisions, for themselves. They have little confidence in their abilities and are easily influenced by others.

Life on the Outside


Graduation day is possibly the worst day in the life of many orphans. For some it is the beginning of the end. The most tragic moment for such kinds is a graduation party at their boarding school. They soon realize that their teachers and caregivers are releasing them into an uncertain world, and the state is washing it hands of them. At this point the protective walls of orphanage disappear, and the nightmare of life without a family turns into reality for these children. When these young adults leave the orphanage and re-enter the real world they are entirely alone. This is the most critical juncture in an orphans life. The point at which immediate survival dictates their decisions and drives many towards a life of desperation and abuse. Both the child and society suffer as a result. When these young adults leave the orphanage and re-enter the real world they are entirely alone. This is the most critical juncture in an orphans life- the point at which immediate survival dictates their decisions and drives many towards life of desperation and abuse. Both the child and society suffer as a result.

Consider the Challenges faced by most newly released orphans


Food and shelter

If an orphan does not have a relative willing to offer temporary housing, survival becomes their first and only objective. These children often end up turning to crime and prostitution, just to eat and have a place to sleep. One third of all orphans end up in prison. From the start they are in a state institution, so they just go to another institution.

Poor Primary School Education


The vast majority of orphans lack the proper education needed to be admitted to the secondary educational facilities, or they drop out quickly if they manage this feet due to the pressures of providing for themselves without proper support.

Most Possess No work Skills and few life Skills few jobs [including menial ones] are Available
Eastern purpose will be struggling to emerge from communism for many years provide date about our country nearly 28% of the population lives below the poverty line and there are few jobs for anybody least of all for teenage orphans.

No support System
Once a child is released from the orphanage, they are completely on their own. Basic survival drives their actions, leading many into abusive situations and destructive behaviors.

The stigma of being an orphan

Stereotypes and stigma run very deep in Eastern Europe. Common thinking is that if the orphans parents did not want the child, something must be very wrong with the child. The orphan is not only ill-prepared to integrate back into society. He/she is also rejected by society. These children without the benefit of guidance in many areas are asked to walk out of the orphanage doors, final a place to live find something to eat, find a job, find a life. It is no surprise to discover that there is a very high suicide rate [over 10%] in newly released orphans that they are the prime targets of the human slave traders and sex traffickers. More than half are recruited to a life a crime or prostitution, and 30% become addicted to alcohol and other drugs during their first year of living independently. Forced labor, sexual slavery or a life in the streets leading to crime, prostitution and drug abuse is the destiny of most of these young people. Through providing orphans with the support and guidance they need upon leaving the orphanage, Haven Bridge aims to changes the destiny of these young lives.

Running a Programme
This sections looks at some of the principles and key elements involved in carrying out and supporting activities for orphans and other vulnerable children. Getting started Doing the work, and improving the work cover practical details. Key points about running a programme are clearly explained in the global strategic frameuorle which was introduced in 2004. These include; 1. Ensuring that all activities are consistent with human rights principles as laid out in the convention on the rights of the child.

2. Five key stragies to guide and direct response to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children. 3. Seven elements of programming guidance intended for those carrying out specific local programmes. 4. A monitoring and evaluation framework, including an agreed set of core nationallevel indicators.

The Global Strategic Framework


In 2004, a number of organizations agreed a global strategic framework to guide responses to issues facing orphans and other vulnerable children. These organizations included UNICEF, UNAIDS and USAID. This shared framework is intended mainly for senior policy-makers. It also provides valuable guidance to those working with orphans and other vulnerable children at different levels, For examples, those working with local communities. The framework brings together several other documents on the subject which have appeared since 2000.

Key Strategies

Five key strategies to guide and direct responses to the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children. These are; 1. Strengthen the capacity of families to protect and care for orphans and vulnerable children by prolonging the lives of parents and providing economic, psychosocial and other support. This may be done in a number of ways including economic strengthening, providing psychosocial support, supporting carers, supporting succession planning, prolonging the lives of HIV positive parents and strengthening young peoples own life skills. 2. Mobilize and support community-based response. This strategy outline key elements of community mobilization including engaging local leaders, enabling local communities to talk more openly about HIV/AIDS, organizing and supporting cooperative activities and providing and supporting community care for children and young people without any family support. 3. Ensure access for orphans and vulnerable children to essential services, including education, healthcare, birth registration and others. Key services for orphans and other vulnerable children include education, birth registration, health, nutrition, water and sanitation, judicial protection and placement services for children and young people without family care. 4. Ensure that governments protect the most vulnerable children through improved policy and legislation and by channeling resources to communities. This strategy includes a wide range of provisions. These include ensuring that governments develop policies, strategies and action plans to guide national responses, enhancing government capacity, ensuring that resources reach local communities, ensuring that each country has a supportive legal framework and establishing mechanisms to ensure information exchange. 5. Raise awareness to create a supportive environment for children affected by HIV/AIDS. This strategy includes conducting a situation analysis, tackling stigma, silence and discrimination and strengthening and supporting community mobilization efforts at community level.

Elements of programming guidance

The global framework provides seven elements of guidance for those working on local programmes with orphans and other vulnerable children. These are: 1. Focus on the most vulnerable children and communities, not only children orphaned by AIDS. Programmes which target only those orphaned by AIDS may increase stigma, and discrimination. Care is also needed when using terms to refer to children within a particular project. People from within a particular community are best able to identify those children in greatest need. 2. Define community- specific problems and vulnerabilities at the outset and pursue locally determined intervention strategies. When a new programme starts in a particular community, it should be designed particularly to meet the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children in that community. This will involve identifying orphans and other vulnerable children and analyzing the local situation facing them. Community members should play a central role in all these processes. 3. Involve children and young people as active participants in the response. Children and young people should not be seen as a passive, powerless group who need to be given help. They need to be allowed to actively participate in all aspects of activities which affect them. 4. Give particular attention to the role of boys and girls, men and women and address gender discrimination. For example, much of the burden of caring for vulnerable children and sick adults falls on women. Also, vulnerable girls are more likely to drop out of school than boys. Women are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and are often excluded from owning or inheriting land. 5. Strengthen partnerships and mobilize collaborative action. Working with other organizations can be a very good way of improving the activities being carried out. 6. Link HIV/AIDS prevention activities and care and support for people living with HIV and AIDS with support for vulnerable children. Such activities include homebased care for people who are ill and HIV/AIDS prevention. Greater linkages with development activities in general avoid over-identification with HIV/AIDS and a risk of increasing stigma and discrimination. 7. Use external support to strengthen community initiative and motivation. External support should strengthen and build on existing community initiative and

motivation. Great care should be taken to avoid undermining or replacing community initiatives. Here you include Indian government and non-government programme for the welfare of the orphans.

How to Respond
If your adolescence is willing to talk about adolescents fears and anxieties, listen carefully and respectfully. Without discounting adolescence feeling, help him understand that increased feeling of uneasiness about their body, performance, and peer acceptance and a general uncertainty are all natural parts of adolescence. By helping him trace his anxiety to specific situation and experiences, you may help him reduce the overwhelming nature of his feelings. Reassure him that, although his concerns are real, in all likelihood he will be able to handle them and that as he gets older, he will develop different techniques to be better able to deal with stress and anxiety. Remind him of other times when he was initially afraid but still managed to enter into new situations, such as junior high school or camp. Praise him when he takes part in spite of his uneasiness point out that you are proud of his ability to act in the face of considerable anxiety. Our teenager may not always be comfortable talking about feelings that he views as sins and weakness. While it may seem at the moment as though hes not listening, later he may be soothed by our attempts to help.

If fearfulness begins to take over our teenagers life and limit his activities, or if the anxiety lasts over six months, seek professional advice. His doctor or teacher will be able to recommend a child and adolescent psychiatrist or other professional specializing in treating adolescents.

Managing anxiety disorders as with any adolescent emotional disturbance usually requires a combination of treatment interventions. The most effective plan must be individualized to the teenagers. While these disorders can cause considerable distress and disruption to the teens life, the overall prognosis is good. Treatment for an anxiety disorder beings with an evaluation of symptoms, social context, and the extend of interference or impairment to the teen school records and personnel may be consulted to identify how the teens performance and function in school has been affected by the disorder. The evaluating clinician will also consider any underlying physical illness or diseases, such as diabetes, that could be causing the anxiety symptoms. Medications that might cause anxiety [such as some drugs used in treating asthma] will be reviewed. Since large amount of caffeine, in coffee or soft drinks, can cause agitation, a clinician might look at the youngsters diet as well other biological, psychological, and social factors that might predispose the youngster to undue anxiety will also be considered. If a teenager refuses to go to school, a clinician will explore other possible explanations before labeling it school avoidance. Perhaps the teen is being threatened or harassed, is depressed, or has on unrecognized learning disability. He/she may also be skipping school in order to be with friends, not from anxiety about performance or separation.

If the teenager has engaged in suicidal or self-endangering behavior, is trying to self medicate through alcohol or drug use, or is seriously depressed, these problems should be addressed immediately. In such cases, hospitalization may be recommended to protect the youngster.

It most cases, treatment of anxiety disorders focuses on reducing the symptoms of anxiety, relieving distress, preventing complications associated with the disorder, and minimizing the effects on the teens social, school, and developmental progress. If the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible.

Cognitive behavioral Therapy


In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. Such approaches help the teenager examine his anxiety, anticipate situation in which it is likely to occur, and understand its effects. This can help a youngster recognize the exaggerated nature of his fears and develop a corrective approach to the problem. Moreover, cognitive-behavioral therapy tends to be specific to the anxiety problem, and the teen actively participates, which usually enhances the youngsters understanding.

Other Therapies
In some instances, long-term psychotherapy and family therapy may also be recommended.

Medications
When symptoms are severe, a combination of therapy and medication may be used. Antidepressant medications, such as nortripline [pamelor] imipramine [tofranil], doxepin [sinequan] paroxetive [prozac], or anxiety-reducing drugs, may be prescribed in

combination with cognitive or other psychotherapy. When tricyclic antidepressant medications such as imipramine are pre-scribed, our teens physician may want to monitor for potential side effects by conducting periodic physical exams and occasional electro caroliograms [EKGS].

What help is available for young people with anxiety disorders?


Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders can benefit from a variety of treatment and services. Following an accurate diagnosis, possible treatments include: Cognitive-behavioral treatment, in which young people learn to deal with fears by modifying the ways they think and behave; Relaxation techniques; Biofeedback (to control stress and muscle tension); Family therapy; Parent training; and Medication. While cognitive-behavioral approaches are effective in treating some anxiety disorders, medications work well with others. Some people with anxiety disorders benefit from a combination of these treatments. More research is needed to determine what treatments work best for the various types of anxiety disorders.

What can parents or caregivers?


If parents or other caregivers notice repeated symptoms of an anxiety disorder in their child or adolescent, they should:

Talk with the childs health care provider. He or she can help to determine whether the symptoms are caused by an anxiety disorder or by some other condition and can also provide a referral to a mental health professional. Look for a mental health professional trained in working with children and adolescents, who has used cognitive-behavioral or behavior therapy and has prescribed medications for this disorder, or has cooperated with a physician who does. Get accurate information from libraries, hotlines, or other sources. Ask questions about treatments and services. Talk with other families in their communities. Find family network organizations.

People who are not satisfied with the mental health care they receive should discuss their concerns with the provider, ask for information, and/or seek help from other sources.

What are anxiety disorders?


Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders typically experience intense fear, worry, or uneasiness that can last for long period of time and significantly affect their lives. If not treated early, anxiety disorders can lead to: Repeated school absences or an inability to finish school; Impaired relations with peers; Low self-esteem; Alcohol or other drug use; Problems adjusting to work situations and; Anxiety disorder in adulthood.

What are the types and signs of anxiety disorders?


Many different anxiety disorders affect children and adolescents. Several disorders and their signs are described below:

Generalized anxiety Disorder: Children with adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder engage in extreme, unrealistic worry about everyday life activities. They worry unduly about their academic performance, sporting activities, or even about being on time. Typically, these young people are very self-conscious, feel tense, and have a strong need for reassurance. They may complain about stomachaches or other discomfort that do not appear to have any physical cause. Separation Anxiety Disorder: Children with separation anxiety disorder often have difficulty leaving their parents to attend school or camp, stay at a friends house, or be alone. Often, they cling to parents and have trouble falling asleep. Separation anxiety disorder may be accompanied by depression, sadness, withdrawal, or fear that a family member might die. About one in every 25 children experiences separation anxiety disorder.

How common are anxiety disorders?


Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental, emotional, and behavioral problems to occur during childhood and adolescence. About 13 of every 100 children and adolescents age 9 to 17 experiences some kind of anxiety disorder; girls are affected more than boys. About half of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have a second anxiety disorder or other mental or behavioral disorder, such as depression. In addition, anxiety disorders may coexist with physical health conditions requiring treatment.

Who is at Risk?
Researchers have found that the basic temperament of young people may play a role in some childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders. For example, some children tend to be very shy and restrained in unfamiliar situations, a possible sign that they are at risk

for developing an anxiety disorder. Research in this area is very complex, because childrens fears often change as they age. Researchers also suggest watching for signs of anxiety disorders when children are between the ages of 6 and 8.During this time, children generally grow less afraid of the dark and imaginary creatures and become more anxious about school performance and social relationships. An excessive amount of anxiety in children this age may be a warning sign for the development of anxiety disorders later in life. Studies suggest that children or adolescents are more likely to have an anxiety disorder if they have a parent with anxiety disorders. However, the studies do not prove whether the disorders are caused by biology, environment, or both. More data are needed to clarify whether anxiety disorders can be inherited.

Adolescent crystallization
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is an orphan, as few or no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from relater articles; suggestions are available. (April 2009)

Adolescent crystallization, as defined by Laurence Steinberg, is a stage during adolescence in which individual, typically ages 14-18, first begin to formulate their ideas about an appropriate occupation. During the crystallization period, adolescents begin to form their own ideas about what is appropriate work for them and learn more about themselves occupationally; this will guide them to their future educational decisions. This is considered to be a part of the path to identity development. An adolescents occupational plan for the future involves examining their traits, abilities, interests and values. Occupational plans generally form in stages; the most important time for crystallization to occur is during late adolescence, during this time their plans are more realistically related to his or her capabilities. Social environment influences an adolescents choice in occupational plans; they are more likely to look to a role model for guidance. A study done by Arizona state university assessed eighth to twelfth graders on career interests and crystallization. The study included 1000 males and 1000 females. Both the males and the females showed stability in their choices and crystallization increased with age. The study showed the importance of the twelfth grade year because crystallization increased with age, therefore this year should be used for career and academic development. A study was done by the University of Minnesota to determine whether working during high school helped form adolescents choices in crystallization of occupation. The result of the study showed it was not employment opportunity or number of hours that were worked that affected the occupational value formation. Instead, it was the opportunities given to learn useful skills that created a positive influence. Therefore, the crystallization of career opportunities is more likely to occur in adolescents given the chance to explore and learn new skills in their job during high school. This helps the adolescent with their identity development.

^ Adolescence by Laurence Steinberg, 8th ed. McGraw-Hill. (2008) ISBN 0-07340548-5 ^ Tracey, T, Robbins, S, & Hofsess, C Stability and change in interests: A longitudinal study of adolescents from grades 8 through 12. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, Retrieved 413, 2009, from Orphanage Life The orphanage facilities are divided into baby homes and childrens homes. The baby homes host children from birth to approximately 3 years of age. A type of orphanage commonly translated as a boarding school. Internets are managed by the Education Ministry. These post-Soviet childrens homes are overcrowded, run-down, and under-funded. Even in the best equipped orphanages, children are undernourished and physically small for their age. On the positive side, there are many orphanages run by directors and care-givers who sincerely care for the children and strive to create a nurturing environment. The children in these orphanages are affectionate and spirited, and often very creative despite scant resources. Some are exceptionally talented in the areas of music, art and sports. Unfortunately, these state run institutions are not in a position to do anything to prepare these children for successful adulthood. Educational standards vary wildly due to limited budgets and other priorities. Children have few, if any, opportunities to develop the life or work skills necessary to integrate back into society. At a time when children should become increasingly independent, the stultifying nature of these schools inhibits personal growth and self-reliance. Two essential life skills that orphans typically lack are critical thinking and decision-making skills. The state makes all significant decisions for them and orphanage directors rarely solicit their opinion on matters concerning them. The only thing required of an orphan is obedience. As a result, these children-who are already plagued with self-worth issues and low self-esteem due to being abandoned by their own parents-have never, learned how to make positive decisions for themselves. They have little confidence in their abilities and are easily influenced by others.

Life on the Outside


Graduation day is possibly the worst day in the life of many orphans. For some it is the beginning of the end. The most tragic moment for such kinds is a graduation party at their boarding school. They soon realize that their teachers and caregivers are releasing them into an uncertain world, and the state is washing its hands of them. At this point the protective walls of the orphanage disappear, and the nightmare of life without a family turns into reality for these children. When these young adults leave the orphanage and re-enter the real world they are entirely alone. This is the most critical juncture in an orphans life the point at which immediate survival dictates their decisions and drives many towards a life of desperation and abuse. Both the child and society suffer as a result.

The challenges faced by most newly released orphans:


Food and shelter-If an orphan does not have a relative willing to offer temporary housing, survival becomes their first and only objective. These children often end up turning to crime and prostitution, just to eat and have a place to sleep. One third of all orphans end up in prison. From the start they are in a state institution, so they just go to another institution. Poor Primary School Education- The vast majority of orphans lack the proper education needed to be admitted to the secondary educational facilities, or they drop out quickly if they manage this feat due to the pressures of providing for themselves without proper support. No Support System Once a child is released from the orphanage, they are completely on their own. Basic survival drives their actions, leading many into abusive situations and destructive behaviors. The Stigma of Being an Orphan Stereotypes and stigma run very deep in Eastern Europe. Common thinking is that if the orphans parents did not want the child, something must be very wrong with the child. The orphan is not only ill-prepared to integrate back into society; he/she is also rejected by society.

These children- without the benefit of guidance in many areas- are asked to walk out of the orphanage doors, find a place to live, find something to eat, find a job, find a life. It is no surprise to discover that there is a very high suicide rate(over 10%) in newly released orphans and that they are the prime targets of the human slave traders and sex traffickers. More than half are recruited to a life of crime or prostitution, and 30% become addicted to alcohol and other drugs during their first year of living independently. Forced labor, sexual slavery or a life in the streets leading to crime, prostitution, alcohol and drug abuse is the destiny of most of these young people. Through providing orphans with the support and guidance they need upon leaving the orphanage, Haven Bridge aims to change the destiny of these young lives.

Research Methodology
INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the researcher has given the methodology adapted to carrying out the present study. It includes the statement of the study, significant of the study, aims and objectives of the study, universe and sampling, hypothesis, research design, source of the data collection, pilot study, operational definitions, statistical tests, limitation of the study, chapterization.

Statement of the study


The study tries to understand about social problems faced by the orphan adolescents. Namely, the socio-demographic condition of the respondents and health condition of the respondents so the researcher found it interesting to analyze the problems of anxiety among the orphan adolescents. The orphan adolescents might be feeling lonely and anxious and may develop psychological disturbance because of these feelings. Thus the reason to take up this study.

Title of the study


A study on ANXIETY AMONG ORPHAN ADOLESCENTS

Area of the study


The researcher conducted the study at Krishns orphanage home from manna chanallur, Trichy District carrying out of the study.

Objectives
To find out the socio demographic details of the respondents.

To study the level of anxiety among the respondents. To study the psychological problems of the respondents. To know about the neurological problem faced by the respondents.

Hypothesis
There is a significant difference between the sex of the respondents and their anxiety. There is a significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety. There is a significant relationship between number of friends of the respondents and their anxiety. There is a significant association between the kind of treatment the respondents get from their friends and their anxiety. There is a significant association between socialization of the respondents and their anxiety. There is a significant association between how they feel about being and their anxiety.

Research Design
The researcher attempted to describe the various problems of orphans adolescents and the anxiety. So descriptive research design was used for the study.

Universe
The study was conducted at Krishna orphanage home from Mannachanallur, Trichy District. So the universe of the study is definite.

Sampling and Sample size


The researcher collected information from so respondents through simple random and lottery method.

Pilot-study
In order to know the feasibility of conducting the study, the researcher approached the head of Krishna orphanage home at Mannachanallur from Trichy District. The Researcher visited the orphanage home and also discussed with the adolescence.

Tools of Data Collection


The Researcher used interview schedule and anxiety inventory [Tailors] for collecting Data. The researcher explained about the interview schedule to the respondents and collected Data.

Statistical Test
The Researcher used T-test Chi-square test, Karl person coefficient Correlation test for the interpretation of the Data.

Problem Encountered by Researcher


The Researcher had to encountered practical problems while collecting data which are as follows; Some Respondents expressed unwillingness to fill up the questionnaire. The Researcher had time constraint in getting back the Respondents.

Limitation of the Study


As a study was based on one particular orphanage home, the findings of this study need to be compare with other orphanages.

Chapterization
The study consist five chapter Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Introduction Review of the Literature Research Methodology Analysis Interpretation Major Findings and Suggestion

Findings
1. Research Hypothesis

There is a significant difference between the sex of the Respondents and their anxiety.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant difference between the sex of the Respondents and their anxiety.

Statistical Test
Student T-test was used for the above table.

Findings
The above table shows that there is no significant difference between the sex of the respondents and their anxiety. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis rejected and the Null hypothesis is accepted.

2. Research Hypothesis
There is a significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety.

Statistical Test
Chi-square test was used for the above table.

Findings
The above table shows that there is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted.

3. Research Hypothesis
There is a significant association between the kind of treatment the respondents get from their friends and their anxiety.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant association between the kind of treatment the respondents get from their friends and their anxiety.

Statistical Test
Chi-square test was used for the above table.

Findings

The above table shows that there is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted.

4. Research Hypothesis
There is a significant association between how they feel about being orphaned and their anxiety.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant association between how they feel about being orphaned and their anxiety.

Statistical Test
Chi-square test was used for the above table.

Findings
The above table shows that there is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted.

5. Research Hypothesis

There is a significant relationship between number of friends of the respondents and their anxiety. There is no significant relationship between number of friends of the respondents and their anxiety. Karl pearson coefficient correlation test was used for the above table. The above table shows that there is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their anxiety. Hence, the calculated value is greater than table value. So the research hypothesis rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted.

INTERPRETATION

Table (Q3)
Sex of the Respondents The above table reveals [62%] of the respondents are males, and remaining [38%] of the Respondents are females.

Table (Q4)
Educational Qualification of the Respondents The above table reveals 54% of the Respondents are in high school and remaining 46% of the Respondents are in higher secondary.

Table (Q5)
Numbers of Friends have the Respondents The above table reveals 6% of the Respondents have more than 2 to 3 number of friends, and the remaining 13% of the respondents have more than 3 to 4 number of friends, 32% of the Respondents and above number of the friends, remaining 2% of the Respondents says none.

Table (Q6)

The Socialization of the Respondents The above table reveals 54% of the Respondents were always socializing with the friends, 34% of the Respondents are some times socializing with the friends, 6% of the Respondents were never socializing with the friends, there were a few respondents [2%] who were unable to their frequency of socialization.

Table (Q7)
The kind of Treatment the Respondents get from their friends The above table reveals 66% of the respondents were always get nice treatment from their friends, 22% of the respondents sometimes get nice treatment from their friends, 6% of the respondents never get nice treatments couldnt whether they were treated nice or not.

Table (Q8)
Physical Disturbance of the Respondents The above table reveals 50% of the Respondents have disturbed sleep, 22% of the Respondents have palpitation, 24% of the Respondents have seating remaining very few of the Respondents [4%] have diarrhea.

Table (Q9)

How they feel about being orphaned The above table reveals very few of the Respondents [4%] Felt irritable at the thought of being orphaned, 30% of the Respondents get tensed thought of being orphaned, 28% of the Respondents Felt stressed at the thought of being orphaned, 38% of the Respondents felt lonely at the thought of being orphaned.

Table (Q10)
Like to Socialize The above table reveals 72% of the Respondents like to socialize always, 20% of the Respondents like to socialize some times, 6% of the Respondents are never like to socialize, remaining very few of the Respondents [2%] couldnt whether they are like to socialize or not.