Está en la página 1de 48

# NATIONAL CHENG KUNG UNIVERSITY

HOMEWORK 5

Instructor:

Ming Shaung Ju

Student:

Student ID:

P96007019

Department:

Class:

## November 25, 2011

Contents
Problem 1 ...................................................................................................................... 2
Problem 2 .................................................................................................................... 13
Problem 3 .................................................................................................................... 37

Page 1

Problem 1
Consider a process

() =

0 + 1
()
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()

Where,

() =

0
()
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()
0 = 0.1761
1 = 1.3205
2 = 0.4966

() = () ()

## Our job is to define three polynomials: R, S and T.

(a) Design a controller in which the stable zero of process model is canceled.
Step 1:

Page 2

## We can see that

() = +

1
1
0.08118
1
= 0.6927
0 + = 0 = =
0.1172
0
0
0
|| =

1
<1
0

= + = +

0 0

1
+ = +

= 0

deg() = 2, deg() = 1

## deg() deg() , deg() = deg() 1 deg() = 1

deg(0 ) = deg() deg(+ ) 1 = 2 1 1 = 0

Choose 0 () = 1

Step 2:

() = + () = +

1
= + 0.6927
0

## The Diophantine equation:

+ = + + + = 0 + + = 0

Page 3

+ 0 =

(2 + 1 + 2 ) + 0 (0 + 1 ) = ( 2 + 1 + 2 )
2 + (1 + 0 0 ) + 2 + 0 1 = 2 + 1 + 2

1 1
= 1.0691
0

2 2
1 =
= 1.4556
0
0 =

Step 3:

=
= 0
0 +

= 0 = 0

The controller:

0
0

0
0

= 0
=1

0
= 1.5026
0

() = () ()

## is thus characterized by the polynomials:

() = + 0.6927

() = 1.0691 1.4556
() = 1.5026

() = () ()

Page 4

## () = 0.6927( 1) + 1.5026 () 1.0691() + 1.4556( 1)

(b) Design a controller in which no zero of process model is canceled. Choose a proper
delay d0.
Step 1:
No zero of process model is canceled = + = 1 deg(+ ) = 0
= = 0 + 1

=
= (deg( ) = deg() = 1)
=

() =

0 + 1
()
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()

## Parameter is chosen such that ( = 1) = 1 =

1+1 +2

deg() = 2, deg() = 1

0 +1

= 0.8877

## deg() deg() , deg() = deg() 1 deg() = 1

deg(0 ) = deg() deg(+ ) 1 = 2 0 1 = 1

Page 5

## Poles of the closed-loop system:

() = 0 2 + 1 + 2 = 0

1 = 0.6603 + 0.2463
2 = 0.6603 0.2463

|1 | = |2 | = 0.7047
0.7047 |0 | < 1

## Again, 0 () = + 0 (0.7047 |0 | < 1)

= + = 1 = = + 1 ( )
= 0 + 1

Step 2:
The Diophantine equation:

+ = + + + = 0 + + = 0

( 2 + 1 + 2 )( + 1 ) + (0 + 1 )(0 + 1 ) = ( + 0 )(2 + 1 + 2 )
3 + (1 + 1 + 0 0 ) 2 + (1 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 ) + (2 1 + 1 1 )
= 3 + (0 + 1 ) 2 + (2 + 1 0 ) + 2 0

## By comparing coefficients of this equation, we obtain

1 + 1 + 0 0 = 0 + 1
1 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 = 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0

1 + 0 0 = 0 1 + 1
1 1 + 1 0 + 0 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0

Page 6

1 = 0.88020 + 0.0830
= 1.02220 + 0.3611
0
1 = 1.11690 0.6820
0.7047 |0 | < 1

Step 3:

The controller:

() = () ()

## is thus characterized by the polynomials:

() = + 1

() = 0 + 1

Where

() = ( + 0 ) = + 0
1 = 0.88020 + 0.0830
= 1.0222 + 0.3611
0
0
1 = 1.11690 0.6820

0.7047 |0 | < 1

= 0.8877

## Plug these polynomials into the controller:

() = () ()

( + 1 )() = ( + 0 ) () (0 + 1 )()

(1 + 1 1 )() = ( + 0 1 ) () (0 + 1 1 )()

() + 1 ( 1) = () + 0 ( 1) 0 () 1 ( 1)

Page 7

() = 1 ( 1) + () + 0 ( 1) 0 () 1 ( 1)

(c) Simulate above designs when command is a square wave of amplitude 1 and period
of 25 sampling periods. Test the effect of step disturbance on the tracking
performance. You may try step with different magnitude. (for simulating let a0 = 0.8)
1
Out1
Disturbance

Clock

MATLAB
Function

t0.z

b0.z+b1

z+r1

z2 +a1.z+a2

Command

T/R

B/A

s0.z+s1
z+r1
S/R

## Figure 2. Command & output, with stable zero cancellation

Page 8

Figure 3. Command & output, with stable zero cancellation, and step disturbance

## Figure 4. Command & output, with no zero cancellation

Page 9

Figure 5. Command & output, with no zero cancellation, and step disturbance
(d) Compare the tracking performance, ringing of input and disturbance rejection of the
two designs. Discuss on the effect of time delay on the performance of the adaptive
controller. Plot y(t), uc(t) vs. t and u(t), e(t) vs. t.
Plot y(t), uc(t): we can see through Fig. 2 to Fig. 5. Two controllers have very same
performance (tracking and disturbance).
Discuss on the effect of time delay on the performance of the adaptive controller: we
should choose the time delay as small as possible. When the time delay is large that
means the output signal lags phase to the command signal. Hence, the performance of
the system is not good.
From Fig. 6 and Fig.8, the control input signal with stable zero cancellation design has a
severe oscillation (ringing) compare to that of no zero cancellation design

Page 10

## Figure 6. Control input signal with stable zero cancellation design

Figure 7. Error between uc(t) and y(t), with stable zero cancellation design

Page 11

## Figure 8. Control input signal with no zero cancellation design

Figure 9. Error between uc(t) and y(t), with no zero cancellation design

Page 12

Problem 2
Consider a process

(a) Design an indirect STR in which the stable zero of process model is canceled.
Transfer function of the process:
() =

()
0 + 1
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()

## Where, parameters {a1, a2, b0, b1} are unknown constants.

Transfer function of the desired closed-loop system:

Where,

() =

0
()
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()
0 = 0.1761
1 = 1.3205
2 = 0.4966

## A general linear controller:

() = () ()

Page 13

Step 1: Estimate the coefficients of the polynomials A and B i.e. {a1, a2, b0, b1}, by
using the RLS:
() = 1 ( 1) 2 ( 2) + 0 ( 1) + 1 ( 2) = ( 1)
( 1) = [( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( 2)]
= [1

1 ]

() = ( 1) + ()()

() = () ( 1)( 1)

## () = ( 1)( 1) + ( 1)( 1)( 1)

Step 2:

() = ( () ( 1))( 1)/

With the stable zero of process model is canceled (this step for only define the degree of
the polynomials)
() = +

1
1
1
0 + = 0 =
0
0
0

|| =

1
< 1 |1 | < |0 |
0

= + = +

0 0

1
+ = +

= 0

Page 14

deg() = 2, deg() = 1

## deg() deg() , deg() = deg() 1 deg() = 1

deg(0 ) = deg() deg(+ ) 1 = 2 1 1 = 0

Choose 0 () = 1

() = + () = +

## The Diophantine equation:

1
= + 1
0

+ = + + + = 0 + + = 0
+ 0 =

(2 + 1 + 2 ) + 0 (0 + 1 ) = ( 2 + 1 + 2 )
2 + (1 + 0 0 ) + 2 + 0 1 = 2 + 1 + 2

1 1
0 =
0

2 2
1 =
0

=
= 0
+

Page 15

= 0 = 0

0
0

0
0

= 0
=1

0
= 0
0

() = + () = +

## Step 3: Calculate the control law

1
= + 1
0

() = () ()

() + 1 ( 1) = 0 () 0 () 1 ( 1)

() = 1 ( 1) + 0 () 0 () 1 ( 1)

## Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 at each sampling period.

(b) Design an indirect STR in which no zero of process model is canceled. Choose a
proper delay d0.
Step 1: Estimate the coefficients of the polynomials A and B i.e. {a1, a2, b0, b1}, by
using the RLS:
() = 1 ( 1) 2 ( 2) + 0 ( 1) + 1 ( 2) = ( 1)
( 1) = [( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( 2)]
= [1

1 ]

() = ( 1) + ()()

() = () ( 1)( 1)

Page 16

## () = ( 1)( 1) + ( 1)( 1)( 1)

Step 2:

() = ( () ( 1))( 1)/

## No zero of process model is canceled = + = 1 deg(+ ) = 0

= = 0 + 1

=
= (deg( ) = deg() = 1)
=

() =

0 + 1
()
=
2 + 1 + 2 ()

## Parameter is chosen such that ( = 1) = 1 =

1+1 +2

deg() = 2, deg() = 1

0 +1

## deg() deg() , deg() = deg() 1 deg() = 1

deg(0 ) = deg() deg(+ ) 1 = 2 0 1 = 1

## Choose 0 () = + 0 (|0 | < 1)

Poles of the closed-loop system:

() = 0 2 + 1 + 2 = 0

1 = 0.6603 + 0.2463
2 = 0.6603 0.2463

|1 | = |2 | = 0.7047

Page 17

0.7047 |0 | < 1

## Again, 0 () = + 0 (0.7047 |0 | < 1)

= + = 1 = = + 1 ( )
= 0 + 1

## The Diophantine equation:

+ = + + + = 0 + + = 0

( 2 + 1 + 2 )( + 1 ) + (0 + 1 )(0 + 1 ) = ( + 0 )(2 + 1 + 2 )
3 + (1 + 1 + 0 0 ) 2 + (1 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 ) + (2 1 + 1 1 )
= 3 + (0 + 1 ) 2 + (2 + 1 0 ) + 2 0

## By comparing coefficients of this equation, we obtain

1 + 1 + 0 0 = 0 + 1
1 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 = 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0

1 + 0 0 = 0 1 + 1
1 1 + 1 0 + 0 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0
1
0

1
0.7047 |0 | < 1

Step 3:

() = 0 = ( + 0 ) (0.7047 |0 | < 1)

The controller:
() = () ()

Page 18

## is thus characterized by the polynomials:

() = + 1

() = 0 + 1

() = ( + 0 ) = + 0

## Plug these polynomials into the controller:

() = () ()

( + 1 )() = ( + 0 ) () (0 + 1 )()

(1 + 1 1 )() = ( + 0 1 ) () (0 + 1 1 )()

() + 1 ( 1) = () + 0 ( 1) 0 () 1 ( 1)

() = 1 ( 1) + () + 0 ( 1) 0 () 1 ( 1)

## Repeat step 1, 2 and 3 at each sampling period.

(c) Simulate above designs using following process parameters [a1, a2, b0, b1] = [1.3735, 0.7006, 0.1231, 0.07712] and initial guess of above parameter vector [0, 0,
0.01, 0.2]. The command is a square wave of amplitude 1 and period of 25 sampling
periods. You may test the effect of disturbance on the tracking performance. Either
stochastic or deterministic disturbance can be used.
c.1. Stable zero cancellation:
From the true model, we can find the true R, S and T.
1 1
= 0.4305
0

2 2
1 =
= 1.6572
0
0 =

Page 19

= 0
=1

0
= 0 = 1.4305
0

() = + () = +

1
= + 1 = + 0.6265
0

() = 1 ( 1) + 0 () 0 () 1 ( 1)

## A function is written in Matlab can solve this problem:

function [estmtd_theta,yhat,ue,e,re1,se0,se1,te0] =

## am1 = -1.3205; am2 = 0.4966;

bm0 = 0.1761;
numOfCoeffs = 4;

% number of coefficents

alpha = 100;
t = length(y);

j=1;
phi_1(:,j)=[0;u(1:t-1,j)];
phi_2(:,j)=[0;0;u(1:t-2,j)];
phi_3(:,j)=[0;-y(1:t-1,j)];
phi_4(:,j)=[0;0;-y(1:t-2,j)];
phi = [phi_1(:,j) phi_2(:,j) phi_3(:,j) phi_4(:,j)];

[M,N] = size(phi);
P = alpha*eye(N);

## estmtd_theta(1,:) = [0.01 0.2 0 0]; % inital condition for [b0 b1 a1

a2]
yhat = zeros(1,t);

% estimated value

re1 = zeros(1,N);

Page 20

se0 = zeros(1,N);
se1 = zeros(1,N);
te0 = zeros(1,N);
% initial conditions for three polynomials
re1(1) = estmtd_theta(1,2)/estmtd_theta(1,1);
se0(1) = (am1 - estmtd_theta(1,3))/estmtd_theta(1,1);
se1(1) = (am2 - estmtd_theta(1,4))/estmtd_theta(1,1);
te0(1) = bm0/estmtd_theta(1,1);
e = zeros(1,t);
ue(1) = 0;

for i = 2:M-numOfCoeffs+1;
z = P*phi(i,:)';
K = z/(lambda + phi(i,:)*z);
yhat(i) = phi(i,:)*estmtd_theta(i-1,:).';
e(i) = y(i) - phi(i,:)*estmtd_theta(i-1,:).';
estmtd_theta(i,:) = estmtd_theta(i - 1,:) + e(i)*K.';
P = (P - K*z.')/lambda;
re1(i) = estmtd_theta(i,2)/estmtd_theta(i,1);
se0(i) = (am1 - estmtd_theta(i,3))/estmtd_theta(i,1);
se1(i) = (am2 - estmtd_theta(i,4))/estmtd_theta(i,1);
te0(i) = bm0/estmtd_theta(i,1);
ue(i) = - re1(i)*ue(i-1) + te0(i)*uc(i) - se0(i)*yhat(i) se1(i)*yhat(i-1);
end
end

Page 21

Page 22

Page 23

## c.2. No zero cancellation:

0 () = + 0 (0.7047 |0 | < 1)

1 + 1 + 0 0 = 0 + 1
1 1 + 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 = 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0

1 + 0 0 = 0 1 + 1
1 1 + 1 0 + 0 1 = 2 + 2 + 1 0
2 1 + 1 1 = 2 0

Controller:

## () = 0 = ( + 0 ) ( = 0.8795, 0.7047 |0 | < 1)

() = () ()

() = 1 ( 1) + () + 0 ( 1) 0 () 1 ( 1)

## A function in Matlab can solve this problem:

function [estmtd_theta,yhat,ue,e,re1,se0,se1,te0] =

numOfCoeffs = 4;

% number of coefficents

beta = 0.8795;
a0 = 0.8;
am1 = -1.3205; am2 = 0.4966;

t = length(y);
j=1;
phi_1(:,j)=[0;u(1:t-1,j)];
phi_2(:,j)=[0;0;u(1:t-2,j)];
phi_3(:,j)=[0;-y(1:t-1,j)];
phi_4(:,j)=[0;0;-y(1:t-2,j)];

Page 24

## phi = [phi_1(:,j) phi_2(:,j) phi_3(:,j) phi_4(:,j)];

[M,N] = size(phi);
alpha = 100;
P = alpha*eye(N);

## estmtd_theta(1,:) = [0.01 0.2 0 0]; % inital condition for [b0 b1 a1

a2]
yhat = zeros(1,t);

% estimated value

re1 = zeros(1,N);
se0 = zeros(1,N);
se1 = zeros(1,N);
te0 = zeros(1,N);
te1 = zeros(1,N);
% initial conditions for three polynomials
re1(1) = estmtd_theta(1,2)/estmtd_theta(1,1) - ((estmtd_theta(1,2) a0*estmtd_theta(1,1))*(am2*estmtd_theta(1,1)^2 am1*estmtd_theta(1,1)*estmtd_theta(1,2) + estmtd_theta(1,2)^2))/...
(estmtd_theta(1,1)*(estmtd_theta(1,4)*estmtd_theta(1,1)^2 estmtd_theta(1,3)*estmtd_theta(1,1)*estmtd_theta(1,2) +
estmtd_theta(1,2)^2));
se0(1) = (estmtd_theta(1,1)*(a0*estmtd_theta(1,4) estmtd_theta(1,3)*estmtd_theta(1,4) - a0*am2 + estmtd_theta(1,4)*am1)
- estmtd_theta(1,2)*...
(estmtd_theta(1,4) - am2 + a0*estmtd_theta(1,3) - a0*am1 +
estmtd_theta(1,3)*am1 estmtd_theta(1,3)^2))/(estmtd_theta(1,4)*estmtd_theta(1,1)^2 estmtd_theta(1,3)*estmtd_theta(1,1)*estmtd_theta(1,2) +
estmtd_theta(1,2)^2);
se1(1) = (estmtd_theta(1,1)*(estmtd_theta(1,4)*am2 estmtd_theta(1,4)^2 - a0*estmtd_theta(1,3)*am2 +
a0*estmtd_theta(1,4)*am1)...
- estmtd_theta(1,2)*(a0*estmtd_theta(1,4) estmtd_theta(1,3)*estmtd_theta(1,4) - a0*am2 +

Page 25

estmtd_theta(1,4)*am1))/(estmtd_theta(1,4)*estmtd_theta(1,1)^2 estmtd_theta(1,3)*estmtd_theta(1,1)*estmtd_theta(1,2) +
estmtd_theta(1,2)^2);

te0(1) = beta;
te1(1) = beta*a0;
e = zeros(1,t);
ue(1) = 0;

for i = 2:M-numOfCoeffs+1;
z = P*phi(i,:)';
K = z/(lambda + phi(i,:)*z);
yhat(i) = phi(i,:)*estmtd_theta(i-1,:).';
e(i) = y(i) - phi(i,:)*estmtd_theta(i-1,:).';
estmtd_theta(i,:) = estmtd_theta(i - 1,:) + e(i)*K.';
P = (P - K*z.')/lambda;

## re1(i) = estmtd_theta(i,2)/estmtd_theta(i,1) ((estmtd_theta(i,2) - a0*estmtd_theta(i,1))*(am2*estmtd_theta(i,1)^2

- am1*estmtd_theta(i,1)*estmtd_theta(i,2) + estmtd_theta(i,2)^2))/...
(estmtd_theta(i,1)*(estmtd_theta(i,4)*estmtd_theta(i,1)^2 estmtd_theta(i,3)*estmtd_theta(i,1)*estmtd_theta(i,2) +
estmtd_theta(i,2)^2));
se0(i) = (estmtd_theta(i,1)*(a0*estmtd_theta(i,4) estmtd_theta(i,3)*estmtd_theta(i,4) - a0*am2 + estmtd_theta(i,4)*am1)
- estmtd_theta(i,2)*...
(estmtd_theta(i,4) - am2 + a0*estmtd_theta(i,3) - a0*am1 +
estmtd_theta(i,3)*am1 estmtd_theta(i,3)^2))/(estmtd_theta(i,4)*estmtd_theta(i,1)^2 estmtd_theta(i,3)*estmtd_theta(i,1)*estmtd_theta(i,2) +
estmtd_theta(i,2)^2);

Page 26

## se1(i) = (estmtd_theta(i,1)*(estmtd_theta(i,4)*am2 estmtd_theta(i,4)^2 - a0*estmtd_theta(i,3)*am2 +

a0*estmtd_theta(i,4)*am1)...
- estmtd_theta(i,2)*(a0*estmtd_theta(i,4) estmtd_theta(i,3)*estmtd_theta(i,4) - a0*am2 +
estmtd_theta(i,4)*am1))/(estmtd_theta(i,4)*estmtd_theta(i,1)^2 estmtd_theta(i,3)*estmtd_theta(i,1)*estmtd_theta(i,2) +
estmtd_theta(i,2)^2);

te0(i) = beta;
te1(i) = beta*a0;
ue(i) = - re1(i)*ue(i-1) + te0(i)*uc(i)+ te1(i)*uc(t-1) se0(i)*yhat(i) - se1(i)*yhat(i-1);
end
end

Page 27

## Figure 16. Output with step disturbance

Page 28

Figure 17. Error between process output and estimated output with step disturbance
(d) Plot y and uc vs. t, u vs. t and estimated process parameters vs. t. Compare the
tracking performance, ringing of input and disturbance rejection of the two designs.
Discuss on the effect of time delay on the performance of the adaptive controller.
d.1. Stable zero cancellation:

Page 29

Page 30

Page 31

## Figure 21. uc and y_estimated vs time with step disturbance

Figure 22. u (control input is computed from controller law) vs time with step
disturbance

Page 32

## Figure 23. Estimated process parameters

d.2. No zero cancellation:

Page 33

Page 34

## Figure 27. uc and y_estimated vs time with step disturbance

Figure 28. u (control input is computed from controller law) vs time with step
disturbance

Page 35

## Figure 29. Estimated process parameters with step disturbance

From Fig. 19 and Fig.25, the control input signal with stable zero cancellation design
has a severe oscillation (ringing) compare to that of no zero cancellation design
Two controllers have very same performance (tracking and disturbance).
Discuss on the effect of time delay on the performance of the adaptive controller: we
should choose the time delay as small as possible. When the time delay is large that
means the output signal lags phase to the command signal. Hence, the performance of
the system is not good.

Page 36

Problem 3

Solution:
I will take only one case in P2: the stable zero of the process model is canceled
Matlab code:
clear all; close all; clc;

## % define command signal

Ts = 0.5;
Tuc = 25*Ts;
fuc = 1/Tuc;
t = 0:Ts:100;
uc = square(2*pi*fuc*t);

w = 1; % frequency
% variations
delta_a1 = 0.13735;
delta_a2 = 0.07006;
delta_b0 = 0.01231;
delta_b1 = 0.007712;

Page 37

## % define a1, a2, b0, b1

a1 = -1.3735 + delta_a1*sin(w*t);
a2 = 0.7006 + delta_a2*sin(w*t);
b0 = 0.1231 + delta_b0*sin(w*t);
b1 = 0.07712 + delta_b1*sin(w*t);

## % parameters of the desired closed-loop system

am1 = -1.3205; am2 = 0.4966;
bm0 = 0.1761;

% Rq = q + r1
r1 = b1./b0;
% S(q) = s0*q + s1
s0 = (am1 - a1)./b0;
s1 = (am2 - a2)./b0;
% T(q) = t0*q
t0 = bm0./b0;

## % define input u(t) and process output y(t)

u(1) = 0; u(2) = 0;
y(1) = 0; y(2) = 0;
n = length(t);
for i = 3:n
y(i) = -a1(i)*y(i-1) - a2(i)*y(i-2) + b0(i)*u(i-1) + b1(i)*u(i2);
u(i) = -r1(i)*u(i-1) + t0(i)*uc(i) - s0(i)*y(i) - s1(i)*y(i-1);
end;

% call function
lambda = 1;
[estmtd_theta,yhat,ue,e,re1,se0,se1,te0]...

Page 38

figure(1);
plot(t(1:198),y(1:198),t(1:198),yhat(1:198));
xlabel('Time, sec');
ylabel('Output');
legend('Process output', 'Estimated output');
figure(2);
plot(e); grid on;
xlabel('Time, sec');
ylabel('Error');
figure(3);
plot(t(1:198),uc(1:198),'--',t(1:198),yhat(1:198));
xlabel('Time, sec');
ylabel('uc(t) & y-estimated(t)');
legend('uc(t)', 'y-estimated(t)');
figure(4);
plot(ue);
xlabel('Time, sec');
ylabel('Control input signal');
figure(5);
plot(t(1:198),estmtd_theta(:,1),t(1:198),b0(1:198),'--',...
t(1:198),estmtd_theta(:,2),t(1:198),b1(1:198),'--',...
t(1:198),estmtd_theta(:,3),t(1:198),a1(1:198),'--',...
t(1:198),estmtd_theta(:,4),t(1:198),a2(1:198),'--');
grid on;
xlabel('Time, sec');
ylabel('Process parameters');
legend('b0-estimated','b0','b1-estimated','b1','a1estimated','a1',...
'a2-estimated','a2');

Page 39

## Figure 30. Output (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1 rad/sec)

Figure 31. Error between process and estimated output (delta = 10% of true value, w =

Page 40

Figure 32. Command signal and estimated output (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1

Figure 33. Control input signal (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1 rad/sec)

Page 41

Figure 34. True and estimated parameters (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1 rad/sec)

## Figure 35. Output (delta = 15% of true value, w = 2 rad/sec)

Page 42

Figure 36. Error between process and estimated output (delta = 15% of true value, w =

Figure 37. Command signal and estimated output (delta = 15% of true value, w = 2

Page 43

Figure 38. Control input signal (delta = 15% of true value, w = 2 rad/sec)

Figure 39. True and estimated parameters (delta = 15% of true value, w = 2 rad/sec)

Page 44

Figure 40. Output (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1 rad/sec, lambda = 0.98)

Figure 41. Error between process and estimated output (delta = 10% of true value, w =

Page 45

Figure 42. Command signal and estimated output (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1

Figure 43. Control input signal (delta = 10% of true value, w = 1 rad/sec, lambda = 1)