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CONTENIDO
IDENTIFICACION.................................................................................................................................2
PLANIFICACIONDELOSENCUENTROS.........................................................................................3
ORIENTACIONESMETODOLGICAS ..............................................................................................4
1.INTRODUCCIN .........................................................................................................................4
1.1OBJETIVOSGENERALES...................................................................................................5
1.2OBJETIVOSESPECFICOS................................................................................................5
2. DESARROLLO........................................................................................................................5
2.1NCLEOSTEMTICOS......................................................................................................5
PrimerEncuentro ....................................................................................................................5
SegundoEncuentro ................................................................................................................7
TercerEncuentro ....................................................................................................................8
CuartoEncuentro ....................................................................................................................9
MTODODE DEESTUDIO................................................................................................11
SUGERENCIASPARAELESTUDIOAUTODIDCTICO:.................................................11
2.2.Bibliografacomentada ......................................................................................................13
2.3.Materialexplicativo.............................................................................................................13
2.4.Ejemplificacin....................................................................................................................13
2.5.Mtodosautilizar ..............................................................................................................14
3.Conclusiones..............................................................................................................................14
TECHNICALENGLISHTEXTBOOK .................................................................................................15
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................16
INTRODUCEYOURSELF: ............................................................................................................16
LESSONONE.USINGVERBTOBE...........................................................................................18
READINGPRACTICE1............................................................................................................20
GRAMMARSECTION.EXPLANATIONOFVERBTOBE.....................................................21
LESSONTWO.VERBTOBEPASTTENSE...............................................................................30
GRAMMARSECTION.PASTTENSEVERBTOBE ..............................................................32
LESSONTHREE.PRESENTEANDPASTPROGRESSIVETENSE ........................................36
GRAMMARSECTION.PRESENTCONTINUOUSTENSE....................................................38
LESSONFOUR.USINGSIMPLEPRESENT ..............................................................................43
READINGPRACTICE2............................................................................................................45
GRAMMARSECTION.SIMPLEPRESENT ............................................................................50
LESSONFIVE.USINGSIMPLEPAST.........................................................................................58
READINGPRACTICE3............................................................................................................59
GRAMMARSECTION.SIMPLEPAST ....................................................................................62
LESSONSIX.USINGCOMPARATIVEANDSUPERLATIVEFORMS ......................................69
READINGPRACTICE4............................................................................................................70
GRAMMARSECTION.COMPARATIVEANDSUPERLATIVEADJECTIVESAND
ADVERBS..................................................................................................................................71

CienciasyTecnologadelaInformacinInglesTcnico

LESSONSEVEN.USINGPRESENT PERFECT........................................................................77
GRAMMARSECTION. PresentPerfect..................................................................................78
LESSONEIGHT.USINGFUTURETENSE .................................................................................81
READINGPRACTICE5 ..........................................................................................................83
GRAMMARSECTION.SIMPLEFUTURE ............................................................................84
LESSONNINE.USINGMODALAUXILIARIES ...........................................................................88
READINGPRACTICE6 ..........................................................................................................89
LESSONTEN.USINGPASSIVEVOICE .....................................................................................94
GRAMMARSECTION.THEPASSIVEVOICE........................................................................96
I.FORMINGTHEPASSIVE(Formandolavozpasiva) ......................................................96
II.FORMOFTHEPASSIVE:BE+PASTPARTICIPLE......................................................96
ANEXO#1...............................................................................................................................101
ANEXO#2.NUMBERS..........................................................................................................105
ANEXO#3.WAYSOFSAYINGTHETIME.........................................................................106
ANEXO#4.DAYSOFTHEWEEK,MONTHSOFTHEYEARANDTHESEASONSOF
THEYEARS.............................................................................................................................107
ANEXO#5.PARTSOFTHEHUMANBODY .......................................................................108
ANEXO#6.CLOTHES...........................................................................................................109

IDENTIFICACION
ModalidaddeEstudios

CursosdeEncuentros

GestinAcadmica
Mdulo
Facultad

CienciasyTecnologasdelaInformacin

Docente

Lic.BeatrizPol

DadeEncuentro(Presencial)

Sbados

Hora
Aula
DadeTutora(Distancia)
Hora

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PLANIFICACIONDELOSENCUENTROS
FECHASDEENCUENTROS
PRIMER
ENCUENTRO
UNIDADES
UnidadI
TEMAS
DE
UnidadII
AVANCE
UnidadIII

SEGUNDO
ENCUENTRO

TERCER
ENCUENTRO

CUARTO
ENCUENTRO

UnidadIV

UnidadVI

UnidadIX

UnidadV

UnidadVII

UnidadX

UnidadVIII
Evaluacin

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Evaluacin

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ORIENTACIONESMETODOLGICAS
1. INTRODUCCIN
Enlaeradelatecnologaydelaeconomaglobalizadaseprecisannuevascompetenciaspara
hacer frente como profesional a las demandas de ese mercado global, es por esto que cobra
cadadamayorimportanciaelconocimientodelenguasextranjeras,especialmenteelInglsque
se ha convertido en la lengua mundial. Por otra parte el rpido avance en el campo de las
ciencias, sobretodo en el campo de la tecnologa y la informacin, hace que nos veamos
inundados de informacin que porsupuesto saldr a la luz en el idioma Ingls y tardar algn
tiempo en ser traducido a las dems lenguas, esto nos demuestra que saber el Ingls nos
permite estar actualizados en nuestros campos profesionales. Para cuando un texto ha sido
terminado de traducir al espaol, pueden haber surgido otras teoras vigentes y quedar esta
informacin desfasada. Es un hecho innegable que el Ingls es la lengua de la comunicacin
internacionalyquese haconvertidoen elidioma dela tecnologaylas cienciaseconmicas y
polticas.
Por todo lo arriba mencionado, es responsabilidad de las universidades formar a sus futuros
profesionalesconlacompetenciadelusodeunalenguaextranjera,quecomohemosvisto,por
lasrazonesexpuestas arriba, estaeselIngls.
EnloscursosdeInglsTcnicodelaUniversidadPrivadaDomingoSaviosedandoscursosde
InglsTcnico.ElenfoquedeenseanzadelInglseselInglsconPropsitosEspecficosESP
(English for Specific Purposes) que se adaptaalascircunstancias deenseanzaporlacarga
horaria, las condiciones fsicas y el tipo de estudiantes, la necesidad principal de estos
estudiantes es poder estar actualizados en sus campos a travs del Internet o de libros y
revistasenInglsyparaelloprecisanentenderytraducirloqueleen.Porlotanto,elpropsitoes
interpretarytraducirtextosensucampoprofesionalyengeneral.
En la materia de Ingls Tcnico I los estudiantes conocern estructuras gramaticales
fundamentalesytraducirntextossimplesen ingls, aprendernlastcnicasyestrategiasparala
interpretacin y traduccin de textos, a la vez que enriquecern su vocabulario. Asimismo,

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valorarn la importancia de saber leer en ingls como una herramienta til para su futuro
profesional.
1.1OBJETIVOSGENERALES
Alfinalizarelcursoelestudiantesercapazde:
1. Leereinterpretar textos,manuales, artculosen inglsutilizandotcnicas y estrategias
paralalecturacomprensivayparalainterpretacindetextos.
Este objetivo es la competencia principal o macro competencia que se desea lograr al
finalizarelcurso.
2. Valorar la importancia del uso del ingls para su desarrollo profesional, para sus
estudiosyparalacomunicacinengeneral.
EstesegundoobjetivolepermitiralestudiantecomprenderlaimportanciadelInglsennuestros
tiemposylo tilqueleserensucampoprofesional.
1.2 OBJETIVOSESPECFICOS
1. Reconocer las estructuras gramaticales bsicas del ingls para redactar y leer textos
simples.
2. Usartcnicasdelecturaeinterpretacindetextosparatraducirmaterialensucampode
estudio.
3. Aplicar tcnicas de traduccin para traducir manuales, revistas y textos bajados de
Internetparaestaractualizadoensucampodeestudio.
4. Utilizartcnicasparaelaprendizajedevocabularioymemorizacindeverbosirregulares.
5. Utilizar correctamente el diccionario y el programa Translator cuando traduce en la
computadora.
2.

DESARROLLO

2.1 NCLEOSTEMTICOS
PrimerEncuentro

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Unidad1 VerboTOBEIntroducingyourself(PresentacinPersonal)
1.1 PresentesimpledelverboToBe(seroestar)
1.1.1. Oracionesafirmativas
1.1.2. Oracionesnegativas
1.1.3. Oracionesinterrogativas
1.1.4. PreguntasconpalabrasInterrogativas.
1.1.5. Yes/Noquestions(Preguntascerradasdeconfirmacin)
1.1.6. PronombresyPartesdelaOracin
1.1.7. Preposicionesdetiempoydelugar
1.1.8. Readingandtranslation: EnglishforInternationalCommunication
1.1.9Readingtechniquesandstrategies:anticipation,skimmingandscanning
Unidad2 VerboTOBE(PastTense)
2.1 PasadosimpledelverboToBe(seroestar)
2.1.1 Oracionesafirmativas
2.1.2. Oraciones negativas
2.1.3 OracionesInterrogativas
2.1.4 PreguntasconpalabrasInterrogativas
2.1.5 ReadingandTranslation: ASuccessfulBusinessMan
2.1.6

Readingtechniquesandstrategies:anticipation,skimmingandscanning

Unidad3 PresenteyPasadoProgresivo
3.1PresenteyPasadoProgresivo
3.1.1Formacindelpresenteprogresivo
3.1.2Ortografaparalaterminacin ING
3.1.3Formaafirmativa,negativaeinterrogativadelpresenteprogresivo
3.1.4PasadoprogresivoverboToBe:WASyWERE+verbo en ING
3.1.5ReadingandTranslation: OnCEOsandCompanies
3.1.6.Readingtechniquesandstrategies:anticipation,skimmingandscanning
Sntesis
En este primer encuentro, el estudiante aprender

estructuras bsicas para su

presentacinpersonalyestructurasdepreguntaspararecabarinformacinpersonaldeotras
personas.

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Durantelasegundapartedelencuentroelestudianteaprenderotrasestructurasbsicasde
la gramtica inglesa, como el uso del verbo to be en presente y pasado y el presente
progresivoyelpasadoprogresivo.
Conjuntamenteconelaprendizajedelagramtica, elestudianteaprenderelusodetcnicas
de lectura e interpretacin de textos, tales como la anticipacin partiendo del ttulo y la
informacin grfica, el skimming o revisin general del material de lectura ,a travs de la
bsqueda decognados (palabras similaresal espaol), apareamientodepalabrasconsu
significadoy latcnicade scanning o bsqueda de informacin especfica para contestar
preguntasdecomprensinyluegolatraduccindetextossimples.
SegundoEncuentro
Unidad4 PresenteSimple
4.1UsoyConjugacindelpresentesimple
4.1.1.OracionesAfirmativas
4.1.2Ortografaparalaconjugacindetercerapersonasingular
4.1.3Oracionesnegativasconelauxiliar DONT y DOESNT
4.1.4OracionesInterrogativasiniciandoconelauxiliar DO/DOES
4.1.5Usodelosadverbiosdefrecuencia
4.1.6LecturayTraduccindeltexto.SusansDailyHabits
4.1.7Usodetcnicas yestrategiasdetraduccin:BasicFactorsinBusiness
Unidad5 PasadoSimple
5.1 ElPasadoSimple
5.1.1. Verbosregularesyortografaparalaterminacin ed.
5.1.2. Verbosirregulares
5.1.3. Oracionesnegativasusandoelauxiliar DIDNT
5.1.4. OracionesInterrogativasiniciandolapreguntaconDID.
5.1.5. Preguntasconpalabrasinterrogativas
5.1.6. Expresionesdetiempopasado
5.1.7.

LecturayTraduccindeltexto.BiografadelaPrincesaDianaThePrincess
ofHearts

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5.1.8.

Readingstrategiesandtechniquestoreadtexts:DidyouKnowaboutthese
newtechnologies?

Sntesis. Durante este Segundo encuentro, el estudiante avanzar el presente simple


para expresarhbitos, rutinas diariasyhechosen general del presente, tanto enforma
afirmativa, negativacomointerrogativa y tambinaplicartcnicasy estrategias parala
interpretacinytraduccindetextosquellevanesasestructurasdelpresentesimple.
En la segunda arte del encuentro se practicar con estructuras en pasado simple,
distinguiendo los verbos regulares de los verbos irregulares. Igualmente se usarn
estructurasdelpasadoenunalecturadebiografasdelpasadodegentefamosaparaque
practiquen las tcnicas de interpretacin y traduccin.. Leern tambin material de
informacingeneralenlaqueaparecenverbosenpasadosimpleyenpresentesimple.
TercerEncuentro
Unidad6 FormasComparativasySuperlativas
6.1Adjetivosyadverbiocomparativosysuperlativos
6.1.1.Adjetivoscortos
6.1.2Adjetivosterminadosen Y
6.1.3Adjetivoslargos
6.1.4Adjetivosdedosslabasquefuncionandeambasformas
6.1.5Adjetivosirregulares
6.1.6Adverbiosterminadosen LY
6.1.7Adverbiosdecortos
6.1.8Adverbiosirregulares
6.1.9Traduccinusandolastcnicasyestrategiasaprendidas:PersonalComputers
Unidad7 PresentePerfecto
7.1Presenteperfectoyelpasadoparticipio
7.1.1Estructuradelpresenteperfecto:Sujeto+elauxiliarHAVEyHAS+verboenparticipio
pasado
7.1.2Usosdelpresenteperfecto
7.1.3Formaafirmativa

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7.1.4FormaInterrogativa
7.1.5Formanegativa
7.1.6Traduccindeltexto:Computersusandolastcnicasyestrategiasaprendidas.
Unidad8 FuturosimpleyFuturoPrximo
8.1FuturoSimpleconWILL
8.1.1.Formaafirmativa
8.1.2Formanegativa:conelauxiliar WONT
8.1.3Formainterrogativainvirtiendoel WILL
8.1.4PreguntasconpalabrasInterrogativas
8.1.5Formaafirmativaconelfuturodebe+goingto
8.1.6Formainterrogativadelfuturobe+goingto
8.1.7.Formanegativaconelfuturoconbe+goingto
8.1.8Traduccindeltexto:ArtificialIntelligence
Sntesis: Enesteencuentro,losestudiantesaprendernformascomparativasdeadjetivosy
adverbios.Luego,elpresenteperfectocomparndoloconelpasadosimpleysusdiferentes
usos.
DurantelasegundapartedelencuentrorepasarnelfuturoutilizandoWILLYELFUTURO
PRXIMO.
Tambinaplicarntcnicasyestrategiasdeinterpretacinytraduccindetextoscontextos
quecontenganlasestructurasantesmencionadas.
CuartoEncuentro
Unidad9 VerbosAuxiliares
9.1VerbosAuxiliares
9.1.1Expresando capacidad: CanyCould
9.1.2Expresandopermiso:CanyMay
9.1.3Expresando sugerenciaoconsejo:Should,oughttoohadbetter
9.1.4Expresandonecesidadyobligacin:Mustohaveto
9.1.5Expresandoposibilidad:Mayymight
9.1.6Expresandoprobabilidad:Must
9.1.7Expresandoexpectativa:should
9.1.8Expresandocertezafutura:Will

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9.1.9Traduccindeuntextoomanual:MainboardInstallation
Unidad10 Vozpasiva
10.1UsodelaVozpasivayVozactiva
10.1.1Estructuradelavozpasiva
10.1.2Vozpasivaenlosdiferentestiemposverbales
10.1.3Formaafirmativa
10.1.4Formanegativa
10.1.5Formainterrogativa
10.1.6Traduccindetextoconestructurasdevozpasiva:ElEMail
Sntesis. Enesteltimoencuentro,losestudiantesaprendernlosverbosauxiliaresysususosy
aprendernatraducirinstructivosdemanualesautnticos.
En la segunda parte de este encuentro, los estudiantes aprendern a usar la voz pasiva y a
reconocerlaen lostextostcnicos.
Traducirn textos tcnicos al espaol utilizando las tcnicas y estrategias de traduccin
aprendidasalolargodelcurso.

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MTODODE DEESTUDIO
Estimadosestudiantes:
Primeramente, es un placer darles la bienvenida a estos cursos a distancia de la universidad
PrivadaDomingoSavioydesearlesmuchoxitoensusestudios.
Este texto ha sido diseado para llenar las necesidades de estudiantes que estudian el ingls
como unmedioparapoder estaral da enlos avances desucampoprofesionalatravs dela
lecturadematerialrelacionadoconsuprofesin yengeneral.
El presente texto pretende dar las bases de la gramtica del Ingls para interpretar textos y
traducirmanuales.
Losobjetivosdeestecursosonqueelalumnoalfinalizarel cursoseacapazde:
Usarlagramticabsicaparacomponereinterpretartextos
Utilizar vocabulario y expresiones bsicas del idioma como la introduccin a la
interpretacindetextos.
Leertextosdemedianacomplejidadparamantenerseinformadoensucampo.
Utilizarestrategiasytcnicasparatraducirtextosaunniveltcnicoparainvestigarensu
campoprofesional.

SUGERENCIASPARAELESTUDIOAUTODIDCTICO:
Este texto se impartir en dos niveles, en el nivel de Ingls tcnico I y el nivel de Ingls
tcnico II. Las primeras cinco unidades cubrirn el primer nivel y las siguientes cinco
unidadescubrirneltcnicoII.
Seaconsejaelaprendizajecontinuoporrazonespedaggicas,serecomiendadedicarunahora
diariaparairestudiandoyhaciendolosejerciciosdecadaunidad.

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Lospasosparasuavancesonlossiguientes:
1. Empiece por leer la explicacin de la estructura presentada en los recuadros que est
dadaenespaol yhagalosejerciciosquesiguenacadaestructura.
2. Siencuentrapalabrasnuevas,busqueelsignificadoensudiccionarioquesiempredebe
teneramano.
3. Tratedeentenderlaspalabrasporcognados(porqueseparecenensuformaalespaol)
oporcontexto(loquevieneantesyloquevienedespusdelapalabra).
4. Evite traducir palabra por palabra, trate de entender lo que quiere decir la oracin
completa.
5. Tampoco trate de memorizar palabra por palabra, si desea recordarla posteriormente
hagaunanuevaoracindesucreacinenunnuevocontexto..
6. Laslecturas lesirvenparapracticarlatraduccineinterpretacindetextosdesdeel
inicio ya que le har practicar las tcnicas y estrategias para la lectura comprensiva y
paralatraduccin.

Llenar los ejercicios decada unidad y presentar sus dudas en cada encuentro para poder
ayudarle.
Alfinalizarcadaunidadestnlastareas(homework)queservirnparaevaluartrabajoprctico
deestamateria,aligualqueunalecturaparaquepractiquelastcnicasyestrategiasaprendidas,
estastareastambinlaspresentarhechasencadaencuentro.
Debe portar un diccionario pequeo a las clases tutoriales porque tendr controles sobre lo
avanzado ypodr hacerusodelmismo,tambinse leensearel usocorrecto deldiccionario
como ltimo recurso. (Se aconseja comprar el OXFORD Pocket Dictionary, ya que es el ms
completoyleservirparaamboscursos)
La forma de evaluacin ser a travs de los prcticos presentados, los controles durante los
encuentrosylosdosexmenesquesetomanduranteelperiodo,elprimerparcialyelexamen
final.

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Duranteelprimerencuentrofijaremoslashorasde trabajoenplataforma.
Desendolesnuevamentemuchoxitoensusestudiosmedespidomuyatentamente,
Lic.BeatrizPol
email: bpol@upds.exchange
2.2.Bibliografacomentada
Elpresentetextohasidodiseadoconelpropsitodebrindarunmaterialinteresanteysencillo
paraqueelestudiante,alavezqueaprendelagramticabsica, puedaaprenderlastcnicasy
estrategiasdelainterpretacindetextos,yaquecomomencionantes,esteesuncursodeESP
(EnglishforanSpecificPurpose)esdecir,elInglsconunpropsitoespecficoqueeseldedar
unaherramientaalestudianteparacontribuirconsuformacinprofesionalyestemtodoledar
la posibilidad de aprender a leer e interpretar textos en Ingls, lo cual le servir mucho para
mantenerse actualizado en su campo profesional. Se han seguido las pautas de diseo de
materialqueplaneanHutchinsonandWaterssobreeldiseodematerialparaestetipodecursos
ensulibroESPsyllabusandmaterialsDesign.
La bibliografa investigada y de apoyo para la elaboracin de este texto son los libros de
gramtica bsica de Betty Schampfer Basic Grammar, de Raymond Murphy, Essential
GrammarinUse,deJohnThomasFrench,YoureinBusiness:buildingbetterreadingskillsy
de Richmond Publishing collection Nature and Environment, Technology and the Future y
manualesyrevistasautnticas.
2.3.Materialexplicativo
Presentacinde Diapositivas enpowerpointenlaplataformavirtual.
Materialdeapoyo:CDsdeEnseanzaypronunciacindelIngls.
2.4.Ejemplificacin
Unejemplodeestudioaudidcticodeestematerialesleerlasinstruccionesdelosrecuadrosque
estnenespaol,completarlosejercicios,leerlalecturadecadatextoutilizandosudiccionarioy
completar losejercicios antes deprocederalatraduccin del texto.Para complementar buscar

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en Internet algn material en Ingls y tratar de traducirlo utilizando el translator (programa


TRADUCTOR. )

2.5.Mtodosautilizar
Mtodoparaelencuentropresencial:
En los encuentros presenciales, se utiliza la miniconferencia para explicar las estructuras
gramaticales y se les da las instrucciones para los trabajos de aplicacin. Se parte de las
preguntasdelosestudiantessobrelasdudasquetienendurantesuaprendizajeautodidcticoy
seleampliaconejerciciosnuevosenelaulaymsprcticadelectura.
Paralosencuentrosvirtuales.
Se les presenta ejercicios de complementacin para que practiquen las estructuras de las
unidadesypequeosejerciciosdetraduccin.Tienenoportunidaddepresentarsusdudasenel
foroyatravsdelrecibirexplicacindelasmismas.
3.Conclusiones
Finalmente las preguntas, cuestionarios y ejercicios de cada unidad estn en el mismo texto.
Igualmentelasinstruccionesparalostrabajos.
Instruccionesopautasparatrabajosdeinvestigacin:
1.DebenbajarunabiografaenInglesytraducirlaalespaolenclase,mostrandoelborradory
luegopulindoloencasa.
2. DebenhaceruncuadernillodeGlosariodetrminostcnicos:losestudiantesvancreandosu
propioglosariodeterminologatcnicaenelavancedesusunidades.

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TECHNICALENGLISHTEXTBOOK
ByLic. BeatrizPoldeCspedes

STUDENT:______________________________________________

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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCINGMYSELF:
MynameisBeatrizPol.IamfromSantaCruz, Bolivia.IammarriedandIhavefourchildren.Iam
a university teacher. I work at Domingo Savio University. Inmy freetime,I like toread andto
paint.
INTRODUCEYOURSELF:
Mynameis__________________________________________(fullname)
Iamfrom________________________________________(nationality)
Iam_____________________________________yearsold.(age)
Iam___________________________________(occupation)
Iam_______________________________(married/single)
Myaddressis_____________________________________________
Myphonenumberis________________________________________
Inmyfree time, Iliketo________________________________(hobby)
ASKINGYOURCLASSMATESPERSONALQUESTIONS:
Whatisyourname?_____________________________________________
Whereareyoufrom?____________________________________________
Howoldareyou?_______________________________________________
Areyoumarriedorsingle?________________________________________
Whatisyouroccupation?________________________________________
Whatisyouraddress?___________________________________________
Whatisyourphonenumber?_____________________________________

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COMPLETETHEINFORMATION:
Name:_______________________________________
Age:_________________________________________
Nationality:___________________________________
Maritalstatus:________________________________
Occupation:__________________________________
Address:_____________________________________
Phonenumber:_______________________________

HOMEWORK: Write a shortbiographyofanimportantorfamousperson.

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LESSONONE. USING VERBTOBE


I.

Predictingfromthetitle.(Prediccionesdelcontenidopartiendodelttulo)
Whatorwhoisitabout?__________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
(Escribasusprediccionesencastellano.)

II.

Nowreadthetextandunderlinecognates.
(Ahoraleaeltextoysubrayeloscognadosopalabrasqueseparecenalcastellanoenforma
ysignificado.)
PROFILEOFANIMPORTANTCHAIRMAN:BILLGATES

HisnameisWilliamH.Gates.HeisanarchitectandtheChairmanofMicrosoftCorporation,the
worldwide leader in software services and internet. He was born in Seattle and he lives in
Washington. He is 47 years old. He is married with Melinda French Gates. They have two

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children: Jennifer and Rory John. He loves computers and he works with the companys
developmentteamturningnewideasintoinnovativesoftwareandservices.Hisfortuneisaround
U$10billion.Inhisfreetime,he likestoplaygolf.
III.

Circle words you do not understand by context and look them up in your
dictionary.
(Pongaenuncrculolaspalabrasquenoconoceynoentiendeniporelcontextooqueno
soncognadosybsquelasensudiccionario.)
Writethemeaningof thenewwordsyouhavefoundinyourdictionarybelowthe
unknownword.
(Escriba el significado de la palabra nueva que ha encontrado en el diccionario y antela
debajodelapalabra desconocida.)

IV.

Comprehensionquestions: (Preguntasdecomprensin)
1. What ishis name?______________________________________________
2. Howoldishe?_________________________________________________
3. Whereishefrom?______________________________________________
4. Whatishisoccupation?_________________________________________
5. Ishemarried?_________________________________________________
6. Whatdoeshedoinhisfreetime?__________________________________

V.

Nowtranslatethetext (Ahoratraduzcaeltextoalcastellano.)

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READINGPRACTICE1
I.MAKEPREDICTIONSFROMTHETITLE:______________________
_____________________________________________________________
II.UNDERLINECOGNATES:
ENGLISHFORINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATION

Why is English useful for international communication? English is an international language


becausemorethan600millionpeoplearoundtheworlduseit.Mostbooksandpapersindifferent
fields are in English. After some period of time they are translated to other languages. Most
specialists use English at conferences and meetings. Some scientific discoveries are first
publishedinEnglishandthenfortherestofthescientificcommunity.Ifwewanttobeupdatedin
ourprofessions,weneedtoreadinEnglish,atleast
WecansaythatEnglishistheworldlanguage.
III.COMPREHENSIONQUESTIONS:

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1. WhyisEnglishconsideredaninternationallanguage?
1. HowmanypeoplearoundtheworldusetheEnglishlanguage?
2. Whatdoweneedtobeupdatedinourprofessions?
3. Whatlanguagedoweuseatinternationalconferencesandmeetings?Why?
IV.TRANSLATETHETEXT
GRAMMARSECTION. EXPLANATIONOFVERBTOBE
EXPLICACINDELUSODELVERBOTOBE:
Antesdepoderconjugarcualquierverboesimportanteconocerlospronombresconlosque
selosconjuga:
LospronombresenInglsson:
Pronombressingulares
I
You

(Yo)
(t)

He

(l)

She

(ella)

It

(l,ellaparaanimal, planta,objeto,idea,pensamientoosentimiento)

Pronombresplurales
We

(nosotros)

You

(ustedes)

They

(ellos)

*Enpluralnosehacediferenciaentrelohumanoynohumanoenlatercerapersona,
seusaigual they paraellosoellasyaseananimales,plantas,cosas,etc.

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SIGNIFICADOSDELVERBOTOBE
Elverbo tobe significadosverbosdelcastellano: SEROESTAR.

I. Cuando selo usacomoelverbo SER la estructura dela oracin enpresentesimple es:


Sujeto+verbo+Nombre
Ejemplos:I
Subject

amBetty
VerbNoun

CUADRODECONJUGACINCONLOSPRONOMBRES:
SINGULAR
SUBJECT+BE+NOUN

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+BE+NOUN

Forma de conjugacin del


verboTOBE: Am, is, are.

IamBetty
Iamateacher

Weareteachers
LucyandIareteachers

Los
pronombres
reemplazanalosnombres:

YouarePeter

Youarestudents

I (serefierealquehabla)

Youareastudent

Ronandyouarestudents

You(alquemedirijo)

Heisastudent

Theyaredoctors

Jimisastudent

BillandJoearedoctors

He (a una persona del sexo


masculino)
She(aunapersonadelsexo
femenino)
It ( a una cosa, animal ,

She isLucy
She isastudent

Theyareflowers
Rosesareflowers

planta,etc)
We (se refiere a ti y otra

Itisadog

persona)

Bobbyisadog

You ( a otras personas a las

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quetedirijes)
They ( a otros y tu no ests
incluido)

EXERCISE1:Fillinthe blankswith:AM,ISandARE.
1. Mary__________ateacher.
2. He____________alawyer.
3. It___________aturtle.
4. We____________doctors.
5. She______________anurse.
6. They_____________engineers.
7. You(oneperson)______________anactor.
8. You(twoormorepersons)___________________pilots.
9. LucyandSusan________________friends.
10. They_________________books.

II. Tambin con susentidode SER puedeser Sujeto+verbo+adjetivo.


SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: Los adjetivos en Ingls

SUBJECT+BE+ adjective
Iam happy

SUBJECT+BE+adjective
Weare happy

no tienen gnero ni nmero,


es decir que no se los
pluraliza, ni existe su forma
femeninaomasculina.

Youare intelligent

Youare intelligent

Tampoco se puedecolocar la
a delante del nombre como

Heis tall

Theyare tall

lo hacamos en los nombres


comunesensingular.

Rosesare beautiful
Sheis beautiful

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Bobbyis intelligent
EXERCISE2: Chooseoneadjectiveandfillintheblanks:
intelligentfattallroundhotsquarefunnybigprettysweet
1. Studentsare__________________________________.
2. Pigsare_____________________________________ .
3. Anelephantis_________________________________
4. ThePictureis_________________________________.
5. Thejokeis____________________________________.
6. Flowersare____________________________________.
7. Sugaris_______________________________________.
8. Iamshort.Mybrotheris________________________.
9. Thefireis_____________________________________.
10. The Earth is___________________________________.

III. Si selousacomoelverboESTAR,laestructuradelaoracinsera:Sujeto+verbo+
frasepreposicional.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: PP significa

SUBJECT+BE+PP

SUBJECT+BE+PP

Prepositional Phrase (frase


preposicional)

Iam onabus

Weareinclass
Aqu el verbo significa estar

Youareathome

Youareat theconcert

por lo tanto va acompaado


deunafrasedelugar.

Heisat work

Theyare inthecar
Peterisatschool.

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Sheis inameeting

Rosesare inavase.

(Pedroestenelcolegio)
At school es la frase

Bobbyisinthepark

preposicional.

LaspreposicionesdelugarenInglssonbastantescomoenelcastellanopero
ahorausaremostresquesonlasmscomunesyestastressignificanlosmismo
en castellano, estas son IN, ON y AT, las tres significan EN pero depende
dondeestlapersonaoleobjeto.
INseutilizacunadola(s)persona(s),animal(es)ocosa(s)estoestndentro
deciertoslmites.

Ejemplo:Thebookisinthebox.
Thestudentsareintheclassroom.
Thedogisinthepark.
WeareinMiami.
ON seusacuandola(s) persona(s),animal (es)ocosa(s) estoestnsobre
unasuperficieosobrealgo.

Ejemplo:Thebooksareonthedesk.
Bettyisonthesecondfloor.
Theboyisonahorse.
AT indicaelnombredeunlugarolocalidadensentidogeneral.
(NoseusaeldeterminativoTHEconciertosnombrescomoporejemplo:atworkyno
attheworkastenemostambinathome,atschool,etc.)
Otras preposiciones: Busque el significado de estas preposiciones en su
diccionario.
Against
around

inbackofinside
inthebackof
outside

behind

infrontofnextto

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beside

inthefrontofnear

between

inthemiddleof

under,etc.

EXERCISE3:Completelasoracionesusandounafrasepreposicional.

1. Sheis_______________________________thewindow.
2. Theyare______________________theclassroom.
3. Weare______________________________theteacher.
4. Iam__________________________drugs.
5. Bettyissitting___________________________Mary.
CONTRACTIONS(CONTRACCIONES)
SINGULAR
SUBJECT+BE+PP

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+BE+PP

Nota: Cuandolagentehabla
tiende a contractar , es decir
une dos palabras en una, en

Imonabus

Wereinclass

Ingls esto se hace a


menudo.

Youreathome

Youreattheconcert

Las contracciones son del


sujetoconelverboodelverbo

Hesatwork
Shesinameeting

Theyreinthecar

con

Theyre onthetable.

veremosms adelante.
Para contractar se coloca un

Bobbysinthepark

la

negacin

como

apostrofe,as:
Hes/Youre/Theyre

EXERCISE4: Usecontraccionesenlossiguientesespaciosvacos:
1. Peterisinmyclass.______________myclassmate.
2. Susanisadoctor._______________mycolleague.

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3. Weareattheuniversity._____________inthesecondsemester.
4. Thechildrenareinthegarden.______________playingsoccer.
5. Thecatissleeping.___________onthesofa.
NEGATIVEFORMWITHBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: Cuando se niega con

SUBJECT+BE+PP

SUBJECT+BE+PP

el verbo TO BE se usa NOT


despusdelverbo.

ImNOTathome.

WeareNOTinclass
Tambin se puede contractar

YouareNOTathome

YouareNOTattheconcert as:

HeisNOTatwork

TheyareNOTinthecar

HesnotoHeisnt

She is NOT in a
They are NOT on the YourenotoYouarent
meeting
table.
TheyrenotoTheyarent
BobbyisNOTinthepark

EXERCISE5: Uselaformanegativaparallenarlosespaciosvacos:
1. I_______________inclassnow,Iamatwork.
2. She______________adoctor,sheisanurse.
3. We_____________engineers,wearelawyers.
4. He________________atechnician,heisacomputerprogrammer.
5. They_________________atwork,theyareathome.
EXERCISE6. Writeyourownsentencesinnegativeform:
Ex:I amnot abadstudent.Iamintelligent.
_______________________________________________
________________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

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________________________________________________

YES/NOQUESTIONSWITHBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: La forma interrogativa

SUBJECT+BE+adjective

SUBJECT+BE+adjective

AmIhappy?
Yes,youare.

Arewehappy?

No, youarent.

Yes,youare.
No,youarent.

se forma poniendo por


delante el verbo y luego el
pronombre.
Cuando se dan respuestas

Areyouintelligent?

cortasdeltipoYES/NO nose

Yes,Iam.
No,Iamnot.

Areyouintelligent?

debehacerlacontraccincon
el sujeto sino con el verbo y

Ishetall?

Yes,weare.
No,wearent.

en la forma afirmativa no se
debe contractar, solo en la

Yes,heis.
No,heisnt.

negativa.
Aretheytall?
Yes,theyare.

Isshe beautiful?
Yes,sheis.
No,sheisnt.

No,theyarent.
Arerosesbeautiful?
Yes,theyare.

IsBobbyintelligent?

No,theyarent.

EXERCISE6:Hagapreguntaspartiendode lassiguientesrespuestas:
1. ___________________________________________
Yes,heis.(Heisadoctor)
2.____________________________________________
No,theyarent.(Theyarenotteachers)
3.____________________________________________
Yes,itis.(Itismynewcomputer)
4.__________________________________________

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Nowearent.(Wearenotengineers.)
5._________________________________________
Yes,Iam.(Iammarried.)
QUESTIONSWITHBE:USINGINTERROGATIVEWORDS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

QUESTIONS
WHEREam I?
Athome.

Nota:
QUESTIONS
WHYarewe happy?
Becausewearelucky.

HOWareyou?

Las

palabras

interrogativasson:
WHAT(qu)
WHERE (dnde)

Fine,thanks.
HOWOLDis he?

EXPLICACIN

WHATTIMEareyou
class ?
At9:00.

20yearsold.
WHOarethey?
WHYisshe happy?
Becausesheishere.

Colleagues.

in WHEN(cundo)
WHATTIME(aquhora)
HOW(cmo)
WHY(porqu)
HOW OLD (cuntos aos o
quedad)
WHO (quien,quienes)

EXERCISE7:Usepalabrasinterrogativas:WHERE,WHEN,HOWOLD,WHO,WHATTIME,
etc.
4. ________________________________________________
Inclass.(Peterisinclass.)
2.___________________________________________________
Athome.(Imathome).
3.___________________________________________________
Peter.(Peterisinthebedroom)
4._________________________________________________
21.(Bettyis21yearsold.)

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5._________________________________________________
Inthemornings.(Myclassesareinthemornings.)

LESSONTWO. VERBTOBEPASTTENSE
I. Anticipation: Read the title and make predictions about the content. (Lea el ttulo y haga
prediccionesdelcontenido.)_______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
ASUCCESSFULBUSINESSMAN

At15hewasashopassistant.At20hewastheownerofarepaircompany.Todayat40,heis
one oftherichestmenin the UnitedStates.
HisnameisJamesPeterson.HeisthechairmanofPetersonAppliancesCo.,thecompanysells
TVs,videorecorders,personalcomputersandhifisatpriceslowerthantheothercompaniesin
thesamefield.
ThiscompanyisbasedinNewYork,butitmanufacturesmostofitsproductsinJapan.The main
reasonforthesuccessofthecompanyisanexcellentmarketingteam.

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Mr.Petersondoesnothaveanoffice,herunshiscompanyfromhome.Heisarichmanbuthe
doesnotliketoshowit.Helivesasamediumclassmaninabeautifulhousewithhiswifeand
twochildren.Inhisfreetimehelikestogocampingandtofish.
II.Comprehensionquestions:
1. WhatwasJamesPetersonwhenhewas15?
2. Whathasheat20?
3. Whatisheat40?
4. Whatishisoccupationnow?
5. Whatdoesthecompanysell?
6. Howarethepricesofthecompany?
7. Wheredoes thecompany manufactureitsproducts?
8. Whatisthemainreasonforthesuccessofthecompany?
9. Howdoeshelive?
10. Whatdoeshedoinhisfreetime?
III.Accordingtothetextwritetrueorfalseinthefollowingsentences:
(Segnloqueiceeltexto,escribaverdaderoofalsoenlassiguientesoraciones)
1. JamesPeterson isa rich man.___________________
2. JamesPetersonhasarepaircompanynow.________________
3. PetersonscompanyisbasedinJapan.________________
4. Jamesdoesnotliketoshowhismoney.______________________
5. ThecompanymanufacturesitsproductsinTaiwan.______________
IV.Matchthesewords
1.Televisionsettoproduce____________
2.Hifi
TV____________
3.ShopHighfidelity___________
4.TomanufactureStore____________
V.Translatethetext:

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GRAMMARSECTION. PASTTENSEVERBTOBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Forma de conjugacin del

SUBJECT+BE+NOUN

SUBJECT+BE+NOUN

verboTOBE INPASADO:

Present: Iam ateacher

Present: Weareteachers

I _______WAS HE

Past: I

Past:We wereteachers

SHE_______WASIT

Present: You aresingle.


Past: Youweresingle.

Present: Youarestudents
Past: Youwere students

WEYOU________WERE
THEY

Present: Heisastudent

Present: Theyaredoctors

Past: Jim was astudent

Past:Theyweredoctors

Present: SheisLucy
Past: She was astudent

Present: Theyareflowers
Past:Theywere flowers

was ateacher

Present: Itisadog
Past: Bobby was adog

Se usan expresiones de tiempo pasado con las oraciones en pasado para especificar cuando
sucedilaaccin.
EXPRESIONESDETIEMPOPASADO:
Yesterday
yesterdaymorning
yesterdayafternoon
yesterdayevening

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Lastnight
Lastweek
Lastyear
I. EXERCISE: Fillentheblankswiththe correctformoftheverbinpasttense.
1. Iamauniversitystudent.Lastyear, I_____________aschoolstudent.
2. PeterisInUnitedStatesthisyear. He_______________inSantaCruzlastyear.
3. Thechildrenareintheparknow.They____________atthezooyesterday.
4. ThestudentsareinclassfromMondaytoFriday.They______________onholidaylast
week.
NEGATIVEFORMWITHBE
SINGULAR
SUBJECT+BE+PP
IwasNOTathome.

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+BE+PP

Nota: Cuando se niega con


elverbo TOBE en pasado se

We were NOTinclass

aadealverboelnoto
Tambin se puede contractar
as:

You wereNOTathome

You were NOTattheconcert


He wasnt

He wasNOTatwork

They were NOTinthecar


Youwerent

She was

NOT in a

meeting

They were NOT on the


table.

Theywerent

Bobby was NOTinthepark


II.Putthesesentencesinthenegativeform:
1. Iwasverybusylastweek.______________________________________
2. Shewasathomelastnight._____________________________________
3. TheywereatthepartylastSaturdaynight.
____________________________________________________________

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4. Youwereabsentfromclassyesterday.____________________________
______________________________
5. Hewasinclassyesterdaymorning._______________________________
YES/NOQUESTIONSWITHBE
SINGULAR
SUBJECT+BE+adjective
WasI

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+ BE+adjective

Nota: La forma interrogativa


se forma poniendo por

happy?

Yes,youwere
No,youwerent.

delante el verbo y luego el


Were wehappy?
Yes,youwere
No,youwerent.

Were you busy?


Yes,I was.
No,Iwas not.
Was hetall?

pronombre.

Were youbusy?

Cuando se dan respuestas


cortasdeltipoYES/NO enla
forma afirmativa no se debe
contractar,soloenlanegativa.

Yes,we were.
No,we werent.

Yes,he was.
No,he wasnt.
Wasshe beautiful?

Weretheyinteresting?
Yes,theywere.
No,theywerent.

Yes,she was.
No,she wasnt.

III.Writequestionsandgiveshortanswers:
1.________________________________________________________________
_____________________________(Thechildrenwerehappyatthepartyyesterday.)
2.________________________________________________________________
______________________________(Theclassroomwasemptyyesterday.)
3.______________________________________________________________
_______________________________(Iwasverybusyyesterday.)
4.________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________(Wewereatthemeetingyesterdaymorning.)
5.________________________________________________________________
________________________________(Marywastiredlastnight.)
QUESTIONSWITHBE:USINGINTERROGATIVEWORDS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

QUESTIONS
WHERE was I?
Athome.

Nota:
QUESTIONS
WHYwereyou happy?
Becausewe were lucky.

HOW old were you last


year?
21.
HOWOLDwas he?

Las

palabras

interrogativasson:
WHAT(qu)
WHERE (dnde)

WHATTIMEwereyou

WHEN(cundo)

inclass?
At9:00.

WHATTIME(aquhora)
HOW(cmo)

WHO were they?

WHY(porqu)
HOW OLD (cuntos aos o

20yearsold.
WHYwashehappy?
Because she was at

EXPLICACIN

Colleagues.

quedad)
WHO (quien,quienes)

home.

IV.Writequestionswithinterrogativewordsforthefollowinganswers:
1. ______________________________________________________
Marywasathome lastnight.
2,_______________________________________________________
Thestudentswereatthelibrary lastclass.
3.________________________________________________________
PeterwasntatthepartylastSaturday becausehewassick.
4.________________________________________________________
Themeetingwasontime yesterday

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5._______________________________________________________
Thedatewas at5:00 yesterdayafternoon.

LESSONTHREE. PRESENTEANDPASTPROGRESSIVETENSE
I.
Readthetitleandmakepredictionsaboutthecontent:
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
ONCEOsANDCOMPANIES

I am at the airport with our companys chauffeur. We are here to meet the new CEO (Chief
ExecutiveOfficer)whoisarrivingfromEngland:Iamgoingtobehisassistantduringhisshortvisit
toourcountry.Heistheonewhomakesalltheimportantdecisions.
Our company is Latin Records, it produces and exports records, compact discs and videos all
over Latin Americaand is suffering now a bad management, so this man is trying to solve the
problems here. The CEO is a British man named James Sullivan, who is 45 years old. He is
workinghard,heisreengineeringthecompanytoobtainhigherbenefitsandpositionitbetterin
themarket.

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We are working now. We are going to many places and having conferences with the local
managers.Heischeckingbudgets,askingforreportsand givingseminars totheemployees.
Challenges of a global market are demanding changes today and the competition is more
complexand hardevery day.
Ourcompanyisworkingtobecomeatopone.

I.

WriteMr. Sullivansprofile

Name:_________________________ Age:______________
Nationality______________________________
Company:______________________
Occupation:_______________________

II.

Comprehension questions:

1. Whoistheonewhotakesdecisionsinthatcompany?
2. What are Mr.Sullivansactivities duringhisvisit?
3. Whatishappeningwiththecompany?
4. WhatisMr. Sullivan goingtodo?
5. Wheredoes thecompanyoperates?
III.

Write true or false inthefallowingstatements:

1. Mr. Sullivan sarrivinginEngland____________


2. Mr.Sullivansassistantmakesthedecisions._________________
3. TheCEOisgivingseminarstotheemployees_______________
4. This reengineering is bringing higher benefits to the company in the
future.________________
5. Globalmarketdemandsarenotcomplexorcompetitive.___________

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IV. Translate thetext:

GRAMMARSECTION. PRESENTCONTINUOUSTENSE
PRESENTCONTINUOUS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

SUBJECT+BE+INGVerb
am

I SUBJECT+BE+INGverb

explaining the lesson

now.

EXPLICACIN
Forma de conjugacin del
presente progresivose usa el

We

arestudyingEnglish verbo TO BE: is y are + el

now.

verbodelaaccinterminando
en ING.

You arelisteningtothe You are learning English


teacherthisclass.
thissemester.
S+TOBE+VING
He

is

having classes They are

now.

practicing the Estetiempoindicaunaaccin

exercises now.

que esta sucediendo en el


momentoenque lapersona

They are writing on their habla y tiene un tiempo de


She is
lesson now.

copying the notebooks inthismoment.

duracin,
Ytambinseusaparahablar

It isworkingwell.

de algo que suceder en el


futuro, en este caso se le
aade un adverbio de tiempo
futuro:
Ex: Betty is going to Brazil
nextyear

EXERCISES:
1.Mary__________________________alettertoherboyfriend now. (write)
2.Peter_________________________thecomputer rightnow. (use)
3.We__________________________classes atthemoment.(have)

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4.They_______________________socceratthestadium inthismoment.(play)
5.It________________________well now. (work).

SPELLINGOFING(Reglasparaescribirlaterminacinconing.)
ENDOFTHEVERB+INGFORM

EXPLANATION

Rule1:Consonant+E

Si el verbo termina en consonante ms E,


quitelaEantesdeaadir ing.

Ex:smilesmiling
Eraseerasing
Rule 2: Vowel+consonant

Dupliquelaconsonanteyaada
ing.

Ex:sitsitting
Stopstopping

ExceptoconW,X,Y
Ex:snow=snowing(nosnowwing)
Fix=fixing(nofixxing)

Rule3:twovowels+consonant

Soloaada ingsinduplicarlaconsonante

Ex:readreading
Stopstopping
Rule4:Twoconsonants

Aada ingsinduplicarlaconsonante.

Ex:standstanding
Pushpushing
EXERCISES:
ADDTHEINGFORMTOTHEFOLLOWINGVERBS:
1. Erase_____________________
2. count_____________________
3. Cut______________________
4. cry_________________________

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5. sit_________________________
6. eat________________________
7. drink______________________
8. do________________________
9. study______________________
10. rain________________________
NEGATIVEFORMWITHBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota:

SUBJECT+BE+PP

SUBJECT+BE+PP

Cuando se niega en

presente progresivo se niega


conelauxiliar TOBE, seusa

ImNOTworkingnow.
You are NOT studying at
home.

We are NOT sitting


class.

in NOTdespusdelverbo.

Tambin se puede contractar


You are NOT clapping at as:
theconcert

He is NOT playing the


pianonow.

Hes not having classes


They are NOT runningthe now.
marathon.

She is NOT

having a

party.

o
Heisnt havingclassesnow.

They are NOT having


classes.

Bobby is NOT eating

Youre notgoingtotheparty
now.

meat.
You arent going to the
partynow.
EXERCISE:Writethenegativeformofthefollowingsentences:
11. I_________________________tothemeeting.(go)
12. They_________________________totheparty.(come)
13. She_________________________aredblouseandjeans.(wear)
14. Peter_____________________Englishnow(study)

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15. We____________________________atarestaurantnow.(eat)

YES/NOQUESTIONSWITHBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: La forma interrogativa

SUBJECT+BE+adjective
AmI playingwell?

SUBJECT+BE+adjective

se forma poniendo por


delante el verbo auxiliar To

Yes,youare.

Arewe havingaparty?

bey luego el pronombre,

No,youarent.

Yes,youare.

despus el verbo terminado

No,youarent.

en ING.

Are you
English?

studying

Yes,Iam.
No,Iamnot.
Ishe

workingatyour

EJ: Is he wearingjeans?
Are you going to the La respuesta corta se da
meeting?
como en las respuestas del
Yes,weare.
No,wearent.

company?

Yes,heis

Yes,heis.
No,heisnt.

Are they attending to the o


conference?
Yes, Theyare.

Is she

verboTobe:

coming to the

No,theyarent.

party ?
Yes,sheis.
No,sheisnt.
IsBobby eatingwell?

No,he isnt.
Cuando se dan respuestas

Are the dogs eating the cortasdeltipoYES/NOnose


meat?
debehacerlacontraccincon
Yes,theyare.
No,theyarent.

el sujeto sino con el verbo y


en la forma afirmativa no se

Yes,itis.

debe contractar, solo en la

No,itisnt.

negativa.

EXERCISES:Completethesentencesmakingquestionsforthefollowinganswers:
1. ___________________________________________________

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Yes,____________________(Imgoingtotheparty.)
2.____________________________________________________
No,_____________________(Theyarentcomingtotheparty)
3.____________________________________________________
Yes,_________________(Thestudentsaredoingtheexercises)
4._____________________________________________________
No,_________________(WearenotgoingtotheUniversitynow.)

QUESTIONSWITHBE:USINGINTERROGATIVEWORDS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

QUESTIONS
WHATamI doing?
Amistake.

Nota:
QUESTIONS
WHYare wesinging ?
Becauseweare happy.

HOWareyoucoming?
Bytaxi.

EXPLICACIN
Las

palabras

interrogativasson:
WHAT(qu)
WHERE (dnde)

WHAT TIME are you WHEN(cundo)


arriving
WHATTIME(aquhora)

WHATis he studying?

HOW(cmo)

SystemEngineering.

At9:00.

WHY(porqu)
HOW OLD (cuntos aos o

WHYisshe crying?

WHOarethey visiting?

quedad)

Becauseshe ishomesick.

Somefriends.

WHO (quien,quienes)
Secolocandelantedelauxiliar
to be y luego el sujeto
seguido del verbo terminado
en ING.

EXERCISE.Giveanswerstothefollowingquestions:
1. Whereareyougoing?
_____________________________________________________
2. Whatisyourfrienddoing?

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_____________________________________________________
3. Whatisyourclassmatewearingnow?
___________________________________________________
4. Whatareyoustudyingatthisuniversity?
__________________________________________________
5. Whereisyourfatherworking?
______________________________________________________
LESSONFOUR. USINGSIMPLEPRESENT
SUSANSDAILYHABITS

SusanSimonisafamousfashiondesigner.Shehasherownfashionbusinessandsheisa
verysuccessfuldesigner.Shegetsupatsixoclockeverymorningandshedrivestoworkfor
morethananhour.Shestartsworkingat8:00andshe finishesat 5:00p.m.
Whenshearrivesatwork,shecheckshermailforhalfanhourwhileshedrinkshercoffee.
Then, she has a meeting with her staff to give some new ideas about fashion tendencies.
After that, she calls some important clients to offer the new models she is going to launch
soon.At12:00,sheeatslunchatthecafeterianearheroffice.Intheafternoon,shereceives
some material suppliers andchecks the samples. Later, she shows her newdesigns to her
employeesandgivessomeorderstomanufacturethenewmodels.Sheleavesherofficeat
5:00p.mandgetshomeat6:30.Sheeatsdinnerwithherhusbandanddaughter.Theytalk

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about their activities during the day. After that, she takes a shower and finallyshe goes to
sleep.
I.

COMPREHENSIONQUESTIONS:

1. WhatisSusansoccupation?
2. Whatdoesshedoatwork?
3. Howmanyhoursdoesshework?
4. Wheredoessheeatlunch?
5. Doesshehavealotofclients?
6. Issheasuccessfulprofessionalinherfield?
II.

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HOMEWORK
Writeashortcompositionaboutyourdailyhabits.

READINGPRACTICE2
I.Readthetitleandpred icttheco ntent:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
BASICFACTORSINBUSINESS

Business is the activity of producing and distributing goods and services. The four basic
factorsin business are:land,labor, capitaland entrepreneurship.Land refersnotonly to a
piece of real state, but it also means raw materials. Labor refers to the use of mental or
physical work to produce goods. Capital means not only money, but it also refers to the
equipment. And entrepreneurship is putting together land, labor and capital to make
somethingofvalue.
II.Compreh ensionquestions:
1.Whatdoesbusinessmean?
2.Whatarethebasicfactorsinbusiness?

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3.Whatdoeslandmean?
4.Whatisentrepreneurship?
III.Fin dthedefinitionsinthetextforth efo llowing wo rds:
Land____________________________________________________
Labor___________________________________________________
Capital__________________________________________________
IV.Matchth ewordswith theSp anishd efin ition:
1.Labor
2.Business

a.dineroparacomprarmaquinariayherramientas
b.productos

3.land

c.loquelostrabajadoresproveen

4.goods

d.laactividaddeproducirbienes

5.capital

e.materiaprima

V.Translatethetext (trad uzcaeltexto)

Translatethefollowingmanualin stru ctions:


MAINBOARDINSTALL ATION
Toinstallthismainboardinasystem,pleasefollowtheseinstructionsinthischapter:

Identifythemainboardcomponents.

InstallaCPU.
Installoneormoresystemmemorymodules.

Makesurealljumpersandswitchesaresetcorrectly.

Installthismainboardinasystemchassis(case).

Connectanyextensionbracketsorcablestoconnectingheadersonthemainboard.

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Install other devices and make sure the appropriate connections to the mainboard
connectingheaders.

I. READTHEFOLLOWINGJOBADVERTISINGANDTRANSLATEIT:
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
Seeks an experienced DataEntry Clerk for a temporary position (approx. 5 months) in our
Santa Cruz office. Candidate must be proficient in oral and written English and Spanish,
have good interpersonal skills, be well organized and able to work flexible hours. Work
involves review and interpretation of technical manuals, forms and data entry into our
logistics database. Computerproficiencyisessential. Familiaritywith Microsoft OfficeSuite
ishighlydesired.Goodtypingskills(60wpm).
ApplicantsshouldsubmittheirresumesbyJune20,2007tothefollowingemailaddress:
poclavam@inlfl.state.gov

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I.FIL LINTHISAPPLICATIONFORM
JOBAPPLICATIONFORM
Name:__________________________________________________
first
Middle
Last
IDNumber:________________________________Age:_____________
Nationality_______________________MaritalStatus:__________________
Numberofchildren:____________________________
Address:_____________________________Phonenumber:________________
Occupation:_________________ProfessionalDegree__________________
PresentPlaceofwork:_________________________________
Lastsalary:___________________Position:____________________
Workexperience:______________________Numberofyears:____________
CompanyorInstitution

Position

Year

___________________ ________________
__________________ ________________

______________
________________

_________________ _________________ ________________


Positionyouapplyinthiscompany:______________________________
Salaryexpectation:________________________________________
Availabletime:________________ ________________________
fulltime

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Parttime

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I.Complete thisletterandwriteyourownapplicationletterfollowingthismodel:
MaryJaneStone
2531,RedwoodStreet
Maryland,US
Mrs.ElizabethHarrison
Director
LatinRecordsCompany
1617MagnoliaStreet
California,US

July17th,2008
DearMrs.Harrison.

I am interested in the job of_____________________________ in your company. I


_________yearsold.. I________________in Maryland.At the moment I_________working asa
____________in______________company.
Ispeaktwolanguages:EnglishandSpanish.Icanalsouseawordprocessor.Icanworkfulltime.
Ilookforwardtohearingfromyou.
Yourssincerely,
_____________________
MaryJaneStones

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GRAMMARSECTION. SIMPLEPRESENT
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+ verb+C

Se usa este tiempo para


expresar rutinas, hbitos o

I work hard

We workhard

hechos en general que


sucedenenelpresente.

You work hard

Youworkhard

SUBJECT+verb+C

Forma de conjugacin del


verbo enpresentees:

They workhard
He workshard

I
You

She works hard

Wework
They

It works hard
He
SheworkS
It
La tercera persona singular
llevauna S o ES
FREQUENCYADVERBS:ALWAYS,USUALLY,OFTEN,RARELY,SELDOM,NEVER.
Losadverbiosdefrecuenciaacompaanaltiempopresentecuandosehabladerutinas,hbitos,
yaquemuestranlafrecuenciaenqueestasaccionesserepiten.
Always=100%(Siempre)
Usually=90%(Generalmente)

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Often=80%(Confrecuenciaoamenudo)
Rarely=50%(raravez)
Seldom=30%(casinunca)
Never=0%(nunca)
Losadverbiossecolocanentreelsujetoyel verbo, as:
Peter usually arrivesearlyatwork.
Mary never arriveslateatwork.
Excepcin: Soloenelcasodelverbo tobe secolocaeladverbiodespusdelverbo,
As:
Peteris always busy
EXERCISES:Putthefrequencyadverbinthecorrectplace:
1. Peterishappy(always)____________________________
2. Maryislateforclass(often)___________________________
3. Ieatbreakfast(rarely)________________________________
4. Markisathomeatnight.(usually)______________________
5. MaryAnntakesthebustoschool.(seldom)________________
6. Thebusisontime.(never)_____________________________
7. Thomasisbusyinthemornings(often)____________________
8. Juliestaysathomeintheevenings(usually)________________
9. Itiscoldinwinter.(always)______________________________
10. ItsnowsinSantaCruz.(never)_____________________________

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SPELLING O SIMPLE PRESENT THIRD PERSON SINGULAR (reglas de ortografa para


escribirlosverbosentercerapersonasingular)
RULES

EXPLANATION
Sielverboterminaen Y yleantecedeuna

Rule1:consonant+Y

consonante se cambia la Y por i y se

Ex:studyStudies

aade es .

Crycries
Vowel+ y

Si termina en Y precedida de vocal solo


seaade s

Ex.Playplays
Staystays
Rule 2: Si termina en : ss , sh , ch , or Seaadesiempre es .
X
Ex.Kisskisses
Pushpushes
Teachteaches
Fixfixes
Irregularverbs

Estos arbitrariamente llevan ES o


cambiandeformacomoeselcasodehave=

Havehas

has.

Go
goes
Dodoes

EXERCISES:
APPLYSPELLING RULESOF THIRDPERSONSINGULARTOTHESEVERBS.
1. Mary______________________________newshoeseverymonth(buy).

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2. Jane_____________________Englishatanelementaryschool.(teach)
3. Peter____________________totheuniversityeveryday.(go)
4. Tim____________________histeethcarefully(brush)
5. Mary__________________Peterbecausesheloveshim(kiss)
6. Alex______________________cars,heisamechanic(fix)
7. Jim always_____________hishomework.(do)
8. Catherine________________jeanseveryday.(wear)
9. Johnisabartender,he_______________drinksinabar.(mix)
10. WhenMary_______________(do)exercises,she_________(stretch)herlegs.
NEGATIVEFORMWITHBE
SINGULAR

PLURAL

SUBJECT+neg.aux.+verb+C SUBJECT+neg.aux+verb+C

EXPLICACIN
Nota: Cuando se niega en
presenteseusaelauxiliarDO
NOToDOESNOTydespus
elverbo.

I DONOT work athome.

We DONOTworkathome.
I

You DO NOT work at


home

You
You DO NOT work at We DONOT
home.
They

He DOES NOT work at


home

They DO NOT work at He


home.

She DOES NOT work


athome.
ItDOESNOTworkwell.

SheDOESNOT
It
Sepuedencontractaras:
Do+not=Dont
Does+not=Doesnt
(Nota: Cuando se usa el
auxiliar de negacin el
verboentercerapersonaya
nolleva s )

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YES/NOQUESTIONSWITHSIMPLEPRESENT
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: La forma interrogativa

DO+ SUBJECT+VERB+C
DOES

SUBJECT+BE+adjective

se forma poniendo por


delanteelverboauxiliarDOo

DOyouworkhard?

DOES , luego el sujeto o

DO I workhard?
Yes,youdo.

pronombreyluegoelverboen
Yes, wedo.

su forma bsica ( sin

No, we dont
No,youdont.

aumentarle s a tercera
persona)

DOyouworkhard?

Cuando se dan respuestas


cortas del tipo YES/NO se

Yes, Ido.
No, Idont.

DOweworkhard?
Yes, youdo.

usa la contraccin en la
negativa.

No, youdont.
DOEShe workhard?
Yes,he does.

DOtheyworkhard?

No,hedoesnt.
Yes,they do.
DOESsheworkhard?

No,they dont

Yes,shedoes.
No,shedoesnt

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QUESTIONSWITHINTERROGATIVEWORDS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

QUESTIONS
WHERE doI work?
Athome.

EXPLICACIN
Nota:

QUESTIONS
WHYdoyoualways win?

Las

palabras

interrogativas
se colocan
antesdelauxiliardoodoes

Becausewearelucky.
Ex: WHAT doyouwant?

HOWdoyoucome?
Bybus.
.
WHYdoesshecry?
Becausesheissad.

WHAT TIME do you go to Otras palabras interrogativas


class?
At9:00.

son:

WHERE (dnde)
WHOdothey meetatthe WHEN(cundo)
party?

WHATTIME(aquhora)
HOW(cmo)

MaryandSusan.

WHY(porqu)
WHO (quien,quienes)

Grammarexercises
1.Writetheanswer:
a.Whatdoyoudothisweekend?__________________________________
b.Wheredoyouwork?___________________________________________
c.Whatdoyoustudy?____________________________________________
d.Wheredoyoustudy?___________________________________________
2.Putthesesentencesinpresentten seusingth everbsinparen th eses:
a.Thestudents__________________(do)wellinthethisexamination.
b.thechildren______________(go)totheparkonSaturday.
c.I_____________(see)Peteratthepartytonight.
d.We______________(eat)hamburgersatTobbyonSunday.
e.Theteacher_____________(have)ashortvacationaftersixmonths.

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HOMEWORK
I.COMPLETETHESENTENCESUSINGTHEVERBINPARENTHESES.
1.Martin__________9hours everyday.(sleep)
2.PeterandSusan__________lunchatthecafeteriaeveryday.(eat)
3.MaryandI_____________tochurcheverySunday.(go)
4.I__________myhomeworkinmyoffice.(do)
5.Peter______________hisreporteveryFriday.(write)
II.ANSWERTHEFOLL OWINGQUESTIONS:
1.Doyoulike coffee?_____________________________
2.DoesPeterworkhard?____________________________
3.DotheyhaveclassesonSundays?_____________________
4.DoesMary gototheuniversityeveryday?____________
5.DowehaveclassesonSundays?_____________________
III.WRITETHENEGATIVEFORMINTHEFOLLOWINGSENTENCES:
Use:don`t/d oesn`t+verb
1.Mary________________________atthisuniversity.(study,not)
2.HenryandMichelle____________________married.(get,not)
3.Jane___________________frenchfluently.(speak,not)
4.We____________________classesonMondays.(have,not)
5.I_______________________inthesamecompany.(work,not)
Vocabularyexercise1
I. Thetenadverbs intheliston the left commonlyoccur inreadings.Can youmatch them
withtheircorrectmeanings?
ADVERBS
1.currently

_______a)inthesameway

2.eventually
3.automatically

_______b)withouthumanintervention
________c)inreality

4.similarly

_________d)allthetime,withoutinterruption

5.actually

_________e)now,atthepresent

6.drastically

_________f)afteralongtime

7.continually

_________g)strongandviolently

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8.fully

________H)inthebeginning

9.simultaneously

______i)atthesametime

10.originally
________j)completely
II.Traduzcaesosadverb ios,alg unossoncognados,esd ecir,palabrasqueseparecen
alcastellan oysignificanlomismo.

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LESSONFIVE. USINGSIMPLEPAST
I. Readthe titleandmakepredictionsaboutthecontent:
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
ThePrincessofHearts

HernameisDianaFrancesSpencer.ShewasborninAlthorpHall,countryatNorthampton,
England. She was born on July 1st., 1961. She studied at a private School in Kent and in
1978shefinishedhereducationinaprestigiousschoolinSwitzerland.
She was 19 years when the British Crown announced her engagement with Charles, the
PrinceofWales,andheiroftheBritishThrone.
ShegotmarriedwiththeprinceandshebecamethePrincessofWales.Shehadtwosons:
Williams and Henry. She was very loved by the British people and throughout the entire
world because she helped poor and sick people. She was against the war and she made
somecampaignsagainstit,walkingonminedfields.

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She was not happy in her marriage and she got divorced at 33 years old. She died very
young,attheageof36.ShediedinParis,France,nexttotheEiffelTower.Theentireworld
criedforher.Shewascalled"ThePrincessofHearts".
II. Un derlin e cognates and circle th e unknown word s to look them up in yo ur
dictionary:
III.Comprehension question s:
1.Whatishername?
2.Wherewassheborn?
3.Wheredidshestudy?
4.HowoldwasshewhensheengagedwiththePrinceCharles?
5.Howmanychildrendidshehave?
IV. Translatethetext.

READINGPRACTICE3
I.READ THE TITLE AND MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE CONTENT:
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
DIDYOUKNOWABOUTTHESENEWTECHNOLOGIES?

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Until now, the PC was the only route to cyberspace. But, today from startups to electronic
giants, the hightech industry is moving into a new area in computing, in which digital
appliances will not be associated only with mainframes, minicomputers or PCs. Computing
willbedonewithawidevarietyofdevices.Theywillbeaimedatpracticallyeveryaspectof
ourdailylives,suchas:digitalcameras,technologiestolinkhomenetworkstohigh speed
phone lines, handheld computers, digital camcorders, cameras, TVs and other devices will
share into through home networks, minilaptop PCs, palm size scanners or even
appliancesforthekitchenthatsurftheweb.
I.Und erlinecogn ates(palab rassimilaresalcastellano)
II.Matchthemeaning withthewords:
(laspalabrasmarcadassonpalabrascompuestas)
1.Computadoraspersonalesminiporttiles a._____hightechindustry
2.Scannersdeltamaodelapalma b._____minilap topPCs
3.Telfonosdealtavelocidad c._____palmsizescanners
4.Industriadealtatecnologa d._____Highspeedphonelines
III.Comprehension question s:
1.Whereisthehightechindustrymovingto?

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2.Whatkindofdeviceswillbeinvented?
3.Haveyoualreadyknowaboutthesenewtechnologies?Giveexamples.
IV.Tran slateth etext:

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GRAMMARSECTION. SIMPLEPAST
SINGULAR
SUBJECT+verb+C

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

SUBJECT+verb+C

Se usa este tiempo para


expresar UNA ACCIN
PASADAYACABADA.

IworkEDhard

WeworkEDhard

Forma de conjugacin del


verboenPASADO:

YouworkEDhard

YouworkEDhard

I
You

TheyworkEDhard
HeworkEDhard

WeworkED
They

SheworkEDhard
He
SheworkED
It

ItworkEDhard

En los verbos regulares se


aade ED a los verbos, en
los irregulares cambian de
formayhayqueaprenderlos
dememoria.
Ex.gowent
Exercises:
i. I_________________________(walk)intheparkforanhouryesterday.
ii. She___________________(visit)hermotherlastvacation.
iii. Peter_________________(arrive)lateatthemeetingyesterday.
iv. Alice_________________(study)EnglishattheCBAlastyear.
v. We__________________(attended)classeslastSaturday.

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NEGATIVEFORM
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Nota: Cuando se niega en

SUBJECT+DIDNt +verb+C

SUBJECT+neg.aux+verb+C

presente se usa el auxiliar


DID NOT despus VIENE el
verbo.

I DID NOTworkathome We DID NOT work athome


YESTERDAY.
YESTERDAY.
I
You
You DID NOT work at
home LASTWEEK.

WeDIDNOT
YouDIDNOTworkathome They
LASTWEEK.

He DID NOT work at


home
MORNING.
She

YESTERDAY

DIDNOT

He
They DID NOT work at SheDID NOT
home LASTSATURDAY.
It

work

Sepuedecontractaras:

athome LASTNIGHT.
It DID NOT work well
YESTERDAY.

DIDnot= DIDNT
Todas las personas niegan
conDIDNT.

Exercises:
Writethesesentencesinthenegativeform:
1. Iworked hardlastmonth.____________________________________
2. JanestudiedEnglishatDomingoSavioUniversity._________________
_____________________________________________________________
3. John visitedMarylastnight.___________________________________
4. Lucylistenedtoyournewsongyesterday.________________________
______________________________________________________________
5.Theyclappedattheconcertyesterdayevening.___________________
_____________________________________________________________

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YES/NOQUESTIONSWITHSIMPLEPAST
SINGULAR
DID+SUBJECT+VERB?

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN

DID+SUBJECT+BE?

Nota: La forma interrogativa


se forma poniendo por
delante el verbo auxiliar DID

Did youworkhard?

luegoelsujetoopronombrey
luego el verbo en su forma

Yes,wedid.

bsica

No,wedidnt

Cuando se dan respuestas

DID Iworkhard?
Yes, you did.
No,youdidnt.

cortas del tipo YES/NO se

Didyouworkhard?

usa la contraccin en la
FORMAnegativa.

Yes,Idid
No,Ididnt.

Did weworkhard?
Yes,youdid.

DidyoustudyFrench?

No,youdidnt.

Yes,Idid.
No,Ididnt.

Didheworkhard?
Yes,hedid.

Did theyworkhard?

No,hedidnt.
Yes,theydid.
Didsheworkhard?

No,theydidnt

Yes,shedid.
No,shedidnt
Exercises
Answerwithshortanswersthefollowingquestions:
1. DidyoustudyEnglishlastsemester?__________________________
2. Didyourteacherexplainthelesson2lastclass?________________
3. DidYourparentsworkhard?_____________________________
4. Didyourclassesstartontimeyesterday?_____________________
5. Didthestudentsarriveontimelastclass?_____________________
Nowanswerthequestionswithfullanswers:

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QUESTIONSWITHINTERROGATIVEWORDS
SINGULAR

PLURAL

QUESTIONS

Nota:
QUESTIONS

WHEREdidIwork?

EXPLICACIN

WHYdidyouwin?

Las

palabras

interrogativas se colocan
antesdelauxiliardid.

Athome.
Becausewe were lucky.
HOWdidyoucome?
Bybus.
.

Otras palabras interrogativas


WHATTIMEdid you go to son:
class?
At9:00.

WHYdidshecry?
Becauseshe was sad.

Ex: WHATdidyouwant?

WHERE (dnde)
WHEN(cundo)

WHOdidtheymeetatthe WHATTIME(aquhora)
party?
HOW(cmo)
WHY(porqu)
MaryandSusan.

WHO (quien,quienes)

Grammarexercises
1.Writetheanswer:
a.Whatdidyoubuyatthesupermarketyesterday______________________
b.Wheredidyoustudyyourcareer?_______________________________
c.Whatdidyouchooseforyourbirthday?_____________________________
d.WheredidShirleywork?_______________________________________
2.Putthesesentencesinpasttenseusin gtheverbsinparen theses:
a.Thestudents__________________(do)wellinthelastexamination.
b.thechildren______________(go)tothepark lastSaturday.
c.I_____________(see)Peteratthepartylastnight.

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e.Theteacher_____________(have)ashortvacationlastsummer.
IRREGULARVERBS
PRESENT

PAST

EXPLICACIN

COME

CAME

Nota:

Los

verbos

DO
HAVE

DID
HAD

irregulares
cambian

en
de

pasado
forma

EAT

ATE

arbitrariamente o sea que

GO
SEE

WENT
SAW

uno debe aprenderlos de


memoriaatravsdeluso.

WRITE

WROTE

SIT

SAT

READ

READ

MAKE
LEAVE

MADE
LEFT

HOMEWORK
I.WRITETHESESENTENCESINPASTTENSE:
1.Mary_________________(go)toapartylastnight.
2.Thechildren___________(eat)hamburgersatthebirthdaypartyyesterday.
3. SusanandPeter____________(getmarried)twoyearsago.
4. They__________________(buy) a new computer and they_________(sell) the old
computer.
5.Mary________________(sleep)ninehoursyesterday.She__________(be)tired.
II. WritenegativesentencesinpasttenseNEGATIVEFORM.Usedidn`t+theverb .
1.They______________(go)tothepartylastnight.
2.Myteacher_____________(give)theexaminationslastclass.
3.They__________________(eat)atarestaurantyesterday.
4.We_________________(spend)alootofmoneyinourparty.
5.Mostofourfriends______________(come)tothepartylastnight.
III.A nswerth esequestion s.Giveshortanswers:Ex:Yes,Idid./No,Idin`t.
1.DidyoucometotheuniversitylastSaturday?__________________
2.Didyoustudyforthetestyesterday?_________________________
3.Didyouworkhardlastweek?______________________

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4.Didyourteachergivetheexamslastclass?__________________
5.DidyourfriendstudyEnglishwithyou?_____________________
IV.WRITETHECORRECTFORMOFTHEVERBINPASTTENSE:
1.Theweatherwasbeautifulyesterday,sowe_________(go)totheswimmingpool.
2.WhenIwasachild,I_________________(want)tobeanactress.
3.Shakespeare___________________(write)manyplays.
4.Yesterday eveningI_____________(watch)afunnyfilmonT.V.
5.LastweekendI______________(stay)home,soI_____________(clean)thehouse.
V.WRITETHEPASTTENSEOFTHEFOLLOWINGVERBSandtheirmeanings:
1.Think_________________________________
2.Speak________________________________________
3.Give____________________________________________
4.Take_____________________________________________
5.Lose____________________________________________
6.Find__________________________________________
7.Know________________________________________
8.Hear_______________________________________
9.tell__________________________________________
10.buy______________________________________

PastContinuous
SINGULAR

PLURAL

EXPLICACIN
Forma de conjugacin del

SUBJECT+BE+INGVerb I SUBJECT+BE+INGverb

presente progresivo se usa

WAS explaining the lesson We WERE studying elverboTOBE:wasywere


whentheyarrived.
English when the teacher + el verbo de la accin
postponed the date of the terminandoenING.
YouWERElisteningto test.
the teacher when the bell

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You

WERE

learning S+TOBE+VING

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rang.

English when they visited


you.

HeWAShavingclasses
whenshecalledhim.

Este tiempo indica una


accin

que

estaba

They WERE practicing the sucediendo en el momento


exercises when the bell en que otra accin tuvo
rang.
lugarenelpasado.

She WAS copying the


lesson when the lights TheyWEREwritingontheir
turnedoff.
notebookswhentheteacher
It WAS working well arrived.
whenhecheckedit
EXERCISES:
1.Mary__________________________alettertoherboyfriendwhenPeter came.(write)
2.Peter_________________________thecomputerwhenIsawhim(use)
3.We__________________________classeswhentheteacherhadtogoout.(have)
4.They_______________________socceratthestadiumwhenthelightsturnedoff..(play)
5.It________________________wellwhenIreceivedit(work).

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LESSONSIX. USINGCOMPARATIVEANDSUPERLATIVEFORMS
PERSONALCOMPUTERS

Some personal computers are as small as pocket radios, the smallest class of fully
functional, selfcontained computers is the class called notebook computers. These are
designed for those users who require a portable machine and are widely used today by
students and people who work in different locations. Today's desktop personal computers
are morepowerful than thefirstPCsandcanperformfrom16to66millionoperationsper
second.Somecanevenperformmoreth an100million.Thesecomputersareusednotonly
forhouseholdmanagementand personalentertainment,butalso formostof the automated
tasks requiredbysmallbusinesses, including wordprocessing, generating mailing listsand
calculatingaccountinginformation.Todaycomputersarecheaperthaninthepast.
III.

Th e underlined wo rds are comparative and superlative


forms,writethemeaningofth eseexpressions:

IV.

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Translatethetextusingallthestrategiesandtechniques.

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READINGPRACTICE4
THEWEATHERISGETTINGCRAZY
Our planet is becoming hotter and hotter every year. Scientists said that it is due to a
phenomenoncalledthegreenhouseeffectcausedbyanincreaseintheamountofcarbondioxide
(CO2)intheatmospherewhichinturnproducesimportantchangesin theclimate.
Thegreenhouseeffectistheconsequenceofmensneglectedactions.Thebalanceofnaturehas
been disturbed by the excess of CO2 originated in power stations, factories and cars that burn
fossil fuels. Besides that,thedestructionof forestscausesthatlessCO2 can beconvertedinto
oxygenbyplants.ConsequentlytheCO2 intheatmosphereincreasescausingtheoverheatingof
theplanet.
Otherconsequencesduetotheoverheatingare:
Oceans arebecoming warmereveryyear.
Polaricecapsarestartingtomelt.
Theleveloftheseaisrising.
Theclimateischanging,for:USAhashottersummersandlessrainfall.
Mediterraneanregionsmaybecomedrier.
I. Underlinethecomparativeandsuperlativeadjectivesinthetext.
II.Translatethetextusingallthetechniquesandstrategies:

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GRAMMARSECTION. COMPARATIVEANDSUPERLATIVEADJECTIVESANDADVERBS
1. Adjetivoscomparativoscortos
EnlosadjetivoscomparativoscortoslaformacomparativaseformacolocandoER alfinal
del adjetivo:
Ejemplo:
Adjetivocomparativo
Hot___________hotter
Fat___________fatter
long___________longer
old_____________older
Note que en los adjetivos que terminan en consonante y le antecede una vocal se ha
duplicado la consonante final antes de aadir ER. Se coloca el THAN despus del
adjetivo.
Ej:MaryisshorterthanLucy.
Exercises
1. Mysisteris__________________________Iam.(old)
2. Peteris____________ ________ hisbrother.(tall)
3.

Susanis____________young _________Jane.(young)

4. Johnis____________ __________ Peter.(fat)


Formasuperlativa
LaformasuperlativadelosadjetivoscortosseformaaadiendoESTaladjetivo.
Ejemplo: Adjetivo

superlativo

old______________oldest
young___________youngest
Rich_____________richest

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Secoloca THEpordelantedeladjetivo,Ej: The richest manintheworld.


Exercises
1. Thisis_______________________waytogothere.(long)
2. BillGatesis_____________________manintheworld.(rich)
3. Sheis____________________inherfamily(young)
4. Peteris_____________________ofallhisclassmates.(strong)
Adjetivosdedosslabasterminadoseny
Los adjetivos de dos slabas terminados en y tambin forman el comparativo como los
adjetivoscortos,esdecirselesaade eroest.
Ejemplo:
Pretty______________________prettier
happy______________________happier
Lazy_______________________lazier
Lossuperlativosseranas:
pretty_____________________theprettiest
happy____________________thehappiest
Lazy______________________thelaziest

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Adjetivosdedosslabasquepuedenusarsedelasdosformas:
Hayadjetivosdedosslabasquepuedenusarsededosformas,Unosaadiendoeroest y
tambincomparandocon more,o themost,comolosadjetivoslargos.
Estosson:
angryangriermoreangrytheangriestthemostangry
clever_________ __________________________________
cruel___________________________________________
friendly_____________________________________________
gentle_______________________________________________
angry________________________________________________
handsome_________________________________________________
narrow__________________________________________________
obscure____________________________________________________
polite____________________________________________________
quiet___________________________________________________
secure____________________________________________________
simple_______________________________________________________
.____________________________________________________
Adjetivoslargos
Losadjetivoslargosapartirdedosamsslabassecomparancon
more+adjetivo+thanylaformasuperlativaseformacon Themost+adjetivo.
Ejemplo:adjetivocomparativosuperlativo
famous___________morefamous_________themostfamous
interesting_______moreinteresting________themostinteresting
beautiful_________morebeautiful________themostbeautiful

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Exercise:
1. Loveis__________________________________thanmoney(important)
2. Thiscomputeris_______________________thanyours.(expensive)
3. Thisnovelis___________________________thnthatnovel.(interesting)
4. Thisis___________________________carofall.(expensive)
5. Peteris_________________________inhisclass.(intelligent)
Losadjetivosirregulares
Losadjetivosirregularesoquenosiguenlasreglasmencionadasson:
Good____________________betterthan__________thebest
Bad_____________________worsethan__________theworst
little_____________________lessthan___________theleast
Far______________________furtherthan_________thefurthest
Exercises.
1. Peteris_____________________studenthanCarlos.(good)
2. Marysgrades are______________thanlucysgrades (bad)
3. Catholicuniversityis_________________thanDomingoSaviouniversity
(far)
Adverbiosterminadosenly
Los adverbiosqueterminanenlysecomparanconmore than ysuformasuperlative es
themost.
Ejemplo:
AdverbiocomparativoSuperlativo
carefulllymorecarefullythemostcarefully
slowlymoreslowlythemostslowly
easilymoreeasilythemosteasily

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Exercises:
1. Idrive_________________________thanmysister)carefully)
2. MaryspeaksEnglish________________thanJane.(fluently)
3. StudentslearnMath_______________________thanEnglish(slowly)
4. Wedidthelastexercise________________thanthisone(easily)
Adverbiosdeunaslaba
Losadverbiosdeunaslabasecomparancomolosadjetivoscortos,esdecirconER y
EST.

Ejemplo:
Far

furtherthefurthest

HardhardertheHarvest
soonsoonerthesoonest
Closeclosertheclosest
Adverbiosirregulares
Losadverbiosirregularesseformancomolosadjetivosirregularesyson:
wellbetterthanthebest
badlyworsethantheworst
far

furtherthatthefurthest

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HOMEWORK
I.Writethecorrect formof thecomparative:
1.
2.

Iam________________studentthanCarlos.(Good)
Maryis______________tanJane.(fat)

3.
4.

Mysisteris______________thanIam(lazy)
Thisstudentis___________________thantheotherstudent.(intelligent)

5.

Thisbookis________________thanthatone.(boring)

II.Completethefollowingsentencesusingcomparativeadjectives:
1. Thiscomputeris_________________________thanthatcomputer(expensive)
2. Thisreddressis___________________thanthewhitedress.(pretty)
3. Mybrownshoesare_______________________thanmyblackshoes.(big)
4. Thismeetingis__________________________thanthelastmeeting.(important)
5. Boysareoften____________________activethan girls.(active)
III.Traduzcaestasfrases

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Agoodexampleisthebestsermon.
Debtistheworstpoverty.
Stolenpleasuresaresweetest.
Helaughsbestwholaughslast.
Thechainisnotstrongerthanitsweakest link.

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LESSON SEVEN. USINGPRESENTPERFECT

I.Readthetitleandmakepredictionsaboutthecontent:_____________
_______________________________________________________________

COMPUTERS
Iwilltellyouthehistoryofcomputers.Computersarenotnew.Thefirstcomputerwasthe
abacus. ItwasusedinChinaforhundredsofyears.But,whatisanabacus?Anabacusis
anancientcalculator.Youcandomanyeasyanddifficultcalculationswiththeabacus,butit
cannotworkbyitselfbecauseitisnotautomaticanditisnotelectronic.
Aftertheabacus, a man calledCharlesBabbagemade the first calculatornearly 170years
ago,in1822.itwasautomaticbutitwasnotelectronic.
Later,inthe1940s,someEnglishscientistsmadethe firstelectroniccomputerinEurope.It
wastoobigtocarryormoveanditusedalotofelectricity.
Since then, scientists all around the world havemade researches to make it better. They
had to make computers small enough to carry and move easily. They had to make all the
partssmaller.Asaresultoftheseresearches,computersh aveb eco mesmallerandsmaller.
Some small pocket calculators today can do more difficult calculations than this first big
electroniccomputer.

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Now, we haveverysophisticatedcomputers.Theycan dothings that wecouldnotimagine


inthepast!
II.TRANSLATETHETEXTUSINGALLTHETECHNIQUESANDSTRATEGIES.

GRAMMARSECTION. Presen tPerfect


El presente perfecto se usa en diferentes situaciones que explicar detalladamente a
continuacin:
1.Cuandohablamosdeuneventoenelpasadoperonoesimportanteespecificareltiempo
oelmomentoenqueocurrielevento,siespecificamoseltiempoentoncesdebemosusar
pasadosimple.
Ejemp lo :IhavevisitedUnitedStates.(?)No h ayespecificacindecuandosucedi.
En cambio: IvisitedUnitedStateslas tyear.(seesp ecificaald ecir" lastyear" )
2.Tambinseusacuandoalgonuncasucedi.
Ejemp lo :Ihaven everbeeninChina.
3.Otrasituacinenlaqueseusaestetiempoescuandolaaccinserepitevariasveces.
Ejemp lo :Ihavetakenthreetestsduringthissemester.(repeticindeun aaccin)

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4.Tambin seusa presente perfectocuandomencionamos elmomentoenque seinicila


accinperoesasituacinsiguevigentehastaelmomentoenquehablamos.
Ejemp lo :Ihavebeenheresince9:00.(Laperson asigueall.)
5.Finalmenteseusacuandodamoslacantid addetiempo qu edur laaccinycontinua
hastaelpresente.
Ejemp lo:Ihavebeenherefo rthreehou rs.(d uracinthelaacci n).

HOMEWORK
I.Fillinth eblanksusing presentperfectorpastten se:
1.Mary_____________________________(be)atthatworkformanyyears.
2.Peter______________________________(be)atthepartylastnight.
3.They____________________________(work)hard since he was elected president of the
company.
4.We_______________________(go)tothesameuniversity.
5.She_______________________(go)toBrazillastvacation.
II.Writethesesentencesinth eneg ativefo rm:
1.Wehave visitedalltheBolivianprincipalcities.
___________________________________________________________
2.Shehascometovisitusmanytimes.
______________________________________________________________
3.Hehasfailedtheentrancetesttwice.
______________________________________________________________
4.Thechildrenhavealready visitedthezoo.
_______________________________________________________________
5.Theyhavegonetothepartyverylate.
_______________________________________________________________
III.Translatethefo llowing senten ces:
1.LucyhastravelledtoMiamimanytimes.
2.Peterhasgonetothatuniversity fortwoyears.
3.TheyhaveeatenatthatChineserestaurantmanytimes.
4.Wehavenevervisitedthezoointhiscity.
5.Ihaveworkedinthiscompanysince1997.

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IV. USE SIMPLE PAST OR THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ACCORDING TO THE
CONTEXT.(USE EL PASADO SIMPLE O EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SEGN EL
CONTEXTO)
1. I_________________ (move) to another
I_______________________(live)thereforthreemonths.

neighbourhood

in

March.

2.We__________________(live)inNewYorkfrom1998to1999.
3.SincePetercamehere,he_____________________(work)asataxidriver.
4.MyteacherwasMiss.Pol. I__________________(study)withherforonesemester.
5.JuanaChavezspeaksEnglishwellbecauseshe_______________(speak)Englishallher
life.
6.Henry,whoisnowinhospital,he________________(be)thereforseveralweeks.
7.WhenIsawher,Linda_______________(feel)well.
8.We______________(buy)thiscartwoyearsagoandI_____________(drive)
it5.000milessince then.
9.Upto thepresent,I______________________(Never,be)inOruro.
10. My present boss is Mr. Johnson, I____________________(work) with him for three
years.

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LESSON EIGHT. USINGFUTURETENSE


I.Readthetitleandmakepredictionsaboutthecontent:______________
_____________________________________________________
HOWTODEVELOPANAWARENESSOFSOCIALPROBLEMS

Wemustliveascitizensofasociety.Anysocietythatweliveinwillhavesocialproblems.
Ascitizensweshouldbeawareofthesocialproblemsofoursociety.
By studying social problems you will develop a background knowledge and an awareness
that will continue to grow. Any mention of a social problem in the mass media or in public
conversation will quickly catch your attention. You will find that reading the newspaper or
watching anewsbroadcastontelevisionwillbecomeamoreimportantexperience.Asyour
awarenessoftheproblemsofthesocietycontinuestogrow,youwillbecomeabettercitizen
ofyourcommunity.
I.Match thewo rdswiththedefinition s:
Citizen

_____a.tobecomegreater,toincrease

To g row

_______b. Personwhobybirthorbychoiceisa
memberofastateornation

Broadcast

_______c. toknow,torealize

To b eaware

______d. tosendoutbyradio

II.Underlinemod alauxiliariesandsentencesinfu turetense.

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III.Translatethearticle(Traduzcaelartculo)

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READINGPRACTICE5
I.Readthetitleandan ticipatetheconten t:__________________________
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Computers are also being used in games and in the area of artificial intelligence. In 1982
videogameswereatwobilliondollarindustryintheUnitedStates,andfigures,suchasPAC
MANhadbecomepartofthegeneralculture.
Artificial intelligence is a fastdeveloping field. Forexample: the Japanese fifthgeneration
computer project has as one of its goals the development of new machines and new
approaches to artificial intelligence. The purpose of artificial intelligence is to produce
computersystemswhichsolveproblemslikehumansdo.
Currently artificial intelligence researchers are busy developing programs which will allow
computerstoplaychessatamasterlevel,todiagnosediseaseslikeadoctor,andsoon.
Researchers are alsodevelopingnew kinds ofcomputercircuits (hardware) todo thisand
eventuallysomesoftwareto use thathardwarewill alsohave tobedeveloped and current
computerswillhavetobeimproved.
TRANSLATEth etextu singallthestrategiesandtechniques:

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GRAMMARSECTION.SIMPLEFUTURE
SIMPLEFUTURE
Elfuturosimple delInglsseformautilizandoelauxiliar"WILL"yseguidamenteelverbode
laaccinquesedeseaexpresarenfuturo.
EJ:Iwillgotoyourpartytomorrowevening.
Sisedeseanegarseformalanegacinconwill+notysecontractawon t.
EJ.Hewillno tcometotheparty.
o Hewon tcometotheparty.
Enlaformainterrogativase colocael"WILL"pordelante.
Ej: Willyougototheparty?
Lasrespuestascortassedanas:
Willyougototheuniversitytomorrow?
Yes,Iwill/No,Iwon t.
FORMA NEGATIVA:La forma negativa se forma con will+not y se puede contractar as:
won t
Examples:Iwontgotoyourparty.
Hewon tstudyatthatuniversity.
Theywontvisitusnextsummervacation.
Laformain terrogativaseformaponien doelauxiliarp ordelante,as:
Yes/Noquestions:
Sho rtanswers:
Willyoucometotheparty?

Yes,Iwill/No,Iwont.

WillshegotoMiaminextmonth?

Yes,shewill/No,shewont.

Willtheybeathomenextweek?

Yes,theywill/No,theywont.

Para hacer preguntas con palabras interrogativas , se coloca la palabra interrogativa en


primerlugar,luegoelauxiliarwill,seguidamenteelsujetoyelverbo.
Example: Wherewillyougonextyear?
Comp leteanswer:

IwillgotoMiami.

Sh ortanswer:

ToMiami.

EXERCISES
I.ANSWERTHEFOLLOWINGQUESTIONS:
1.Willyouhave classesnextSaturday?
2.WillyoucometotheUniversitytomorrow?

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3.Willyoufinishyourstudiesintwoyears?
4.Willyou haveanexaminationnextclass?
II.Writethesesentencesinfu turetense,usefuturetense expressions,like:Tomorro w,
next....in.....,etc.
Ex:Ig ototheuniversityeveryday._____Iwillgototheuniversityinoneyear.
1.Theycometothehouseeveryweek.
2.Peterstudiesengineeringthissemester.
3.Janeworksatabankthisyear.
4.Wehavelunchatarestauranttoday.
5.They buyacareveryyear.
III.Writenegativesentencesusing" Wont"
1.Hewillcometomyhousetonight.
2.Theywillvisitusnextvacation.
3.Iwillworkforthatcompanynextyear.
FUTUREUSINGBE+GOINGTO+VERB
El futuro prximo se forma utilizando el auxiliar to be ms la expresin going to ms el
verboqueexpresalaaccin,as:
ex:Iamg oingtogotothemeetingtomorrow
(be+goingto+v)
Sheisgoingto h aveapartytonight.
Theyarego ingtocometomyhouse.
CuandosequierenegarseniegausandoelauxiliaryTobe,as:
Iamn otgoingto g otothemeetingtomorrow.
Sheisntgoing tohaveapartytonight.
Theyaren tgoingtocometomyhouse.
LaformainterrogativaesinvirtiendoelverboTobe,as:
Areyou g oingtocometomyhouse?Yes,Iam.oNo,Iamnot.
Ishego ingto haveaparty?Yes,heis.oNo,heisnt.
AmIgo ingto p laytomorrow?Yes,youare.oNo,youarent.

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FUTUREWITH BE+GOINGTO +VERB


Su bject+be+going to+verb

Exp lanation

Ex:Iamg oingto studyhard

Setraducecomo ira

(Yovoyaestudiarfuerte)

Iamgo ingtostud y
Yovo yaestud iar

Sheisgoingtopracticeballet.
Exp resa tiempo futuro , sirve para hablar

(Ellavaapracticarballet )

sob re algo que usted ha decidido o


planeado h acerconanticipacin.

Theyaregoingtohaveaparty.
(Ello svan aten erun afiesta.)
HOMEWORK
I.Translatethesesentences:
1.Youwillneverforgetme.______________________________________
2.Themeetingwillbeontime.__________________________________
3.TheywillgototheseminaraboutMarketing__________________________
4.Shewont studyinEurope,shewillgotoUnitedStates.____________
______________________________________________________________
5.WewonthaveclassesnextSummer,wewillhavevacation.
__________________________________
II.GIVESHORTANSWERSTOTHEFOLL OWINGQUESTIONS:
1.WillyougotoclassesnextSaturday?
2.Willtheycometovisittheirmothertomorrow?
3.Willyoursister finishher homeworkontime?
4.Willyou havegoodgradesnextsemester?

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CHANGE THESESENTENCES INSIMPLE FUTURE TO THE FUTURE WITH BE+GOING


TO
1. IwillgooutwithPetertomorrow._____________________________
2. Theywillinviteyoutotheirparty._____________________________
3. Marywillgetmarriedtomorrow.______________________________
4. Theteacherwilltakeatestnextclass._________________________
5. Thestudentswillstudyforthetestthisweekend._________________

ANSWERTHEFOLLOWINGQUESTIONS.(SHORTANSWERS)
1. AreyougoingtostudyEnglish?___________________
2. Ishegoingtocometoclasstomorrow?______________
3. Arethestudentsgoingtogotothelibrarytomorrow?____
4. IsLucygoingtobeontimenextmeeting?_____________
5. Aretheygoingtoplaysoccerwithus?_________________
WRITEASHORTCOMPOSITIONTALKINGABOUTYOURPLANSFORTHE
FUTURE:

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LESSONNINE. USINGMODALAUXILIARIES
EL ECTRONICMAIL

Electronic mail, or email, is a way of sending messages between computers. The


messagesmaycontaintext,pictures,graphics,photographs,soundsandvideoclips.
Youcan interchangemessageswithemailwithcomputersaroundtheworld,oftenatahigh
speed. For instance, an email message sent from a computerin the United States can
appearonacomputerscreeninBoliviawithinseconds.
Itsh ouldbethemostcommonwayofcommunicationinthefuture.
I.Match thewo rdswiththeirSp anishmeaning :
1.between _______a.velocidad
2.screen
_______b.entre
3.speed

_______c.pantalla

4.appear _______d.aparecer
II.Answerthesequestions.
1.Whatdothemessagescontain?
2.Whatcanyouinterchangewithemail?
3.Howlongdoesittaketo sendandreceiveamessage?
III.TRANSLATETHETEXTUSINGALLTHETECHNIQUESANDESTRATEGIES

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READINGPRACTICE6
BUYINGACOMPUTER

When you buy a new PC (personal computer), it usually has some software already
installedonitsharddrive.OthersoftwarecomesonfloppydisksorCDROM`s,andyoucan
alsogetsoftwarefromtheinternet.ThereisonetypeofsoftwarethateveryPCmusthave:
an operating system such as Windows.Then there are many other types of programs that
you can buy, depending on what you want your computer to do. These different programs
arealsocalledapplications.

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I.Match thefollowingwordswithth eirmean in g:


1.floppydisks

a.___________computadorapersonal

2.operatingsystem
b.__________discoduro
3.Personalcomputer(PC) c._________discoblando
4.harddrive
e.__________sistemaoperativo
II.Answerthefollo wingquestions:
1.Accordingtothearticle,whattypeofsoftwaremusteveryPChave?
2.Whatsortof softwarecanyouchooseaccording toyourneeds?
IIITranslatethetextusing allth etechn iquesandstrategies:

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ELUSODEL AUXILIARCANYCOULD
El auxiliar can sirve para indicar que se posee una habilidad en tiempo presente o con
connotacionesdetiempofuturo.
EJ:
Icandancesalsa.(present)
Negative:Icantdancesalsa.
Icangotoyourhousetomorrow.(future)
ElauxiliarCOULDsirveparaexpresarunahabilidadquetenamosenelpasado.
EJ: Icou ldspeakPortuguesewhenIwasachild.(Past)
Negative:Icou ld ntspeakPortuguesewhenIwasachild.
Exercises
1.Fillintheblanksusingcanorco uld.
1.Peter_____________swimwhenhewasachild.(negative)
2. Christopher Reeve__________________walk now. He___________ ride a horse before
hisaccident.
3.I_________________speakFrench.(positive)
4.She__________________use the computer lastyear, but nowshe_________useitvery
well.(negativeandpositive)
GIVINGPERMISSION: CANANDMAY :
Para dar o pedir permiso se utiliza ms MAY para situaciones formales y CAN para
situacionesinformales.
EJ: Mom,canIgotothemovies?(informal)
Please,Sir,mayIopenthewindow?(formal)
Exercise
1.Hi,Susan!__________youcomewithmetotheparty?
2.Ineedtoprintthispage,__________Iuseyourcomputer,teacher?
3.Letsbegintheclass,______________youopenyourbooks,please?
4.Hey,Peter,_______________youlendmesomemoney?
5.Iamonadiet._____________Ieatthatsandwich?
6.Whenyoufinishthetest,you__________go.
7.You____________paythebillbymail.
8.Ifyoufinishyourhomework,you___________watchyourfavouriteprogramonT.V.

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EXPRESSINGNECESSITY: MUSTandHAVETO
MUSTyHAVETOexpresannecesidad.AlgunasvecesMUSTexpresalanecesidadunpoco
msfuertequeelHAVETO,escomounaobligacin,undeber.
Exercises
1.Allapplicants__________________takeanentranceexam.
2.Michael______________beattheuniversityat7:00totakethetest.
3.Peteris25yearsoldandhegotmarriedsohe_________worktoearnhisliving.
4.Susanhasanothercaraccident.She__________havealifeinsurance.
5.You_________________haveapassporttotravelabroad.
Expressingadvisab ility:SHOULD
ElauxiliarSHOUL Dsirveparaexpresarsugerenciaoconsejo.
Sepuedeusarnegativamente:shouldnt(nodebera)
Ej: Youaregettingsomeweight,youshou ldbeonadiet.
Youaresmokingtoomuch,youshouldstopsmoking.
Exercises
Usesho uldorshouldn t
1.You_______________studyharderoryouwillfailthecourse.
2.You_______________leaveyourkeysinsidethecar.
3. He_____________cleanhisroom,itsverydirty.
4.I____________studytonightbutIhaveaparty.
5.We______________workhardthisweekorwewillnotfinishit.
EXPRESSINGPOSSIBILITY: MAYandMIGHT
MayyMigh t expresanposibilidad.Susignificadoescasielmismo,aunqueaveces might
indicamenosposibilidadesquemay.
Ej:Imaygototheparty,butIamnotsurebecauseIhavetofinishsomework.
Itmightrain,theskyisdark.
Exercises:
1.Ineedsomebooks,I____________gotothelibrarytoday.
2.Johnissick,he_________notgotoschool.
3.WhyisntMaryattheparty?She__________belate.
4.I amnotinterestedinthatconference,I__________stayhomeandwatchafilm.
5.WhereisPeter?.Idontknow,He____________beatwork.

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EXPRESSINGPROBABILTY:MUST
Se usa must para expresar probabilidad, es decir que hay ms pruebas para pensar que
seaciertoquecuandohablamosdeposibilidad.
Ej:IsawMarycoughingandrunningafeveryesterday,shemustbeverysicktoday.
Exercises
1.WhyisntJohninclass?
He____________be sick.Usually he is in class but when Isaw him last night, he wasnt
feelinggood.
2.Susan,you haveworkedveryhard,you____________feelverytired.
3.Hello!MayIspeaktoHenry?
Sorry,you____________havethewrongnumber.Thereisnobodyherewith
thatname.
4.Edwinboughtadiamondringforhiswife.He____________bearichman.
5.Ihavelivedhereformorethantwoyearswithoutvisitingmyfamily.
Oh,you__________________missthemverymuch!

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LESSONTEN. USINGPASSIVEVOICE
I.

Readthetitle: Whatisthisreadinggoingtobeabout?

_______________________________________________________________
II.

Skimming:Readthetextquicklytogetageneralidea,underlinecognatesandcircle
theunknownwordstolookthemupinyourdictionaryafterfinishingthereading:
EMAIL

In the business world, postalmail and telephonecallsare nowbeingreplacedbyelectronic


mail messages that move across internet. Email and virtual private networks (VPNS) are
worldwideused.Theseservicesallowenduserstoreducecommunicationcostsandimprove
efficiency.
But,howdoesemailwork?
1. Amessagesenderusesmailsoftwaretocomposeadocument.
2. Themessageissenttoamailserverpreviouslychosenbythesender.

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3. Internetmailaddressesareused.Routersreadthemessagetofindthedestinationand
placethemessageinthereceiversmailbox.
4. Thereceiverssoftwarecanthenopenthemessage.
III.

Comprehensionquestions:

1. Whathas replacedthepostalmailandthetelephonecalls?
2. Whatadvantagesgettheend userswiththe email andvirtual private networks?
IV.

Underline the sentences that are written in passive voice and change them to
theactivevoice:

V.

Translatethetext:

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GRAMMARSECTION. THEPASSIVEVOICE
I.FORMINGTHEPASSIVE(Formandolavozpasiva)
EXAMPLES:

ACTIVE:Betty helpedthechildren.
SVO
PASSIVE: ThechildrenwerehelpedbyBetty.
SVO
__________________________________________________________________
EXPLANATION(Explicacin)
Enlavozpasivaelobjetodelavozactivapasaaserelsujeto,enelejemplodado thechildren
queera objetodelverboactivopasaaserelsujetodelverbopasivo.
Elsujetodelverboactivopasaaserobjetodelavozpasivaprecedidopor by. EJ:byBetty.

II.FORMOFTHEPASSIVE:BE+PASTPARTICIPLE
EXAMPLES:
ACTIVE

PASIVE

Bettyhelpsthechildren.ThechildrenarehelpedbyBetty.
:Bettyishelpingthechildren.Thechildrenarebeing helpedbyBetty.
Bettyhashelpedthechildren.ThechildrenhavebeenhelpedbyBetty.

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BettyhelpedthechildrenThechildrenwerehelpedbyBetty.
:

Betty washelpingthechildren.ThechildrenwerebeinghelpedbyBetty.
Bettyhadhelpedthechildren.
Bettywillhelpthechildren.

ThechildrenhadbeenhelpedbyBetty.
ThechildrenwillbehelpedbyBetty.

Betty is going tohelp thechildren.

The childrenaregoingto behelped by

Bettywillhavehelpedthechildren.

ThechildrenwillhavebeenhelpedbyBetty.

Betty.

EXERCISES

I. Changetheactivetothepassive:
1. Peterpaintsthedoor.___________________________________________
2. Peterispaintingthedoor.________________________________________
3. Peterhaspaintedthedoor._______________________________________
4. Peterpaintedthedoor.__________________________________________
5. Peterwaspaintingthedoor.______________________________________
6. Peterhadpaintedthedoor._______________________________________
7. Peterisgoingtopaintthedoor.___________________________________
8. IsPeterpaintingthe door?_______________________________________
9. DidPeterpaintthedoor?________________________________________

II.Changethesesentencestopassive:
1. GarcaMarquezwrotethatbook.__________________________________
2. Theteacherisgoingtoexplainthelesson.
____________________________________________________________
3. Peteriswritingthereport.________________________________________
4. Johnhassuggestedanewidea.__________________________________
5. Ihavesenttheletter.____________________________________________

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III. Usewordsfromthelisttocompletethepassivesentences:
Buildsurprise
Divide
invent
Expectoffer
Killsurround
Causereport
1. Anewbuilding__________________________________nextyearinthistown.
2. Anisland______________________________________bywater.
3. Yesterday, I___________________________________a job at an oil company, but I
didn`tacceptit.
4. Ireadthatahunter___________________byanotherhunteraccidentally.
5. Thefatalaccident_____________________________onT.Vyesterdayevening.
6. Thechildren_______________________________bytheirparentswiththenewtoys.
7. Theclass_____________________________ingroupsbytheteachertightnow.
8. Theplane___________________________tobeontime.
9. Thedamage______________________________bythefire.
10. Thetelephone____________________________byGrahamBell.

IV. Writethemissinginformation:
1.Paper________________________________(take)fromthepileofthetray.
2.Theprinter__________________________(use)toprintthetexts.
3.Thisoperatingsystem_____________________(design)byBellLaboratories.
4.Theplay_________________________(perform)bythebestactors.
V. Changethesesentencestotheactiveverbs:
1. ThisbookwaswrittenbyIsabelAllende.____________________________
2. ThenewbuildingwasbuiltbyJapaneseengineers.
_______________________________________________________________
3. ThesongwasrecordedonCDbyPeter.

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_______________________________________________________________
4. Thereportisbeingfilledinbythedirector.
_______________________________________________________________
5. Thehomeworkhasbeenreviewedbytheteachers.
_______________________________________________________________

VI. WRITEYOUROWNSENTENCESINPASSIVEVOICE.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

HOMEWORK
I.

Changethesesentencestothepassive:

1. ShakespearewroteRomeoandJuliet
_______________________________________________________________
2. LeonardoDaVincipaintedthefamouspaintingMonaLisa
_______________________________________________________________
3. ThomasAlbaEdisoninventedtheelectricbulb.
______________________________________________________________
4. CharlesBabbagedesignedthefirstmoderncomputer.
_______________________________________________________________
5. TheFrenchscientistBlaisePascalinventedacalculatormadeofwheelsandcogs.

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_______________________________________________________________
6. IBMintroducedthepersonalcomputer in1981.
______________________________________________________________
7. BellLaboratoriesdesignedtheoperatingsystemforminicomputers.
_______________________________________________________________
8. Professionalsknownascomputerprogrammerswrite software.
______________________________________________________________
9. Hackerscreatesoftwaretodestroyanothercomputers program.
_______________________________________________________________
10. Microsofthassoldalotofcreativesoftware.
______________________________________________________________
II.Changethesesentencestotheactiveverbs:
1. SomeflowersweresentbyPetertoMary.
___________________________________________________________
2. Themessageisopenedbythereceivers software.
____________________________________________________________
3. Thedocumentsweredeliveredbycourier.
____________________________________________________________
4. Oldtechnologyhasbeenreplacedbynewtechnology.
_____________________________________________________________
5. Virtualplatformareusedbytheteacherstohelptheirstudents.
_____________________________________________________________

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ANEXO#1
COMMONLYUSEDIRREGULARVERBS
PRESENT

PAST

PASTPARTICIPLE SPANISH

1. Arise

Arose

Arisen

Levantarse

2. Awake

Awoke

Awaken

Despertarse

3. be
4. Bear

Was/were
Bore

Been
Borne

Ser/estar
Soportar/producir

5. Beat
6. Become

Beat
Became

Beaten
Become

Golpear
Convertirse

7. Begin
8. Bend

Began
Bent

Begun
Bent

Comenzar
Doblar

9. Bet

Bet

Bet

Apostar

|0.Bind
11. Bite

Bound
Bit

Bound
Bitten

Atar/Unir
Morder

12. Bleed

Bled

Bled

Sangrar

13. Blow

Blew

Blown

Soplar

14. Bring

Brought

Brought

Traer

15. Build
16. Burn

Built
Burnt

Built
Burnt

Construir
Quemar

17. Burst
18. Buy

Burst
Bought

Burst
Bought

Remendar
Comprar

19. Cast

Cast

Cast

Lanzar/echar

20. Catch

Caught

Caught

Coger/agarrar

21. Choose

Chose

Chosen

Elegir/escoger

22. Come
23. Cost

Came
Cost

Come
Cost

Venir
Costar

24. Creep

Crept

Crept

Gatear/arrastrarse

25. Cut

Cut

Cut

Cortar

26. Dare

Dared

Dared

Osar/atreverse

27. Deal
28. Dig

Dealt
Dug

Dealt
Dug

Negociar
Cavar

29. Do
30. Draw

Did
Drew

Done
Drawn

Hacer
Dibujar

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31. Drink

Drank

Drunk

Beber

32. Drive

Drove

Driven

Conducir

33. Eat

Ate

Eaten

Comer

34. Fall

Fell

Fallen

Caer

35. Feed
36. Feel

Fed
Felt

Fed
Felt

Alimentar
Sentir

37. Fight

Fought

Fought

Pelear

38. Find
39. Fly

Found
Flew

Found
Flown

Encontrar
Volar

40. Forbide

Forbade

Forbidden

Prohibir

41. Forget

Forgot

Forgotten

Olvidar

42. Forgive
Forgave
43.
Freeze Froze

Forgiven
Frozen

Perdonar
congelar

44. Get

Got

Gotten

lograr/conseguir

45. Give
46. Go

Gave
Went

Given
Gone

dar
ir

47. Grind

Ground

Ground

moler

48. Grow(up)

Grew

Grown

cultivar/crecer

49. Hang

Hung

Hung

colgar

50. Have

Had

Had

tener

51. Hear

Heard

Heard

oir

52. Hide
53. Hit

Hid
Hit

Hidden
Hit

esconder
golpear

54. Hold
55. Hurt

Held
Hurt

Held
Hurt

abrazar/sostener
lastimar/herir

56. keep

Kept

Kept

guardar/mantener

57.Kneel
58. Know

Knelt
Knew

Knelt
Known

arrodillarse
saber/conocer

59. Lead
60. Lean

Led
Lent

Led
Leant

liderizar/guiar
apoyarse

61.Leave

Left

Left

salir/partir

62. Lend

Lent

Lent

prestar

63. Let

Let

Let

permitir

64. lie

Lay

Lain

echarse/yacer

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65. Light

Lit

Lit

encender

66. Lose

Lost

Lost

perder

67. Make

Made

Made

hacer/cometer

68. Mean

Meant

Meant

significar

69. Meet
70. Owe

Met
Owed

Met
Owed

conocer/encontrarse
deber(algo)

71. Pay

Paid

Paid

pagar

72. Put
73. Quit

Put
Quit

Put
Quit

poner
dejar/abandonar

74. Read

Read

Read

leer

75. Ride

Rode

Ridden

montar/subir

76. Ring
77. Rise

Rang
Rose

Rung
Risen

tocar/sonar
levantarse/surgir

78. Run

Run

Run

correr/administrar

79. Say
80. See

Said
Saw

Said
Seen

decir
ver

81. Seek

Sought

Sought

buscar

82. Shake
83. Sell

Shook

Shaken

sacudir/temblar

Sold

Sold

vender

84. Send
85. Set

Sent

Sent

enviar

Set

Set

colocar/instalar

86. Shave

shaved
shone

Shaven
Shone

rasurarse
brillar

shot
showed

Shot
Shown

disparar
mostrar

shrank

Shrunk

encoger

shut
sang

Shut
Sung

cerrar
cantar

sank
sat

Sunk
Sat

hundirse
sentarse

95. Sleep
96. Slide

slept

Slept

dormir

slid

Slid

resbalar

97. Slit

slit

Slit

rajar

98. Speak

spoke

Spoken

hablar

87. Shine
88. Shoot
89. Show
90. Shrink
91. Shut
92. Sing
93. Sink
94. Sit

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99. Speed

sped

Sped

acelerar

100.Spend

spent

Spent

pasar/gastar

101. Spin

spun

Spun

girar/darvueltas

102.Split

split

Split

desunir/rajar

103. Spread
104. Spring

spread

Spread

esparcir

105. Stand(up) sprang

Sprung

nacer/brotar

106. Steal
107. Stick

stood
stole

Stood
Stolen

pararse/aguantar
robar

108. Swear

stuck

Stuck

pegar/colar

109. Sweep

swore

Sworn

jurar

110. Swim
111. Swing

swept
swam

Swept
Swum

barrer
nadar

112. Take

swang

Swung

oscilar/columpiar

113. Teach
114. Tear

took
taught

Taken
Taught

tomar
ensear

115. Tell

tore

Torn

rasgar/despedazar

116. Think

told

Told

decir/contar

117. Throw

thought

Thought

pensar

118. Understand threw

Thrown

lanzar/tirar

119. Wake

understood

Understood

comprender

120. Wear
121. Weave

woke
wore

Waken
Worn

despertar
vestir/usar

122. Wed
123. Weep

wove
wed

Woven
Wed

tejer
casarse/unir

124. Wet

wept

Wept

llorar

125. Win
126. Wind

wet
won

Wet
Won

mojar/humedecer
ganar

127.Write

wound
wrote

Wound
Written

enrollar
escribir

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ANEXO#2. NUMBERS
CARDINALORDINAL
1one1st.first
2two2nd.Second
3
three3rd.Third
4.four4th.Fourth
5five5th.Fifth
6six6th.Sixth
7seven7th.Seventh
8eight

8th.Eighth

9nine9th.Nine
10ten10th.Tenth
11eleven
11th.Eleventh
12twelve12th.Twelfth
13thirteen13th.Thirteenth
14.fourteen
14th.Fourteenth
15fifteen15th.Fifteenth
16sixteen16th.Sistennth
17seventeen

17th.Seventeenth

18eighteen18th.Eighteenth
19nineteen19th.Nineteenth
20twenty20th.Twentieth
21twentyone21th.Twentyfirst
22twentytwo

22th.Twentysecond

23twentythree23th.Twentythird
24twentyfour24th.Twentyfourth,etc.
30thirty
30th.Thirtieth
40forty40th.Fortieth
50fifty50th.Fiftieth
60sixty60th.Sistieth
70seventy70th.Seventieth
80eighty

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80th Eightieth

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90ninety90th.Nienetieth
100onehundred100th.Onehundredth
200twohundrd200th.Twohundredth
1000onethousand.
10.000tenthousand
100.000onehundredthousand
1.000.000onemillion

ANEXO#3. WAYSOFSAYINGTHETIME
8:00Itseightoclock
Itseight
8:05Itseight oh five
Itsfive(minutes)aftereight
8:10Itseightten
Itstenminutesaftereight
8::15Itseightfifteen
Itsaquarteraftereight
8:30Itseightthirty
Itshalfpasteight
8:45Itseightfortyfive
Itsaquarteraftertonine
8:50Itseightfifty
Itsten(minutes)ofnime.
EXERCISE:Drawaclock withthetime showedabove:

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ANEXO # 4. DAYS OF THE WEEK, MONTHS OF THEYEAR AND THESEASONS OF THE


YEARS
DAYSOFTHEWEEK
Monday(Mon.)
Tuesday(Tues.)
Wednesday(Wed.)
Thursday(Thurs.)
Friday(Fri.)
Saturday(Sat.)
Sunday(Sun.)

MONTHSOFTHEYEARSEASONS
January(Jan.)Spring
February(Feb.)
Summer
March(Mar.)Fall
April(Apr.)Winter
May(May.)
June(June)
July(July)

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August(Aug.)
September(Sept.)
October(Oct.)
November(Nov.)
December(Dec.)
USINGNUMBERSTOWRITETHEDATE
Month/Day/Year
4/7/07=April7th.,2007
WRITTENFORM

SPOKENFORM

January1st.Januaryfirst/ThefirstofJanuary
March2nd.Marchsecond/ThesecondofMarch
October10th.Octobertenth/ThetenthofOctober.

ANEXO#5. PARTSOFTHEHUMANBODY
1. Ankle(Tobillo)
2. Arm(brazo)
3. Back(espalda)
4. Body(cuerpo)
5. Bust(pecho)
6. Chest(pecho)
7. Chin(barbilla)
8. Ear(odo)
9. Elbow(codo)
10. Eye(ojo)
11. Face(cara)

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12. Finger(dedo)
13. Foot(feeet=plural)(dedo)
14. Hair(cabello)
15. Hand(mano)
16. Head(cabeza)
17. Knee(rodilla)
18. Leg(pierna)
19. lip(labio)
20. Mouth(boca)
21. Neck(cuello)
22. Nose(nariz)
23. Shoulder(hombro)
24. Toe(dedodelpie).
25. Tooth(teeth=plural)(diente(s)
26. Tongue(lengua)
EXERCISE:
Drawahumanbodyandlabeltheparts.

ANEXO#6. CLOTHES
1.Dress(vestido)
2.Shirt(camisa)
3.TShirt(polera)
4.Skirt(falda)
5.Blouse(blusa)

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6..Blazer(Saco)
7.Coat(Abrigo)
8.Suit(Terno)
9.Pants(Pantalones)
10.Jeans(Bluejeans)
11.Slippers(pantuflas)
12.Underwear(ropainterior)
13.Socks(calcetines)
14.Shoes(zapatos)
15.Sandals(sandalias)
16.Boots(botas)
17.Jacket(Chaquetaochamarra)
18.Tie(corbata)
19.Scarf(chalinaoecharpe)
20.Hat(sombrero)
21.Trousers(pantalones)
22.Bra(debrassiere,sosten)
23.Panties(calzones)
24.Gloves(guantes)
25.TennisshoesZapatosdetennis)
25.Sneakers(zapatosdeportivos)
26.Raincoat(impermeable)
27.Sweater(chompa)
28.Highheelshoes(zapatosdetacones)
29.Smoking(trajedefiestaparahombre)
30.Pajamasorpijamas(piyamas)
EXERCISE:Cut pictures with people and write the name of the clothes they are
wearing.

Elaboradopor:Lic.BeatrizPol

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