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Sinh vin thc hin: NG QUANG HUY CHNG 1: GII THIU V IPV6 1.1 Nhng Hn Ch V Gii Hn Ca Ipv4: 1.1.

1 Nhng gii hn IPv4


IPv4 h tr trng a ch 32 bit, IPv4 ngy nay hu nh khng cn p ng c nhu cu s dng ca mng Internet. Hai vn ln m IPv4 ang phi i mt l vic thiu ht cc a ch, c bit l cc khng gian a ch tm trung (lp B) v vic pht trin v kch thc rt nguy him ca cc bng nh tuyn trong Internet. Thm vo , nhu cu t ng cu hnh (Auto-config) ngy cng tr nn cn thit. a ch IPv4 trong thi k u c phn loi da vo dung lng ca a ch (s lng a ch IPv4). a ch IPv4 c chia thnh 5 lp A, B, C, D. 3 lp u tin c s dng ph bin nht. Cc lp a ch ny khc nhau s lng cc bit dng nh ngha Network ID.

1.1.2 Nhng hn ch ca ipv4:

Cu trc nh tuyn khng hiu qu

a ch IPv4 c cu trc nh tuyn va phn cp, va khng phn cp.Mi b nh tuyn (router) phi duy tr bng thng tin nh tuyn ln, i hi router phi c dung lng b nh ln. IPv4 cng yu cu router phi can thip x l nhiu i vi gi tin IPv4, v d thc hin phn mnh, iu ny tiu tn CPU ca router v nh hng n hiu qu x l (gy tr, hng gi tin).

Hn ch v tnh bo mt v kt ni u cui u cui

Trong cu trc thit k ca IPv4 khng c cch thc bo mt no i km.IPv4 khng cung cp phng tin h tr m ha d liu.Kt qu l hin nay, bo mt mc ng dng c s dng ph bin, khng bo mt lu lng truyn ti gia cc my. Nu p dng IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) l mt phng thc bo mt ph bin ti tng IP, m hnh bo mt ch yu l bo mt lu lng gia cc mng, vic bo mt lu lng u cui u cui c s dng rt hn ch.

H thng a ch IPv4 hin nay khng c s thay i v c bn k t RFC 791 pht hnh 1981. Qua thi gian s dng cho n nay pht sinh cc yu t nh :

S pht trin mnh m ca h thng Internet dn n s cn kit v a ch

Ipv4 Nhu cu v phng thc cu hnh mt cch n gin Nhu cu v Security IP-Level Nhu cu h tr v thng tin vn chuyn d liu thi gian thc (Real time Delivery of Data) cn gi l Quality of Service (QoS)

1.2. Nguyn nhn v mc tiu pht trin ca IPv6: 1.2.1 Nguyn nhn pht trin ca IPv6: Nm 1973, TCP/IP c gii thiu v ng dng vo mng ARPANET.Vo thi im , mng ARPANET ch c khong 250 Site kt ni vi nhau, vi khong 750 my tnh.Internet v ang pht trin vi tc khng khip, n nay c hn 60 triu ngi dng trn ton th gii.Theo tnh ton ca gii chuyn mn, mng Internet hin nay ang kt ni hng trm nghn Site vi nhau, vi hng trm triu my tnh.Trong tng lai khng xa, nhng con s ny khng ch dng li . S pht trin nhanh chng ny i hi phi km theo s m rng, nng cp khng ngng ca c s h tng mng v cng ngh s dng. Bc sang nhng nm u ca th k XXI, ng dng ca Internet pht trin nhm cung cp dch v cho ngi dng trn cc thit b mi ra i: Notebook, Cellualar modem, Tablet, Smart-Phone, Smart TV c th a nhng khi nim mi da trn c s TCP/IP ny thnh hin thc, TCP/IP phi m rng.Nhng mt thc t m khng ch gii chuyn mn, m ngay c cc ISP cng nhn thc c l ti nguyn mng ngy cng hn hp.Vic pht trin v thit b, c s h tng, nhn lc khng phi l mt kh khn ln.Vn y l a ch IP, khng gian a ch IP cn kit, a ch IP (IPv4) khng th p ng nhu cu m rng mng .Bctin quan trng mang tnh chin lc i vi k hoch m rng ny l vic nghin cu cho ra i mt th h sau ca giao thc IP, chnh l IP version 6.

Hnh 1.1: Th gii sn sng cho IPv6 IPv6 ra i khng c ngha l ph nhn hon ton IPv4 (cng ngh m h tng mng chng ta ang dng ngy nay).V l mt phin bn hon ton mi ca cng ngh IP, vic nghin cu, ng

dng vo thc tin lun l mt thch thc rt ln. Mt trong nhng thch thc lin quan n kh nng tng thch gia IPv6 v IPv4, lin quan n vic chuyn i t IPv4 ln IPv6, lm th no m ngi dng c th khai thc nhng th mnh ca IPv6 nhng khng nht thit phi nng cp ng lot ton b mng (LAN, WAN, Internet) ln IPv6. 1.2.2 Mc tiu pht trin ca IPv6. Da trn cc nhc im bc l k trn, h thng IPv6 hay cn gi l IPng (Next Generation : th h k tip) c xy dng vi cc im chnh nh sau : nh dng phn Header ca cc gi tin theo dng mi Cc gi tin s dng Ipv6 c cu trc phn Header thay i nhm tng cng tnh hiu qu s dng thng qua vic di cc vng thng tin khng cn thit (non-essensial) v ty chn vo vng m rng (Extension Header Field) Cung cp khng gian a ch rng ln hn Cung cp gii php nh tuyn v nh v a ch hiu qu hnPhng thc cu hnh Host n gin v t ng ngay c khi c hoc khng c DHCP Server(stateful / stateless Host Configuration) Cung cp sn thnh phn Security (Built-in Security) H tr gii php chuyn giao u tin (Prioritized Delivery) trong Routing Cung cp Protocol mi trong vic tng tc gia cc im kt ni (Nodes ) C kh nng m rng d dng thng qua vic cho php to thm Header ngay sau Ipv6 Packet Header

1.3 C bn ca IPv6 Header

Hnh 1.2 Chi tit IPv6 Header. Cc trng c trong IPv6 Header : Version :Trng cha 4 bit 0110 ng vi s 6 ch phin bn ca IP. Traffic Class :Trng 8 bit tng ng vi trng Type of Service (ToS) trong IPv4. Trng ny c s dng biu din mc u tin ca gi tin, v d c nn c truyn vi tc nhanh hay thng thng, cho php thit b c th x l gi mt cch tng ng. Flow Label :Trng hon ton mi trong IPv6, c 20 bit chiu di. Trng ny biu din lung cho gi tin v c s dng trong cc k thut chuyn mch a

lp (multilayer switching), nh cc gi tin c chuyn mch nhanh hn trc. Bng cch s dng trng ny, ni gi gi tin hoc thit b hin thi c th xc nh mt chui cc gi tin thnh 1 dng, v yu cu dch v c th cho dng . Ngay c trong IPv4, mt s cc thit b giao tip cng c trang b kh nng nhn dng dng lu lng v gn mc u tin nht nh cho mi dng. Tuy nhin, nhng thit b ny khng nhng kim tra thng tin tng IP v d a ch ni gi v ni nhn, m cn phi kim tra c s port l thng tin thuc v tng cao hn. Trng Flow Label trong IPv6 c gng t tt c nhng thng tin cn thit vo cng nhau v cung cp chng ti tng IP. Payload Length :Trng 16 bit. Tng t trng Toal Length trong IPv4, xc nh tng kch thc ca gi tin IPv6 (khng cha header). Next Header :Trng 8 bit. Trng ny s xc nh xem extension header c tn ti hay khng, nu khng c s dng, header c bn cha mi thng tin tng IP. N s c theo sau bi header ca tng cao hn, tc l header ca TCP hay UDP, v trng Next Header ch ra loi header no s theo sau. Hop Limit :Trng 8 bit. Trng ny tng t trng Time to live ca IPv4. N c tc dng ch ra s hop ti a m gi tin IP c i qua. Qua mi hop hay router, gi tr ca trng s gim i 1. Source Address :Trng ny gm 16 octet (hay 128 bit), nh danh a ch ngun ca gi tin. Destination Address :Trng ny gm 16 octet (hay 128 bit), nh danh a ch ch ca gi tin.

Ngoi ra IPv6 Header cn c thm Extension Headers, l phn Header m rng. IPv6 ng dng mt h thng tch bit cc dch v gia tng khi cc dch v c bn v t chng trong header m rng (extension header), phn loi cc header m rng theo chc nng ca chng. Lm nh vy th s gim ti nhiu cho router, v thit lp nn c mt h thng cho php b sung mt cch linh ng cc chc nng.

Hnh 1.3: Th t header trong gi tin IPv6. Extension Headers bao gm 6 loi, khi s dng cng lc nhiu extension header, thng c mt khuyn ngh l t chng theo th t sau: Hop-by-HopOptions, Destination Options, Routing, Fragment, Authentication and Encapsulating Security Payload, Upper-layer.

Hop-by-Hop options header :

Header ny (gi tr = 0) xc nh mt chu trnh m cn c thc hin mi ln gi tin i qua mt router.

Destination Options header :

Header ny (gi tr = 60) c s dng nu c Routing Header. xc nh chu trnh cn thit phi x l bi Node ch. C th xc nh ti y bt c chu trnh no. Thng thng ch c nhng Node ch x l header m rng ca IPv6.Nh vy th cc header m rng khc v d Fragment header c th cng c gi l Destination Option header.Tuy nhin, Destination Option header khc vi cc header khc ch n c th xc nh nhiu dng x l khc nhau.Mobile IP thng s dng Header ny.

Routing header :

Routing header (gi tr = 43) c s dng xc nh ng dn nh tuyn. V d, c th xc nh nh cung cp dch v no s c s dng, v s thi hnh bo mt cho nhng mc ch c th.Node ngun s dng Routing header lit k a ch ca cc router m gi tin phi i qua. Cc a ch trong lit k ny c s dng nh a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6 theo th t c lit k v gi tin s c gi t router ny n router khc tng ng.

Fragment header :

Fragment header c s dng khi ngun gi gi tin IPv6 gi i gi tin ln hn Path MTU, ch xem lm th no khi phc li c gi tin t cc phn mnh ca n. MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) l kch thc ca gi tin ln nht c th gi qua mt ng dn c th no . Trong mi trng mng nh Internet, bng thng hp gia ngun v ch gy ra vn nghim trng. C gng gi mt gi tin ln qua mt ng dn hp s lm qu ti. Trong a ch IPv4, mi router trn ng dn c th tin hnh phn mnh chia gi tin theo gi tr ca MTU t cho mi interface. Tuy nhin, chu trnh ny p t mt gnh nng ln router. Bi vy trong a ch IPv6, router khng thc hin phn mnh gi tin (cc trng lin quan n phn mnh trong header IPv4 u c b i).

Authentication and Encapsulating Security Payload header :

Authentication header (gi tr = 51) v ESP header (gi tr = 50) c s dng trong IPSec xc thc, m bo tnh ton vn v tnh bo mt ca 1 gi tin, c s dng xc nh nhng thng tin lin quan n m ho d liu.

Upper-layer header :

Trng ny c xem l header quy nh trng trn tng IP, xc nh cch thc dch chuyn gi tin. 2 giao thc dch chuyn chnh l TCP (gi tr = 6) v UDP (gi tr = 17). 1.4.Bng so snh s khc nhau gia IPv4 v IPv6.

CHNG 2: CHI TIT CU TRC IPv6 Sinh vin thc hin: NG QUANG HUY Link baif trc: http://vnpro.org/forum/showthread.php/49707-THIT-LP-CU-HNHCHUYN-I-IPv4--IPv6 2.1 Cch biu din v cu trc a ch IPv6. 2.1.1 Cch biu din a ch IPv6. Ngi ta khng biu din a ch IPv6 di dng s thp phn. a ch IPv6 c vit hoc theo 128 bit nh phn, hoc thnh mt dy ch s hexa. Tuy nhin, nu vit mt dy s 128 bit nh phn qu l khng thun tin, v nh chng th khng th. Do vy, a ch IPv6 c biu din di dng mt dy ch s hexa. biu din 128 bit nh phn IPv6 thnh dy ch s hexa decimal, ngi ta chia 128 bit ny thnh cc nhm 4 bit, chuyn i tng nhm 4 bit thnh s hexa tng ng v nhm 4 s hexa thnh mt nhm phn cch bi du :. Kt qu, mt a ch IPv6 c biu din thnh mt dy s gm 8 nhm s hexa cch nhau bng du :, mi nhm gm 4 ch s hexa.

2.1.2 Cu trc ca mt a ch IPv6. Cu trc chung ca mt a ch IPv6 thng thy nh sau (mt s dng a ch IPv6 khng tun theo cu trc ny):

Hnh 2.1 : Cu trc thng thy ca mt a ch IPv6. Trong 128 bit a ch IPv6, c mt s bit thc hin chc nng xc nh:

Bit xc nh loi a ch IPv6 (bit tin t - prefix.).

Nh cp, a ch IPv6 c nhiu loi khc nhau.Mi loi a ch c chc nng nht nh trong phc v giao tip. phn loi a ch, mts bit u trong a ch IPv6 c dnh ring xc nh dng a ch, c gi l cc bit tin t (prefix). Cc bit tin t ny s quyt nh a ch thuc loi no v s lng a ch trong khng gian chung IPv6. V d: 8 bit tin t 1111 1111 tc FF xc nh dng a ch multicast, l dng a ch s dng khi mt Node mun giao tip ng thi vi nhiu Node khc. a ch multicast chim 1/256 khng gian a ch IPv6. Ba bit tin t 001 xc nh dng a ch unicast (dng a ch cho giao tip mt - mt) nh danh ton cu, tng ng nh a ch IPv4 cng cng chng ta vn thng s dng hin nay. 2.1.3 Khng gian a ch. a ch IPv6 (IPv6 Adddress) vi 128 bits a ch cung cp khi lng tng ng s thp phn l : 2128 hoc 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,45 6 a ch so vi IPv4 vi 32 bits a ch cung cp khi lng tng ng s thp phn l 232 hoc 4,294,967,296 a ch. 2.1.4 Hnh thc trnh by. IPv6 Address gm 8 nhm, mi nhm 16 bits c biu din dng s Thp lc phn (HexaDecimal). Vd-1 : 2001:0DB8:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) C th n gin ha vi quy tc sau :

Cho php b cc s khng (0) nm pha trc trong mi nhm Thay bng 1 s 0 cho nhm c gi tr bng khng Thay bng :: cho cc nhm lin tip c gi tr bng khng

Nh vy a ch Vd-1 c th vit li nh sau : Vd-2 : 2001:DB8:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A Vd-3 : a ch = FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2

C th vit li = FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 2.2 Phn loi a ch IPv6. 2.2.1 Unicast. Unicast Address dng nh v mt Interface trong phm vi cc Unicast Address. Gi tin (Packet) c ch n l Unicast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n 1 Interface duy nht. 2.2.2 Multicast. Multicast Address dng nh v nhiu Interfaces. Packet c ch n l Multicast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n tt c cc Interfaces c cng Multicast Address 2.2.3 Anycast. Anycast Address dng nh v nhiu Interfaces. Tuy vy, Packet c ch n l Anycast Address s thng qua Routing chuyn n mt Interfaces trong s cc Interface c cng Anycast Address, thng thng l Interface gn nht (khi nim Gn y c tnh theo khong cch Routing). Trong cc trng hp nu trn, IPv6 Address c cp cho Interface ch khng phi Node, mt Node c th c nh v bi mt trong s cc Interface Address. IPv6 khng c dng Broadcast, cc dng Broadcast trong IPv4 c xem nh tng ng Multicast trong Ipv6. 2.3 Unicast address. Trong loi a ch ny c rt nhiu kiu,chng ta hy xem mt s kiu chnh sau y. 2.3.1 Link-Local Address (LLA). a ch n hng dng ni b,c s dng cho mt t chc c mng my tnh ring ( dng ni b ) cha ni vi mng internet ton cu hin ti nhng sn sng ni c khi cn. a ch ny chia thnh 2 kiu Link Local: nhn dng ng kt ni ni b. Site Local :nhn dng trong phm vi ni b c th c nhiu nhm.

Mu a ch cho Link local.

64 bits u = FE80 l gi tr c nh (Prefix = FE80 :: / 64) Interface ID = gm 64 bits . Kt hp vi Physical Address ca Netwoprk Adapter

Mu a ch cho Site local.

Cc bit u tin 10 bit u c gi l prefix dng phn bit cc loi, cc kiu a ch khc nhau trong IPv6. Cc interface ID trong cc trng hp trn nhn dng thit b Node hay router nhng s dng tn min. 2.3.2 Site-Local Addresses (SLA). SLA tng t cc a ch Private IPv4 (10.X.X.X, 172.16.X.X, 192.168.X.X) c s dng trong h thng ni b (Intranet). Phm vi s dng SLA l trong cng Site. (*) Site : l khi nim ch mt phn ca h thng mng ti cc ta a l khc nhau

1111 1110 11 = 10 bits u l gi tr c nh (Prefix = FEC0 /10) Subnet ID : gm 54 bits dng xc ng cc Subnets trong cng Site Interface ID : gm 64 bits. L a ch ca Interfaces trong Subnet

2.3.3 Site-Local Addresses (SLA). GUA l a ch IPv6 Internet (tng t Public IPv4 Address). Phm vi nh v ca GUA l ton b h thng IPv6 Internet (RFC 3587).

3bits u lun c gi tr = 001 nh phn (Binary bin) (Prefix = 001 /3) Global Routing Prefix : gm 45 bits. L a ch c cp cho mt t chc, Cng ty / C quan khi ng k IPv6 Internet Address (Public IP). Subnet ID : gm 16 bits. L a ch t cp trong t chc to cc Subnets Interface ID : gm 64 bits. L a ch ca Interface trong SubnetC th n gin ha thnh dng nh sau (Global Routing Prefix = 48 bits).

2.3.4 Unique- local addresses (ULA). i vi cc Organization c nhiu Sites, Prefix ca SLA c th b trng lp. C th thay th SLA bng ULA (RFC 4193), ULA l a ch duy nht ca mt Host trong h thng c nhiu Sites vi cu trc:

1111 110 : 7 bits u l gi tr c nh FC00/7. L=0 : Local Prefix =FC00 /8 Glocal ID : a ch Site (Site ID). C th gn ty Subnet ID : a ch Subnet trong Site

Vi cu trc ny, ULA s tng t GUA v khc nhau phn Prefix nh sau: 2.4 Multicast address. Trong a ch IPv6 khng cn tn ti khi nim a ch Broadcast. Mi chc nng ca a ch Broadcast trong IPv4 c m nhim thay th bi a ch IPv6 Multicast.

Hnh2.2 : Cu trc a ch Multicast Address

a ch IPv6 Multicast c nh ngha vi prefix l FF::/8 .

T FF00::n FF0F:: l a ch dnh ring c quy nh bi IANA s dng cho mc ch multicast. Octet th hai ch ra c v phm vi ca a ch multicast.

Flag xc nh thi gian sng ca a ch. C 2 gi tr ca flag :


Flag = 0 : a ch multilcast vnh vin. Flag = 1 : a ch multilcast tm thi.

Scope ch ra phm vi hot ng ca a ch. C 7 gi tr ca Scope :


Scope = 1 : Interface-local. Scope = 2 : Link-local. Scope = 3 : Subnet-local. Scope = 4 : Admin-local. Scope = 5 : Site-local. Scope = 8 : Organization. Scope = E : Global.

Ngoi ra a ch IPv6 Multicast cn c quy nh gi tr ca cc bit cui xc nh i tng thuc phm vi ca Multicast Address Bng m t cc loi a ch IPv6 Multicast.

FF02::1:FFXX:XXXXl dng a ch Multicast vi vai tr l cc Solicited-node(thay cho ARP ca IPv4) dng phn gii a ch IPv6 thnh a ch MAC ca cc Node trong cng 1 vng ( y vng trong v d l Link-local). 2.5 Anycast Address. a ch anycast c gn cho nhiu giao din. Cc gi mang a ch anycast c chuyn tip bi c s h tng nh tuyn ti giao din gn nht m c gn a ch anycast. phn b gi thun tin, c s h tng nh tuyn phi nhn bit c cc giao din c gn a ch anycast v khong cch ca chng trong thut ng metric nh tuyn. S nhn bit ny c thc hin bi cc tuyn chnh i qua mt phn c s h tng nh tuyn ca mng m khng th nm bt c a ch anycast ang s dng tin t tuyn. V d, i vi a ch anycast 3FFE:2900: D005:6187:2AA:FF:FE89: 6B9A, tuyn chnh cho a ch ny c truyn trong c s h tng nh tuyn ca t chc c gn tin t 48 bit 3FFE:2900:

D005::/48. V mt nt c gn a ch anycast ny c th c t mi v tr trong mng Internet ca t chc, cc tuyn ngun cho tt c cc nt c a ch anycast ny c yu cu trong cc bng nh tuyn ca tt c cc b nh tuyn. Bn ngoi ca t chc, a ch anycast c s dng bi t chc c tin t 3FFE:2900: D005 ::/48. V vy, cc tuyn chnh c yu cu phn b gi IPv6 ti thnh vin trong nhm a ch anycast gn nht trong mng Internet ca t chc th khng c yu cu trong c s h tng nh tuyn ca IPv6 Internet. a ch anycast ch c s dng nh a ch ch v ch c gn cho cc b nh tuyn. a ch anycast c n nh ngoi khong a ch unicast v phm vi ca a ch anycast l phm vi ca loi a ch unicast m t a ch anycast c n nh. N khng c kh nng xc nh nu a ch unicast ch cng l a ch anycast. Ch cc nt c kh nng nhn bit iu ny l cc b nh tuyn s dng tuyn chnh chuyn tip lu lng anycast ti thnh vin nhm anycast gn nht v cc thnh vin trong nhm anycast.

a ch Subnet - Router Anycast.

a ch Subnet - Router Anycast c nh ngha trong RFC 2373 v l a ch c yu cu. N c to bi tin t mng con cho mt giao din c th. Khi a ch Subnet - Router Anycast c to ra, cc bit trong tin t mng con c c nh ti cc gi tr thch hp ca chng v cc bit cn li c thit lp = 0. Hnh 3.8, gii thiu cu trc ca a ch Subnet - Router Anycast.

Hnh 2.3:Cu trc ca a ch Subnet - Router Anycast Tt c cc giao din b nh tuyn trong mng con c gn a ch Subnet - Router Anycast cho mng con . a ch Subnet - Router Anycast c s dng thng tin vi b nh tuyn gn nht m kt ni vi mt mng con c th.

CHNG 3: ROUTING PROTOCOL CHO IPv6 3.1 nh tuyn cho lin mng IPv6. Tng t nh cc IPv4 Node, cc IPv6 Node s dng mt bng nh tuyn IPv6 cc b quyt nh cch truyn packet i. Cc entry trong bng nh tuyn cto mt cch mc nh khi IPv6 khi to v cc entry khc s c thm vo khi nhn c cc gi tin Router Advertisement cha cc prefix v cc route, hay qua vic cu hnh tnh bng tay. 3.1.1 Bng nh tuyn IPv6. 1. Cc c tnh.

Mt bng nh tuyn s c mt trn tt c cc node chy giao thc IPv6. Bng nh tuyn lu nhng thng tin v cc subnet (mng con) ca mng v mt next hop (im tip theo) c th n c subnet . Trc khi bng nh tuyn c kim tra, th b nh ch n s c kim tra xem c nhng entry no trong khp vi a ch ch c trong IPv6 header ca gi tin hay khng.Nu khng c th bng nh tuyn s c s dng quyt nh. Interface c s dng truyn gi tin (next hop interface). Interface xc nh Interface vt l hay lun l c s dng truyn gi tin n ch ca n hay router tip theo. a ch Next hop: vi nhng ch nm trn cng mt lin kt cc b th a ch Next hop chnh l a ch ch ca gi tin. Vi nhng ch khng nm cng subnet th a ch Next hop chnh l a ch ca mt router. Sau khi interface v a ch ca Next hop c xc nh th node s cp nht b nh cache mi. Cc gi tin tip theo s c truyn n ch s dng cache ny i ti ch m khng phi kim tra bng nh tuyn. 1. Cc loi entry trong bng nh tuyn IPv6. Cc entry trong bng nh tuyn IPv6 c s dng lu nhng loi ng sau:

Cc ng c kt ni trc tip. Nhng route ny l nhng prefix cho nhng subnet c kt ni trc tip v thng l c kch thc prefix l 64 bit. Nhng route ca cc mng xa: nhng route ny l nhng prefix ca nhng mng khng c kt ni trc tip nhng c th n c qua cc router khc. Nhng route ny l nhng prefix cho mt subnet (thng c prefix l /64) hay l prefix cho mt tm a ch (thng c prefix nh hn 64). Cc route ca host: mt host route l mt route cho mt a ch IPv6 xc nh. Vi cc host route th prefix l mt a ch IPv6 xc nh vi prefix l 128 bit. Default route: c s dng khi mt mng khng c tm thy ng i trong bng nh tuyn. C prefix l ::/0

1. Qu trnh nh tuyn. quyt nh s s dng entry no trong bng nh tuyn truyn gi tin th IPv6 s dng cc qu trnh sau :

Vi mi entry trong mt bng nh tuyn, n s so snh cc bit trong network prefix vi cng cc bit trong a ch ch vi s bit s c xc nh bi prefix ca route. Nu tt c u khp th route s l la chn cho ch. Danh sch cc route c khp s c x l li. Route c chiu di prefix ln nht s c chn (theo quy tc longest match). Longest match route s l route tt nht cho ch. Nu nhiu entry cng tho mn (cng prefix) th router s chn route no c metric nh nht (theo quy tc lowest metric). Nu c hai thng s trn u trng th router s chn 1 s dng.

Vi mt ch bt k cho trc, th qu trnh trn l kt qu ca vic tm route theo th t sau: Mt host route khp vi ton b a ch ch. Mt network route vi prefix ln nht khp vi a ch ch. Default router.

Route c chn s c interface v a ch ca Next hop. Nu qu trnh nh ng trn host tht bi th IPv6 s gi s rng ch c th n c mt cch cc b. Cn nu vic nh tuyn trn router tht bi th IPv6 s gi mt ICMP Destination Unreachable-No Route to Destination v cho my gi v b gi tin. 3.2 nh tuyn tnh. 3.2.1 Cc c tnh. nh tuyn tnh trn IPv6 khng khc bit nhiu so vi nh tuyn tnh trn IPv4. nh tuyn tnh c cu hnh bng tay v xc nh mt ng i r rng gia hai Node mng. Khng ging nh cc giao thc nh tuyn ng, nh tuyn tnh khng c t ng cp nht v phi c ngi qun tr cu hnh li nu hnh trng mng c s thay i. Li ch ca vic s dng nh tuyn tnh l bo mt v hiu qu ti nguyn ca Router.nh tuyn tnh s dng bng thng t hn cc giao thc nh tuyn ng v khng i hi qu cao nng lc ca CPU tnh ton cc tuyn ng ti u. Bt li chnh khi s dng nh tuyn tnh l khng th t ng cu hnh li nu c thay i v cu trc lin kt mng. V bt li th 2 l khng tn ti mt thut ton no chng loop cho nh tuyn tnh. nh tuyn tnh cn c s dng cho cc mng nh ch vi mt ng duy nht n h thng mng bn ngoi.V cung cp bo mt cho mt mng ln hn nhm m bo mt vi thng lng n cc mng khc c kim sot hn. Nhn chung, hu ht cc h thng mng s dng giao thc nh tuyn ng giao tip gia cc Node mng nhng c th c mt hoc vi tuyn c cu hnh nh tuyn tnh cho mc ch c bit. 3.2.2 Cu hnh static route IPv6. Trn cc thit b Cisco, dng cu lnh ipv6 route trong mode config cu hnh static route. C php: ipv6 routeipv6-prefix/prefix-length {ipv6-address | interface-type interface-number[ipv6address]} [administrative-distance] [administrative-multicast-distance | unicast |multicast] [tag tag] V d : ipv6 route 2001:0DB8::/32 serial 0/1/1

Cu hnh nh tuyn tnh cho gi tin n a ch 2001:0DB8::/32 s i qua interface serial 0/1/1

Cc loi static route IPv6 nh tuyn tnh IPv6 c 4 loi sau:

Directly Attached Static Routes : y l loi static route vi duy nht Interface c ch nh l u ra ca ch n.

V d : ipv6 route 2001:0DB8:3A6B::/48 FastEthernet 0/1 Tt c gi tin c a ch ch l 2001:0DB8:3A6B::/48 s c y ra interface FastEthernet 0/1.

Recursive Static Routes : Recursive Static Routes ch ra trc tip a ch ca Next hop.

V d : ipv6 route 2001:0DB8::/32 2001:0BD8:3000::1 Tt c gi tin c a ch ch l 2001:0DB8::/32 c th truy cp thng qua Next hop c a ch l 2001:0BD8:3000::1

Fully Specified Static Routes : Static route loi ny ch ra c Interface u ra v a ch ca Next hop.

V d :ipv6 route 2001:0DB8::/32 FastEthernet1/0 2001:0DB8:3000:1

Floating Static Routes : L loi nh tuyn c cu hnh d phng cho cc giao thc nh tuyn ng. Tham s AD ca mt Floating Static Routes s cao hn AD ca giao thc nh tuyn ng cn d phng. Nu ng nh tuyn ng b mt, ngay lp tc floating static route s c s dng thay th nh tuyn cho ng .

V d: ipv6 route 2001 B8::/32 ethernet1/0 2001:0DB8:3000:1 210 Lu : Ba loi static route IPv6 trn u c th c s dng l floating static route. Ch cn cu hnh AD cao hn AD ca loi dynamic route cn c d phng. 3.3 Cc giao thc nh tuyn ng trong IPv6. 3.3.1 RIPng ( RIP Next Generation ). Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng - RFC 2080) l mt giao thc nh tuyn theo vector khong cch vi s hop gii hn l 15. S dng cc k thut split-horizon, poison reverse, hold-down timer, triggered updates ngn chn tnh trng lp vng nh tuyn. RIPng bao gm cc tnh nng sau y:

Tng t vi RIP v RIPv2 cho a ch IPv4, RIPng s dng giao thc nh tuyn da trn gii thut Bellman-Ford. S dng IPv6 cho vn chuyn. Bao gm IPv6 prefix v a ch IPv6 ca hop tip theo. S dng a ch FF02::9 l a ch multicast cho tt c cc RIP-Router. FF02::9 c xem nh a ch ch cho tt c cc gi tin RIP updates. Gi thng tin update trn UDP port 521.

Hnh 3.1:nh dng gi tin RIPng.


Command : Loi thng ip. 0x01 l thng ip Request, 0x02 l thng ip Response. Version : Phin bn ca RIPng. Hin ti ch l 0x01. Route table entry (RTE) : gi tr bng nh tuyn. C 2 nh dng RTE cho RIPng:

Hnh 3.2:Next hop RTE


Next hop RTE : nh ngha a ch IPv6 ca hop tip theo. IPv6 prefix RTE : M t a ch IPv6 ch, route tag, chiu di prefix v metric trong bng nh tuyn RIPng.

Hnh3.3IPv6 prefix RTE. 3.3.2 EIGRP cho IPv6. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(EIGRP) l phin bn cao cp ca IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) c pht trin bi Cisco do n l giao thc nh tuyn ch hot ng c trn cc thit b ca Cisco. EIGRP s dng thut ton Distance Vector v thng tin distance ging vi IGRP.Tuy nhin EIGRP c hi t v vn hnh hn hn IGRP. K thut hi t ny c nghin cu ti SRI International v s dng mt thut ton c gi l Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) - thut ton cp nht khuch tn. Thut ton ny m bo loop-free hot ng trong sut qu trnh tnh ton ng i v cho php tt c cc thit b lin quan tham gia vo qu trnh ng b Topology trong cng mt thi im. Nhng router khng b nh hng bi s thay i topology s khng tham gia vo qu trnh tnh ton li. EIGRP cung cp nhng kiu mu c trng sau y:

Tng rng ca mng.

Vi Rip, chiu rng ti a ca mng l 15 hop. Khi EIGRP c khi ng, chiu rng ti a ca mng c nng ln ti a l 224 hop. V s metric ca EIGRP ln h tr hng nghn hop, cho nn ro cn duy nht m rng h tng mng l tng Transport. Cisco x l vn ny bng cch tng trng ca Transport Control.

Hi t nhanh.

Thut ton DUAL cho php thng tin nh tuyn hi t nhanh nh cc giao thc khc.

Cp nht tng phn.

EIGRP s gi thng tin cp nht gia tng khi trng thi ca ch n b thay i thay v gi ton b thng tin cp nht.

C ch tm hiu v router ln cn.

y l c ch n gin hc v nhng router ln cn v l 1 giao thc c lp.

EIGRP s dng cho h thng mng ln.

B lc route.

EIGRP cho ipv6 cung cp b lc route bng cch s dng cu lnh distribute-list prefix-list. EIGRP cho IPv6 gm 4 thnh phn c bn sau:

Neighbor discovery.

Neighbor discovery l qu trnh m router t ng hc v nhng router khc m n kt ni trc tip trong mng.Router cng pht hin ra cc router ln cn khng th kt ni c hoc khng hot ng.EIGRP neighbor cng pht hin ra nhng router ln cn hot ng tr li bi v nhng router ln cn s gi tr li hello packet.Vi cc hello packet, IOS ca cisco c th xc nh c router ln cn cn sng v hot ng.Mt khi tnh trng ny c xc nh, cc b nh tuyn ln cn c th trao i thng tin nh tuyn.

Reliable transport protocol.

Reliable transport protocol l giao thc c th tin cy trong vic vn chuyn cc gi EIGRP ti nhng router ln cn. N h tr truyn gi tin multicast ln unicast.Mt s gi tin EIGRP phi c gi ng tin cy v mt s khc th khng.V hiu qu, tin cy c cung cp ch khi cn thit. V d, trn mt mng a truy cp, c nhng tnh nng multicast (nh Ethernet) n khng phi l cn thit gi gi tin hello 1 cch tin cy cho tt c cc router ln cn. Do , EIGRP gi 1 gi tin multicast hello vi mt ch dn trong gi tin thng bo cho bn nhn rng gi tin khng cn c cng nhn. Vic vn chuyn tin cy c mt iu khon gi gi tin multicast mt cch nhanh chng khi cc gi tin khng c cng nhn ang ch gii quyt. Quy nh ny gip m bo rng thi gian hi t vn cn thp trong s hin din ca cc lin kt tc khc nhau.

DUAL finite state machine.

DUAL finite state machine l c ch tiu biu cho qu trnh ra quyt nh cho tt c cc tnh ton l trnh. N theo di tt c cc tuyn ng c qung b bi tt c cc router ln cn. DUAL s dng s metric bao gm khong cch v thng tin chi ph la chn hiu qu cc ng i khng b lp.Khi nhiu tuyn ng n mt router tn ti, DUAL s xc nh tuyn ng c metric thp nht, v lu tuyn ng ny vo bng nh tuyn.Cc tuyn ng khc c th n router ny vi s metric ln hn, DUAL s xc nh khong cch bo co cho mng ny.

The protocol-dependent.

Cc module giao thc c lp ph thuc vo cc lp mng c th.Mt v d l cc module EIGRP c trch nhim cho vic gi v nhn cc gi tin EIGRP c gi gn trong IPv4 hoc IPv6.N cng chu trch nhim phn tch cc gi tin EIGRP v bo cho DUAL cc thng tin mi nhn c.EIGRP yu cu DUAL phi c ra quyt nh nh tuyn, kt qu c lu trong bng routing ipv6. 3.3.3 OSPFv3 cho IPv6. OSPF l mt giao thc nh tuyn theo trng thi ng lin kt c trin khai da trn cc

chun m. OSPF c m t trong nhiu RFC ca IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).Chun m y c ngha l OSPF c s dng trn tt c thit b nh tuyn ca nhiu nh sn xut khc nhau, khng c tnh c quyn. Nu so snh vi RIP version 1 v version 2 th OSPF l mt giao thc nh tuyn ni (IGP) tt hn v kh nng m rng ca n. RIP ch gii hn trong 15 hop, hi t chm v i khi chn ng c tc chm v khi quyt nh chn ng n khng quan tm n cc yu t quan trng khc nh bng thng. OSPF khc phc c cc nhc im ca RIP v n l mt giao thc nh tuyn mnh, c kh nng m rng, ph hp vi cc h thng mng hin i. OSPF c th c cu hnh t n vng cho mng nh cho n a vng s dng cho cc mng va v ln.

Hot ng ca OSPFv3.

OSPFv3 l mt giao thc nh tuyn cho IPv6. Hot ng ca n vn da trn OSPFv2 v c gia tng thm mt s tnh nng. OSPF l mt giao thc nh tuyn ng lin kt (link-state), tri ngc vi mt giao thc vector khong cch. y, mt link nh l mt Interface trn thit b mng.Mt giao thc link-state quyt nh tuyn ng da trn trng thi ca cc lin kt kt ni t ngun n ch. Trng thi ca mt lin kt c m t l mi quan h hng xm ca interface vi cc thit b mng ln cn. Cc thng tin interface bao gm cc IPv6 prefix caInterface, cc loi mng m n c kt ni ti, cc b nh tuyn kt ni vi mng . Thng tin ny c lan truyn trong cc gi tin gi l Link-state advertisements (LSAs). Mt tp cc d liu LSA trn mi router c lu tr trong mt c s d liu link-state (LSDB). Ni dung t c s d liu c s dng cho thut ton Dijkstra, kt qu cui cng l to ra cc bng nh tuyn OSPF.

CHNG4 :CC QUI TC CHUYN I GIA IPv4 v IPv6 Chuyn i s dng t mng IPv4 sang mng IPv6 khng phi l mt cng vic d dng hay c th thc hin ngay c. Trong trng hp th tc IPv6 c chun ha, hon thin v hot ng tt, vic chuyn i c th c thc y thc hin trong mt thi gian nht nh i vi mt mng nh, mng ca mt t chc.Tuy nhin kh c th thc hin ngay c vi mt mng ln. i vi INTERNET ton cu, vic chuyn i ngay lp tc t IPv4 sang IPv6 l mt iu khng th.

Hnh 4.1:S chuyn i gia mng IPv4 v IPv6. a ch IPv6 c pht trin khi IPv4 c s dng rng ri, mng li IPv4 Internet hon thin v hot ng n nh. Trong qu trnh trin khai th h a ch IPv6 trn mng Internet, khng th c mt thi im nht nh no m a ch IPv4 b hy b, IPv6 v IPv4 s phi cng tn ti trong mt thi gian rt di. Trong qu trnh pht trin ca mnh, cc kt ni IPv6 s tn dng c s h tng sn c ca IPv4. Do vy cn c nhng cng ngh phc v cho vic chuyn i t a ch IPv4 sang a ch IPv6. Phn ny s gii thiu ba cng ngh chuyn i c s dng ph bin hin nay l :

Dual Stack : Cho php IPv4 v IPv6 cng hot ng trong mt thit b mng. Tunnelling : Cng ngh ng hm, s dng c s h tng mng IPv4 truyn ti gi tin IPv6, phc v cho kt ni IPv6. NAT-PT : Thc cht l mt dng thc cng ngh NAT, cho php thit b ch h tr IPv6 c th giao tip vi thit b ch h tr IPv4.

4.1 Dual stack. Dual-stack l hnh thc thc thi TCP/IP bao gm c tng IP ca IPv4 v IP ca IPv6. Thit b h tr c 2 giao thc IPv4 v IPv6, cho php h iu hnh hay ng dng la chn mt trong hai giao thc cho tng phin lin lc (Theo tiu chun mc nh l u tin cho IPv6 ni c th s dng IPv6).

Hnh 4.2:M hnh Dual stack

Rt nhiu ng dng v thit b hin nay hot ng dual-stack, v d : h iu hnh Windows, Linux, h iu hnh trn cc thit b nh tuyn Cisco, Juniper

Dual-stack trong h iu hnh Windows :

Thc t, th tc IPv6 trong h iu hnh Windows cha phi l dual-stack ng ngha.Driver ca th tc IPv6 (tcpip6.sys) cha hai thc thi tch bit ca TCP/UDP.

Hnh 4.3 Dual-stack trong Windows.

Dual-stack trong Cisco:

Trn router Cisco, nu ng thi c cu hnh c hai dng a ch IPv4 v IPv6 trong cng mt interface th n s hot ng dual-stack.

Hnh 4.4 Dual-stack trong Cisco. 4.2 Tuneling. 4.2.1 Hot ng ca tunneling. Tunneling l cng ngh s dng c s h tng ca mng IPv4 truyn ti gi tin IPv6, phc v cho kt ni IPv6. a ch IPv6 pht trin khi Internet IPv4 s dng rng ri v c mt mng li ton cu. Trong thi im rt di ban

u, cc mng IPv6 s ch l nhng c o, thm ch l nhng host ring bit trn c mt mng li IPv4 rng ln. Lm th no nhng mng IPv6, hay thm ch nhng host IPv6 ring bit ny c th kt ni vi nhau, hoc kt ni vi mng Internet IPv6 khi chng ch c ng kt ni IPv4. S dng chnh c s h tng mng IPv4 kt ni IPv6 l mc tiu ca cng ngh Tunneling.

Hnh 4.5:Cng ngh tunneling. Cng ngh Tunneling l mt phng php s dng c s h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 thc hin cc kt ni IPv6 bng cch s dng cc thit b mng c kh nng hot ng dual-stack ti hai im u v cui nht nh. Cc thit b ny ng gi gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 v truyn ti i trong mng IPv4 ti im u v g b gi tin IPv4, nhn li gi tin IPv6 ban u ti im ch cui ng truyn IPv4. Tc l thit lp mt ng kt ni o (mt ng hm) ca IPv6 trn c s h tng mng IPv4. 4.2.2 Phn loi cng ngh ng hm. Ty theo cng ngh ng hm, cc im bt u v kt thc ng hm c th c cu hnh bng tay bi ngi qun tr, hoc t ng suy ra t a ch ngun v a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6, ng hm s c dng kt ni im im hay im a im. Da theocch thc thit lp im u v cui ng hm, cng ngh ng hm c th phn thnh hai loi: Tunnel bng tay (configured) v Tunnel t ng (automatic).

Tunnel bng tay (Configured).

Tunnel bng tay l hnh thc to ng hm kt ni IPv6 trn c s h tng mng IPv4, trong i hi phi c cu hnh bng tay ti cc im kt thc ng hm. Trong ng hm cu hnh bng tay, cc im kt cui ng hm ny s khng c suy ra t cc a ch nm trong a ch ngun v a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6.

Tunnel t ng (Automatic).

Tunnel t ng l cng ngh to ng hm trong khng i hi cu hnh a ch IPv4 ca im bt u v kt thc ng hm bng tay. a ch IPv4 ca im bt u v kt thc ng hm c suy ra t a ch ngun v a

ch ch ca gi tin IPv6. 4.2.3 Mt s cng ngh to ng hm: a) Cu hnh ng hm bng tay: y l hnh thc to ng hm c p dng khi mun c mt kt ni n nh, ring bit, thng gia hai mng IPv6, c kt ni IPv4 thng qua hai b nh tuyn router bin. Nu hai router bin ny c kh nng hot ng dualstack, ngi ta c th cu hnh bng tay mt ng hm gia hai router bin nhm kt ni hai mng IPv6 s dng c s h tng mng IPv4. ng hm bng tay cng c s dng cu hnh gia router v my tnh nhm kt ni mt my tnh IPv6 vo mt mng IPv6 t xa. Cu hnh bng tay ng hm gia my tnh v router c p dng trong cng ngh Tunnel Broker, cp chi tit ti mc sau. Trn hai thit b ti hai im bt u v kt thc ng hm, ngi qun tr s cu hnh bng tay giao din tunnel; a ch IPv4, a ch IPv6 gn cho giao din tunnel ti cc thit b c cu hnh bng tay cng vi tuyn (route) cc lu lng IPv6 i qua giao din tunnel. Trong trng hp mt t chc c hai phn mng IPv6 ti hai vng a l v ch c c s h tng IPv4 gia hai phn mng ny. Khi , kt ni hai phn mng IPv6, to mt ng hm cu hnh bng tay gia hai router bin ca hai phn mng c th l s la chn tt nht c mt kt ni n nh. b) Tunnel Broker : Tunnel Broker l hnh thc to ng hm, trong mt t chc ng ra lm trung gian, cung cp kt ni ti Internet IPv6 cho nhng thnh vin ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker do t chc cung cp T chc cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker c vng a ch IPv6 c lp, ton cu, xin cp t cc t chc qun l a ch IP quc t, mng IPv6 ca t chc cung cp Tunnel Broker c kt ni ti Internet IPv6 v nhng mng IPv6 khc. Ngi s dng s c cung cp thng tin thit lp ng hm t my tnh hoc mng ca mnh n mng ca t chc duy tr Tunnel Broker v dng mng ny nh mt trung gian kt ni ti cc mng IPv6 khc. Cng ngh to ng hm trongTunel Broke l to ng hm bng tay

Hnh 4.6: Kt ni IPv6 vi Tunel Broke T chc duy tr Tunnel Broker s cung cp cho ngi s dng:

Mt vng a ch IPv6 t khng gian a ch IPv6 ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker, tho mn nhu cu ca ngi s dng. Chuyn giao cho ngi s dng mt tn min cp di khng gian tn min ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker. y l tn min hp l ton cu, thnh vin ca Tunnel Broker c th s dng tn min ny thit lp website IPv6 Website cho php nhng mng IPv6 c kt ni ti mng ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker truy cp ti Cc thng tin v hng dn ngi s dng thit lp ng hm (tunnel) n mng ca t chc cung cp Tunnel Broker

c) M hnh Tunnel Broker.

Hnh4.7: M hnh ca Tunnel Broker Trong : Tunnel Broker: L nhng my ch dch v lm nhim v qun l thng tin ng k, cho php s dng dch v, qun l vic to ng hm, thay i thng tin ng hm cng nh xo ng hm. Trong h thng dch v Tunnel Broker ca nh cung cp, my ch Tunnel Broker s lin lc vi Tunnel Server (thc cht l cc b nh tuyn dual-stack) v my ch tn min ca nh cung cp Tunnel Broker thit lp ng hm pha nh cung cp dch v v to bn ghi tn min cho ngi ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker. Ngi s dng thng qua mng Internet IPv4 s truy cp my ch Tunnel Broker v ng k ti khon s dng dch v Tunnel Broker thng qua mu ng k di dng Web. My ch ng hm (Tunnel Server): Thc cht l cc b nh tuyn dual-stack lm nhim v cung cp kt ni ngi ng k s dng dch v kt ni ti truy cp vo mng IPv6 ca t chc cung cp Tunnel Broker.Cc b nh tuyn ny l im kt thc ng hm pha nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker. Tunnel Server nhn yu cu t my ch Tunnel Broker v to hoc xo ng hm pha nh cung cp Tunnel Broker. d) Mt s cng ngh ng hm t ng. Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP). L cng ngh chuyn i qua li gia cc IPv4 Node sang IPv6 Node trong mng Internet, cc a ch c chuyn i l a ch dnh ring (private) IPv4 v IPv6 link-local. ng hm ISATAP khc nhau v mt s cch t ng vi cc ng hm 6to4. Tuy nhin, ISATAP ng hm IPv6s dng khi nim ph hp vi nhng ngi s dng bi cc ng hm 6to4 t ng khi s dng a ch Unicast ton cu . Trong ISATAP ( Intra-site Automatic Tunnel

Addressing Protocol ) phng php ny c xem ngc li vi phng php 6to4,ISATAP xy dng mt ng hm vn chuyn IPv6 qua IPv4 trong mt mng IPv4 gia cc mng IPv6. ISATAP mng IPv4 hip c ging nh NBMA,v xc nh im n trn mi gi c bn (im-a im) K hoch a ch ISATAP c pht trin nh sau: 64bit lin kt Local hoc Glocal Unicast prefix + 0000:5EFE + <IPv4 ca ISATAP> vi 0000:5EFE nh nh danh ca ISATAP. so snh s khc nhau gia ISATAP ng hm v ng hm 6to4.

a ch IPv6 trong ng hm ISATP c gn vo a ch IPv4 ng hm ISATAP khng s dng mt di cc a ch IPv6 dnh ring cho tc c m s dng tin t bnh thng l Unicast IPv6. ng hm ISATAP s dng mt tin t duy nht kt ni tc c cc giao din ng hm,v vy tc c cc router c mt tuyn ng kt ni IPv6 vi cng mt mng con. ng hm ISATAP c th t ng ly giao din ID bng cch s dng quy tc EUI-64.

Cu hnh ng hm IPv6 ISATAP. Bc 1:Cu hnh Interface Loopback v a ch IPv4 ca n, m bo IPv4 IGP qung co mt tuyn ng cho a ch ny. Bc 2: To mt Interface ng hm s dng lnh Interface Tunnelnumber. Bc 3:nh ngha ngun gc ng hm s dng a ch IP Loopback bc 1. Bc 4: Khng nh ngha ch n ca ng hm bng lnhTunnel Destinationinterface. Bc 5: Nhn dnh ng hm nh mt ng hm ISATAP s dng lnhTunnel mode ipv6ip isatap interface. Bc 6: Cu hnh mt IPv6 prefix bng ty chn EUI-64 s dng lnh ipv6 addressprefix/lengtheui-64interface. Bc 7: Hon thnh vic cu hnh IPv6, gm vic nh ngha cc a ch IPv6 Interface LAN trn biu k hoch cho php nh tuyn IPv6 bng lnh ipv6unicastrouting Bc 8:nh ngha cc ng IPv6 tnh cho mi IPv6 prefix ch bng 1 interface ng ra v a ch next-hop Teredo tunneling. S dng cho cc a ch private IPv4, k thut ny ng gi gi tin IPv6 bn trong cc gi UDP ca IPv4 c th c nh tuyn hay i qua cc thit b NAT trong mng IPv4. Cng ngh ng hm 6to4: Nh m t trong phn "Point-to-Multipoint IPv6 tunnel", mt ng hm khng r rng xc nh im cui ng hm a ch IPv4. Thay vo a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6 c ngha a ch IPv4 nn c mt b nh tuyn s dng khi ng gi v chuyn tip cc gi tin. Bi v cc ng hm da vo IPv6 a ch xc nh im n a ch IPv4 cho cc ng hm, cc k s mng phi dnh nhiu thi gian hn k hoch ban u ra cho IPv6 v a ch IPv4 c s dng trin khai IPv6. Cng ngh hin nay c s dng kh rng ri. IANA ginh ring di a ch 2002::/16 s dng cho 6to4 tunneling.

Hnh 4.8:M hnh 6to4 tunneling. Router ng gia mng IPv4 v IPv6 thc hin 6to4 tunneling c gi l router bin. a ch 6to4 c prefix l 2002::/16, kt hp vi 32 bit ca mt a ch IPv4 s to nn mt a ch 6to4 c prefix /48 duy nht ton cu c s dng cho mng IPv6. Prefix /48 ca a ch IPv6 trong mng 6to4 tng ng vi mt a ch IPv4 ton cu c cu to theo nguyn tc sau :

Hnh 4.9:Cu trc a ch IPv6 6to4. Tin t a ch 6to4 2002::/16 , kt hp vi 32 bit ca mt a ch IPv4 s to nn mt tin t a ch 6to4 kch c /48 duy nht ton cu s dng cho mt mng IPv6. Tin t /48 a ch IPv6 tng ng mt a ch IPv4 ton cu c to nn theo nguyn tc V d: mt routerbin c a ch kt ni mng IPv4 l 192.168.99.1 th a ch IPv6 tng ng ca n s l 2002:c0a8:6301::/48. Bi v c0a86301 chnh l 32 bit phn a ch 192.168.99.1 vit di dng hexa. Tunnel 6to4 l mt cng ngh Tunnel t ng, cho php nhng min IPv6 6to4 tch bit c th kt ni qua mng IPv4 ti nhng min IPv6 6to4 khc. im khc bit c bn nht gia Tunnel 6to4 v Tunnel cu hnh bng tay l ch ng hm 6to4 khng phi kt ni im im. ng hm 6to4 l dng kt ni im a im.Trong , cc b nh tuyn (router) khng c cu hnh thnh tng cp m chng coi mi trng kt ni IPv4 l mt mi trng kt ni vt l o. Chnh a ch IPv4 gn trong a ch IPv6 s c s dng tm thy u bn kia ca ng hm. Tt nhin, thit b ti hai u ng hm phi h tr c IPv6 v IPv4. Khung cnh ng dng tunnel 6to4 n gin nht l kt ni nhiu mng IPv6 ring bit, mi mng c t nht mt ng kt ni ti mng IPv4 chung qua router bin c gn a ch IPv4 ton cu. Cc bc cu hnh tunel 6to4.

Bc 1: K hoch cu hnh giao din Loopback v gn a ch IPv4 (m bo rng cc IGP IPv4 qung b c mt tuyn ng cho a ch ny.) Bc 2:To mt giao din ng hm bng cch s dng lnh interface tunnelnumber Bc 3: Xc nh cc source a ch IPv4 ca ng hm s dng tunnel source {interface-type interface-number | ipv4-address} cc lnh con s dng IP loopback bc 1 Bc 4:Khng c xc nh mt im n ng hm vi giao din im n ng hm l subcommand Bc 5: Cc nh ng hm t ng 6to4 s dng giao din con lnh tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 Bc 6:Kch IPv6 trn giao din ng hm,thng trong lnh con ipv6 addressinterface Bc 7:Hon thnh cu hnh bnh thng IPv6,gm xc nh cc giao din mng LAN a ch IPv6 cho mi biu quy hoch,v cho php nh tuyn vi ipv6 unicast-routing Bc 8: Xc nh static route vi 2002::16,vi giao din ra ngoi ng hm s dng ipv6 route 2002::/16 tunnelnumber chung cho cc lnh. 4.3 NAT-PT. mt thit b ch h tr IPv6 c th giao tip vi mt thit b ch h tr IPv4,cn thit phi dng n cng ngh bin dch.

Hnh 4.10:Cng ngh NAT-PT. Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) l mt gii php ng vai tr quan trng gip cho ngui dng chuyn i t mng IPv4 sn c ln IPv6. Gii php ny c m t trong RFC 2766.Vic chuyn i giao thc gia IPv4 v IPv6 cho php cc Host thuc cc phn on mng khc nhau c th kt ni vi nhau. Thc hin bin dch a ch v dng thc header ca gi tin, cho php thit b ch h tr IPv6 c th ni chuyn vi thit b ch h tr IPv4. Thit b cung cp dch v NAT-PT s bin dch li header v a ch cho php mng IPv6 giao tip vi mng IPv4.

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