Está en la página 1de 18

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction In this chapter different issues related to the topic of the research will be looked at to provide an insight of the study. They include background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, delimitations of the study and operational definition of terms and abbreviations.

1.1 Background of the study The process through which the body makes use of nutrients is referred to as nutrition. Poor feeding leads to frequent infections and malnutrition which decelerates physical and cognitive development. (MOEST 2000) primary headquarters on transition from pre-school to primary, page 24). Parker, (1989) in his studies found that iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional problems in most children. Iron deficiency in infancy may cause a permanent loss of IQ later in life. Iron deficiency and anemia leads to shortened attention span, irritability, fatigue and difficulty with concentration. Consequently, anemic children tend to do poorly on vocabulary, reading and other tests. Several studies have found effects of hunger and poor nutrition on cognitive ability. A laboratory study that involved healthy, wellnourished school age children found a negative effect of morning fasting on cognitive performance. A test of the speed and accuracy of response on problem-solving tasks given to children who did or did not eat breakfast found that skipping breakfast had an adverse influence on their performance on the tests (Pollitt, Leibel and Greenfield, 1991). Undernourished children have more difficulty fighting infection and are likely to become sick, miss school and fall behind in class. Breast milk is the childs first source of nutrients. It contains vital proteins and vitamins important for brain function and body immunity against 1

diseases. Breast feeding promotes bonding between the mother and the child which in turn promotes psychosocial development. Adequate and quality nutrition contribute to healthy growth. Children who are healthy are less likely to become sick, miss school and perform poorly in class. (Newman 1991). Teachers report that hungry children are more likely to be apathetic, inattentive and disruptive. This anecdotal evidence is supported by Meyers (1989) who has asserted that calorie deprivation can lead to children being so pathetic and listless that they withdraw from play, exploration and social interaction. A study conducted by UNICEF (2004) to investigate the effect of hunger in academic performance revealed that children who go to school hungry perform poorly academically.

1.2 Statement of the Problem Many schools in the zone have not embraced the idea of feeding their children in school. The schools that offer feeding programs only provide porridge to their children and this is not a balanced diet. Children only acquire one source of nutrient daily; hence they dont grow and function normally. Most of them are retarded and suffer from diseases caused by under nutrition. Therefore the researcher intends to determine the causes of micronutrient deficiency, their consequences and effects on young children. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to, To ease congestion To store record and retrieval of the same . 1.4 Objectives of the Study 1. To reduce storage space i.e. manual to automated electronic storage 2. To maintained sales\cds records

3. To reduce cost on labour employed 4. To maintain efficiency and accuracy 1.5 Research questions What is the relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning? What is the importance of nutrition on education? What are the consequences of malnutrition on learning? How can malnutrition be prevented?

1.6 Significance of the study The findings will help parents to understand the need to cultivate good feeding habits for their children in order for them to be regular school attendees and high academic achievers. The findings will also help the government to come up with policies and programs to improve learning in the ECDE centers in the Zone and also country wide, by employing ECDE teachers and applying vitamin supplements, water and food in ECDEs. The learners will benefit from improved attention and better care with regard to feeding thus a better learning and content mastery.

1.7 Scope of the study The research intends to determine the impacts of feeding programs on learning of ECDE children in Usenge Zone, Usigu Division in Bondo District. The research is targeted to an estimated sample size of about 20 parents and 20 teachers. 1.8.0 Limitations of the study These are possible obstacles which will hinder the researcher from collecting and recording a reliable data as listed below; the researcher may lack insufficient funds which will enable him move and access all the areas of study. The schools in the Division may be many thus the

researcher cannot access all of them. Moreover some of the respondents may not be willing to participate in the research. Some of them may also be illiterate thus use of data collecting tools will be inappropriate. Some of the areas in the zone may be inaccessible because of poor roads and distance involved may not be covered. High charges may be involved in photocopying and printing. Finally, the researcher may not be familiar with people and the area of study.

1.8.1 Delimitations of the study These are factors that will enable the research to be carried out smoothly. Some of them include; familiarity with the area of study, literacy among the respondents, assistance from the supervisor, good weather conditions and availability of printing machines at vicinity.

1.9 Operational definition of terms Coding Refers to an analytical process in which data in both quantitative form such as questionnaire or qualitative such as interview are categorized to facilitate analysis. Editing Is the process of selecting and preparing written material to convey information. Hunger A feeling of discomfort or weakness caused by lack of food coupled with the desire to eat. Immunity This is the ability to resist a particular toxin by the action of specific antibodies. Irritability Is a state of extreme sensitivity to stimulation. Is a form of malnutrition caused by protein deficiency in the diet and mostly affects young children

Kwashiorkor -

Learning Marasmus

This refers to acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge. Severe undernourishment causing an infant or childs weight to be significantly low for their age.

Nutrition

The process of obtaining or providing the food necessary for health and growth.

Nutrients

Are substances that provide nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.

Obesity

A medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect.

Under nutrition / malnutrition

Is the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction In this section, different literatures related to the subject of study will be reviewed and analyzed to provide an insight of the study.

2.1 Relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning Benton .D. Parker (1998) in his article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and to read aloud as well as to recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. Studies by Tufts Universitys centre on hunger and poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and childrens cognitive development. Poor nutrition has long term consequences. (Blacks .S. Nutrition and Learning, American School Board Journal 2000). Another review summarizes research from 1985 to 1995 on relationship between diet and behavior. (Breakly J. 1997). Several studies have also found effects of hunger and poor nutrition on cognitive ability. A test of the speed and accuracy of response on problem solving task given to children who did or did not eat breakfast found that skipping breakfast had an adverse influence on their performance on the tests. Children who are undernourished or hungry have more difficulty fighting infection, therefore, they are more likely to fall sick, miss school and perform poorly. (Childrens Nutrition and Learning Educational Resources Information center (ERIC) 1994). 6

2.2 Importance of nutrition on education Studies have found that well nourished children tend to do very well in their class work as compared to undernourished children. Iron deficiency in infancy may cause a permanent loss in IQ. Iron deficiency and anemia leads to shortened attention span, irritability and difficulty with concentration. Anemic children also tend to do poorly on vocabulary, reading and other tests (Parker 1989). Providing meals in schools enables children to go to school, improve their attention and concentration thus improving their performance. (Dole 2009). Investing in nutrition is a necessity for physical, emotional, cognitive and social development. Undernourished children have more difficulty in fighting infection and are likely to become sick, miss school and fall behind in class. Good nutrition is crucial to reach the health, education and economic goals contained in the MDGs since good health, cognitive development and productivity cannot be achieved without good nutrition. Poorly nourished children cannot grow and develop properly, resist infections or learn to their full potential. (Pollit, Leibel and Greenfield 1991).

2.3 Consequences of chronic malnutrition on learning Chronic malnutrition has great impacts on child development. It hinders cognitive and physical development. It also reduces concentration and learning capacities, reduction of work productivity and increase the risk of different kinds of infections like kwashiorkor, marasmus and obesity. There is impaired growth, frequent illness and regular lateness in lower primary and pre-school as established in the ECDE baseline survey. (Rono 1999). Under nutrition have major effects from conception to the third year which are irreversible. It contributes to under five mortality to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness. Children also do not reach their optimum size as adults and their brains are affected resulting in lower IQs. Child malnutrition impacts on education attainment. The

degree of cognitive impairment is directly related to the severity of stunting and IDA. Studies shows that stunted children in the first two years of life have lower cognitive test score, delayed enrolment higher absenteeism and more class repetition as compared with nonstunted children. VAD reduces immunity and increases the incidence and gravity of infectious diseases resulting in increased school absenteeism. (Meyers 1989).

2.4 Prevention measures of malnutrition Since malnutrition is a condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking in high or wrong proportions, it is recommended that a well balanced diet be given to young children. (Bloem .M.W 2007).It is also recommended that deficient micronutrients be provided in sachet powders or directly through supplements. (Kirkwood B. and Haidar B.A 2008). WHO, UNICEF and the UN world Food Program recommended community management of severe acute malnutrition ready- to- use therapeutic foods which have been shown to cause weight gain (Bhuta Z.A, Ahmed T., Black R.E and Kirkwood B. 2008) The famine relief model increasingly used by aids groups calls for giving cash or cash vouchers to the hungry to pay local farmers instead of buying food from donor countries (Schristian Science Monitor 2008). (Jonathan A. Foley and Navin Ramankutty 2011).

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction Methodology refers to the detailed procedure to realize the research objective. It includes a description of the research design, location of the study, targeted population, sample size, sampling techniques, instruments, data collection procedures, data analysis and presentation as well as ethical considerations.

3.1 Research design The study will be conducted through the survey design. The research design is used to investigate the population by selecting samples to analyze and discover the occurrences. It will also be used to provide numeric description of some part of the population and explain the events as they are, as they were and as they will be.

3.2 Location of the study The study will be conducted in Usenge Zone, Usigu Division in Bondo District. The main reason as to why the area has been selected is because many ECDE Centers have not embraced the idea of feeding their children in school and those schools which offer feeding program only provide porridge which is not a balanced diet.

3.3 Targeted population The study will be conducted in Usenge Zone in Bondo District which has primary schools with ECDE centers attached to them. Usenge is a zone with 20 ECDE centers and therefore considered appropriate for providing a focal point for the study on the impacts of nutrition on ECDE children. 9

3.4 Sample size Participants in the study will be drawn from 20 ECDE schools in Usenge zone. A sample of 10 pre-schools will be picked from the total number of schools in the zone. 20 teachers and 20 parents will be selected from the sampled schools.

3.5 Sampling technique The study will be conducted using simple random technique in choosing the schools and respondents. The researcher will pick 2 teachers in each school by use of lottery principle where from paper cut-outs with and will be used. Those who pick in a school will be the chosen respondents. The same procedure will be used to pick parents representatives from the sampled schools which will bring a total of 20 parents and 20 teachers. The researcher will write letters to the head teachers of the selected schools for research purpose. The data will be collected by delivering questionnaires to the head teachers and interviews to teachers and children, and be collected back through the head teachers.

3.6 Instruments These are tools which will be used for collecting data. The selection of these tools will be guided by the nature of the data to be collected, time available as well as the objectives of the study. Some of the tools are enlisted below and the groups to which they will be used; i. Questionnaire This is a blank form with questions which will be given to the head teachers and parents so as to get their views on the impacts of feeding programs

10

ii. Interview schedule This is an oral interactive schedule which will be used to get the views of the teachers and children in selected schools

3.7 Data collection procedures The researcher will present the letter of authority granted from the college to the D.E.O who will then give him another letter to give to the headteachers for the selected schools so as to conduct the study. The researcher will then issue the questionnaires to the headteachers and parents and then interview teachers and children.

3.8 Data analysis and presentation The data will be analyzed by editing, coding and entering. The data will be presented through pie charts, tables and graphs.

3.9 Ethical considerations These are rules that govern the behavior of researchers during the study. The researcher will be expected to maintain the rule of confidentiality. This requires the researcher not to disclose any information concerning the respondent to any one. Ethical treatment of human subject another rule that will be observed. It requires the researcher to treat the participants with human dignity they deserve. Permission to interview children is also a rule that requires the researcher to conduct his study using the vulnerable or disadvantaged groups with their consent.

11

REFERENCES
Black .S. (2000). Nutrition and Learning. American School Board Journal. Bloem M.W. (2007). Nutritional Status among Young Children aged 24 59 months in Rural Bangladesh Bhuta Z.A. Ahmed .T. and Black .R.E. (2008). Malnutrition and Micronutrient Deficiencies among Bhutanese Refugee Children Benton .D. Parker (1998). The Delivery Rate of Dietary Carbohydrates affects Cognitive Performance in Human. Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea Christian Science Monitor (2008). African Journal of Food Agriculture Dole (2009). Food for Education. U.S. Food Aid and Security Jonathan .A. Foley and Navin Ramankutty (2011). Feeding the World while Protecting the Planet Kirkwood .B. and Haidar .B.A. (2008). Background Publication/ Lives Saved Tool. Johns Hopkins University Meyers (1989). Breakfast Benefits Children in the U.S. and Abroad. Journal of American College of Nutrition Politt Leibel and Greenfield (1991). Childrens Nutrition and Learning. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Rono (1999). Impact of Nutritional Support on Patient Prognosis. Sun City North West Province

12

APPENDICES
APPENDIX I BUDGET Item Fullscap Browsing Transport Lunch and miscellaneous Printing Photocopying three times Binding Total Quantity and unit price 1 ream @ ksh. 500 Ksh. 600 1 week @ ksh. 2600 ksh. 1200 ksh. 40 per page ksh. 3 per page 5 copies @ ksh. 70 Total 500/= 600/= 2,600/= 1,200/= 1,200/= 1,200/= 350/= 7,650/=

13

APPENDIX II QUESTIONNAIRES FOR HEAD TEACHERS Introduction and instruction I am an ECDE trainee at Kisumu DICECE sitting for my Diploma exams in December 2012. This proposal is part of my exams. Therefore kindly assist by answering the questions given. The response given will be treated with at most confidentiality. Name: . Sex: . Age: Years:

1. Is there any relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. If yes give reasons _____________________________________________________________________ 3. If no give reasons _____________________________________________________________________ 4. How is nutrition essential on education achievement? _________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What are some of the ways of preventing malnutrition? ________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. State the effects of malnutrition on learning _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

14

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS Instructions Kindly assist by answering the questions given below. Any response will be treated with confidentiality. Name: . Sex: . Age: Years:

1. According to your view what is the relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Is there any importance of nutrition on education? _______________________________ 3. If there is, is there any need to include feeding program in the school? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4. State and explain the consequences of malnutrition on education ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 5. What are some of the strategies of preventing malnutrition? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

15

INTERVIEW FOR TEACHERS Instructions Kindly assist by answering the questions asked by the researcher. No response will be disclosed to anyone. 1. What is the relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning according to your opinion? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the importance of nutrition on education? _______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the consequences of malnutrition on education? _________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are the ways of preventing malnutrition? __________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

16

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR CHILDREN Instructions Kindly assist by answering the questions asked by the researcher. No response will be disclosed to anyone. All the response will be highly appreciated. 1. Based on your opinion, what is the relationship between nutrition, hunger and learning? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. If there is any relationship, do you take breakfast in the morning before going to school? ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Is your performance good or poor? ________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the importance of nutrition on education? ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Briefly explain some of the consequences of malnutrition on learning. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. How do you think malnutrition can be prevented? ________________________________________________________________________

17

APPENDIX III Time Schedule Activity Identification of the research topic Approval of the topic Development of the proposal Submission of the proposal Data collection Data analysis and reporting Submission of the report Date August 2011 September 2011 October 2011 March 2012 April 2012 May 2012 June 2012 August 2012

18