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History records that 1876 was the year when Alexander Graham Bell patented the first device able to transform voice into an electrical signal that could travel across a simple wire. As this invention gathered momentum it became quickly obvious that a single home could not be connected to every other home with a dedicated wire (although the first devices were sold in pairs and ranchmen used barbed wire in the US to communicate using the newly invented telephone).
Thus the first switchboards were soon deployed, with human operators physically wiring callers with called people by plugging cords into jacks. Each place with a phone line was given a number to identify it. The line and its associated telephones were connected to a local switchboard. These switchboards were themselves interconnected all over the country. When someone wanted to call another place, a long process started: the caller picked up the phone, triggering an alarm on the local switchboard where an operator plugged a headset to speak with the caller. The caller then requested to be connected with a given phone number. The local operator checked whether the destination number was attached to the local switch or had to be reached through a distant switchboard. In the latter case, she called the destination switchboard, talked to its operator to ask her to make the called phone ring. If the called user picked up the phone, the distant switchboard operator connected a cord between the called line and the incoming line of the calling switchboard. The calling switchboard operator then also connected a cord to the caller's line, eventually establishing a full voice path between the calling and the called parties. In order to overcome this huge effort signaling is introduced. The aim of this project is to introduce and discuss the Dual tone multi frequency signaling. The project is divided into two chapters: The first chapter introduce the concept of signaling and discuss the main idea behind Dcadic and DTMF signaling. The second chapter explain the DTMF signaling, its component and the way its work. Chapter two also contains some simulation that shows the way DTMF works
and that a visual or sound message (signals) is delivered first towards the second. To communicate. The two types of signaling discussed are supervisory signaling and Address Signaling.3-Decadic system and DTMF Before DTMF was created. DTMF. in turn. When someone is making a call.Chapter 1 Signaling 1. The phone company. In this chapter we will introduce telephone signaling. which were entered by the telephone companies . returns a dial tone to the phone to indicate that it is ready. The Decadic system was used extensively in modern telephone networks to dial numbers. Among the multitude of signals. Supervisory signaling is the means by which the caller and his telephone company notify each other of call status. One of these conventions is DTMF. The different types of supervisory signaling are on-hook.Telephone signaling When the phone is used to place or receive a call. it is essential that there are a transmitter (or sender) and a receiver (or recipient). alerting the caller that it is sending voltage to the recipient’s phone. This chapter also explains the principal of both Decdiac and DTMF signaling 1. pulse or dual-tone multifrequency. offhook and ringing.1-Introduction The communication is the act to establish relations with somebody. A phone number can be dialed using two completely independent methods: Tones and Dial Pulses. alerting the phone company that a subscriber is requesting to make a call. telephone networks used a dialing system called Decadic (also known as Pulse Dial). They have a fixed significance. Address signaling can be one of two types. certain signals are used by all according to international conventions (ex: measurements). When allowing the handset to rest in the cradle (on-hook) opens the switch hook and prevents the current from flowing through the phone. 1. Lifting the handset off the cradle allows current to flow through the phone. the telephone sends voltage to the ringer.signaling does this. The phone company also sends a ring back tone to the caller. it must communicate with the telephone company . Only the ringer is active when the handset is on-hook.2.
and remains that way to this day. DTMF was being developed for the future of electronic telecommunications switching systems. Decadic dialing was made pointless to continue. which were currently in use at the time. but was limited to the local exchange connections. requiring an operator to connect long distance calls. Plans were then made to begin the manufacture of DTMF controlled switching systems in the communications exchanges and later standard customer owned telephones were upgraded to using DTMF circuits rather than Decadic (Pulse Dial). The clicking sounds were actually the connection of the phone line being connected. and reconnected again in a certain pattern. and was then used as the main telecommunications dialing and switching system. The Decadic (Pulse Dialling) system used a series of clicks (which could be heard through the speaker of the phone) to dial the numbers which were dialed via a keypad or rotary dial. After DTMF was created. The Decadic (Pulse Dialing system was very useful.4 – DTMF Principal: A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals.users. After various tests were performed on the DTMF system throughout the 1960s (when DTMF became known as Touch-Tone). as opposed to the mechanical crossbar systems. disconnected. 1. Each key on the keypad is identified uniquely by its row frequency and its column frequency (see Figure 1). Lfigures lezem ytzabato ykono wad7en w lezem ykon lcaption t7ton . it made no sense to continue using that particular dialing system in the equipment circuits which the telephone exchanges were using at the time. DTMF was made official.
Each of these tones is composed of two pure sine waves of the low and high frequencies superimposed on each other.Touch-Tone Telephone Keypad The full DTMF encoding standard defines four rows and four columns for a total of 16 two-tone combinations. The frequencies were chosen to avoid harmonics: no frequency is a multiple of another.a DTMF dial has *. fH is the high frequency. For example. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies.#. C and D. 1. These two frequencies explicitly represent one of the digits on the telephone keypad.conclusion . and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies.5. AL is the amplitude of low frequency signal. fL is the low frequency. A. Besides the numerals 0 to 9. Thus generated signal can be expressed mathematically as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) Where AH is the amplitude of high frequency signal. B. while pressing a “1” produces 697Hz and 1209Hz tones. pressing the digit “9”(row 3 and column 3)produces 852 Hz and 1477Hz tones simultaneously.
we explained the concept of signaling. the duration for the actual tone is at least 45 msec and not longer than 55 msec. Since typical DTMF frequencies range from approximately 700 Hz to 1700 Hz. Two oscillators. Finally a simulation is done to explain the overall mechanism and the condition where the DTMF works. for each digit that is to be encoded.2 -DTMF Tone Generator The encoder portion and tone generation part of a DTMF codec are based on two programmable. facilitate the code and reduce the code size. 2. a sampling rate of 8 kHz for this implementation is within a safe area of the Nyquist criteria. It also introduces the mechanism used in the DTMF detector. It plays a critical role in initializing communication. Chapter2 DTMF Tone Generation and Detection 2. The tone generator must be quiet during the remainder of the 100-msec time slot. This chapter also presented the principal of Decdiac and DTMF signaling. In this chapter. Of course. . This chapter presents the DTMF tone generator. For a 100-msec time slot. The quiet during are necessary to discriminate between two or more identical digits entered successively. second-order digital sinusoidal oscillators. Figure 2 displays the block diagram of the digital oscillator pair. which provides some theoretical background and a guideline for determining coefficients and initial conditions for digital sinusoidal oscillators.Introduction A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. one for the row tone and one for the column tone. instead of eight.Signaling is essential in modern communication system. These signals are generated by oscillators as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals (detector). Table 1 specifies the coefficients and initial conditions necessary to generate the DTMF tones. each of the two oscillators needs to be loaded with the appropriate coefficient and initial conditions before oscillation can be initiated.1. Tone duration specifications state the following: 10 digits/sec is the maximum data rate for touch-tone signal.
lcaption nafs l7ajem bkel lfigurs w ltabels mesh t3melon sowar. (Coefficient and initial conditions for sinusoidal oscillators) .
unpacks the next digit at the end of its duration. The program flow. Unpacking means that the digit is mapped to the row/column tone properties (oscillator coefficients. respectively. Each task is assigned a certain duration that is controlled by a timer variable. . The entire program flow is synchronized to the receive-interrupt service routine.For the following description of the program flow. therefore. pointing to the appropriate locations in the oscillator property table. If not. the dual-tones enable the decoder to identify the associated digits. initial conditions) and pointers are loaded. the next task name and duration is initialized and starts to execute with the completion of the next RINT_ISR. one very important component is added: A new digit is retrieved from the digit buffer and is unpacked. the task has to initialize the timer variable and the task-name (tone or quiet) for the next task to be invoked. One task (the “tone task”) generates dual-tone samples and the other (the “quiet task”) generates pause samples. If the end of the task duration is reached. a tone or quiet sample. which determines the particular task (tone or quiet) that needs to be executed. Later. On completion of the RINT_ISR. incorporates two tasks that are swapped after certain time intervals. additionally. At the end of each task. the series of keypad entries are translated into a series of dual-tones of certain duration that are interrupted by pauses of certain duration. Both tone task and quiet task check on the timer variable to determine if the end of the task duration is already reached. the task scheduler is invoked. The quiet task. At the end of the quiet task. is generated. it is helpful to consult the flowchart shown in (flowchart eli ta7t maba3rif ra2mo). Essentially. which provides a perfect clock for real-time processing and constant sample output.
2 -DTMF Tone Detector: The task to detect DTMF tones in an incoming signal and to convert them into actual digits is certainly more complex than the encoding process.Lezim el caption yotzabbat : Flowcharts of the DTMF Encoder Implementation 2. The decoding process is by its nature a continuous process. . meaning it needsto continually search an incoming data stream for the presence of DTMF tones.
2. which sets a lower boundary.1. It is. thereby. The second harmonics information later enables discrimination of DTMF tones from speech or music. For the actual tone detection. N also is chosen so that (k/N)fs most accurately coincides with the actual DTMF frequencies (see Table 1) assuming ks are integer values and fs is a sampling frequency of 8 ksps. Hyde lezem terja3 tenkatab The Goertzel algorithm is much faster than a true FFT.2. the magnitude (here.Collecting Spectral Information The Goertzel algorithm is the basis of the DTMF detector. This algorithm essentially utilizes two-pole IIR (infinite impulse response) type filters to compute DFT values effectively. The choice of N is mainly driven by the frequency resolution needed. a recursive structure (always operating on one incoming sample at a time). The IIR structure for the Goertzel filter incorporates two complex-conjugate poles and facilitates the computation of the difference equation by having only one real coefficient. which can then be used to determine the squared magnitude. the Goertzel filter output converges towards a pseudo DFT value vk(n). Table 2 contains a list of frequencies and filter coefficients. This method is a very effective and fast way to extract spectral information from an input signal. See Figure 4 for a short mathematical description of the algorithm. Squared magnitudes are needed for eight row/column frequencies and for their eight-second harmonics. as compared to the DFT (or FFT) which needs a block of data before being able to start processing. as only few of the set of spectral line values are needed and only for those values are filters provided. squared magnitude) information of the DFT is sufficient. After a certain number of samples N (equivalent to a DFT block size). .
takes two calculated risks: (1) A frequency bin is possibly moved inside of the mainlobe of its neighboring frequency bin. Therefore. To be able to meet the acceptable bandwidth specifications. The DFT frequency bins mostly deviate from the true DTMF frequency by an amount in the range of up to 2% off center frequency. neighboring frequency bins can affect each other. The evenly spaced frequency bins of a true DFT present an inherent drawback in the DTMF tone-detection process. and with that. Note that column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies share the same frequency band. a modification of the algorithm departs from the true DFT and tunes frequency bins exactly with the DTMF tone frequencies. (2) This is especially true when column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies lie close to one another. This modification gives up the DFT property of evenly spaced frequency bins.Modifications to the Goertzel Algorithm The coefficients of Table 2 reflect the coefficients needed to recursively compute the true DFT. Note that the mainlobe of the continuous magnitude spectrum of a rectangular windowed sinewave (window is N wide) is exactly the distance of 2 DFT frequency bins. .
2 Procedure In this figure that is snipped from the simulation on Matlab. We note that the channel is connected also to a spectrogram so we can visualize the frequency spectrum of the signal transmitted. The output of the receiver is connected to a display so we can visualize the values detected.b . The DTMF generator.3. the medium or the channel where the signal is transmitted and the DTMF receiver.2. 2.3.05 dbm. In the channel we can control the noise power. The DTMF receiver detects all the values without errors as it appears on the display. The frequency spectrum is signal generated is illustrated in fig 2.1 Components The DTMF simulation is composed of 3 basic elements.3. we generated the values: [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 0] with the noise power set to 0.3-Simulation We have done the simulation of the DTMF with the Matlab Program. 2.
2. the receiver keeps detecting the values until a point where the noise power becomes equal to 0. The receiver keeps detecting the values correctly since the noise power is relatively low. We have remarked that as we elevate the noise power. DTMF signal generator and detector were explained. as it should be. we presented the mechanism of DTMF.32 dbm. 4 and 7 have the same high frequency which is 1209 Hz. 2 and 3 have the same low frequency which is 697 Hz and the number 1. and a simulation is done to illustrate the way DTMF works. 2.4-conclusion DTMF technology was a big step in modern communication. the evolution of communication technologies and the wide spread of its application encouraged researchers to search for techniques that are less expensive and less complicated. 3-General Conclusion In conclusion. as it was expected. At this point the receiver stop detecting them correctly.3.b We remark. that the number 1. In this chapter. DTMF is a signaling technique found to simplify the connection .
establishment between a user and the central office. K. S. Yap. Nagi*. K. S. researchers are working to develop these techniques and techniques of signaling in the core network References: Lezem tzed references w t7ot 2r2am 2elon Dtmf tone generation and detection using the tms320c54x J. Universiti Tenaga Nasional  DTMF Detection and Generation Virtual Peripheral Module Application Note 41 August 2000 . Furthermore. Tiong. Ahmed Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering College of Engineering. K. S.
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