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Ward, Adolphus William, 183 -1924. The Counter-reformation


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traversed. It correct use of even not always easy to define the tlie Oounter-Eetormation. the characteristic powers never exercised more congenius as a historian were Eanbe s As is well the co-operation of religious spicuously than in tracing of the and motives in the period and political purposes Catholic Eeaction.' so well-worn a phrase as my best to suggest such a I have. Of the movement known under fluous have the following sketch to I can hardlv hope in chief aspects. even with these invaluable to the student. unbearable in a mere summary. . as I indicated more than the events the worst of the pitvery sincerely trust. remain C. avoiding. however. regarded as altogether superthe circumstances not be this name. done Synopsis which I have prefixed definition in the brief and which will perhaps under to the following Essay.PREFACE. Popes Besides his History of the all perhaps the most finished of his French ffis^ory— always from this point of view his great works-will Still. at all Religious partisanship. falls in the ground ig ' deplorable as it is would be in elaborate narratives. of known. Count) von Hubner's admirworks. and Baron (now H.

which concludes with the dissolution of the Council of Trent. Martin Philippson's Contre.). Symonds' two volumes on The Catholic Reaction (which form the final portion of his Renaissance in Italy) I could not. W. 18SS. but my attention was not directed to this first work till I was revising the draft of my own M. late the attempt has been made to treat the move- ment of the Counter-Eeformation after a more con. or at least out A. centrated fashion but. W. little volume. before me. A if bibliography of the history of the Couuter-Reformation might indeed be a welcome it gift to students. able monograpli on Sixtus V. able hints. with some of his conclusions. IMaxchkster. A. of Preface. the Spanish Mvstics. volume On the other hand. but offered here. fail to derive many valu- There can be no necessity for reciting here the authorities. and the like. J. the Edict of Restitution. i\farch 22. Philippson's lucid expo- Prom Mr. on such special parts of my subject as the Council of Trent. I have found Moritz Brosch's Geschichte des Kirchenstaates (1880) a most useful manual of the history of Papal govern- Of ment in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. would be out of place. . is complete within its limits . which I hope has benefited from sition. old and new. unfortunately for me. though joining issue .Revolution Religieuse (1884). der Katholischen its Mau- renbrecher's Geschichte Reformation first (1880) has not yet advanced beyond (up to the death of Clement VIT.

and what ought not. there can be no difficulty in deciding what ought. originally distinct.' ' had Any fairly correct use ' of the familiar phrase this the Counter-Reformation must imply that though after- remarkable result was due to a movement pur- suing two objects. then. Outside them must be left the schemes. inflicted and the recovery of the losses upon her by the early successes of Protes- tantism. for altering the doctrine or amending the practice of the first Church of Rome which preceded the appearance Neither. viz. ' having: lost a ^ large part of Europe.. History the Popes asserts. not lose. the twofold purpose of the movement in question be kept in view. wards largely blended. to be in- cluded within the limits of the present sketch. that ° in a particular epoch of his^ ^ tory •' ' the Church of Rome. projected or essayed. If. A WELL-KNOWN ' sentence of in Macaulay's ' Essay on correctly Ranke's The CounterReformatiou defined.SYNOPSIS. . enouofli. only ceased to but actually regained nearly half of what she lost. on of Luther as her assailant in principle. the regeneration of the Church of Rome.

a brief notice will in the present connexion since this proceeding. no place belongs to it the body of my narrative. The onset combat is marked by the formal establishment of the Jesuit Order as a militant agency devoted alike to both the purposes of the CounterReformation. Komo cohesion dates from the Papacy of Paul III. — of as it has been usually styled. ' from withiu. accidental in itself.' The short pontificato of Adrian yj^ ^^^g animated by an eager desire to . futile by another turn of the victoriously It was lu the final sittings of the first Council of Trent that the Jesuits . in England. its programme Of the restoration of the Roman supremacy suffice. Preiiiniuary e oit.viii Synops/s. and by the meeting of the Council of Trent under conditions excluding from the task of conciliation. reformation. combine both ends in but inasmuch as its aspirations remained altogether unaccomplished. Thus the two impulses which it was the of the special task of the Counter-Refoi mation to fuse were brought into immediate contact. within which also gious war of the falls the outbreak of the first reli- century. ought we to occupy ourselves here with the resistance offered by the Establishment to its opponents before the time when with this resist- ance was coupled the design of self-reformation. the other hand. was Height of the movement. soou rendered -yvlieel. which occurred soon afterwards. The theCounrerearllost coutinuous Reformation as a continuous the Churcli of endeavour to regenerate without impairing her movement.

an expedition designed to avenge pacification many martyrdoms in partihus. asserted a control over the policy of the ix Church of Rome . The ^^^t ten ycars of his life reached from the dis- movement.' The date The weakness of divided Pro- of this promulgation. of to master the destinies of Decline of the Rome. The period during which the Counter-Reformation continuously displays a most extraordinary and versatile energy closes with the collapse of the deliberate attempt of Philip of Spain. Western Christendom. but not the henchman. and the promulgation life of the Conciliar Decrees. to the which enabled Henry IV. the sense of the imminent renewal of the conflict lay heavy upon Europe. During the years which followed. while introducing into the of that Church a series of enduringly beneficent changes.5 YNOPSIS. and thus to break up the front pre- sented to the common foe. and the agents of the CounterReformation had to content themselves with undermining defences which would have been inopportune to And thus their side was the seek to take by storm. it . therefore. at the same time formed the progress of first systematic attempt to obstruct the ' Protestantism along the whole line. of France to sign the Edict of Nantes. announces the period r in the openins: of i o which the force Couuter-Reformation put ibrtli its full At no previous time had the movement been so well supported by the tendency on the Protestant side to harden and perpetuate internal differ- ences of doctrine. gipatiou of the Spanish Armada. as the indefatigable champion.

SVNOPS/S. at the reform of the Church.— X better prepared . The twofold movement which this Essay has in view did not wholly come to an end. it can hardly be said to have been any longer the Counter-Reformation proper which was ruled out of date by the Peace of Westphalia. war in of the Seventeenth century. Though the earlier part of the contest the cause of Rome was seemed feasible to completely victorious. . as the movement for the reconquest of what Rome had lost had ceased to aim. Inasmuch. except incidentally. hovvover. but it lost its combined historical significance among the complications of the Thirty \'ears' \Yar. so that it /^ satisfy the claims of the Reaction by imperial edict. when the struggle in which they were unceasingly engaged merged in the Great_War in — parts of its course only a religious Reformation "lerge:! in the Tnirty Years' W:ir. the balance was in some measure re- dressed by later events.



the task of reformins: the Church in both head and members C. ^^^ TcformcUion of tlicse constant objects of complaint efforts. In the history of the Western Church. on the first decline of the Papal authority under Boniface VIII. followed the abasement of Avignon and the Yet. there H. INTRODUCTORY. A . CHAPTER I. at the same time. while united under the acknowledged supremacy of the Bishop of Romc. and the condition of the Papacy itself took the most prominent place among them. a Ignominy of the Schism. har period. Church of SSJcon..THE COUNTER -EEFOEMATION. belief sprang up that the end of these scandalous divisions would also be the end of the existing degeucracy. During the latter half of the Middle Ages cihar period. when. During the period of the CEcuTntheconci. there havc been but few periods in Earlier atwhich its administration and the life of re?ormat?on i^s clergy have been exempt from censure. was aimed at in a long succession of Fresh bitterness was added to these grievances. rueuical Couucils which ensued.

during the thrbcgrn-^ Hcxt period. At Constance. (Jecrscs of both assemblies. but the Empire was skilfully deprived of them in the Concordate of Vienna. and his Alexander VL. had the would have redressed nearly all the grievances urged against the Church within the But the century preceding Luther's first assault. /'^ftt \ After the Council which burnt Hus and the Council which transacted with the Hussites had alike sought ^^ take the work of administration and Between the disciplinary reform out of the hands of the conciiilr^^^'^ Popes. it •^'^f^ /^/^ /"^ that the question of general reformation should precede new Pope had been defeated by the The revived activity of the old papal system was made manifest by the results of the Council of Basel. herself. o ^ Church in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. Of some of its earlier decrees France secured the substantial benefit to her own the choice of a election of Martin V.2 The Counter-Reformation. On the main issue as to supremacy. the Papal authority in the end prevailed over the Conciliar. Whatever successors to repeat promises were down to made by Nicolas V. last appeared at to have been undertaken by the Church mit. in their turn. SO far as possible ignored the Protestaiif refoi-Qiation. they took care not left the Conciliar experiment. Thus to the Papacy itself reform . they. success of any comprehensive measure of reform became impossible after the German nation's demand majority persevered. to the decrees of whose representative assemblies the Pope himself was called upon to sub- But the Council of Pisa was dissolved bv its own nominee. Alexander Y. was nov/ the initiative of Church nor .

j^^ to the Popes. a hereditary and his bastard stood face to face with the idea of transforming the temporal power into dominion. For. was the need of it 3 all ignored by these pontiffs. no appropriate replies to the representations on the subject addressed to liim from Spain. nothing short of heroic energy inspired by apostolic zeal could have made reformers of Popes breathing the intellectual and moral atmosphere of the later Italian Renascence. absorbed for territorial struggle acquisitions. Alexander VI. while at the same time the spiritual envelope of the Papacy had become transparent like a vesture. and politician but his summoning of the Lateran Council (i 5 I 2) was merely an act of self-defence against the use made by his political enemies of the growing cry for ecclesiastical reformation. Nicolas y. ^p ^Q^l^ Q^j. although he was more distinctively than any of his predecessors an Italian prince. Coan Julius II. and Innoin the cent VIIL. sent Cardinal Cusantis (Nicolas of Cues) to refomi the German monasteries. Under Sixtus IV. put a stop to a condition of things which e^en Renascence consciences could no longer bear. In trod uctor f. And was even at at the close loss for of this period Alexander VI. notwithstanding the apathy or passive resist- . simony and nepotism were the right and the left arm of the Papal government. without at the same time losing sight of the influence inseparable from their religious attributes. however. Theinitiamad?n7Jft ' bofore his election promised a thorough refQ^. Paul TI. patriot.-g^ ^^^ clergy. In truth. The difficulties pressing upon these pontiffs as Italian princes led them to regard themselves essentially as such..

first it seemed as if this daring stroke Pope ( I 5 1 A few meetings were would be attended with success. notwithstanding these vital differences. ration of the Spanish nand and Isabella. in I I The gravamina presented at Worms O are in fact largely identical with the com5 plaints which the Councils of Constance and Basel had . of held at Pisa and at France. it Yet. a council to Pisa in despite of the to the restoration of the Pragmatic Sanction. who thought (1483). he sumInquisition. . At 1 . . was in its political objects based on the Concordate of 1482. and it had a considerable intellectual affinity The movement for the regeneChurch under Ferdiwhich Ximenez was the directing with the Eenascence. Milan under the aegis of Louis XII. the nations of the her f or learned to despair of a reformation of the Chnrch by own constituted authorities. in company with four other cardinals.besidesthe co-operation of the under a new constitution was a Spaniard.4 The Counter-Reformation. Nowhere was a more practical shape assumed by these cravings than in Spain. to crown his demonstrations on behalf of Church reform when. whose national policy was consistently directed moned ). revived in Spain Thus it P. nominally abolished by Louis XI. Carvajal. West had not yet ance of the Popes. the country destined afterwards to become the chief source of the counterreforma- reformation. had much in common with the Counter-Ileformationitself. for The summons to Pisa at first Emperor Maxithe widespread desire in Germany for reformation had found frequent expression at the Diets of the Empire. Pressure put upon the mcmbcrs of the Sacred College. likewise received the sanction of the milian I. of spirit.iptvcy. .

and the characteristic collapse of Maximilian's zeal for Church reform. The same futile course was taken by Spain and by England. was not materially advanced by this merely Italiaii assembly. solemnly acknowledged it. . But the absence. accepted a Concordate (1515) as a compromise of the Erench national demands and the Lateran Council before its close (December i 5 1 6) confirmed the bull Unam Sanctam. and just after the War of the Holy League had driven the Eronch from Italy. on the other hand. The chief of the reforming cardinals submitted Erancis L. died. aspirations and the princes.' The question of reformation. although unrepresented at the Lateran Council.Introductory. of any real national unity. The drastic measures taken by the new Pope at the beginning of his reign prepared a virtually complete victory for the Papal policy. the Papal abuses proper were virtually passed by and when. though in the flush of victory. ' to salvation for every human being to be subject to the authority of the Pope. The Fifth Lateran Council had made it clear that . Juliu s_II. succeeded by Leo XTpiarch I 5 13). which declared it necessary ror . both the Spanish clergy and the Estates of the Empire suspected a Elor. notwithstanding recent changes. the Council sanctioned the levy of contributions for a crusade. before separating. 5 in vain souglit to redress. though by no means ignored. entine trick. and for wliicli there seemed no enduring remedy left except the placing of the German Church under independent national control. and was The Lateran Council. While the Lateran Council was still in progress. wrecked all these and endeavours and in the end the Empe.

and peoples suffered mionc?er°^^ hoped for. Princes and prelates were in addition as jealous as they had always been of Papal claims which impaired their own sovereign or episcopal authority. with a more reasonable presentment of religion. Luther was detailing his own ideas of indispensable Church reform ideas far more moderate than the its adversaries. the Papacy had at home outwitted and could afford to contemn its censors. Surrounded by a new splendour since the subjection of the New World to its supremacy. The actual mould was soon burst by the fiery metal impulsively poured into it. the experiment was left untried whether Western Christendom mio^ht be educated into seeking: and securing for itself a purer Church. of which More especially was this degeneracy to be deplored in the case of the monastic orders. Accordingly. the opponcuts of the Papal system of Church governLutherand the Papacy. and no class of society could be blind to the results of the progressive decay of both efficiency and morality among the clergy. prelates. ment made the answer of Erasmus impossible. in his fulminant address to the Christian nobles of Germany. £^ common from the impositions of Rome. hope of a reformation of the Church from within Except where the practice of must be abandoned. ^^^® Papal policy was restricted by concorA Papal datos. What remedy remained ? To this question two different answers were proposed by two great men but by preferring Luth er's. princos. . Pome spoke in the matter of the Lutheran heresy (June 1520).6 all The Counter-Reformation. so many had been established with the avowed purpose of reanimating and reinvigorating popular religion. at the very time when. — .

scholastic theologian. Cardinal Giulio de Medici. though all but an ascetic in habits of life and most open-handed in his charities.Lv TRODUC TOR F. 7 language in which they were clothed. from generally executed in the still existed of closing the breach made by Luther's well-timed boldness. suddenly came to an end (December i 521). formally placed But the edict was far Empire. Eleven months later. and a prospect under the ban of the Empire. perhaps The doctrine of Papal infallibility. on his appointment to other the he had shown great activity in the office of Inquisitor-General (which he On: retained till within a few days of his death). he was. Church had still left undefined. with the help of a discreditable mancema^e. of some might seem the act of a of his preferments . the Emperor's late tutor and actual regent in Spain. he had been a very notable pluralist. may havo been primarily due to the fact that Papacy of Adrian VI. which his learned pen had in those days taken upon itself to confute. when the pontificate of Leo X. while see his resignation. The elevation to the Papal chair of Adrian VL. the election of the. celebrity at Lou vain. distinguished he seemed worthier of trust than prominent reformer or two among the In his antecedents there was nothing to candidates. as a latter proved a impossible . But was a peculiarly safe choice in the eyes of the imperial party and of its accepted nominee. was one which the As regent in Spain. |^q ^^g ^^ absentee from the conclave where all the cardinals present of course he desired their own election. when while. purist. of Tortosa. When an academical alarm conservative instincts.

in which he not unnaturally thought himself entitled to the of the support new Pope. for Adrian. as afterwards. can it be denied that the union of these two potentates seemed to offer a unique chance of a Catholic counter. on the other hand. though restoration longing between the Christian powers. together with the nature of his personal relations to Adrian VL. considered. could not take either of these objects in hand. fought the battles of the Holy See against its foes ? Nor when the general character of the ecclesiastical policy of Charles V. the announcement of his election to the Papacy.8 The Counter-Reformation. Adrian submitted to this crowning manifestation of the Divine will with a solemn sense of the dignity of the office to which he was called. in order that they might in common make war upon the encroaching infidel. but how could he have failed its and to recall the times when another Charles had. and in which impossible for him to look upon himit seemed The circumself as the creature of the Emperor. his election were at the time.c. i. is from the to appreciate significance.^ a regeneration of the Church combined with the extirpation of heresy. any more than set about liis desired crusade against the Turk s. under the Papacy of another Adrian. but during the of peace — — . But Charles V. stances of much misrepresented first . In the end just before his death he had to fall in with the Emperor's proposals (August 1523).reformation. till he had carried to a successful issue his war with France. would fain have brought about this peace as mediator rather than as the ally of one of the combatants.

reservations confined to ex- commends kept within due measure. Even more significant was the elaborate memorial drawn np by ^gidius of Yiterbo. God is manifest. At first he may have derived some encouragement from the speech by which Cardinal Carvajal welcomed him in the name of the Sacred College. . and . Thus it was without the aid of his imperial pupil that Pope Adrian VI. .LV TR ODUC TOR V. but contained no allusion to the religious movement in Germany. nearly tlie g little real cordiality whole of his short: Pa^^acy there had been between the pair. to restore the Church. nor would he have condescended to use. and submitted to the Pope by the reforming party among the cardinals. the arts by which disaffection might have been appeased he seems not even to have been master of the Italian tongue. should be wholly abolished ceptional cases. in whose election the hand of tion of the Church . condition of the Papacy to be as the real source of the widespread ecclesias- tical corruption. General of the Order of St. beginning witli fallen an enquiry into the itself. of which it was still the fashion at Rome to make light. The seven recordationes presented to him dw^elt on the grievous corruptions in the Church. The power of the keys ought of reduced to the limits of ancient usage. At Rome. Augustine. had been received with the most open of a manifestatioDS of ill-will he neither possessed. addressed himself to the task imposed upon him by his lofty conception of his office. This document appeals to the Pope. as that foreigner. and any abuse Pluralities and compositions it scrupulously avoided. and the reforma- was hardly if at all mentioned in their correspondence. his election.

with a view no doubt to the suppression of the it The Holy See should hasten to take the readiness of Bohemia to be reconciled relio-ious revolt. . . advantao-e of o to it . it demanded the rigorous against the execution of the Edict of Worms new German heresy. as a challenge to his conscience. entire judicial administration of the Cliurcli should The be revised. 1522). it would be desirable to carry out the decrees of the Lateran Council. in ^ • • rm J he plague was raofinff at Rome. On the other side. while the memorial insisted on the necessity of restricting improper concessions granted in concordates to temporal princes. and England. As for the life and morals of the clergy at large. The entire memorial might have served as a text-book for the actual Counter-Reformation. a counter- both his experieuces and his opmions.10 The Counter-Reformation. while. more recent and more dano-erous its should use best endeavours to mediate peace be- tween the Empire. lie annulled all steps taken by the Sacred College since his election for the filling up of benefices and soon afterwards (October i itli) he published the Chancery rules. the supreme court at organised. and he was himself enfeebled by illness but he resolved to remain in the city. On the very day after his coronation (September i./ reformation. Adrian YL must have received these demands and recommendations. the Eome {rota) re- chamber of finance {earner ct) reformed. . had so largely increased his expenditure and his debts. France. which he had first put forth in Spain (April . all of which were completely in harmony with His attempt Jit "^ . and a commission appointed to enquire into the new offices by which Leo X. Coming from Spain.

He reduced his household in a and adapted his military establishment to the model of Sparta on a peace footing. resolve to seat ' ' But the best proof of his oust Simon ]\Iagus from his time-honoured is to be found in strenuous declaration to be ao'ainst abuses which at Rome had come con- sidered institutions. The official world of the Curia opposed with deadh^ determination this sudden deviation of the Papacy into the path of administrative reform. among. he incurred by his cold and almost precisian reserve the contemptuous hatred of the Roman artistic and literary spirit of primitive simplicity ^ world. renouncinsf the rio-ht of ordering: reservations. of the . He soon showed Lis intention to respond to nearly all the demands of the reforming cardinals. city desired money to be spent in.. of indulgences. or expectancies granted. court to last most confidential of the offices left in his not a grain of popular sympathy was from first But the resistbestowed upon his endeavours. and his seeking to limit the operation. and thereby to diminish the issue. ii and wliicli revoked liis all reservations made. Adrian was laughed If at as a Platonic idealist he was execrated to for Romulean rabble appointing Flemings and Germans among the some . in name. actually supposed that his well-meant but crude efforts would be crowned with success. And while he announced his intention of abolishing the multitudinous new offices created by his predecessor. and upon it. he The population of the had reckoned without Rome. Introductory. and the cardinals from granting sanctuary. He tried to prevent his subjects from bearing arms. Adrian VI. 24tli). by declaring against pluralities.

taking occasion at being annoyance charged there with the authorship of the new heresy. however. and by one or two others. and Soderini uttered warnings fraught with the experience of three pontificates. was admonished to re- . Before the final reply of Erasmus was indited. The correspond- ence between Adrian VI. the Pope had already entered upon the second part of his scheme of counter-reformation. But even Cajetano (de Yio). foremost man of letters of the age. be suppressed by since. Luther's patron. advised deliberation. whatever he scholar's may have been at this time the great mental attitude towards the Lutheran refor- mation. and his conviction that no advice of his was called for if that heresy was to . who had learnt patience from the results of the Lateran Council. transparently persecution. on whose sympathy he thought himself able to count. His policy was indeed here supported by Caraffa. he could hardly have acted in concert with an ally who invoked the sweet name of Liberty. Thus the Pope was left to carry on the struggle nearly alone nor is it wonderful that he should have had resort to men of piety and learning. he made no additions. and Erasmus. He declined the Pope's invitation to to express both his Pome. And he was right honest as Pope Adrian was.12 The Counter-ReformATI ox. like Adrian. to which. and among them to his countryman Erasmus. the . had scant sympathy to spare for the counter-movement as conceived by the actual head of the Church. centred in ance to these of course the College of Cardinals. who. Prederick the Wise of Saxon v. had imbibed ideas of ecclesiastical reform in Spain. with the exception of one nomination immediately before his death. shows that.

but the sanction Diet to the execution of the Edict of Worms distinctly refused. The to left result must have been a for bitter disappoint- ment Adrian. cause of the Church are said to have responded with eager enquiries as to the disposal of his personal pro- . which it was hoped would soon be summoned of the to some suitable German city. however. to reform the deformed Catholic to movement the Estates in the terms. 1 In the midst of 4. Tbe Diet replied in a very cool tone. ^j^^^ ^^ ^-^^j (September death-bed. and suofsrest- ing that they should be remedied hcfore the proposed steps were taken against Luther. the Pope denounced the Lutheran i December 5 2 3. In no other way could a modus mvendi be found up to the meeting of a General Council. With true greatness of soul. and even a request on the part was de- of the Pope for the institution of proceedings against certain preachers of heresy in Ntirnberg itself clined. Chieregati. he professed his desire. i und death. i 3 pentance in a Papal missive. recurring to the grievances of the German nation aq-ainst the Eoman Curia.In trod uc tor y. he caused the condition of that Church to be described to the Diet as corrupt from the head downwards. containing an attack upon Luthe r himself as virulent as it was ill-fountlecL Then. and declared his determination to resist Church. at the Diet of Ntirnberg. the cardinals to At his whom he commended the 5 2 3). most unmeasured it. although in truth his difficulties at Rome His him no time ^^^^ proceeding effectively against failure German reformation. In the same breath. but for which he would never have taken upon himself the burden of the Papacy. No desire was indicated was to break with the Pope. in through his legate.

returned to the ordinary At first. It appears to have exercised a salutary effect upon the South German clergy. including the Emperor's necessities. In 1524 his legate Campeggi at Ratisbon published a mandate conceived in the spirit of Adrian's reforms. and put forth a thin decree bearing upon the removal of certain internal abuses. and to have approved itself to the great English Cardinal Wolsey. though not indifferent to the efforts which. with that a confidence either sublime. He brouo-ht no other leverao-e to bear upon the twofold task which he had set himself to accomplish. and sought to accomplish his ends forthwith and unassisted. not to speak of the protonotaries. His great endeavour was doomed to failure. solicitors. he displayed some diplomatic activity on behalf of the suppression of heresy in the Empire. The time of its publication was opportune. and modelled on their Spanish precedents. p^paj mctliods of government and policy. writers of the archives. for a reaction against Luther's no-compromise seemed to have set in . everything. childish Adrian or expected. niake at Rome. indeed. rcligious enthusiasm continued to poUrinTSClement vn. in the course of The crisis of ^^^ reign. and other officials at Rome. would bend to the demands of his own zeal. referendaries. Adrian's successor. office. if only because he ignored tlie most obvious considerations of policy. Clement VII.14 perty. but hardly to those of all the cardinals. himself a reformer of the moderate tyjoe. save by the sanctity of his Sacred no doubt it still was to many minds. colledores jjlumhi. (i 523— 34). The Counter-Rrformation. and Christendom might indeed have cried miracle had he lifted the load.

contented himself with trusting to the weak- The demand for a Council was evaded at Bologna (November i 529). too soon the sky stitute f^2 such as was actually demanded by his Spaniards. Not only did the Edict of Worms now become a dead letter. the Papacy ness of the restored Pope. nor was it to the Protestant world alone that the judgment of Heaven seemed to have descended on the city of the Popes. Clement VII. who now held Pope Clement as a prisoner in his power. as by that of the policy inherited by him from previous holders of the temporal power. where. Charles V. returned to political manoeuvres. but soon the imperial army was marching upon Rome. and a great opportunity seemed to offer itself to Erasmus and the Erasmians. whose reformatory decrees no Papal intrigues could have hindered. manipulated. Successfully resist- . which he had cherished during the last three years.. But all was darkened by events wkicli conan epoch in the history of the Papacy. Charles V. 15 even in Germany. or stultified. might perhaps have solved the twofold question of the reformation of the Church and of the suppression of the religions revolt by simj)ly abolishing the temporal power. of assembling a General Council. had to throw himself into the arms of France and to quarrel with the Emperor.Introductory. Or he might have refused to restore it unless after a thorough reform of the Roman Curia and of the whole system of Papal administration. Not so much by his own fault. In the sacco di Roma (1527) Spanish soldiers shared with German lanclshnechte . At the very least he might have carried out the plan. about the very time when Protestantism was seeking to establish itself on definite dogmatic bases.

6 1 The Counter-Reformation. was never again to rise from her ruins. The personally did not rest on her temporal power. and He was to assure the future of the house of Medici. for which it was the Pope's duty to labour. world to redress the balance of the faithful. and heterodox Thus he contrived to maintain his own political influence. respectable but common-place character of Clement YIL enabled him to pass unchanged through an experience more awful than had befallen any of his preBut just as the Rome of the Renascence decessors. tlie ing Emperor's reiterated demands called in the aid of the infidel for a Council. . warned by the Venetian Contarini that the welfare of the Church. so the Church of which Rome remained the centre was already before his death (September 15 34) awake to the fact that in the epoch now at hand she could no longer remain Clement standing in the old ways.

enouofh. responsibilities. election he gave proof of his insight both into the spiritual needs of the Church and into the shortcomings But unfortunately none of his of his predecessors. from which he was personally free. in a word. seemed to him so obvious and so pressing as the traditional Papal obligation of providing for his family. Thus he succeeded in obtaining for his descendants a respectable place as Dukes of Parma and Piacenza among the sovereign families of Italy and Europe. C. forty years of license during his cardinalate had not altogether blunted his perception of what he Very soon after his might help to effect as a Pope. The really determining force of his versatile foreign policy was not religious bigotry. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CATHOLIC REVIVAL. peace between the great contending powers. ) CHAPTER II. which was.( i. paradoxically him even than the tics ^ . besides the duty of upholding the temporal power. nor even his sincere desire for It was. Paul fied (Alexander Farnese. on occasion stronger in H. but III. dynastic ambition. 1534—49) was qnalineither by his antecedents nor Uy his character for the task of reforming the Church.

hatred of the ascendancy of Charles V. though enlightened and in some sense and unprejudiced. tO i. thus the religious history of his reign contrasts.. Leo had himself grown up. the first manifestations during the sixteenth century of a desire for a spiritual revival in the Church represent a natural followed in his path.i tllO labours and aspirations of Luther and the reformers In Italy. established by the issue of the Smalcaldic war. nor that which dominated I 5 i 3 Leo X. COUSCIOUS Or UUCOnSClOUS. • luovements OppOSltlOU. was not moved by spiritual zeal the Farnese could not spare. prevented him from seeking in Charles V. had to assert Homan under his rule. i. could lay claim to orthodoxy.8 1 The Counter-Reformation.. . Though Lorenzo the Magnificent and his Academy had never defied the teachings of the Church. of Paul III. Leo X. is full of startling The earliest attempts in this period to regenerate the Church of Rome without breaking the mould of her existing forms are not associated with any Spiritual . yet their own point of view was essentially mystic and society undogmatic. Not even liis of bloocl. who At the Lateran Council in by a ^constitution' the doctrine of the individual immorYet neither the circle in which tality of the soul. probably been underrated but even in the case of a . nor the suspicion probably entertained by him that the imperial policy was privy to the assassination son (September 1547). reaction against the prevailing fashion of unbelief.'s personal interest in divinity has . a support which the dynasty of of his own In the religious policy of a Pope actuated by such a master-motive it would The mind be futile to seek for any inner consistency.

Thus certain pious and reflecting minds began to fear lest the most spiritual elements in the work of the Church and of her priesthood might either meet with disregard and derision. Under Clement VII. Thus an influence in the main recover from the shock.Beginnixgs of the Catholic Revival. But and for the moment this effect could not be measured representatives of the Reafter the sack of Rome the nascence and those of the religious revival were alike Not a few of both the one fugitives from its walls. the including Ghiberti. and its services and exercises were attended by a congregation of between fifty and sixty members. and the other group found their way to Venice. but which alone among the communities of Northern and Central Italy had remained untouched by war or foreign inva- . antagonistic to a restoration of the spiritual life and energy of the Church was permanently impaired. a city whose own power was already on the wane. the movement . Renascence in Italy of its very centre and focus nor did Rome for a long time. or the Italian Renascence ever. the the city of dire catastrophe which befell Rome together with the Pope deprived the . Sadoleti. ^f gts. . and Caraffa. of the Oratorians naturally threw out further fibres. At some time in the course of this pontificate (151 3—22) an Oratory The Oratory of ^f Divino Lovo was founded in the church Divine Love. The precedent of this foundation was speedily imitated at Vicenza and in several other towns and in the reign of Adrian VI. the future Cardinals Contarini. 19 Pope it is permissible to deduce liis inclinations from company which he keeps. Sylvcstcr and Dorothea in Trastevere at Rome. or come to be dissociated from the distinctive doctrines and practices of the Catholic religion.

^vllich he had also To whatever served on fofeign missions. his doctrinal opinions seem to have been as broad as his conceptions of ecclesiastical government . new Lutheran At Venice then. Lutheran heresy underwent examination and he had been consulted on the schemes which lay so near to Under Clement VIL Caraffa the heart of Adrian VI. freedom of rise to a utterance here. Contarini. doctrines. bishop of Born of an illusChieti and archbishop of Brindisi. though the Pope had proposed to confer upon him an extraordinary disciplinary authority over the clergy resident at Rome (May 1524). in passiug. Theological opinion enjoyed much. had afterwards a genuine religious revival. The Counter-Reformation. availed himself of his theological acumen when the . and an eminent senator of the republic. Gian Pietro Caraffa. degree his views of the cardinal doctriue of justification may have approached Luther's. interest and in the neighbouring University of Padua. had withdrawn from court into a convent. and the intimate mercantile relations with Germany had given in the very warm . while his conciliatory .20 sion. but even during the dark days in question he refused to despair of the future of the Church. there met several scholars and ecclesiastics belonging to the school of thought associated with the Oratory of Divine Love Hither came. and had earned distinction as nuncio at the courts of Ferdinand and Henry YIIL In Spain he had been fired by the spectacle of Leo X. at least bevond the Tiber. Gas2:)aro Contarini was a Venetian born. Campanian family. he had been early introduced to the Papal court. and trained in trious and influential the best learning of the Renascence.

was animated by no the ' Pole. as On the and his Ranke has shown. there But the early incould be no peace between them. in common with all Protestant doctrines proper. had from France and Navarre penetrated into Northern Italy. and that invitation had been declined. Least besides of could these relations remain obscure at a time the influence of the Reformation itself. contrary. Henry VIII. and in their turn had much tion of justification. to renounce the supremacy of the Pope. more especially on the crucial ques- was in actual touch with theological ideas which at this time had penetrated into various spheres of Italian society. and the immediate neiofhthus becomes easy to under- . when reaching Venice from Germany.. wisdom and lofty 21 independence of spirit indigenous to the city of bis origin. when in 1534 he was ordered by his royal kinsman. but none more ardently than nobleman of Enofland. He probably thought himself but a sojourner in these seats of learning and culture. were alike Other noble Venetians sympathised in the highest aspirations of the scholars of Padua. tercourse between Contarini and Pole. and had thence by way of Ferrara.' whose royal o J ^. who together with Caraffa may be said to represent the opening stage of the Counter-Reformation. After the king had acknowledged the receipt of Pole's defence of the unity of the Church by an invitation to England._ blood and generous bearing had marked him out even when a mere student in the venerable university. the teaching of Contarini school. where Calvin at one time took refusre. ' .Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. purely or essentially controversial purpose. reached the Romama It bourhood of Rome.

Sadoleti. of the insinuating literary arguments of Juan Valdez and his disciples. and asking for the friendship of the mired far German kind of reformer. Very soon after his accession in I 5 34. both of whom had. the exemplary bishop of Verona. beginning. was the author of a work in which he argued that the caducity of the Church could only be cured by the introduction of a new and more vigorous discipline.. They first nominated. honoured. he declared himself not to be " the man in whom difference of opinion at once gives rise to hatred. Yet it was in no truculent spirit that he or those associated with him accepted the Papal nomination. and of the powerful sermons of Bernardino Ochino. like Ghiberti. Matteo Ghiberti. whom Leo X. more wisely than Adrian VI. ' Carpentras in France. Paul III. diuals. and whom archbishop of Salerno. besides Caraffa and Pole. visible in almost every city from Naples to Milan. created six . and on stand on the one hand the readiness of Contarini and his friends to entertain the other the determination of the Jesuits to eradicate the effects. and to Have proposed the rest. and near as a type of the elegant culture of the later Renascence. and Jacopo Sadoleti.. included. choscn witliout thcir owH knowledge.22 The Counter-Reformation. When announcing his appointment to Melanchthon. had Vida sung Federigo Fregoso. ^ and purely on account of their religious views Contarini is said to have been the and sentiments. schemes of reunion. bishop of ' . with New cardinals created by men car- instead of measures. new ." . ad- frequented the Oratory of Divine Love.

was to appoint a com- mission consisting of these new -^ cardinals. appears have demanding the opinion of all his colleagues on each head of the commission. 2^ The next step of Paul III. This commission was charged with the preparation of proposals. Contarini. two other members of the Sacred CoUeo^e. spread of irreligious teaching from academical chairs. and the issue of bulls indited in the . in harmony of course with accepted doctrines and traditions. for the reform of the Church. Commission ^ tat n on Church bortcse and Aleander. but there was no lack of earnestness. both of them eminent for learning.B£GL\\V/\GS OF THE CATHOLIC REVIVAL. urging that. chiefly directed against curialistic abuses. togetlier with t t ^ . or even of boldness. The influence of Conand even from cliurch pulpits. while those already under their care should It also took occasion to reprehend the be dismissed. while the latter had gained reputation as a diplomatist by his exertions in Germany in connection with the bull of excommunication against Luther and the Edict of Worms. brought about the appointment of special commissions for tlie execution of reforms in various branches of the Papal administration. reflected severely tarini. if they were not altogether abolished. The report insisted with pitiless logic upon the principle that no payment could be accepted by the Pope for any spiritual abandoned original of grace without the guilt of simony being incurred by him. and who supplemented the report by tractates of his own. cle Its report is the celebrated consilimn emendandd intention ecdesid. they should at least be prohibited from receiving any more novices. to the soul of the his entire transaction. in their joint conclusions. on the condition of the regular orders.

series Conferences on religious re- Komau union. In the midst of these advances of heresy. same The publication of the until it entire report was. formed in opposition to the League of Smalcald (1538). . as well as in England and in council the action of the .. but to the convocation of such a Pope seemed logically to point. Charles V. and refused to hear of the intervention of a Papal nuncio in future discussions of the subject. .union. Switzerland. the floodgates of Hungary stood open. naviau uortli. Both within and beyond the frontiers of the Empire. spirit. .. was involved in arduous conflicts which made it necessary for him to conciliate the Protestant interest in the Empire.the fourteen years which intervened between the Religious Peace of Niirnberg (1532) and the outbreak of the Smalcaldic War (i 54^) seemed to justify the confidence of the Protestants. however. a View to finding a basis for re. in Saxony and in Brandenburg. though steadily adhering to the plan of a General Council. The Association of Catholic Princes. of theoloo-ical Catliolic n\ • conferences between and Lutheran divines with The conferences to that followed were looked forward with many pious hopes. postponed could be laid before a General Council . in Livonia and in the Scandi° Progress of protestaQtism.24 The Counter-Reformation. In both the French wars of this period (i 536-38 and I 542-44) the Sultan was the ally of Francis I. Already at Frankfort (1539) the Protestants made plain their desire for a definitive settlement. and Austria and the Empire were in con. in Wlirtemberg and at Augsburg. the course of events durino. was under these circumstances wholly ineffective and by the advice of Granvelle the Emperor encouraged a stant peril. ..

Mean- under influences which had at first co-operated with the endeavours of the school or party to which Contarini and Pole belonged. the Pope. mately. led by the Elector John Frederick of Saxony. appeared as Papal legate. a movement was already on foot which was speedily to urge the Church of Rome in a contrary direction to that of comprehension or tolerance. it was decided not to submit to a future General Council even those points on which an agreement had been reached. now became testant interest continued in the ascendant. after the Ratisbon Interim had postponed a settlement (1541). unaccomplished either at Hagenau and Worms (l 5 40). disappointed or The schism a member. arrived at •the limit of the concessions for which he was prepared on the subject of the Eucharist and it is open to grave doubt whether his previous concessions on other Ultipoints would have been ratified by the Pope.' Beg/xVN/ngs of the Catholic Revival. or by the more elaborate efforts made on the occasion of the Diet of Ratisbon (1541).neckedness of some of the Protestant princes. 2 -D and many minds devoutly attached to the Church once more renewed their aspirations for her reformaBut the desired result remained tion from within. Here failure was ensured by the efforts of French seconded by English diplomacy. and still more by the stiff. at his instigation. and encouraged by Luther But Contarini too. and in the Empire the Prothus seemed remediless. The pontificate of Paul . while. renewal of the Nlirnberg league of Catholic princes. wishes of Pole. sped by the good himself. in Italy. disillusioned. who. of which. and the failure of the entire transaction was made patent by the Emperor's .

established by Francis of Paula (canonised i 5 1 9) in Calabria. The reformation at Orclcrs of the monastic orders. themselves an aftergrowth of the Benedictines. in its accord- ance with the original design of the order. may (of course without exact chronological accu- racy) be regarded as the birth-time of the militant orders of the Catholic reaction. and wherever an attempt to enforce it was made by Church or State. . but inasmuch as.Reformation. recognised as necessary at Constance Ngw and actually taken in hand Basel. which spread in Italy. ready with their support.26 III. and general public opinion were. framed by both Adrian VI. the move- The last order founded before the age of the Protestant refor- mation had been that of the Minims. and Poland. could not exercise upon the revival of religious life and sentiment. had made some progress even in still countries in communion with Rome . academical. The earliest monastic institution which it is possible to connect with the Catholic reaction is the organisation in 1522 by the Venetian Paolo Giustiniani at Masaccio in the Papal States of a reformed congregation of the Camaldolites. . The Counter. great Franciscan order which Matteo de Bassi began in 1525. Far different was the effect of the in the reformation—one amono. and confirmed by Sixtus IV. the congregation. Germany. was ultimately established with great rigour at Monte Corona . manv " ^ The Capuchins. tion opera- was essentially isolating. as a rule. and Clement VII. literary. Still. and which in 1528 resulted in the direct influence much — .. 'J'lie reformed rule. a wholly ment in the period new impulse was given to now under discussion. in 1473.

They do not independence as an order nearly a century later (i6j^. 27 establishment near Camerino. With much of the strength of the great mendicant order of which the Capuchins were an offshoot. Like the Franciscans of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. was not only in matters of State policy that the Capuchins were afterwards at it Thus issue with their contemporaries the Jesuits. Though both in earlier and in later times there were among them many men of learning. they were the preachers of the people. with the approval of Pope Clement VII. they contributed more than perhaps any other agency to sustain the fidelity of the people at large to the Established Church. they resorted to whatever means were at hand for workIn an age ing upon the superstitions of their public. Prohibited from depending upon any provision of their own. they established a pre-eminence as exor- cists which assured to them a reputation even among Protestant populations. it was their popular fibre which gave them their peculiar vitality.. peculiarly prone to belief in witchcraft and devilry of all kinds. they combined one of the chief symptoms of its age of decay. whose apostasy could hardly have failed to damage a less robust body. including their vicar-general the celebrated Bernardino Ochino. where they began by exhibiting a self-sacrificing devotion during the ravages of the plague. of the so-called appear to have obtained till Ccqnicliins. In Italy. and their canons oratory exercised its influence over a great part of all Europe.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. The organisation of the female . but in the meanfull time thev had done more than enoua:h to iustifv their existence. often no doubt flying in the face of of refinement.

28 The Counter-Reformation. --r^ Caraflfa. in liis Fra Paolo ' was customary Chictines. appears to bave been modelled original rule of the Clares. or. a native of Vicenza. either in the conduct of or the services of religion. Bonifacio da Colle. the conscience should be bound by mere usage. Pincio at Eome. by the example of these Indeed. Clearly. not monks. their statutes explicitly life unfit that. whose bishopric of Chieti. 1538 by a Catalan upon the rigorous that between the Capucliines. day at Venice to call votaresses of the Jesuits' . but clerks-regular their their costume was superior bore the title of provost . . and then it was enthusiastically taken up by Caraffa. his return to On to the older form. established at Naples in lady. a Lombard lawyer. the idea of their founders was the restoration of the clergy. in 11^24. and soon settled on the Monte The Theatines. An even more striking contrast is Capachins and tbe Theatines. the Theatines might remind us of the Low German Brotherhood of the select ^ Common it and aristocratic states that were it not for the character impressed upon this Life. Order of the Theatines} called themselves. name to the new The members of this order gave its the ordinary clerical dress declared it . became interested in his design. Theate. confirmed by Clement YII. and Gian Pietro . Oratory of the Divine Love to his native Venice and Verona. The former had quitted a lucrative post at the Roman court in order to transplant the ideas of the city. to the primitive apostolic type. according clergy of the Church. Their founders were Gaetano of Thiene. and had gradually come to concentrate his pious thoughts upon the reformation of the secular Rome. simple priests.

The example of the Theatines was imitated in several quarters. activity both in the care of the sick himself up entirely to Paul III. afterwards called the Order of St. where they were zealous in staying the growth of heresy. in 1 545 took the name of Barnabites. Circassia. who have been described as the democratic wing of the Theatines. named from Their founder. Almost equally modest in their beginnings were the labours of Pliilip of Keri. and their missions afterwards spread from Italy. actively engaged in the conversion of heretics both in Italy and in France In I 540 and in that home of heresy. wliose cougregatiou was founded by Another Orders m Italy.vival.BegiiYX/xgs of the Catholic Rf. Majolus. and in particular of homeless children. from the church of St Barnabas. The Barnabites. a young Florentine of good birth (151 5-1 595) . touio Maria Zacharia of Cremona and two Milanese associates in 1532. to the remote regions of Georgia. traditions were carried on by his order. and Tartary. and had founded Both these several hospitals in this part of Italy. a Venetian noble commonly called Girolamo Miani. and confirmed as independent by cause. in 1534. Paul III. The clerks-regular of St. . who for a time gave They showed great and as preachers. . from a church made but it does not appear to have over to it at Padua acquired a more than local importance. had con- secrated his life and wealth to the service of the poor. confirmed the order of the Somascines. which was given up to them at Milan. so the town of Somasca. appalled by the ravages of war in Lombardy. Paul (Paulines). approved by Clement VII. * 29 seminary of bishops ' by its CarafFa. in 1533. Bohemia.

to minister to the wants of the pilgrims at Rome. . famous as the seminary of much that is most admirable in the labours of the Catholic clergy. notwithstanding the fears of the Inquisition. who in canonised 1622). of the Spanish mystics. Augustine.30 The Counter.Reformation. which. This altogether indige- nous growth never exhibited the slightest tendency to estrange itself from the established Church. ^^yggj^ ^\^Q movement in Italy and the early efforts of Spanish mysticism. but to a living care of the unfortunate. not to isolation from the world. From his associa- which followed the rule of St. was one of the istic first Peter of Alcantara (1499—15^2) to exhibit the combination of medi- tative religiosity with reforming enthusiasm characterForced by John III. to No in figure is more serene and more sympathetic ^ us the history of the Catholic reaction than that of apostle of Rome. There seems no reason for assuming any very close or direct connection to have existed in these years bepam.' this latter-day tion. sprang in 1575 the Congregation of the Oratory at Rome. was immeasurably strengthened by the encouragement communicated to pious minds from this new world of religious emotion. established by Angela of Brescia. with a view. But the operations of till his mission gradually extended they embraced the spiritual welfare of the and the reformation of the Roman Roman population at large. clergy in particular. 1548 instituted at Eome the Society of the Holy Tj-inity. whom in 1 544 we find confirming the famous female order of the Ursulines. This activity in the foundation and renovation of monastic orders continued throughout the reign of Paul III.

after his "Beatification (1607). devoted more especially to the relief of the physical sufTo the same period ferings of the poor and unhappy. but was not the next generation that the fruits of their enthu- siasm were to become most fully manifest. 1 5^6). who in 540 founded the order of the Brethren of Charity. Alejo Venegas was likewise period at the height of his activity in the covered by the pontificate of Paul III.BegixniiXgs of the Catholic Revival. of the extent of that assistance possible. the assistance given to the progress of the Counter-Eeformation by these new associations The Company ^^^5 from tlic nature of the case. wholly of Jesus.. which acquired an entirely new impetus so soon as it was informed by the fiery spirit of Spanish religious The story of Ignatius Loyola (1491 — enthusiasm. is not in of all cases it The great religious society which remains to speak called may be said to have been expressly into life in order to advance the movement. In Spain. the founder of the Jesuit order. an estimate indirect .' and his Portuguese convert called Juan di Dio. the eloquent 'apostle of Andalusia. Ignatius by Gregory . both in Spain and in Portugal. as were Juan d'Avilla (1500—69). even as to Italy. was canonised as St. but. I and group belongs the Franciscan Juan de the friend of St. los it Angeles. 31 of Portugal from the lovely conventual retreat in wliich composed Lis Golden Book on mental prayer. afterwards known as of the strictest observance of St. w^ho. be reformed the Franciscan order of which he was provincial in Estraraadura. and lie in 1555 established the congregation of the Barefooted Friars. Peter of Alcantara. Francis of Borgia till . had been pronounced by Pope Paul V.

nand nor his grandson Charles would ever have deigned to become the mere tools of the Papacy. as one of Caraffa's saints suited for bishoprics. and the mysticism to which reference has been made was the The product of sentiment rather than of speculation. or even with ranging himself among the Theatines (who gave him shelter at Venice in 1537). sqcIi a character as Loyola's. scholastic philosophy was not cultivated with preeminent success in mediaeval Spain. could have taken their origin nowhere but in Spain. on his partial recovery from his wound and . and from of old Even a nursery of combatant Christian chivalry. be narrated here. (1622). and such a life's work as his. alumhrados^ though decried as a sect by ignorance and prejudice. When. Loyola accordingly lived in which forbade his being content an atmosphere of ideas with one more attempt at puritanising the Franciscan or some other of the older orders. though neither Ferdias well as for the Crown. the nation was fully aware of their design that the power of Spain should control the world over which the Pope claimed the spiritual supremacy. were guiltless either of heretical intentions Thus the great religious or of doctrinal independence. To the Theatines he no doubt owed the suggestion of such a society as that which he was on the eve of founding. cannot XV. but the idea had its roots in his nation's historic past.32 The Counter-Reformation. the land of ardent aspirations and of heroic endurance. and its effects were enhanced by the conquest of the New World for the Cross Lastly. revival of Ferdinand and Isabella had been carried out on a well-prepared soil. As lias fre- quently been pointed out.

their leader seems to have bestowed on them the name of the Company of Jesus. when. after his ascetic exercises and visions in the Dominican convent at Manrese. joined Loyola's In 1537 followers during his own absence from Paris. at Rome. all the associates met first at Venice. before. Of course he was suspected of being an alumhrado. all of them Parisian students. be cannot have known much about the Indeed. he must have felt nearer to the purpose of his life. and Bobadilln. he betook himself to Venice. H. progress of the Protestant Reformation. When in 1528 he resumed his studies at Paris. thouo-h alreadv himself in some measure a popular teacher and a counsellor of beautiful souls. The Spaniards Lainez. Lis 33 surgeons. the Inquisition twice laid hands upon him. very possibly C. ^ . in the same or the following year.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. who then occupied a chair in the College of Beauvais at Paris. who. the nucleus of his great in- was in existence. and the Portuguese Rodriguez. 1534). Already before they reached the latter city. and his infructuous pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The list was completed by the Savoyard Le Jay and the Frenchmen Codure and Brousset. with which his journeys into Belgium and to London may have had some connexion. Mary on Montmartre (August 15. the Savoyard Pierre Le Fevre and the noble Navarrese Francis Xavier. he sat with heroic doo'o.-edness amon^ the philosophy and divinity students at Alcala and Salamanca. in 1535. stitution At all events. At first it consisted of two academical acquaintances of Loyola. Salmeron. likewise took part in the famous meeting held in the Church of St. and. towards the end of the year. Loyola resolved to serve saints as a God and His monk.

even before the confirmation of the order. and education. and always of the military their preferred by Loyola. afterwards among heathen. and ments. a reminiscence of one of the abortive religious orders of knighthood founded by Pius as II. a protracted struggle ensued. the term seems to be used as a kind of nickname. In Spain and Portugal the members of the Company were. they lost no time in defin- ing to themselves the objects of their common engageMission-work. were their special tasks. and at Ferrara favoured the plans of Loyola. known as Theatines. but of strength. in its early days. the astute element in him showed its itself com- paratively late . probably about the time when Loyola was himself involved in charges of heresy. (1459). after arrival at Eome. they found that the Holy Land remained inaccessible to them. of his significant organisation institution. to chairs of divinity at the Sapienza. his dealings with 1 It was not the custom during the sixteenth century of the Society to call themselves for individual members 'Jesuits . But though Paul III. Thus. while others were soon placed in charge of some of the schools recently founded by the Pope. which must have been conducted by the latter with singular granted. and is so employed by Calvin in 1560. or Apostles. his followers distinguished themselves as the assailants of heresy at Eome and some of the neighbourTwo members of the band were appointed ing cities. Counter-Reformation.-^ When. skill. Ignatians. before the desired confirmation was As has been the case with other eminent fanatics.34 Ihe. which are rather obscurely mixed up with his reprobation of the crypto- Lutheranism of a certain Piemontese monk. especially among heretics.' indeed. . personally itself.

in all parts of the world were conferred upon it Paul III. which Loyola had speedily discovered a way of evading. New privileges facilitating the ministrations of the Company by and 1 5 49). Thus the Pope. ^. granted to the order by Paul's successor. conCardinals Contarini and sister. and then as revised by Lainez (1558). though for a time the new religious enterprise was chiefly popular with the lower orders. abolished the restriction of the number of the members of the order to sixty. 1540. The subsequent bull. while the results of its (1545 labours were amply recognised in his bull Pastoralis The Jesuits obtained all the rights officii cura (i 548). In the days of expectancy. s sys em.^^ ? . leave no doubt. which. 35 temporal governments and their interests. firming the new order. of the older orders. together with the their general ecclesiastical penalties except in for the decision of the Pope. privilege for all of absolving his subordinates from abnormal cases reserved Other favours were III..Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. had for some years previously Constitutions. Injiuic- tum nobis (1543). he issued the bull Eegimini. as well as liis injunctions to his disciples. and the Emperor's Margaret of Parma. was encouraged to ignore an unfavourable report from a commission of three cardinals. upon whom a personal interview with Loyola had made a deep impression. yet it had also secured powerful friends. Julius who proved The its consistent friend (1550)- bulls establishing the order and extending its privileges contained in themselves the substance of the though not published ^^^^^ ^^^ death of Loyola. and on September 27. such as De Carpi.

On the other hand. Even as the way cadaver. possesses no official character. principle. and by adhering which accomplished a great part of its successes. of which. Francis of Assisi. the Constitutions as well as the Declarations making sufficient provision in this direction . Directory for the conduct of these exercises was not in definitively adopted till i 593-94. Loyola could not in of metaphor go beyond the famous perinde ac To this borrowed by him from St. there has been no attempt to gainsay Loyola's authorship of the Spiritual Exercises. and to some extent suggested by a mystical manual of de(The votion by Garcia de Cisneros. In the three vows taken by an ordinary member of the Company there was nothing unfamiliar to common The simple import of the vow of monastic usage. abbot of Manrese. to the vow of obedience. from successive generals to their sub- published in 1612). the Jesuits have always denied the genuineness. but in sub- stance such had also been the case with earlier orders. ther in This tendency carried much fur- the collection of so-called Secret Institutions (^Monita Sccretci). |)Overty was indeed materially modified in practice. life regulated the and labours of the Jesuits. and often to all appearance is materially modifying. at all events. a rule. and ordinates (first which. published 1548 for the use of laymen and novices. as determining the relations of the .6 The Counter-Reformation. With these were published the Declarations^ which already exemplify the well-known Jesuit tendency to exceptions mitigating. however.) of From these order in it sources we derive our knowledge of the principles and methods w^ere which characteristic to the its early days.

to not more than thirty-five at the time of Loyola's and on an average to not more than two in the hundred of the entire body. said. to order . in whom he must have divined his successor. this authority was. amountinof. the reverse The assistants. Le by Loyola. never weary of returning. and taught even Lainez. fact. The first s. For though at first sight the enormous authority of the general might seem to give a monarchical character to death. the founder is and to tlio however.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. who accepted the purple was Tolctus (Franci:5CO de Tuledo). taken by the so-called professed of the four vows. archbishop. or cardinal. In truth the success of the Company was much more largely than that of most other orders due to its chiefs or aristocracy.a. the wdiole system. and w^as enforced he broke the attempt at resistance of Rodriguez w^lien provincial in Portugal (1552). But the members of the order who it is rose to this rank were few in number. 37 to their superiors. representing the chief provinces. ."^ Nor was even a virtual independence conceded by the general to the leading members of the its owed origin to the offer of the see of Trieste to Jay. This rule sequences. though with characteristic modifications. both in theoiy and in practice. in of limited. to push it to its utmost logical conHence sprang the rule that in Europe no member of the Company should accept high office in the Church as bishop. is. know his place (1543). ^ and forming a kind of cabinet under the Jesuit 1593. when that of Vienna was pressed upon Canisius. members of the Company general above all. Great importance no doubt also attached to the additional vow of obedience to the Pope in missionary matters. and he always ready.

But all its seeds were sown and watered and all its fruits gathered ad majorem Dei gloriam. but in a case of urgency might proceed to his deposition by a still more summary method. It is not wonderful that no other religious able a hollowness to Jesuit theology . was hardly so multiplicitous as that of some other orders. for the ulterior purposes which the Society covered by this phrase. chiefly directed to missionary and propagandistic labours. that is to say. but in the vigilance thus of administration and life. but it would be an error to regard the whole institution as a machine worked by a single will. largely worked through the confessors of royal and princely personages. is precisely what attests the subordination in this system of everything to the purpose for which it was called into life. viz. the benefit of the Church as represented by the the system. What in Protestant eyes gives so indescrib- and Jesuit education. The Counter-Reformation. as observed. and to education. hinging on obedience — Papacy. The early activity of the Jesuits.. may have crushed some of the most powerful as well as most generous motives of human action. had not only tlie riglit of assembling a general congregation of the order in his despite. though intense. engendered its lay another of the vital principles of the Jesuit system In many of members and guarded at every point by surveillance. including the diplomacy of the Company. soon in the main to its higher branches only.38 general. It was. years Loyola himself was about two before his death (30tli July 1556) obliged for to accept a vicar imposed upon him by his assistants. constitution of this kind leaves A room much suspicion and intrigue. even to Jesuit oratory and literature aud art.

formal existence as a community each of them addressed himself to his specific share of their work.^ Nothing. society should have 39 been trusted so much and liated so That the Company of Jesus has in general remained free from outward extravagances of zeal such as have often given offence in other religious associations. accepted the generalship. but he soon found reason to change his mind. 541.). of Jesuitesses. 1541? Pasquier-Brouet and Salmeron. (163. in 1542. they spent a month of extreme and apparently futile hazards. in the same year. . with some little coyness. Almost the first mission intrusted to members of the order was that on which. and its proceeded to the formal distribution of labours. is more striking in the early history of the Jesuits than the zeal and promptitude with wliich from the very beginning of their Its early bitterly. to which he had been At Easter elected i by six professed members of the order. while his plan of frequently changing the place of sojourn of the members of his company emancipated them from the routine which impairs activity. accordingly.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. where. Already his early followers were by him as much as possible employed on missions to countries other than their own. set out by way of Scotland to Ireland. is largely due to the cosmopolitan character impressed on it by its founder. accompanied by the apostolic notary Zapata as a novice. Yet these same men had a large share in the ^^' campaign against heresy whicli was waged 1 The order was as early as 1547 relieved by Papal ordinance from In 1545 Loyola had sanctioned an the control of female conventuals. Ignatius Loyola. ijiogress. association The experiment was renewed and again suppressed under Urban VIII.

soon afterwards removed to the site of the well-known Gcsil . they established a colles^e at Boloo-na. called the least secure part of Europe. after working with Le Fevre at Parma and Piacenza. design of the order. they caused the arch-heretic Ochino himself to Shortly afterwards (l 5 is withdraw (1543-45). 46). whose labours. all. while Lainez.. as elsewhere. that Salmeron was victorious at Modena and Montepulciano (1543). whence. We are informed by Jesuit historiographers that Pasquier-Brouet recovered Foligno for the Church (1542—43). it was among the upper classes that the teaching of the Jesuits proved most immediately effective. coincided with the reorganisation of the Inquisition Rome footing Even at Naples they established a (1542). which established them in a kind of acknowledged control over the inhabitants. in the course of prolonged campaign. seemed at first less assured. though during . was 1 in accordance with the its O established the ColUgium Romanum. and where they founded a college (1542). offered visible testimony to the 55 permanent centre. There no reason to contest either the zeal or the success of this home at mission of the Jesuits. which. At Pome itself. however. Northern and Central Italy in tlie period immediately ensuing (1542—43). Spain the • proo-rcss 10 of the Company ^ . Loyola in missionary aspirations of the Society in reference to what might be In Spain. stemmed the tide of error at Venice. where. through Salmeron.40 in The Counter-Reformation. and two years later the foundation of the Collegium Gcrmaniciom^ approved by a bull of Pope Julius III. But above our attention a is directed to the success of their efforts in these years at Faenza.

had no love to spare for the Thus it came to pass that in protegees of the Pope. Catalonia. in point of fact. Duke of Gandia. who was supreme governor of the also. the viceroy of was induced to accord his powerful support to the order. ortuga fluence. the chief agents of the Inquisition. and the efforts of Araoz provoked great enthusiasm in Castile. Catalonia. In 1548 he became himself a member of the Company. The episcopate and the universities were alike under the especially to the clergy of Spain. of which he afterwards and in the same year. the Church in his dominions. rose to be general (1565-72) Alcala having been already deeply impressed by the preaching of Villanueva. interesting nor at all respectable. the sovereign of Spain. But before very long. Spain the Jesuits were for a time thought neither very Finally. and more mere surplusage of an accepted religious movement. wlio furnished nearly three-quarters of the first general congregation of the order. It was through his agency that Francis Borgia. tlie first 41 decade of its existence it was mainly comBut.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. whose permanent establishment in Spain was virtually due to him. j^^^ jjj^^ ^^^^^ attained to the highest inand whence Xavier early (154O set forth . of the Jesuits in Portugal. posed of Spaniards. under . the Jesuit revival might well at first seem to the people. the influence of the Dominicans. and the Basque provinces. apart from the manifest unwillingness of Loyola to give a national colour to his institution. Salamanca became the seat of More rapid was the early progress a Jesuit college. the inner affinity between the order and the nation from which it had sprung prevailed. where.

whose mind he helped to imbue with a deep. and for a time almost entirely stopped the labours of the order there. It was here regarded as an essentially Spanish growth moreover.. earn for liimself tlie for India. on the other hand. and. Sebastian's death (1578). after master of unwilling Portugal (1580). during some of these years (i was again at war with Spain. whom Margaret capital ( I 5 5 0)5 ^i^cl of Valois called the Wonder of the World. and which they continued to exert under his own rule. never forgave the Jesuits the influence which they had exerted there under the last two national sovereigns. fatal religious enthusiasm. to sacred title of its apostle. behind. early association with Paris. 542—44) France Under Henry II. The example thus given of the influence obtainable by the education of a prince was not lost who. as it proved. superin- tended the foundation (1542) of the famous college of the order at Coimbra and being himself member of a noble Portuguese family. after a formal condemnation had been pronounced by the Sorbonne (15 54). had made himself .. According to Jesuit historians. but both the Parliament of Paris and the University strongly resisted a royal ordinance sanctioning the establishment of a Jesuit college in the an agitation was provoked wliich. spread throughout the country. who remained . the though Philip II. contributed . Sebastian. Rodriguez. the dismissal from the Company of Postel. notwithstanding its Company had to contend with many difficulties. the order enjoyed the goodwill of the crown and of the Cardinal of Lorraine . 42 The Counter-Reformation. upon the Company In France. was intrusted with the education of John's successor.

to this result (l 5 5 l) . whence he proceeded to Eatisbon. 43 but of its general nature there can be no doubt. however. not one has been a Frenchman.. and the mocking abroad among the people. Margaret of Parma. regent. and probably did ^'^™^^^^^' more to stimulate propagandist efforts than was effected . was prevailed upon to admit them into the country They were. In Germany their success was continuous in the As early as 1540 Le Catholic parts of the Empire. After this the fortunes of the order in France varied. greatly favoured by the (1556). the national instincts of the bishops and other clergy. it Even after was only by slow degrees that Philip II. . whose tolerated in the members were only here and there realm until the beginning of the great religious wars warned the friends of the Papacy to conciliate its most consistent champions (1561). were the real obstacles in the way of the Society. Fevre arrived in the capacity of theologian to the imperial ambassador at Worms. His reports made a great impression upon the Pope. their operations. upon whom they exercised and thus a direct influence through her confessor their colleges at Louvain and Antwerp were opened. In the neighbouring Low Countries the progress of the Jesuits was likewise slow. and the former place in particular became a centre of Charles Y.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. gained a following in the University of the resignation of Louvain. but the national antipathy against it never came to an end. Of all the generals who have ruled over it. though at first Le Fevre The Netherhmds. The spirit jealous pride of the university.

religious conferences in the direction of re-union. in which the Church ultimately proved victorious (1547). followed Under by his successor. (1550-79. after the Smalcaldic war.) him. where he held an important position both in the university and in the community at large. sity. as will be seen. of Germany by Le Jay and at Viterbo. Peter Canisius (Kanes). and soon obtained considerable influence over King Ferdinand. Charles to impose the Augsburg Interim (1548) Empire. whom the latter had in Italy laboured in common with Cardinal Pole The political difficulties of their task be- gan when. From Vienna. he was succeeded in Bobadilla. oneit sided and temporary as was. rector of the univerhis Canisius companion Nicholas Gandamus. in the Jesuits greater confidence than ever was by the orthodox Duke William JN . On felt the other hand. he undertook a series of special missions in Upper and Lower Austria. though it never became a purely Jesuit university like Innsbruck and Dillingen. sought upon the a sacrifice successful acceptance urging the Catholic princes to refuse for themselves of the compromise. On Le Fevre's removal to Spain. and supplied and . Ingolstadt. was to a great extent given up to the order. when King Ferdinand invited to Vienna two Jesuits from Ingolthe Jesuits eff'ected an entry in stadt.Reformation. Albert Y. Into the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria 1552. whose example was. Bobadilla had to be recalled as to the displeasure excited in Charles by his exertions in V. after some hesitation. had already done good service at Cologne during the struggle against the Archbishop Hermann of Wied. of Bavaria (1508-50).44 by the The Counter.

When he resigned his provincialate in 1569. the Gullegium GermaniciLiii at novices. not long before his death. destroyed such illusions as still remained concerning a possible reconciliation between Roman and Protestant doctrine. Loyola resolved upon the foundation of an Upper German province. in defiance of public their college at Prague. and upon the churches which gradually fell into their hands. 45 Rome with promising Bohemia. at the head of which Canisius was placed (1556). where their influence was to be so In at a later stage of the country's history. Such had been the progress of his Company in this opinion. phase of the of the death of Loyola . maintained their hold part of Europe. was established into in this kingdom (1564). the momentous Jesuits first arrived in 1556.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. later Its entry reli- Sweden belongs to a still At the time gious Teaction. in the first hundred and thirty years after its publica- have run through four hundred editions. Canisius' visit to Poland in 1558. which is said. In Hungary the settlement which they effected in I 561 was merely transitory. and who pur- Worms sued the same line of argument at Trent. held at It was he who. led to no positive °''" ' °" nor was it till after the close of the Council of Trent that the order result. upon the Clemeiitinum. when he reported the "Country deeply infected with heresy. that. in at the religious conference 1557. The text-book of the preachers and teachers whom his energy had planted through Upper Germany was his Summa tion. to Doctrince Christiaiim (1554). and. he had contributed more than any other man to transform the spirit of German Catholicism into one of unyielding intolerance.

one French.6 4 The Counter-Reformatiox. above fully all. still awaited the approval of Philip IL. or with their task of compelling Christendom to turn back with them. Lainez. two German. or formed out of the colonial possessions of these p t kingfor- doms have . The order at the time of ' ca - Of ^ these provinces. energy. of the order. and China. death (1552). however. their work must be carried on in even wider orbits than it had been under their founder. Japan. devoted himself in India. which was to nucleus in the Low Countries. while holding cardinal principles. the maiority -r. (1556)5 the order numbered sometlilng like one thousand members. who were distributed through thirteen provinces. tlety and astuteness he combined the subits mind which enabled him theology an elasticity of to its own. last The mation of one of the its named. long continued the Inquisition in its modern form was . offensive. Like the Jesuit order. The subsequent history of the Church of Rome by no means uniformly shows the Papacy in harmony with the Jesuits. while the objects as well as the methods of the founder of the order were clearly marked out up to his for his successors. towards which unfriendly. Were bpauish or Portuguese. including the infallibility and the universal episcopacy of the Pope. the and the that. they must never cease to act on second general . but it very rarely shows the latter inconsistent with themselves. apart from the distant missions to which Xavier had. They well knew that. three Italian. In the contest now waged by Pome she had resort to the old as well as to the new engines it in her arsenal. was of adequate to the task to with Loyola's give to Jesuit it fast boldness.

between Papal engagements towards the most Catholic sovereigns and Papal exemptions granted to those upon whom the judgment of the conflict Hence the frequent Inquisition was. Papal attempts to mitigate efforts its severity nor were the of its of its agents or the sufferings victims diminished under the sway of Ximenez (1507-18). hence reclamations. although this great man was not blind to the Chris- .'^^ betwoeu the Dominicaus and laymen it had reached Castile. about to descend vations. where the institution hadj with an eye to the wealth of Judaising Christians. D urine: the whole of this period the attitude of the Papacy towards the Inquisition had been neither sympathetic nor the reverse. been rovived on the basis of a union of autho^. struggles. . The inquisitiun in Spain. could not escape his successors. Early in the sixteenth century it had been forced upon the Sicilians but at Naples a successful resistance had been offered to its introduction. and the absence of any current of religious feeling strong enough to overwhelm political considerations. Spain pressed the instrument of her sufferflesh. Spanish in origin. but the financial ad- vantages to be gained from the renewed organism sanctioned by Sixtus IV. produced in the Papal governments of this period an in the confidence of the crown. with the eager concurrence of these sovereigns. and under Ferdinand and Isabella it had flourished throughout Spain.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. 47 From Aragon. The spirit of the Renascence age. reserless and disappointments hardly cruel than the tender mercies of Torquemada. and had extended to Majorca and Sardinia. unmistakable spirit of tolerance . ings closer and closer into her After some early resenting repeated . .

temper of Charles was changed by the revolt of the Castilian cities. and sentencing over 206.48 The Counter-Reformatiox. I the Spanish Inquisition burnt more than sons. though in the main the Inquisition worked steadily towards the expulsion of the entire Moorish population from Spanish soil. During his Adrian was years of office the hand of the good heavy upon the culprits as that of any of his predecessors had been and it is probably an estimate below the fact according to which. and at ties. the Inquisition had spread a network of not . and the Inquisition came forth from this season of five trial with its streugth unimpaired. and tian principle underlying the vention cure. 8. and Pope threatened the Inquisition loss of a great part of its . On the appointment (1523) of Adrian's successor. forty-three years of the first four Inquisitors-General. common saw Under Adrian. when accomplished (1609). had temporarily deprived its jurisdiction of certain privileges. the combined jealousy powers but the of King. although Charles V. which. during the as . hopes were entertained of a more lenient conduct of the Inquisition. But there was no general relaxation of activity or rigour.000 to divers non-capital penal- due the establishment of the tribunal of the Inquisition in the East Indies and in the New World. archbishop of Seville and afterwards cardinal. Towards the Morescoes there was indeed an occasional show of politic moderation.000 perbesides putting over 9000 to death in cffigic. Manrique. permanently impoverished the country. To Adrian was also the time of Manrique's death (1538). Cortes. who as to pre- succeeded Ximenez with the as Inquisitor-General.

c. that of Fernando Valdez. the Inquisition crushed Protestantism out of Spain. the methods as well as to the principles of the inquisi- he wished their name to be eschewed in Flanders. the religious uniformental purposes mity at which it aimed seemed to them the surest . the ideas of the Eeformation. ' / Its chief centres D . Thus protected and fostered by the temporal power. the generalate next but one to Manrique's. had in his last years become a convert to da f6 of Valladolid (October 8. althouo'h curtailed their jurisdiction in Spain. or even Under in advance of. or again such as Alfonso Ligurio and Michael Servetus. From the time when Philip 11.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. and furnished with new powers and privileges by Pope Paul lY. guarantee of political as well as of religious unity. the Spanish Inquisition assumed the stereotyped form belonging to it as an agency of the Counter-Reforma. (i 555— 59). solemnly under- took the protection of the Inquisition at the famous auto 1559). where about the middle of the century its roots were probably more widely spread than has been sometimes supposed. This was the period in which Lutheran books first found their way across the Pyrenees but it is as yet only outside their own country that Spaniards such as Juan Valdez and his brother Alfonso. Both sovereigns contrived to put the Inquisition to very useful govern- but above all. and although he had formerly for a time tors. tion. less tlian 49 nineteen provincial tribunals over Spain and itself her colonies. he completely but already identified himself with the institution Charles V. archbishop of Seville (1547—66). //. . are found in sympathy with. and had established the frontier (1536) across in Portugal.

and by subjecting princes. prelates. Eoclrigo de Valer. by showing perfect fearlessconsciousness which made ' a ' ness of either temporal greatness or spiritual dignity. Among men of tendencies. one hand. it excited that official self- Lope de Vega take pride in placing his style of Familiar of the Office upon the title-pages of his books. it flattered the national pride by scorning all consideration for the foreigner. where he died. Ponce de la penalties. not world . operations Indeed. task of accurately following the merciless winnowingmachine in its operations may perhaps succeed in distinguishing between the prosecutions of Lutherans. was with the clerical and bishops. on account of his mentaries on the Christian Catechism' (1558). a and Valladolid. Comarchbishop of Toledo. which On the filled the archives of the Spanish Inquisition. the chief concern of bishops . and thence these opinions spread to the neighbouring parts of Those who undertake the laborious Castile and Leon. who. whether ambassador. or merchant. Gil) learning charged with heretical Fuente died in prison. and often exposed to its recanted . Seville seem to have been former. -ZEgidius (J. was confined in a convent. was subjected to an arrest of seventeen years' duration. In tlie young nobleman impassioned by the enthusiasm of moral conversion. and dcjados (Quietists). found himself subjected to its control. who. cdiimhrados. and members from arch^ of religious orders. Carranza. On the other. above all.50 The Counter-Reformation. to the processes of its examiners its ministers of state. or common mariner. such as. Calvinists. At Valladolid the establishment of a Protestant community is ascribed to Carlos de Seso.

in the reign oFTlenry IL. (1555) and another which was supported by a Papal The ball approved by a royal declaration (1557). (1559) to introduce into the Netherlands a systcui by whicli. but it remained ineffective. Cardinal of Lorraine indeed prevailed upon Henry II. Protestant princes. in enquiries into matters The Netherlands.. sufficiently Reference will be made below to the attempt of Philip II.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. In the brief reign of Francis during which the Guise family controlled the government. whicli secured clusive privileges in the south. the edict of Romorantin (May 1559) . albeit they so largely made war on common adversaries. ^^ faith. largely by reason of the king's political relations with the German II. to supposed irregulars such as Ignatius Lo3'Ola and Teresa de Jesus. anxious to introduce the Inquisition when they found the ordinary tribunals unwilling to apply the powers conferred but the upon them for the suppression of heresy Parliament of Paris defeated both their first attempt . to force the Parliament to resfister the edict establish- ing the Inquisition (1558). These examples \ show how imperfect was the harmony between the movement of the Counter-Reformation as a whole and the Spanish Inquisition. in addition to seven canons incr remembered even in the Catholic provinces that they had no scruple in recordso well — an attempt their renunciation of it in the Pacification of Ghent (1576). the bishop of each diocese was to be assisted by two inquisitors. to the Church her ex- In the neighbouring kingdom of France the zealous party were. 51 interrupted even by the declaration in liis favour of the Council of Trent.

When the Papacy had at last adopted the revived Inquisition as part of its regular machione. and received unrestricted powers of enquiry and punishment. however. but when once more.. placed head of the Congregation.52 The Counter-Reformation. the counsels of the reforming cardinals needed supplementing by measures which directly addressed themselves to this end. Paul III. and a board of four was appointed but the death of the 3'oung king (December) cut short their operations. In Naples the viceroy of Charles VI. instructed to renew the attempt introduce the Inquisition (1546). taken to assure the chiefs of the Spanish Inquisition that no prejudice was intended to their authority. and more effectually. at the Caraffa was. the unyielding Pedro de Toledo. was. the institution had already become a national and could about the same time (1563-64) be imposed upon the Milanese with the direct co-operation of Home. far towards establisliincr a svstera like went that of the Spanish Inquisition in France. . jurisdiction in theory equally unlimited. Ifc consisted of six cardinals. now archbishop to of the province. at the suggestion of Caraffa. in July 1542. repeated eighteen years later. in the first instance. the headquarters of the institution In the were logically transferred to Pome itself. issued the bull Lied ab initio^ constituting the Congregation of the Holy Office at Pome. and those who like him regarded the extirpation of heresy as the primary task of the Church. opinion of Caraffa. nery of government. and thus. It failed again. wdth other Dominicans by his side but the institution is said to have . with a sphere of Care was. cardinals .

especially stringency of Caraffa on his elevation proceedings had been increased by to the Papacy as Paul IV. had such a thing been might have found its natural leaders. which. liad tlie 53 approval of Loyola. The numbers of its victims were not here. or of the various shades of skepsis. after an interval of comparative moderation. no capital punishment was inflicted in the states of the Church on account of religious charges. whence 1568). as in Spain. sheltered him for the long remainder of his life (to for their lives Peter-Martyr (Yermigli). Italian possible. likewise found a refuge at Geneva. swelled by two ill-fated large alien nationalities. is incorrect . reached Switzerland. with other Protestant countries. testably counted Both Lutheranism and Calvinism inconnumerous adherents in the towns of .Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. . summoned like him to Rome. of Italy its Its effect on the reafter tlie ligious life was great. but were made up entirely of those suspected of Protestant views. classed together under the convenient name of atheism. taking refuge at the very heai'ths of the heresies which it denounced. after the death of the last-named Pope (1572).. the tendency to independence of religious thought must have re- ceived some encouragement from the infusion of a strong element of liberalism into the composition of the Sacred College. almost every part of Italy moreover. Bernardino Ochino. fled from the Inquisition.. but the instances in which the penalty of death was inflicted by the Eoman Inquisition were beyond dispute comparatively few. The men in whom a popular reformation movement. and again by Pius V. after many adventures. The statement that.

of Venice had consented to establish an inquisitorial which care was taken to introduce lay representatives of the government. but such was not the case with I the victims found at Ferrara (from 5 5 i ) and Bologna These proceedings belong to the pontificate of Julius III. But in truth it was now a self-working organism. who put him to death establish a (i 54S)) '^as primarily the consequence of his revolution- ary political designs . the execution of nineteen sentences of death and Bergamo (from 1548). At Lucca it proved possible to resist the efforts of the Inquisition to permanent tribunal there. and its pressure was often surest where it was slowest. the activity of the Inqui- under Paul IV. for a he afterwards passed time to England. But neither at Venice herself. The Spanish Inquisition. The surrender of Burlamacchi to the Emperor. of which the Roman may be regarded as a branch. were Protestant at Vicenza. the rigour of the tribunal was revived.54 The Counter-Reformation. Elsewhere in Italy. and behind them the storm broke over the communities to which they had belonged. and Pius V. so that after the accession of Paul IV. sympathies extinguished. the Seignory (1553). but already under Paul III.. could not have prevailed in Italy without the political ascendancy of Spain. Many other suspects of less note hastened across the Alps. as is tribunal. as in the melancholy case of the Duchess Renee of Ferrara ( I 5 84). into stated. including. Treviso. and at the University of Padua. nor in the other subject towns. and several Venetians charged with heresy were delivered up to the Pope and burnt at Rome. as already observed. which sition increased . but which resorted to measures of considerable severity.

In this way it was hoped to extinguish many pernicious reputations. the latter of whom empowered his -. excesses of this foreign despotism but its iron entered into the heart of the Italian people at large. now them the Spanish rule and ascendancy likewise took away from her sons and dausfhters of moral what remained intellectual to of the spirit and freedom. which Philibert Emmanuel of Savoy would. her claim to a censorship over the lite- rature and art of the Christian world. Torquemada had practised with relentless zeal in Spain. might have survived the Renascence. though set in motion after a much milder fashion. 55 including that of the Popes themselves. In asserting. with the co-operation of the crown. The Index. officers to No sooner had the revived Inquisition been formally . /~^^ n -rt 1 nj^ii excommunicate possessors or readers of heretical books. have emulated in his raid upon the Waldenses of the Alps. were the . was developed in Spain under the inquisitorial administrations of Adrian and of Manrique.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. had covered the Dominicans of Cologne with undying ridicule. mainly through the medium of the it Inquisition. including the fame of Erasmus. or have added to an ennobling phase. and which in Germany. The system which. under other circumstances. The selfish greed of foreign nations had delivered over Italy to the doom of political dependence . if he could. could refuse to acknowledge. the Church or Home stood on a well-trodden path. even outside the parts of the country directly under Spanish sway. which. as well as those who had failed to denounce them. neither temporal nor spiritual autliorities. Such brutalities as the massacre of the Wal- denses at Guardia in Calabria (1562).

the establishing rigorous rules of censorship. valid for the whole Church. and the list enlarged. in 1559. like Ferdinand and before him. aiid therefore. as drawn up in harmony with the decrees of the Council of Trent. the reading. or possession of But the first Index of prohibited books published by Papal authority. or possession. 11. published an edict prohibiting. with the Papal approval charged the University of Louvain with the task of drawing up a list of books prohibited in Flanders and after it had made . or of any proved by the Sacred Office (1543). circulation in had prohibited on pain of death the Flanders of any of Luther's writings (1540). Other ties Indices followed. this (i anonymous work not expressly apNot long before 539). Charles Y. Rome tlian Caraffa.56 The Counter-Reformation. of any heretical book. as well as the printing or sale. confiscation of property to the reading. purchase. unlike the catalogi previously issued by royal. which. under the severest penalties short of death. its example was followed... for which various were responsible. as its official establlslied at head. In 1564 followed the Index published by Pius IV. appears authori- to be a merely superficial revision of its predecessor. or ecclesiastical authorities. by the Inquisition in Spain Both here and elsewhere decrees abounded (1556). sanctioned by a bull of . after all. was that authorised by a bull of Paul IV. purchase. princely. (155S). to assert Isabella the secular authority in these matters. the most important among them being the Index Ex^urgatorius. The cul- minating ordinance was that of Philip attaching the penalties of death and books prohibited by the Sacred Office. resolved. appearance (1546).

apart from the awkward perversity of trated its operations (illusSt. While the censors w^ho conducted the execution of these ordinances in the several dioceses were jointly appointed by bishops and inquisitors. all 600 of which appeared to contradict the claims or doctrines of the Church of Rome. of all was its effect upon that branch of the Church to which the spiritual element in the Counter-Reformation was so pre-eminently indebted. but to particular passages in books. Francis by the history of the Jesuits from Borgia to Bellarmine). . prohibitions contained in these lists 57 so disastrous to After a time the came to extend not only to particular books. of the Inquisition pervaded an institution which. The fear which paralyses the tongue of the teacher and makes the pen drop from the scholar's hand narrowed and unmanned that Spanish Church whose representatives proved themselves in so many respects worthy of her past at the Council of Trent. the final decision on all these matters was intrusted to the Congregation of the Index at Rome. so-called Thus one of the scholars emplo\'ed on the (1571) out is Index Expurgatorius of the Duke of Alva said to have boasted that he had struck passages in ancient writers. in 1595. ultimately tended not only to weaken the defensive powers of the Church of Rome. Clement VIII. which was techniBut the spirit cally independent of the Holy Office. which proved the great printing trade of Venice.Beginnings of the Catholic Revival. Most lamentable but to throw contempt upon them.

had by no means slumbered under either Adrian VI. ment VII. no reason to suppose that the promise of sumIII. feared to bring together an assembly whose decrees might be moulded by the imperial will.( 58 ) CHAPTER III. The rejected the German demand for a General first Council. THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. and was still more apprehensive of the attitude which . like his predecessor. thougli discredited Council. Cle- ment VII. actual state of His insight into the the Church must have made it clear to brinsrino: him that no it means of about svstematic reat large forms in could be so effective as a genuine repre- sentative assembl}^ of the ments to this and arguend were eagerly addressed to him by . had been driven There is to a variety of subterfuges in order to escape the necessity of convoking one himself. moning a General Council made by Paul in his conclave was intended to deceive. by the experience of the previous two pontificates. with which his imperial pupil from the strenuously identified himself. The former had not altogether Ju^'lte^"' conciliar idea. Church Sadolet and other College. which for the time had his Yet he. on the other hand. or ClePaul III. members of the party in the Sacred ear.

. after however. combined to impress the necessity of definitive action upon both Pope and Emperor.The Council of Trent. Thus. if 59 meeting under the conditions of freedom desired by the Germans. But though the Euiperor had likewise sent his ambassadors. after its measure of menace from the Emperor. a council for the close of the following year Pole actually made their appearance as Papal legates. in June 1536. and in July 1543 : the small assembly of prelates at Trent was dispersed by a bull of suspension. At their meeting at Lucca. under further pressure and some (May I_538). close. more himself entirely into his hands. and the hollo wness of the religious truce patched up at Ratisbon. with the view of meeting the Emperor's wish without putting the council and especially tinued urgent. When the project was resumed in 1541. might assume towards the Protestant reformation. Paid JIL. actually published a bull summoning a council to Mantua for the coming year. events once more before the date fixed was proved too strong for him reached he was involved in another war with France and her ally the Turk (1542-44). a town situate within the Empire and in Here Cardinals Morone and the Austrian dominions. con- he had abandoned the hope of restoring the religious unity of the Empire by force.. But the Third War be- ^Eween Charles V. Charles V. and Francis and when. the Pope ordered the council to assemble at Yicenza intervened (i 536—38). the meeting was again postponed. the council. Mendoza and Granvelle. I. the Pope agreed to summon (November I 5_^) to Trent. the progress made during the interval by Protestantism. in Northern and Central Europe.

or settle the religious question without As to the French further ado at a diet of the Empire. chief functions of the assembly over was accordingly both well advised in summoning the council in earnest. This. were to be the bringing back of the German Protestants into the fold. III. Church. The Peace of Crespy (September 1544). '6o The Counter-Reformation. if. again. was out of the question in accordance with the views of Cardinal Pole. and sagacious in choosing for the purpose the moment when Charles was concerting with Francis the suppression of the Protestants. The beo-innings of the reorganisation of the Church had already proved the work of internal reform to be something more than the dream of a few enthusiasts now if ever was the time for the Papacy to use a General Council for the advantage of the Church and of her Of Protestant importunity there need directing power. 1545' At Rome the council was now known to be inevitable bull but by whom would it be controlled. the which he was once more called to preside. . was immedi- summoning all the ately followed by a Papal bishops of Christendom to Trent for March 15. notwithstanding the sound articles of faith recently enunciated by the Sorbonne (March I543)> there was little hope of overawing it except by a very decided attitude. and the rePaul storation of discipline in the Church at large.. and what scope should be given to its deliberations ? The Pope's eyes had been opened to the whole extent of the possibilities confronting the Church when at Speier in 1544 ^^® Emperor had promised the Protestants to secure them a free council. . Luther had declared himself hopebe no real fear. ominous of evil for the prospects of Protestantism.

was a prince of the Empire. and the council was formally opened. of conformity with his wishes. So much. whose interests he consistently erpresented during the first series of sessions. the very bishop of Trent. Though the actions of this Pope were not as a rule dictated by pure religious enthusiasm. siastical at the outset showed no intention of III. may be credited with having wished to secure nor was the result out control over . Henry VIII. The inter- Papal legates. Paul ill. to have summoned the council on this occasion as a mere makeshift.The Council of Trent. typified the different elements in the eccle- policy of Paul The presiding legate. with whose control over the council the Emperor fering. On December pointed by the Openint? of the Council of 13. ttt • s coutinued desire to concihate the his it* -t i Emperor was shown by adherence to Trent as the locality of the council. the three legates a^DPope held their pubrfc entry into Trent. when the legates Yet again urged the choice of a town on Italian soil. Cardinal Madruccio. less 6i (1539) as to any real reformation of the Cliurcli through a council convened by the Pope. and by descent attached to the house of Austria. whose alliance the German princes were wooing. had protested against the authority claimed for the Mantuan assembly (1536). Thus there is no reason for supposing Paul III. while at the same time using the occasion for a serious reformation of her discipline. Paul III.. . 1545. without prejudicing the Papal the Church. yet he had every reason for desiring a more distinct enunciation of those doctrines of the Church which she was now with renewed energy propagating among heathens and heretics.

while notable neither for religious zeal nor for wise self-control.Reformation. Nothing.62 Cardinal The Counter. allowed have better facilitated the to take part in the debates. as in former councils. could immediate establishment of the ascendancy in the council of the Papal policy than the composition of its opening meeting. interests of the Cardinal Cervino. it up for discussion to the general The sessions in which the decrees thus prepared were actually passed had a purely formal character. was a thorough-going supporter of the Curia. Of the thirtyfour ecclesiastics present.). only five were Spanish and two French bishops. Nor had any secular power except the Emperor and King Ferdinand sent their ambassadors. del Monte (afterwards Pope Julius III. in which some have seen a mere Papal ruse. a prelate of blameless life. presence at Trent. Cardinal Pole's means for reaching his ends. expected from as well as the reinvigoration of it the reunion Western Christendom. which the legates lost no time in getting into order. was altogether in favour of their influence as manag^ers. without being. as had probably been foreseen at Rome. afterwards Pope Marcellus II. and not over-scrupulous in the choice of Lastly. must have surrounded the early proceedings of the council with a hopeful glamour in the eyes of those who. who in their turn brought tions. like himself. but . prepared the work of the congrega- three committees or congregations. and no German bishop had crossed the Alps.. Learned doctors. The business machinery of the council. was animated by those ideas of ecclesiastical reform of which Pope Paul had encouraged the open expression but he was more especially eager for the extirpation . of heresy.

On it boded well for the cause of reform by an early resolution. 63 before tliey were successively held opportunity enouo-U The voting in^ the council was by heads. who in the early period Dominico of the council at least were without rivals — de Soto. virtually all abbots and members of the monastic orders except five generals were excluded. in comparison with the ^ultramontane' Some of these are even stated to have to uphold the interests of the bound themselves by a sworn engagement Holy See. Spanish prelates. as at Constance and Basel . i The council 546) waived the form of title by which previous councils had implicitly declared their representative authority paramount. and care was taken to refresh for was given manipulation and delay. the episcopal interest and the episcopal principle were mainly represented in the council by the the other hand. in its second session (January 7. instead of by nations. and for afterwards primate of many years a . holders of petty sees. however. by occasional additions the working majority of prelates. episcopal interest was resolved upon asserting itself. mostly. as the German bishops were detained in their dioceses by the duty of repressing heresy there.The Council of Trent. though by no . So long. convinced inheritors of the traditions of Ximenez. Spain. cardinal of Jaen. leader was Pacheco. that. and Bartolomeo Carranza. Italian bishops. means all of the Italian bishops were servile Curialists witness those of Chioggia and of Fiesole. and the Their With him came eminent theological professors. whom Queen Mary all afterwards placed in Peter Martyr's chair at Oxford. while the great body of the French were kept away by the vigilant jealousy of their government. the loyal subjects of Charles. Clearly.

life the subsequent history of the council. Nor was 1 the pro- made in the period ending with the eighth 547). the accomplished and indefatigable. was still unwilling to shut the door completely against the Protestants. the presiding legates. had to bo decided at once and the compromise arrived at showed both the strength of the miuority and the unwillingness Order of busi^^ ^^^^ . ambassador. . The crucial question as to the order in which the council should debate the two divisions of subjects which ness. to push matters to an extreme. hand. as he correctly judged. but not invariably discreet. a clear line of demarcation between the Church and heresy and for this. Mendoza. Ultimately it was aofreed that the declaration of doo^ma and the reformation of abuses should be treated ^ari i^ctssu. the Spanish bishops were carefully apprised of the wishes of their sovereign. for it . Their instructions from the Pope were to give the declaration of dogma the preference over the announcement of disciplinary re- forms seemed to him of primary necessity to draw. the decrees formulated in each case being from time to Taking into account time announced simultaneously. while both he and the Episcopal party at the council were eager for that reformation of the and government of the Church which seemed to them her most crying need. the assistance of the council was The Emperor. ^^* ^"^ scttlo of the leaders of the majority. while there was time.64 The Counter-Reformation. one can hardly deny that this arrangement saved the work of the assembly from being gress session left half done. intrigues of the Council (nth March . Tlirougli the Emperor's prisoner of the Inquisition. on the other absolutely indispensable.

and a corrected but still not forty j-ears later (1590). the -. hesitated At first. and quarrels notwithstanding. by any means 65 trifling. after a by Sixtus V. when the authority of the tradition of the Church. C. the authenticity of the capacity for taking Vulgate was proclaimed. //. provided always that the decrees should be submitted to During the next months (April. to Little the credit of the council's pains. the foundations of the faith were first instance examined. he consented to allow the debates to proceed. the episcopal and the monastic interests at once came into conflict on the subject still of the license for preaching . decrees of . carried into effect had. including of course the decrees of her oecumenical councils. after to very correct edition substituted (1592). ^ more excitement was aroused by the question of which brought into conflict the had been. the doctrinal side. this wish When. and showed some anxiety to prevent a similar course being taken in the matter of discipline by publishing a regulatory bull on his own authorit3^ But on being more fully advised by the legates of the nature of the situation. this authentic Latin Bible be promptly withdrawn. which had been passed before receiving his approval. it a pious wish being added that should be henceforth printed as correctly as possible. On in the Dograa. fashion. and the whole character of the doctrinal .^ III.. was acknowledged by the side of that of Scripture.The Council of Trent. council was m . Pope Paul about giving his assent to these decrees. In that of discipline. about all. its him cordingly vigorously continued in both branches. ^ .June 1546) the work of the council was acbefore publication. point 01 lact determined. and episcopal residence.

had. Pole.66 The Counter-Reformation: office and the selfish profits of the Eoman Curia. which he had promised to the proclaim through the council as original sin having distinctly as possible the solid unity of the orthodox The doctrine concerning been promulgated in the teeth of imperial opposition. so long as he was flict still pausing on the brink of his con- with the German Protestants.Sst'and'" poiifv of\he councii. could venture to approach those questions of dogma which the Emperor would gladly have seen postponed. now augmented by Swiss and all many other bishops. The Pope. monks being lienceforth prohibited from preaching without the bishop's license in any churches but those of their own order. irreconcileable. and they in their turn threatened a removal of the council to an Italian city. In the midst of the debates the Smalcaldic "War broke out (July 1546)." withdrawn . The question of residence was by the highest purposes of the episcopal Pope's wish adjourned. The discussions on preaching ended with a reasonable compromise. where. on the contrary. in accordance with what they knew to be the *o Padua . . while the chief Catholic powers except Poland were represented by ambassadors. Madruccio and Del Monte exchanged personal insults Pacheco accused the legates of gross chicanery. For a time it seemed as if at Trent too the opposing interests Conflicts be- would have proved ^lie justification self. the legates pressed for the issue of the decree con- cerning justification. " for reasons of health. Thus the council. as it- decree began to shape pl. was eager to Church. while ostentatiously displaying on the frontier the auxiliary forces Emperor.

and w^th these was at last issued the decree concerning residence. that the duty of residence was imposed by divine law. Soon. catastrophe in the of Mlihlberg (April 24. eagerly pushed council —the German at. long before their battle notwithstanding their expectations of support from England. 1547). and in consequence the plan of campaign at Trent was modified. and it took care to safe- guard the dispensing authority of the Roman See. the case was altered latter. or order at all events to testants impassable. and baptism and confirmation in particular. the decree on residence was again postponed. by the manifest collapse of the and France. final Denmark. however. It avoided pronouncing on the view which had been so ardently advocated by the Spanish bishops and argued by the pen of Archbishop Carranza. the decree on the subject which anathematised tlie fundamental doctrines of the Lutheran Reformation was passed in the sixtli session of the council (l3tli January 1547). together . 67 Papal wish. in Ferrara. any other Italian town. make the breach with the ProThe debates on justification were and. of coarse. Yet.The Council of Trent. those princi- pally glanced In the next session (5 th March) de- crees followed asserting the orthodox doctrine of the Church concerning the sacraments. The Emperor w^ould not hear of the removal of the council to Lucca. though at times evaded or overridden. On the other hand. after some further trials of finesse. and a very high tone was taken towards the prelates absent from the on. the council might deliberate without being either overawed by the Emperor or menaced by his Protestant adversaries. the prohibition of pluralism contained in this decree. being.

on the plea of an outbreak of the plague at Trent. III. though leaving . Spanish bishops acquired an intense significance and likely to . plague or no plague. tion of has indisputably proved most advantageous to the vigour and vitality of the episcopacy of the Church of Rome. remained in the city. The progress of events widened the breach between the Emperor and the Pope. unaffected his fanatical rio^our ag^ainst his at own heretics break the current of impeThus at Trent the struggle against the rial success. again. Said. seemed in the eighth session (ilth March) the legates at last made use of the power entrusted to them. and carried. it w^as The removal toBoiugna. agaiust the votes of Spain. and in March Henrv II.' said Charles. succeeded to the French throne. fide execubishops' functions. the Pope now thought himself able to . ' ' would end and sanguine Protestants by ruining the Church might dream of a renewal of the situation of I 526—27. fall In January Paul back on the alliance of France. the removal of the council to Bologna. whose intrigues with the German Protestants. home. . . eighteen months before.'s attitude towards the Emperor had meanPartly they while grown more and more suspicious. ' The obstinate old man. had become antagonists on the great question of Church reorganisation partly the Emperor was becoming dis.6s wifcli The Counter-Reformation. posed to thwart the dynastic policy of the Farnese partly. Paul III. certain other provisions for the hond. recalled the auxiliaries and stopped the subsidies which he had furnished to Charles V. After ]Muhlberg Charles V. By the Emperor's desire the Spanish bishops.

called difficulty. which. nearly brought about the conclusion of a FrancoBut though French Italian league against Charles. certain of the Protestant princes de- clared their readiness to submit to the council. But in the spring of 1548 came the worse diet"' had passed the InThe Augsburg ^^^^ that the the Catholics Interim. and Henry II. while places the Protestants in into many had to be dragooned but the Emperor continued san- .a The Council of Trent. while demanded its removal back to Trent demand urged by the Emperor at both Bologna and Kome. and least of all to provoke anything of the nature of a schism. seemed irresistible. there seemed Graduno choice between submission and defiance. Moreover. had no real intention of making war upon the EmThus the latter thought himself able to take peror.' becaus6~~iFlvas surrounded by the im' perial soldiery. followed by the occupation of that city by Spanish troops (September as lie . without sanction or cognisance of Rome. was becoming more hostile to him murder of the Pope's son at Piacenza. — tcrwi. where the Guises were now in the ascenand the dant. I bishops arrived at Bologna. the Catholic potentates. 69 would hear of no solution but a return of the council to Trent. The Interim. and 547). c^onceded to the Protestants the marriage of laity. ally. mailed diet. priests. France. how^ever. it became clear that he had no wish again to drive things to extremes. their attitude there was by no means acceptable to the Pope. into his own hands the settlement of the religious the At the Diet of Augsburg. the use of the cup by the and a relaxait is tion of the obligations of fasting. was repudiated by accepting it . true.

and the Interim was referred to a congregation of cardinals. . pathetic obstinacy of Charles in forcing through his Interim might have sufficed to warn the Pope of the nselessness of further resistance . tlie guinej publislied at series liis diet an edict announciDg a of Churcli reforms. and in . formally came to an end. but his anxiety about Parma and Piacenza probably contributed to make him give way. the immediate purposes of which are not altogether ber 1549). appointed to report In the meantime. sent into Germany to superintend the working of the In really to impede it. died (i 5th Novem- That the most generous of the aspirations his reign first found full opportunity which had under for asserting themselves had survived his manoeuvring. both outside and inside the conclave. gent Czar of Muscovy Paul took advantage of the consternation created by "the Emperor's religious coiup cVetat to suggest a conference in the Papal city itself of bishops from both offered — — Trent and Bologna but the proposal soon fell to the ground. a comon the state of the Church.70 The Counter-Reformation. mission of bishops was. including Pole. clear. was shown by the favourable reception. of the proposal that Reginald But Pole refused to be Pole should be his successor. In the midst of further disappointments and of fresh designs. where nothing had been The almost accomplished. and indulged a fancy that compromise would tempt England and the peradventure even the intelliScandinavian North At Rome. so far as might be. at the Emperor's request. elected by the impulsive method of adoration. Pope Paul III. back into the fold. Interim — the same month (September) the meetings of the so- called council at Bologna.

71 the end the Farnese interest. the one (with Pole as a member) to amend the method of appointment to benefices. ^ ^. The Council of Trent. '' I ' . therefore. bull summoning the council to Trent for the following spring was issued without further ado (November). supported by the French. had been proposed and accepted. but after a few contures. the majority of the Protestant estates declared themselves ready to accept the Interim^ and Maurice. _ - "^ Elector of Saxony. sueceededby i rent but lie had the courag^e at the very ° Julius III. most of them quite in the spirit of the imperial policy. ^ outset to decide upon the safest course. and Cardinal del Monte was chosen. Yet even before the council actually reopened (ist May I 5 5 i). (1550—55) showed hardly more of temperate wisdom than had marked his conduct of the presidency at ^ Paul III. which dealt with the succession to the Holy Roman Empire itself as with a chattel of the dynasty. of the overon the unwilling. Julius III. the ditions.. and then of the menaces of France. threw over the Farnese interest. The friends of reform may have had their doubts as to the two commissions w^hich he immediately instituted. At the diet held at Augsburg in 1550. and gave in his adhesion to the ecclesiastical policy of the Emperor. now prevailed. . it had become evident that the Papal view oTTtspurposes remained as widely divergent from the The nominaImperial as in the days of Paul III. Tlie triumph of the House of Habsburg seemed complete this was the period of the celebrated Family Compact (March 1551). The Papal government of Julius III. the other to improve the system of conclaves . proffered his services to force it Piegardless.

. a dent of tlie Reopening of the Council ut Trent. January 1552). Roman by birth. upon whom the Empecouncil. the council left open the quomodo of the Divine Presence. barren of results. . While explicitly asserting the doctrine of tran substantiation. and on the best of terms with heretic England. . fatal alike to its territorial schemes for the restoration of its religious unity (Alliance of Chambord. . the majority of Spanish as well as of Italian bishops showed themselves averse to any concession on the subject. and some of the Free Towns). finally promised to attend. Pighino of Siponto and Lippomano of Verona. Nor could any one besides the Emperor found hopes upon the arrival of the ambassadors of certain Protestant princes (Brandenburg. to all and Thus the brief series of sessions held at Trent from May I 5 5 i to April 1552 proved in the main. a decision on the permissibility of administration sul) utrdque was adjourned. between whom and . though not altogether. On the other hand Henry II. to humour the Emperor.. two Italian prelates. Wiirtemberg. and began to talk of a Galilean council. ^Yas in itself ominous and the German Protestants. ^ ^ •/ . as presi- tion of Cardinal Crescentio. with . perceived the Papal intention of treating the Council as safe-conducts at Augsburg (15 a mere continuation of that which had previously Trent.72 The Counter-Reformation. as well as the Catholic Electors. ' ' : ror pressed 51). Still. by liis Side. . on which the Dominicans and the Franciscans were at issue not less than tlie Lutherans and the Calvinists and though. of France prohibited the appear- ance of a single French prelate. sat at several of them. Wroth with the Pope. he was on the eve of forminor an alliance with some of the Protestant princes of the integrity Empire.

in April. approached the southern frontier of the Empire. 73 the council. another deadlock was at hand early .. The possibility. this time with the manifest connivance of Rome. and accepted the principle. Finally. notwithstanding certain courtesies. Maurice of Saxony. however. so far as Catholics and Lutherans were concerned. . whose own French war had taken a disastrous turn. that each territorial^ authority in the Empire should. he could not prevent the remnants of the ^ t couucil irom passiuor a dccrcc suspendmof its ^ 1 ^ two years. whose Pioman pride had not helped to render productive the second was not present at its close. The Council aKain sus.The Council of Trent. if it and died shortly afterwards. began to thin. in the return no more Religious Peace of Augsburg (15 5 5)? acknowledged the dualism which rent it asunder. an atti- Unless the assembled fathers were prepared to reconsider the de- and to force the assent of the Pope to a religious policy of quite unprecedented breadth. the Pope. now the ally of France. of Western Christendom being reunited by the council on a basis corresponding to that of the imperial Interim had passed away to in its place. with certain modifications. and already in the months of 1552. the Empire. . who had never ceased to believe in his schemes. loyal Spanish votes (April Cardinal Crescentio himself. When. • 1 by not more than a dozen 28. which was opposed sessions tor f . crees already passed. The council dwindled apace in spite of the efforts of Charles V. had ever existed. had reason enough for shunning further co-operation with the Emperor. 1552). determine which of period of the council. the council. • pended. tude of defiance was virtually maintained.

74 The Counter-Reformation. was one. he was for he was unconscious of having achieved anything He was now seventy-nine through the favour of man. free from .. notwithstanding the simultaneous creafor Cervino tion by Julius III. Julius III. and purged of all poison of heresy and schism. Fully aware (though he had belonged to it himself) of the virtual failure of Paul III. V. which in him seemed under both its aspects God's will to have secured the mastery of the Church. ing indulged. of the reforming party. vears of ao^e. the significance attaching to the election of the Pope who speedily took the place of Marcellus. Thus Charles resulted. though a moderate Far greater. Paul IV. But the choice of his successor. but he had never been more eao^er to devote . who in his first bull had solemnly promised Church. in all events in the last period of his Church reformation. convinced. Marcellus II. however. himself to his chosen purpose. died (23rd March 1555). had placed him where he stood alone. a While it ^yas in progress. of fourteen cardinals . (April-May 1555)5 shows that these ideas were not yet extinct in the ideas of Sacred College. (Gian Pietro May 1555-August 1559) forms one of the ' most remarkable chapters in the history of the CounterPeformation. the eyes of all —the establishment in peoples of a pure and spiritually active all impediments of corruptions and abuses. at reio-n.'s commission of reform. The pontificate of Paul IV. leaving behind him scant evidence to support the rumour of his havconfession of his failure.'s resignation of his thrones far (1554—56) in thousfh from beins^ so intended. Caraff*a. its the two creeds sliould be professed by subjects. had always been reckoned a member.

nothing would content his patriotic fury but the liberation of Italy from the presence of the foreigner. bishops. fretted borne away by passion. allowed himself to be His fier}'' temperament. 75 reform of the Clmrcli and the Eoman Curia. him no peace he maltreated the imperialist cardinals and the dependants of the Emperor within his reach. wisely addressed itself in the first the purpose. The new Pope likewise issued orders for the specific reform of monastic establishments. To these personal and national sentiments had been added the conviction that the Emperor's dealings with the German Protestants had encouraged them to deal a deadly blow to the unity and strength of the Church and thus Paul IV. lost no time in institutinsf a con ore oration for The commission. had done his utmost to oTfend the dignity and damage the interests of the cardinal. each of them composed jointly of cardinals. Then. and his energy seemed to stand in striking contrast with the hesitations and delays of the recently suspended council. instance to the question of ecclesiastical appointments. which consisted of three divisions. and Charles V. Taking advantage of a difference with arms once more. and doctors. and sought to instigate the French Government to take up . . Philip of Spain concerning the revocation of certain bulls concerning the Spanish Church and Inquisition. returnino' hatred for hatred. rather than soothed by old age.. left him and those around . for the religious ideals and and methods preva- had not eradicated the bitterly anti-Spanish feeling inborn in him as a Neapolitan. enthusiasm lent there. Caraffa's residence in Spain. But once more the seductions overcame its of the temporal power holder.The Couxcil of an effectual Ti^ent.

— . ^. heretics. . both the North and the South of of Paul IV. but for the self- restraint of Alva. Fortunately for Paul IV. his nephew. and soon intrusted with the main conduct of affairs. "j^ The Counter. The Marian reliction ia EnHand opam and Rome were about England. -. political efforts '' . directed a legal suit of excommunication to he be instituted against Charles and Philip at Rome (15 56). . majority . the Pope was universally execrated as the source of all these ills. His nephews. full of grievances against the Emperor.. could not in the Elsewhere position of the Church in Italy. Carlo Caraffa. and end but damage the their failure. The people the at large acquiesced in Queen Mary's measures. the judicious moderation of Spain gave him an undeserved opportunity of retreat but though appearances were saved in the peace respectfully offered him by Alva (September 1557). • this time supposed to be co-operating lor the p i restoration of the orthodox faith.ReformATI ox. another sack of Home might have been perpetrated by Spanish soldiery. When Rome was once more threatened by a Spanish army. Quentin (lOth August 15 57)? P^^t an end to all further hopes of French aid. But the Spanish occupation of Naples w^as not to be shaken. raised to the purple.. and the great Spanish victory of St. when after a time they rallied to his anti-Spanish policy.. The vehement —m . the Spanish power stood fixed more firmly than ever in Italy. he loaded with wealth and honours.. and the quarrel pushed to an extreme issue for the cardinal-nephew was already negotiating alliances with infidels and . a reckless soldier. lie Intent solely upon the satisfaction of his passions. otlier In the war which ensued.

the end of her reign the fruits of her infatuation were bitter as ashes in the mouths of Englishmen brought so that when under Elizabeth. indeed. in The Mary's unpopularity lay obstinacy with which first upon the nation policy. not indeed as yielding to any great wave of national opinion. // perhaps with a comforting suspicion that her religion was. the Spanish marriage and then the Spanish By . strengthened by the return of religious refugees. the safer to prefer. and Canterbury added very notably to tlie blaze of Thus public feeling. of the Spanish Inquisition formed the staple of home in ships. the At first. Oxford. England became Protestant. not less popular resentment. the memories of Smithfield. than the consistent counsels of her foremost statesmen. from more than one point of view. on the whole. conthe other tenets of her creed firming the possessors tenure.The Council of Trent. strongly prepossessed against the Pope. but neither in mere passive obedience to a fresh series of statutes and . and nnder her steadied Elizabeth's faltering hand . the doings news and when sentiments of patriotic indignation gathered round the nucleus of positive Protestant sentiment. confessed to Pole. that his supre- macy was more difficult of all but before long many were cured of their hesitation by the bull which Pole as Papal legate brought with him to England. of monastery lands in their The impression created by the persecutions w^hich ensued upon the formal reconciliation of England to Rome (30th November 1554) was probably neither "SO' deep the nor so widespread real cause of as has been frequently she forced supposed. as Mary herself mind of her people remained so acceptance to them than .

towards the close of 1555. bear a striking resemblance to some of the decrees passed at Trent in the first His very acceptance of Canterbury he made conditional on residence. Pole's death (i8th Death of Car. The disciplinary measures recommended more especially at the synod held by him by Pole. the Church must by reformation be brought nearer to But this it was not given to him to his lofty ideal. As there is nothing to show that Paul IV. within less than two months. eyes formed only half of his task. Manifestly the submission of the English Church to the Pope in Pole's Here. halfway into the arms of the German Protestants. were it not for apprehensions of Caraffa's ill-will towards him. seems to close a distinct page in the history of the CounterReformation. or at least into a system period of the council. dreaded the other side of the Border. The Counter-Reformation. hatred and fear of Habsburg which led him to drive the new Emperor Ferdinand I. as elsewhere. no step which Elizabeth could take so much as her It was the same marriage with Philip of Spain.yS ordinances. his recall (subsequently modified in form rather than in substance) might be regarded as part of the Pope's general policy of offence against Spain. dinaiPoie. and thus also have retarded the complete victory of a more advanced type of Protestantism on But Paul IV. avowed by Pole before the elevation of the former to the In any case. . accomplish. A politic assumption of confidence on the part of the Pope towards Queen Mary's successor might perhaps have delayed the re-emancipation of the Church of England.P^pacy. which followed that of Charles V. objected to the proceedings of Pole in England. Novcmber 1558).

he introduced so strict a discipline that Rome w^as likened to a well-conducted monastery. On his deathbed he its . . as well as into that of his own Papal court. — the Inqui- From the Sacred College downwards (as in control the case of Cardinal Morone). But of den. and then took up in terrible earnest the work of Church reform. principles upheld at 79 of government by compromise irreconcilable with the Rome. he made a clean sweep of the obstacles which his own perversity had placed in his path banished his nephews. and as unprepared advice and to let adopt Cardinal Pacheco's he were outspoken a sud- reform begin at home. uor IS tuerc anvthmg more ** ordinary m . The CounterIlefoimatiun. whose privileges in the Papal he ruthlessly revoked. sition. as if in another gust of passion. extra— his liie than the exertions of the last two years of his reign. if At first it seemed as he would need some time to steady himself after if the collapse of his political schemes.The Council of Trent. . marriages within prohibited degrees. time was still left to P aul I V. He would allow no appointment savouring of corruption to any spiritual office he would hear of no exception to the duty of residence he completely abolished dispensations for . and -T^ . In the states of the Church. Bat the agency which above all others he encouraged was that which his own advice had estab- lished in the centre of the Catholic world. however. changed his whole administration. ciplcs . Into the general management of the churches of the city. and witbiu the range of his Italian influence. . for the assertion of these prin' raul IV. no sphere of empted from itself states life was exand his intolerance extended to the very Jews.

the though he its is not known to have done anyauthority. Paul IV. Inquisition. and kinds . Above its all. Carlo Borromeo. loofian to and though an of a theo- was far too little love dwellino^ in extremes of doo-ma. in the pursuit of his political ends. He mind possessed. genial disposition. For himself.8o The Counter-Reformation. his to the imperial ^ _ - interest. in this memorable huiinium.' •' . Holy See itself the pious cardinals surrounding him. probably chosen. and he was understood to favour concessions to Germany with a view of bringing her stray sheep back into the fold. with a . benefices. Personally. but in general he furthered rather than arrested the religious reaction. Pius IV. He showed no disposition favours of all to follow his predecessor in pro- hibiting the sale of spiritual dignities. the nephew of Pius . thing to intensify rigour or augment went on as before. (1559— 66) was him _ " regarded. Caraffa nephews. and . It was afterInquisition with the recommended the to wards observed that many reforms decreed in its third period by the Council of Trent were copied from the ordinances issued by Paul IV. had made himself guilty. But inasmuch as during his Pontificate the Church of Rome had lost ground in almost every country of Euro^oe except Italy and Spain. his death (i8th August 1559) naturally brought with it a widespread renewal of the demand for remedies more effective than those supplied by his feverish activity and by the operations of his favourite institution. on whom he allowed a terrible venge- ance to descend. a reasonable excellent canon lawyer. as an opponent of the late Pope family historv inclined Pius IV. he avoided the nepoIn contrast with the tism of which.

tificate ever doubted the expediency of reassembling the council at Trent. both of the Church lY. served the 8i Holy See in a spirit of iinselfisli devotion. //. Pius came to perceive that the future. represented in the Church by the Cardinal of Lorraine. more especially of late under cover of the war with Spain. bresis attack Henry 11. . depended on the spirit of confidence and cohesion which could be infused into the former nor had he from the very outset of his ponPope's nephews. although that war adII.. who still persisted in treating the reunion of the primary object of the council._. F . would feel no scruple about attending. a position not reached by many — With the aid of this influence. at first strongly urged the substitution for Trent of a genuinely German or French town. IV. where the German bishops. „ _ -x-y Church -it had made of considerable strides during the reign. might have The religious condition of France. Henry vanced the influence of the Guises. (1547—59). but for the fear of the entire separa. Protestantism to Philip a joint flourished. and of the Papacy.— The Council of Trent. actually proposed upon Geneva. froui tion in that event of the Galilean n -r^ t t^ Kome. especi- c. The introduction of the Inquisition (1557) ^^^ remained a futile attempt and though after the peace of Cateau-Cam. The Emperor Ferdinand and the French government. But a totally free and neio as the Church council of this description lay outside the horizon of the let fall the plan altogether. In I ranee Protestantism -— . and began those efforts on behalf of religion which in the end obtained for him a place among the saints of the Church. and perhaps even the Protestants. Papacy and Pius IV.

south and west of the monarchy. Catharine de' Medici. just before this. Elizabeth of England among the rest . of the so-called conspiracy of Amboise had temporarily added to the power of the Guises. nor the kings Scandinavian North. of persecution of and about first six weeks before the death Henry II. where the grievances against Eome found full expression. the national synod of Protestants (May 1 5 59). On 29tli November 1560 he issued a bull summoning all the prelates and princes of Christendom to Trent for the following Easter.S2 ally in the 7^ HE Counter-Reformation. it had also made the Queen Mother. He succeeded in overcoming the objections of both Ferdinand and the French Government to Trent. and was expedited by the edict of Romorantin (May 1560). to lose no further time. But though the suppression. but neither she nor the German as Protestant of the receive the princes assembled at Naumburg. the Guise influence became paramount. in spite . and adjourned the more difficult question as to whether the new assembly should or should not be regarded as a mere continuation of the former. Under Francis II. The invitation included both Eastern schismatics and Western heretics. would so much . Hence the appointment of the large-hearted L'Hopital as chancellor. resolve not to let the power of the state pass wholly out of her hands. and where arrangements were made for a meeting of the States-General and a national council of the French Church. which France had never acknowledged. This resolution determined Pius IV. the persecuwas held at Paris tion of the Protestants continued. and the Assembly of Notables at Tontainebleau (August).

came to nothing. afterwards presented to the council. owing Protestant princes could be prevailed upon to attend and a commission appointed by Ferdinand carried its demands for ecclesiastical reforms so far (September I 56 1) that he had to moderate their tone before incorporating them in his Lihellus de reformatione. both he and the Spanish bishops were resolved to maintain the rigid standard of doctrine proclaimed in the earlier sessions of the council. notwithstanding its array of ecclesiastical notabilities on both sides. which But the Edict of nuncio. Spain completely approved of this proceeding. She considerably raised her demands not long before the Colloquy of Poissy. The Council of Trent. (September 561). too. Papal summons. however. From the Empire. of of reformation for presentation at Trent. neither Catholic nor in part to the active * . and to allow no concessions to Protestant . and supported the demand of the other powers for a free council. this Even King Sebastian of Portugal about time formulated a series of very substantial articles Philip II. (5th December influence . 1 intrigues of the Papal January' (1562). which. ^'^^ In France.. Under these circumstances there was little prospect of France being for some time to come represented at Trent except by ambassadors with instrucRe-opening of the Couucii of tions Very unacceptable to the Papal poncy. lonjT remained a sort of standard of fair concessions to the Huguenots. followed. 1560) further depressed the Guise and Catharine entered into negotiations with the Pope with a view to concessions such as would satisfy the Huguenots while approved by the French bishops. however. At the same time. the deatli of Francis II.

and now archbishop of Salerno. Thus. formerly general of the Augustines. sympathies. had been originally named. the new as. bishop Soon of Constance. tuted the Cardinal of Hohenems (Altemps). . With him. Simonetta and being w^ell acquainted with his views. character of Hercules Gonzaga. the presiding legate. Was on I the council which held I its first public session 8th January 562 to be regarded as a new council. whom Sadolet extols as unanimously acknowledged to be the greatest lawyer of the age. .34 claims or The Counter-Reformation. seems to have been regarded as the representative proper For Puteo was afterwards substiof the Papal policy. an accomplished canonist. the able after the re-opening of the council Pius IV. ally directed another relative. who wath their colleagues seem in their turn to have employed the same agent to watch the conduct of the Cardinal of Lorraine. afterwards the principal figure in the Polish CounterHe was probably selected as having for Reformation. others were Cardinals Seripando. a young nephew of the Pope. some time held the nunciature at the Emperor's court. and Cardinal Hosius. to watch the proceedings of the two senior legates. besides appointing not less than five These legates were legates to conduct the proceedings. cardinal of Mantua. took care to keep up the numbers of the Italian bishops. a 'persona gratissima to the Emperor. a learned and moderate -minded prelate Simonetta. but he was disabled by The illness just before the meeting of the council. characteristic- Bishop of Yentimiglia (Yisconti). after all. sembly was not likely to be altogether unmanageable and Pius IV. Cardinal Puteo. Such was pre-eminently the mostly moderate men.

In the first place. like them. for the enunciation of true Catholic doctrine ? and. principle. the formula was maintained. ugaiis. however. intent upon the establishment of in Church rooted a strong episcopacy. reserved to themselves the initiative of proposing subjects of discussion to the council. above upon of a rigid body of CathoThe opposite view was. more especially in in the locality ? question. again. favoured by the Emperor Ferdinand. but. would its cilinof it refuse to reopen" the door deliberately shut by predecessor upon a policy which aimed at recon- the Protestants desire both to the Church ? To ensure Spanish discipline all. aHirmative answers to both these questions was naturally the of Rome and vigorous of the bishops. long lic doctrine. Vehemently resisted by some of the Spanish bishops. ^^^re the issues turning on the further qucsFvovoneniibu. even after Philip 11. where bigotry and faction had not yet quenched the national desire for ecclesiastical indeNot very dissimilar pendence and political unity. supported by a the definitive declaration public sentiment practically universal in the Empire.The Council of Trent. had sought the assistance of the Emperor and the kings of France and Portugal for . and by France. same 85 or as a continuation of that which had previously sat This was no merely theoretical on the answer would depend two issues inseparable from one another. and those who a were. ^-Qjj^ ^g ^Q ^Q acceptance of the new prin- This conducting the business of the council. which the legates sought to introduce by a ciple of procedure the reverse of straightforward. would the new assembly resume the labours of the previous one at the point they had reached.

though amidst many vexatious delays. Archbishop Guerrero of MoreGranada. about its removal. The French prelates. and on questions of discipline where they differed from it. next to them the Spaniards wcro again the most numerous.86 brinorinof The Counter-Reformation. and their leader. at the last preceded by all but reckless haste. did not arrive . both on questions of doctrine where they agreed with the Papal party. and the struo-o-le of interests and passions. In this concluding period the Italian bishops preponderated more than ever. commanded no unbroken allegiance. had himself agreed to concede the point. No prelates attended either from the Empire at large or from Poland. and a Lainez. represented an element in the religious of Spain which claimed attention in spite of either life bishops or king. interfering with their deliberately designed plan. sented by a few bishops. Thus the council down to its close. the Jesuit Salmeron. over. very effectively prevented from its enlarging the scope of proceedings at the risk of For. still faithful to their programme. and after Pius lY. the original plan of the council was actually carried out. the proxies whom they sent being naturally enougli refused a hearing Hungary and Bohemia were repreby the majority. was. with the Cardinal of Lorraine at their head. and this with a degree of success of which it is futile to lose sight because of the intrio-ues and manoeuvres. obscuring it in the pages of partisan historians. but though. ^^ ^ body. they no longer voted as a solid phalanx. tlie little who bore himself as the intellectual master of assembly. who discharged the duties of later the Jesuit general Papal theologian. Composition oi the Council.

till ^j late in the day (November 1562). On this head a complete agreement existed between the Governments and the episcopal party. ment or prelates availed themselves of it. no Protestant governof prohibited books when it was. couucil attempted again to proceed 'pari discipline. and the Pope himself was known to have declared to the cardinals at Rome his conviction . 'passu with dogma and On the latter head in particular.The Council of Trent. adoption of the index was deferred to the close of the all. This was the question of residence and of its divine origin. however. were expressly Hereupon. subjects of Catholic states Principiiqnestiuiis ^xcluded from ^|^g its use. however. The first deliberations of the reassembled council for the definitive were barren. council. could the manifest advantage of the Church have prevailed . Thus the conncil opposition to the Papal management of the was daring the greater part of this year conducted by a co-operation between the imperial and French ambassadors. after . over the baser interests of the Roman Court. handed over to the Pope and though a safe-conduct was granted to Protestants desirous of attending at Trent. in the so-called 'libels of reformation' laid by them before the council but in neither case were these programmes seriously taken up. as constituting an obligation upon bishops and priests charged with a cure of souls. One disciplinary question of paramount importance might. occasionally productive of brave words. but ineffectual in its final results. the imperial and the French ambassadors at different times presented very distinct demands. while the heretical at issue. have speedily been carried to a satisfactory issue.

. a mere question of expediency. at the request of Charles V.. though SimoWhen netta nnfalteringly upheld the Roman view. Thus two of the legates of the divine origin of the duty. threatened to dismiss the presiding legate for sacrificing the welfare of the Holy See. (or slightly and another quarter matter to the Pope. and PLilip II. This. was once more revived. had no real reason for fearinsf a dan^^erous show of independence at Trent. of the concession of the formulation of the doq-matic decrees concernins.. Paul III. himself gave orders that the question of residence should for the present be allowed to another strug-o-le In the meantime had beo-un in connexion with the slumber. the chief concession made to the German Protestants in the Interim of 1548. But though he for a time talked of removing the council once more to an Italian city. had form. on the subject cup to the laity. which had seemed shelved. (Gonzaga and Seripando) were prepared to give way to ^ultramontane' opinion on the subject. lihcl . empowered a commission of bishops to accord it to individual The denial of the Cup to claimants in the Empire. and when the question. the laity was a relatively modern practice in the Western Church. as it had been at Basel. while about a quarter voted in the negative. was demanded both in the imperial and in the French and it was known to be viewed without disfavour by the Pope himself.SS The Counter-Reformation. (April 1562) they actually put the question to the vote. Pius IV.erly. more) for referring the Hereupon the latter changed his attitude. whose predecessor. and its use was accordingly now. nearly half the assembly affirmed the divine origin.' the sacraments.

however. If the right divine of episcopacy could be declared. and 65 relegated the matter to the decision of the Pope. the Spanish prelates in particular. suflicient to meet practical requirements. Pius IV. with would be established the divine obligation of residence. accordingly showed considerable it shrewdness in instructiuo^ the leg-ates at once to for- mulate a decree on residence. The imperial and French ambassadors upon co-operated as actively as ever. would listen to while in the eyes of the Papal party no such promore — Papal than the Pope. and the episcopal sense of party. refused the proposal. which. imposed penalties on non-residence (except for lawful reasons). some Hungary and Bohemia only. entered the struggle with a full its critical importance. while leaving the question of divine obligation open.of Lainez to yield on one head seemed the preface to yielding on all. a previous effort in the same direction having failed. while 5 2. But though such a decree was passed by the council. When — the vote was taken (September to the laity of the to that of 1562). herein thoroughly in II. only 48 were found ready to allow the concession of the cup — some Empire and its dependencies. Nob many days afterwards. harmony with Philip posals. The question which really came home to the fathers of the Church assembled at Trent presented itself again w^hen the sacrament of orders had in due course to be still debated.. 89 Tlie Spanish episcopate. composed of members voting from very different points of view.The Council of Trent. and encouraged in its persistency by the ruthless orator}?. — with or without qualifications. this course was finally agreed upon by an overwhelming majority. the debates on the .

origin of the episcopal less office. discussion was the more apparent when in the midst of it there at last arrived nearly a score of French by the Cardinal of Lorraine. continued (November) and the critical nature of the . Hitherto Trance had been represented at the council by spokesmen of the Freuch court and of the Parliament of bishops. higher than ever when (February 1563) the Cardinal . now. announced on his own account at Rome it seemed on the point of rising. among the prelates of the fell monarchy. which about this time Pius IV. unfortunately announced in full conciliar assembly the demands of his branch of the Church.90 The Counter-Reformatiox. these heretics. then. and perfect harmony existed between the French and the imperial policy at the council. in the ' libel ' had yet been Further additions were made already mentioned. What decision. . which was shortly afterwards (January 1563) presented by the French ambassador. which involved nothing than the origin and nature of the Papal supremacy. The recent January edict proved the strength of the Huguenots in France and though the Cardinal's first speech at Trent breathed nothing but condemnation of far short of his pretensions. was to be expected on the crucial question as to the relations between Papal and episcopal authority ? How could a recognition of the Pope's ecclesice claim to be regarded as rector iimxersalis be expected from such a union of the ultramontane forces? The current was not visions for checking likely to be stopped by the prosome of the abuses of the Papal court. whose however. it suited him to pose as the advocate of as extensive a series of reforms as urged upon the council. tlie foremost abilities. headed Paris .

the danger of violent courses.. now an eager . however. ^^^^!^5^^j_ The Cardinal of Lorraine had Ferdinand I. and Spanish bishops. and of his colleague Cardinal Seripando. Cardinal Gonzaga. German. a turningleft point in the history of the council was close at hand. and the Emperor. Trent for Innsbruck with threats of a Gallican synod on his lips. action." The Council of Trent.. preferred to resort to a series of direct and by no means tame The latter. and taught by the example of his brother. formerly a prisoner indicted by the Inquisition. In truth. by repairing to Trent in person. was to awe the assembly into discussing the desired reforms. which at the same time persistently opposed the concession of the cup demanded by both France and the Emperor. Bishop of Zante (Commendone). 91 of Lorraine and some otlier prelates waited upon the Emperor at Innsbruck. (March 1563) of the presiding legate. indisposed as he was appeals to the Pope. by nature moderate in legates. Cliarles V. the Cardinal were drastic enough the council was to be swamped by French. . to support a fresh proposition for the removal of tlit> council to some German town. Their places were filled by Cardinals Morone. whom the legates sent to deprecate his vexation. saw his opportunity for taking The deaths about this time his adversaries singly. both of whom had occasionally shown themselves inclined to yield to the reforming party. were likewise in his favour. whether with or without the approval of the But Ferdinand I. and had received the fhe Papar'^" with policy. with marked The remedies proposed to the Emperor by coolness. had arrived there very wroth the council. urged by France but resisted by Spain.

Maximilian. Morone. and Navagero. and the Pope of his own accord submitted to the council certain canons of a stringent kind. for the sake of the peace of the Empire. at once beo-an to neofotiate with the Emperor through the Jesuit Canisius. without becoming a thoroughgoing partisan of the Papal policy. in a similar way the discipline of the cardinalato (June). the decrees concerning the episcopate began to shape themselves more easily. the desired concession of the cup should be made Ferdinand I. The leverage employed may. though he had left Rome almost despairing of any favourable issue of the council. in the course of a violent quarrel about precedence between the kings of France and Spain. And when. but not in his political sentiments. reforming to his subjects. notwithstanding the continued oppoat heart. had threatened by insisting on the ad- JO mission of Protestants to the council indefiuitclv to . champion of Papal claims. liar policy. accepted the bargain as seemingly the shortest road to the end which. a Venetian by birth. he had Thus. the Papal government about this time formed and carried out a definite plan for inducing the Emperor to abandon his concieldest son. and the ancient jealousy between Austria and France. sition of the French bishops. enrag-ed at his demands not beins^ enforced o by the Pope.. the latter. so soon as that event should have taken place. The consideration offered for his assent- ing to a speedy termination of the council was the promise that. have included some reference to the heterodox opinions and the consequently doubtful prospects of the Emperor's In a word.92 The Counter-Reformation. in addition to the distrust between Ferdinand and his Spanish nephew.

Yet tible at this very time a change began to be percep- in the conduct of this versatile prelate. A letter which about this time arrived from Mary Queen of Scots. and inclined Francis. deprived his Jixmily and interest of their natural chief.^ ' Rome. Pius IV. and ambitious The Cardinal was supposed to have of Lorraine' gained over. sent instructions in . prolong posal. and though Lainez audaciously demanded the reference of all But the questions of reform to the sole decision of the Pope. ifc. may perhaps be connected with these overtures. the condition of things in France was such as naturally to incline him in the direction of iiit he had office I of presiding ' -\ . declaring her readiness to sub- mit to the decrees of the council. 93 tlie the Emperor intervened against conflict pro- between the Papal and the episcopal authority seemed still incapable of solution. missed this and thougfh place of honour and power. delighted to this meet the Cardinal half-wav. this opposition steadily continued in conjunction with that of the Spaniards. Duke of Guise (February Catharine de' Medici to transact with the Huguenots. should she ascend the throne of England. The assassination of his brother 563).The Council of Trent. to reduce that country to obedience to the Holy See. and denounced the opposition of the French bishops as proceeding from members and of a schismatic Church. and.. total eclipse of the influence he had hitherto exercised at and to secure himself by an nnderstandiug with the Pope. The Cardinal accordingly became anxious time to return to France and prevent the at the same court. hlmself aspirod to the leo-ate. still found a leader in the Cardinal of Lorraine.

At the same time. were eagerly pushed on. but the proposal that the marriage i i i i up. except in Spain. l>y the had already disposed favourably Thus the decree on the sacrament of orders was passed in the colourless condition desired Papal party.\ter-Reformation. though formerly included in both the imperial and the French libel. and found willing aries for priests. were to be held or conferred. of marriaofe sfave rise to i much i cussiou r> • wound . whom the recent display of Spanish arrogance towards France. listeners. tlie legates. from the cardinalate downwards. in a session held on July i 5. among them one of substantial importance for the establishment of diocesan seminClearly. the council had now become tractable. both and of discipline. The i sacradis- ment The business the Council of .94 sense to 'TtiE Cou. In this sense the Pope addressed urgent letters to the three great Catholic monarchs. it was proposed not only to deprive the royal authority . It not only contained many ad- under which mirable reforms as to the spiritual offices. however. t i • t if the governments. the legates presumed too far on the yielding mood of or priests should be permitted. and might speedily be brought to an end. but the Papacy had wisely and generously surrendered many existing usages conditions profitable to itself. of doctrine Meanwhile the remaining decrees. the Spanish bishops angrily declaring themselves betrayed by the French cardinal. the decree proposed on the all-important subject of the reformation of the life and morals of the clercfv. was now advocated only by the two prelates who But in spoke directly in the name of the Emperor. Other decrees were passed in this memorable session.

during a visit to policy. time. It became necessary to postpone the objectionable article . stood firmly by the original form of the reformation decree. and it was duce so many modifications into as seriously to impair its value. in tlie several states of a bafc to 95 series of analogous profits. With the exception of Spain. To the protest which the ambassadors of the powers inevitably raised against these proposals. upheld by the persistency of their king. the greater portion of the decree was at last passed in the penultimate session of the council (i ith Novtheir opposition to its encroachments ember). but now the fears of the supporters of the existing s^'stem began to be excited. And above all. But Count Luna of the Philip immovably been or resisted the closing before the press assent . showed his readiness to support the Papal French ambassadors at the council carried upon the claims of their sovereign so far as to withdraw to Venice. both at Rome and at Trent. contrived to introthe proposed decree Then. of King it should have ceived nor was till the news — authentic not . take away from it the nomination of bishops and the right of citing ecclesiastics before a secular tribunal. all the powers now made known their consent to winding up the business cioRiiKT of the <^^ ^^® council without council further still loss of exre- Council.The Council of Trent. the legates replied by raising a cry that the " reformation of the princes" should be comprehended in the decrees. though the Cardinal of Lorraine himself. tbe Rome (September). and finally obtained Thus its restoration to a very considerable extent. the Spanish bishops.

some of which were by no means devoid of intrinsic importance. which the Jesuits afterwards interpreted as generally exempting their Society from the operation of this decree. ritual. Then the decrees debated in the last session and at its adjourned meeting were adopted. all possible expedition Index. An- other decree enjoined sobriety and moderation in the use of the ecclesiastical penalty of excommunication. the most important and elaborate It contained related to the religious of both sexes. and on this and the following day rapidly discussed a series of decrees. and the decrees passed catechism. the abuse of the so-called revived till privileged altars ' was not dis- the papacy of Gregory XTII. For the rest.) Of the ciplinary decrees. it was sought to preclude a reckless exaggeration or distortion of the doctrines of the Church on these heads. In the doctrinal decrees concerning purgatory and indulgences. arrived of — a serious illness having befallen tlie Pope that the arise fear of the complications in the event of his death in all which might put an end to the fathers further delay. inserted on the motion of Lainez. and a corrupt (Thus ' perversion of the usages connected with them. met on December 3rd for their five-and-twentieth session. was used in gathering up the threads of the work done or atThe determination of the tempted by the council. Summoned haste. breviary. were remitted to the Pope. as well as the revision of missal. as in those concerning the invocation of saints and the respect due to their relics and images.g6 The Counter-Reformation. being subscribed by 234 (or 255?) ecclesiastics. a clause. in the sessions of the council before its re-assembling and .

which closed with a kind of general thanksgiving intoned by the Cardinal of Lorraine. ^ for the interpretation of those concerning discipline. composed by the Cardinal of Lorraine and Cardinal Madruccio. H. and published by direction of Pius IV. not sanctioned by the Pope. were read over again. however. and re- concerning the execution of decrees to the Pope. cessary. C. While the former became ipm facto binding on the of the ^ The Catecliwnus Romanus. while would liavc wislied him to guard himThese were. The catechisms composed by Canisius (1554 and 1566). and thus its continuity (l545~^3) ^^as established without any use being made of the terms approbation and confirmation.' A decree followed. otlicrs absolute as to decrees concerning dogma . enjoyed a more widespread popular acceptance than the Catcchismus Romanus. afterwards appointed a special commission under the name Con ofre oration of the Council of Trent. who would provide for it by summoning another General Council or as he might determine. 97 under Pope Pius IV. (1566). solemn]y ' ' ' commending the ordinances Church and mitting any the either to difficulties of the council to the the princes of Christendom. Sixtus V. as he reserved to himself the interpretation of doubtful or disputed decrees. against the morc determined Curialists. unneself by certain restrictions. A concluding decree put an end to the council itself. though 1564). The decrees of the (26th January Reception of Its council were shortly afterwards ratified i 564) by Pius IV. This reservation remained wisli of the decrees. cannot claim an authority equal to that of the Canones et decrcta Concilii Tridentini (Rome. drawn up by a commission of cardinals. G ..The Couscil of Trent.

Man}^ attempts at reunion by compromise have since been made from the Protestant side. though more far-reaching and enduring than has been on all sides acknowledged. \ \ i on discipline and reformation could not become valid in any particular state till after they had been published in it with the consent of its government. This distinction is of the greatest importance. entire Cliurclij tlie decrees . the The representatives of whole of the decrees Emperor .98 The Counter-Reformation. a few . . except from a point of view which her doctors have steadily And it is difficult to suppose but that. The doctrinal system of the Church of Rome was now enduringly fixed the area which the Church had lost she could henceforth only recover if she reconquered it. though only on behalf of his hereditary dominions and he had his promised reward when. was necessarily in the first instance dependent on the reception given to them by the several Catholic powers. and some of these have perhaps been met half-way by the generous wishes of not a few Catholics but the Council of Trent has doomed all these projects to jinevitable sterility. at once signed the of the council. her conflict with the spirit of criticism which from the first in some measure animated the Protestant Reformation and afterwards urged it far beyond its original scope. in repudiated. . The gain of the Church of Rome from her acquisition at Trent of a clearly and sharply defined body of doctrine' is not open to dispute. ^ ] The effect of the disciplinary decrees of the council. the Church of Rome must have proved an unequal combatant. had not the Council of Trent renewed the foundations of the authority claimed by herself and of that claimed by her head on earth.

and w^ho now merely safeguarded the rights of the Republic. to which the decrees w^ere twice (i 564 and I 578) presented as having been accepted by King Sigismund Augustus. were ever published in France. nor Hungary. But neither the Empire through its diet. refused his sig- nature till he had received express instructions. had never been represented at the In Portugal and in the Swiss Catholic cantons. whose king and prelates had so consistently held out against the closing of the council. empowered to accord the cup in the Eucharist to the laity. the diet. subscribed to the council. True to the part recently played by him. alert. which in part clashed with the customs of the kingdom and the privileges of the Galilean Church. The example of Ferdinand was followed by several other Powers but in Poland. Yet . whose representatives at Trent had rarely departed from an attitude of studied moderation. maintaining that the Polish Church. individually accepted them with modifications. though several of the Catholic estates of the Empire. the decrees were received without hesitation. as also by the Seigniory of Venice. accord its own acceptance. the Cardinal of Lorraine. Neither the doctrinal decrees of the council nor the disciplinary. ever accepted the Tridentine decrees. on his own responsibility. But the Parliament of Paris was on the and on his return home the Cardinal had to withdraw in disgrace to Rheims. the 99 bisliops were. German under certain restrictions. refused to . both spiritual and temporal. as such. decrees in the name of the King of France.The Council of Trent. montlis afterwards (April). The ambassador of Spain.

But while they pretensions. the whole priesthood.100 as it The Counter-Reformation. was Spain. not only as against the monastic More orders. accom- panied by stringent safeguards as to the rights of king and the usages of his subjects (1565). wliicli had hoped council of fell and on toiled for the so it achievement soil. the episcopal consistently maintained the its Papal authority and confirmed formal authority too was streng- thened by them. had been administered. and by the reforms that had been agreed upon. These results outlasted benefited by the warnings that the movement known as the Connter-Eeformation. at the solid results. less worldly. The disciplinary decrees of the council. than this. after decrees the most grateful considerable deliberation and the delay. on the whole. from' the Pope down- wards. and more dependent on herself. fell short in completeness of the doctrinal. their publication at last took place. The Church became more united. was here that the when. The same course was adopted in the Italian and Flemish dependencies of the Spanish monarchy. by the sacrifices that had been made. and should be ignored by no candid mind. . but in its own moral foundations.

and never so much as contemplated a return to less direct and active courses. which during far the greater portion of this period closely followed that of Spain. of the Connitself at its movement ter-Re£ormation arrived and maintained height may be reckoned as covering the thirty years or thereabouts that ensued upon the close of the Council of Trent. so its during the preceding generation. fully developed had now become an integral part of the ecclesiastical policy of Kome. while the Catholic reaction. elsewhere. received chief impulses. then. During these losses years.( loi ) CHAPTER IV. THE COUNTER-REFORMATION AT The period during wliicli the ITS HEIGHT. new Spanish monarchy enabled to reflect itself in the whole character of . the entire movement. as before and at the Council of Trent. on the its other hand. From Spain. policy of This period coincides with the main course of the great attempt of Philip 11. The absoluthe will of tism of the Philip IT. of Spain to extinguish Pro- testantism in Europe. the few advances still made by Protestantism were more than by It its counterbalanced resources.

nal causes of the chief contests of his reign. such as those of Francisco de Sanchez (El Brocense). At the same time it persecuted with unabated zeal whatever unusual efforts of learning and scholarship provoked suspicion. the prohibiearly national poetry (1582). g^^l^j^g^^g^ i^^ Spanish natlou. and even of . and the Inquisition. in his own kingdom he was the uncompromising champion of orthodoxy. and of its action and influence or not he had momentarily winked at Protestantism in England. religious enthusiasm sustained the resolution of Philip instances. Pope should only exercise power in Spain through and by means of him. government at home. the leamed editor of Moreover. His abroad. the penalties of confiscation of property. and those What he demanded was that even the of the Church. and bound the arms of the Leaguers with the Castilian red. as cases like those of Luis de Leon (1571—76) and Archbishop Carranza show. the objects were no doubt largely fixed for him by the mere geographical conditions of his inheritance but though these may have been the origidid not interfere with his fidelity to its interests . as it in both sped the galleons of the great Armada to their doom. agency on which Philip's system all depended was that of the I^quisition. to terrorise over the Spanish Church. tions of the Index were rigorously enforced by Philip.102 Ills The Counter-Reformation. although it led to many troublesome differences between him and the Holy See. which involved him in so much combative intrigue and aggressive war. which had not only altogether Philip II. Whether jealousy of his royal prerogatives. Of his European policy. but did its ecclesiastical The of government above utmost. the king.

The Counter-Reformation at its Height. (1598). The to the were Pope against Salamanca (1574). (1558) had prohibited his Alcala appealed subjects from resorting to foreign seats of learning. death. But though the co-operation of the monarchy and the Inquisition could effect much. Spanish movement. Inasmuch as the same condition of intellectual sub- jection prevailed in the reign of Philip III. fio-nrcs Spanish mvstics. and such were. Servetus. Thus the Spanish theatre was subjected to a rigorous censorship (15 87). though an early edict of Philip II. it could not sustain The spiritual '^^ Spiritual cntliusiasm to which. The this system of repression more than half-way. exceptions as that of the Navarrese universities falling into decay. and would have come to an end through the fiat of the dying Philip II. being denounced against tliose feeling. the Counter-Reform a^-Qj^ owed its origin. Lutheran Reformation. 103 who infringed no doubt. if it had penetrated into Spain the Scriptures at all. In a revival or upthis description. and Salamanca dwindled to half its former number of students. to . in amonG: the this period. as a spanish^mysticism. had left no traces behind it nor is the absence of remained virtually unknown independent theological speculation disproved by such . continued to meet Popular them. . its impress is those branches of literature which might seem even farthest removed from theology and moral philosophy. were perceptible during a long period m it as easy to suppress as it is to control the estab- lished amusements of a people. rising of ideas must find personal the the representatives capable of satisfying the imagination of the people leadinof . (1598— 1621).

the reformer of the male Carmelites. She was assisted in her labours by kindred spirits. significance of S_t. convents. The chief historical movement begun by the reformatory all Teresa after lies in its having in a large measure met the religious aspirations of the national mind. the national Such. and brought up to a love of chivalrous romance. whose bare-footed friars certainly suggested the foundation of the house of the discalced Carmelite nuns at Avila (1562). Long years of poignant spiritual sufferings taught her the power and the rapture of prayer. as she afterwards called her- Teresa de Jesus (1515—82). thus occupying the ground else- where seized by dogmatic dissent or sectarianism. and . was after all kindled in her by the earlier example of St. She ran away to become a nun. Teresa de Ahumada. but soon found the inside of the convent walls almost as worldly as the world without. extended over seventy. reference whom all. Teresa.three. or. such as Juan of the Cross. self. Towards the end of this period her Jesuit confessor and other members of his Society settled in her native town of Avila. has ah-eady been made.104 earlier ^-^^ of Counter-Reformation. encouraged her aspirations. was of ancient Castilian lineage. was the holy woman whom assembly of Spain saluted as a saint before whom she was canonised by Eonie (1622). and within about two centuries over more than seven hundred. above St. before Teresa's death. and transformed without unhinging her mind. and many generations after her death insurgent patriotism named generalissima of the armies of Spain. and accepted Yet the fire of action her accounts of her visions. Peter of Alcantara. the begin- ning of a reform which.

have toiled to advance His cause among men. From charges brought against her a few years earlier. she is practical in mild and midst of her elevated piety. severed the discalced from the mitiofated Carit not been for the support of the King Philip. But she had also found time to com- pose those prose manuals of devotion soul —more especially the Interior Castle. Teresa's later years. spite or folly. Teresa during the last fifteen years success. a kind of Catholic castle of — which might ' Man- almost be described as the popular / text-books of Spanish mysticism. life. and a milky humankindness percolates the intensity of her the enthusiasm. Thus the rio'ht ecstatic visionary who beheld the hand mav be numbered amon<if humble heart. whose appointment to the visitorship of all the Carmelites of Andalusia gave rise to the conflict between the reformed and the un re formed sections of the order which so greatly troubled St. Far removed alike ' from quietism and from pantheism. easily cleared and taken up by the Inquisition. 105 Jerome Gratian of the Mother of Gocl.The Co un ter-Reforma tion at its IIeigh t. She would not have been victorious in the end. The spirit of unworldly and unselfish piety which life animated much of the religious of Spain in this period was likewise actively at work in the very centre . with clear eye and the love that bears fruit in action. because the divine love of which she thought herself a chosen witness was Saviour at her those who. by personal herself. and their hard-won would go far to account for the influence exercised by her upon her contemporaries. had when Gregory XIII. melites (1580). she had The of her efforts of St.

a matter of course. loyal upholders in the Popes. be generally popular at Rome. conciliar decrees combined with the large increase in the externals. a The College of system of scandalous exactions. and Rome herself. pressed its feudal rights home with undue vigour. encouraged as they were the in their attitude by the Spanish king. pluralities. to diminish simultaneously the importance and the attracand even under Clement VIII. could not. tions of the dignity (i 592—1605). upon whom three predecessors of Sixtus V. as to number of the members of the Sacred College . the strength of the current varied according to the circumstances of the successive pontificates. the Christian world at large w^as no longer aggrieved by days. and other profitable abuses. consistently leant. of the liierarcliical system of the • • crees. according to Bellarmine. Church of Rome. As and more especially according to the cha- . the households of most of the cardinals were established on no extra- vagant footing. Cardinals underwent a similar change. ^ t t t passed. and not only in which Cardinal Borromeo had set a The restrictions imposed by the salutary example. with their prohibitions of non-residence. The it might be called austerity of the Papal court in this period contrasts with the If the Papal easy luxury of earlier and the formal grandeur of later government under Gregory XIII. in the nature of But they found the case. The reforms of the Council of Trent proved far from ineffective. assumed and maintained an aspect The Tridentine debefitting her religious pretensions. — simplicity — under Pius Y. amidst all the dangers i{efoimatiou and disturbances through which that city at Rome.io6 The Counter-Reformation.

nepotism. The Co un ter-Reforma tion at racter of each successive Pope. He took part in the French wars with money and men and while he spared no pains to animate the lukewarm loyalty of the Emperor Maxi. Dominic. . he was essentially consistent. i 07 carried Pius V. towards the Church. both public and private. he w^as ready to cut off from it a rebellious member like Queen Elizabeth . and his bull Admonet nos (1567) prohibited for ever the alienation of any fief of the Church. Peter's cliair Pius V. or monastic order to remain exempt wdiile the Inquisition was encouraged to call to account even the hio-hest dis^nitaries of the most loval churches. which explicitly asserted the claims of the Papacy to the supreme control of the states of the world. from which he allowed no prelate. too. such as the Archbishop of Toledo. (1566—72) the traditions of the order of St. and exhorted Charles IX. milian II. As Cardinal Ghis- general idcates. to pull up the Huguenot heresy by the very fibres of its roots (i 569). at he had held the office of InquisitorRome during the two previous ponti- and no break in the activity of the Inquisition ensued on his elevation. priest. into St. its Heigh t. He congratulated Alva on the efficiency of his Council of Blood. In his foreign policy. that his canonisation in later days He was the sworn foe of ( 1 7 1 2) admits of no cavil. lieri. thus setting the example of the non jwssumus since steadily maintained. In 1568 he reissued with additions the bull In coend Domini. The Pope's religious zeal knew no bounds as to the duties which he imposed upon either himself or others and such were the purity and holiness of the conduct of his life.. Under him the Tridentine decrees became a working test.

and with the pretensions of their good friends and patrons. to do Pius Y.ro8 The Counter-Reforma jiox. He hailed with open satisfaction the news of the Massacre of St. and to interest himself in the plots directed European policy was the formation of the league between Spain and Venice. (Buoncompagni). more easily reconcile itself with the reformatory movement. Pome. was chiefly occupied with the fearful excesses of the banditti. as he pruno longer had dynastic aims in view. he gravitated back in some measure towards that propitiatory system from which it was difficult for the temporal power to shake itself free. By the spirit of that movement Gregory's ecclesiastical Not only did he policy was essentially animated. which clothed in a garb of humorous cheerfulness the heroism of self-sacrifice. The supreme (1570). Bartholomew (1572). belief. memorable to Catholic Christianity against her life. as in his case. nor. effort of his for all succeeding times. but could doomed encourage life-long labours like those of Philip of Neri (1515—95). no longer to decline. it Yet. dently refrained from seeking to maintain the full rigour of the discipline introduced by his predecessor into the life of Church and laity. justice. which under him largely increased in the felt numbers of its inhabitants. barren of practical results by his Gregory XIII. fault. even when. which resulted in the naval victory of Lepanto (1571).who followed Pius V. the baronage of the Roman States. in the Papal chair. nor spared expenditure to prove Papacy ought to be a combative power. and sent forth that the . Though unsuccessful in his attempt to put an end to the anarchy around him. but he neither concealed his it.

i 09 the mission to England (1580). and excited the interest of the future Popes Paul IV. the full ° " 1 T P -r. when known throughout Italy as an eloquent became one of and the most fearless popular preacher. His interest in the promotion of clerical education was more especially noteworthy and. thoroughly in accordance with the Jesuits. The severity with which he afterwards reformed the convents of his brother Franciscans at Siena. It was.Reforma tion at its Height. and election seem to testifv. 1 1 ment once more renewed themselves. vigour and seii-reiiance 01 the Fapal governorio-in . as well as of Loyola and of Philip of Neri. Already in the earliest years of his manhood. the Pope of mere intentions. He was faith active both in advancing the projoagation of the in distant lands and in the endowment of and the establishment of colleges nearer home. . whom he specially favoured. and Venice further but at Venice. the SeigTiiory in the end demanded and obtained his recall.The Counter. and Pius V. Even the promulgation Calendar which bears his name (1582) would fo~disprove his having been the 'pa'pa of the suffice ncgativus. of which no historian has as yet fully demonstrated the significance. as which he was derided by Bom an wit. he active labourers in the cause of the Catholic Reformation. he helped to carry into effect one of the most important of the principles approved by the Council of Trent. Naples. as the very legends clustering round the history of his Sixtus V. He was after- wards appointed vicar-general of his order at Rome. raised his reputation at Rome . 1 r. herein churches . where he for a time acted as Inquisitor. (Montalto) that. however.. with Sixtus V.

the change in him w^as assuredly due to no previous dissimulation. and his nephew. the youthful Cardinal Montalto. no opportunity of continuing his strife against His journey to Spain as theologian to Cardinal Buonconipagni (afterwards Pope Gregory XIII. and indeed . and presided over by the Another bull (Fostquam verus ille) fixed the number of cardinals at seventy. His earliest success was the complete restoration of order in the Papal states as against the banditti and their protectors. Indeed. When Montalto. whom Pius V. on his mission for the settlement of Carranza's case.). His financial arrangements in conjunction with the frugality of his expenditure secured to his a large annual surplus. in his brusque and coarse for such it cer- tainly remained. government His bull Tmmensa cctcrna Dei system its reorganised the whole pontifical of govern- ment by fifteen a careful distribution of functions among Congregations or committees of cardinals. he was unable to escape altogether the uvdyKJ] of the temporal power. Though on the whole his creations were confined to men of eminent piety and reforming opinions. came forth from the retirement into which he had withdrawn under Gregory's pontificate. of first which the control of was the Holy Office. notwithstanding his delight in books and the arts.1 1 o lost The Co UN ter-Reforma tion. charged with the all matters of Pope in person. came to be his chief minister for foreign affairs. especially architecture. and the backward and the lukewarm. faith. of hypocrisy there was no trace nature . had raised to the cardinalate. which under him added so largely to the grandeur as w^ell as to the orthodoxy of the aspect of Rome. led to disputes which long left their sting.

frequently declared his desire for a great crusade against the Turk. together with his ambassador Olivarez. but he can hardly be sup- posed to have intended the treasures hoarded by him to be exhausted by this object. such as Geneva. He promised a large annual subsidy but the failure of the Armada materially to Philip diminished his respect for the King. coolly. never thought either of making war upon Philip or of attempting. . on whose death. followed by the accession of the . had it been possible. and his friends were her friends. His foes were the foes of the Church. reign was ever more to maintain liis own master.. He could not gainsay the logical necessity of a Spanish invasion of England. which he at first encouraged Charles Emmanuel of Savoy to attack. though he would have preferred. for the Jesuits. however. and who had offended him by his claim to regulate ecclesiastical titles in Spain. and he was not afraid he treated them of modifying on occasion even the privileges of the Inquisition. he heartily disliked. i i i For the rest.The Counter-Reforma tion at its Height. the conversion of Queen Elizabeth. between whom and himself there prevailed an odd kind of mutual regard. whom. As and placed on the Index a work of their redoubtable controversialist Bellarmine. He no soveendeavoured without an active communication with the bishops constantly interfering with their diocesan authority. Sixtus V. he found to be intent upon very different aims. to wrest Naples from his hands. like Paul IV. His first overtures were inevitably made to Philip II. whom.. for matters of state in general. At the same time Sixtus V. such as King Stephen Bathory of Poland (i 575 — 86).

Whether ligious or not it be true that the first of the re- wars of France (1562—63) preserved France from becoming. in France. re- But nowhere had the poli- tical energy of Sixtus V.2 1 1 The Co un ter-R e for ma tion. The victory of Jarnac and the death of Condc (13th March 1569) elicited from the delighted Pius V. the Huguenots soon assumed a complexion in against harmouy with the conceptions of Philip of Spain and A league with the Counter-Reformation movement. and a large subsidy was promised by Philip if Charles IX. But the extirpation of Protestantism throughout the monarchy was certainly counselled there. . and before long auxiliaries were sent by Alva from the Netherlands. at all ° ° Therelisious p "» straggle in cvcuts alter the Convention 01 Amboise (March 1563) such a result was no longer .'s angry schemes of revanche were . for the extirpation of heresy was established at Toulouse under the name of a crusade (September 1568). Pius IV. dropped at the instance of the French crown nor is there any evidence to show that at the Conference of Bayonne (June 1565) a plan was concocted for the complete recovery of France for Catholicism with the aid of Spain and Rome. SiglsmuncI. he Svveclisli warmly interested liimself in its the maintenance of Catholicism in Poland at establishment in Sweden. and the fanaticism of the Catholic preachers was revived on no less primitive a type. admonitions to Charles IX.a Huo-uenot country. so difficult a field of action as which he was anxious both to preserve to the Church and to prevent from becoming a dependency of Spain. would ConThus the struggle tinue the war (January 1568). i • possible.

found inflammatory matter in abundance in the bigoted capital and in other parts of the countr}^. not in the fanaticism of the Guises. The news of the massacre. The Peace of St. The origin of the crime has to be . the policy of whose government was at this time so far removed from subservience to Spain as to be in direct contact with Elizabeth of England. and in Europe generally. But the H. H . The friends of the Catholic reaction felt that so dangerous a tendency must be arrested and the proposed marriage between the sister of the king and the young Huguenot Kiug of Navarre was as odious to Pope Pius V.The Co unter-Reforma tion at its Heigh r. with William of Orange. but in Catharine de' Medici's jealousy of Coligny's influence over the King. sponsibility of the Massacre of St. Gregory XIII. Geimain (i 570) was sincerely meant by Charles IX. Bartholomew (24th August 1572) caniiot be shifted from the shoulders where it rests. by no means identified itself with the aims of the reaction. could not to intensify with unprecedented force the bitterness of the religious conflict in France. de' Medici and her sons contributed almost as much as the heroic pertinacity of the Huguenots to avert such a doom from France. On the accession of religious policy of the c. to tear i i 3 up not only the roots of the evil.. but the veryBut the cool selfishness of Catharine fibres of the roots. and with Coligny himself. and in the momentary impulse which stirred up Charles to act for himself The fire once lit. received with joy and thanksgiving by Philip II. sought. as it was to Yet the immediate rethe bigoted populace of Paris. French Government continued wavering. and during the remainder of the reign of Charles IX.. and the fail new Pope.

III. but soon. could not last and in the so-called Peace of Monsieur (i 576) terms were granted to the Huguenots that caused a loud outcry at Paris and elsewhere. there was mucli uncertainty as to what influence would establish itself over his shallow and unstable mind. But this. League from the first pursued the design of supplanting the King by Henry. or that of Pope Gregory and the Cardinal of Lorraine. At first he seemed prepared to use force against the Huguenots. now near his end (December 1574). in the Peace of Fleix. absorbed in itself all the Whether minor confederacies. of course. The death of his even more contemptible brother Anjou (1581). favourable terms had been granted to the Huguenots. and Jesuit and other influences induced him to set on foot a kind of CounterReformation on his own account. whether that of the tolerant Maximilian II. with the aid both of the Jesuits and in more popular spheres of the Franciscans. gave to the Protestant Henry of Navarre the next hereditary claim to the throne. and at the same time seemed to call upon the League and its supporters to accom- .4 1 1 The Co un ter-R eforma tion. shortly after. The changes in the attitude of the wretched Henry III. to which the Guises were no strangers. and the Doge Mocenigo. during^ which the Flagellants were violently brought into fashion. towards the League and towards the Huguenots which ensued show him writhincr under an unbearable incubus. analogous associations. though the name of Philip of Spain was before long associated with its or not the operations. Thus arose the Holy League (i 576). its origin was certainly native. Duke of Guise. which had been preceded by . Henry (1574).

. in Only a year earlier. The Pope could account at not avoid calling the unhappy King . to Emmanuel of Savoy. the understanding — agreement— plot— was matured. "^ : . when the assassination by the King's orders of the Guises changed to tlie aspect of affairs (September 1588). But he had been gradually cooling towards . Henry III. they. at first continued to aim at a reconciliation between the Catholic Leaorue and Henry III. the Guises in particular.. for in the Treaty of Joinville (January 1585). eveu induced to publish a depriving bull and Spain. Spain. the Guises. which so openly menaced the independ- ence of the French monarchy. now entreated Henry of Navarre to abjure the profession of the Protestant faith which barred his succession to the throne . which. and was sixuisv. ' .. and of the exclusion heretic princes. t /^ t /o against JNavarre and bonde (September 1585). and the Cardinal of Bourbon united in support of the Cardinal's candidature for the of all now vacant throne. Pope Gregory's demand for the introduction into France of the whole of the Tridentine decrees had been accompanied by a large influx of Jesuits. In 1584. Sixtus v.. entered into a Thus which the chiefs of the League. _ . evoked the spirit of the commune to aid in the destruction of the national monarchy. in complete understanding with the Guises. i i 5 both their avowed and their secret objects.. i the League. „ ^ ^ f Henry iv. and Philip of Spain were parties. and an organisation of the League had been established at Paris.. surrounded by Hispaniolising cardinals. compact amounting to a scheme for subduing France. together with Charles part by foreign arms. . wdiile the aid of Spain was pro- mised to the Leasfue.The Counter-Reforma tion at plisli its Height.

' — the movement of the Counter-Eeformation in Italy . During the lifetime of the Cardinal of Bourbon. found a ready listener in the Pope. of which the latter delayed the signature till his hand was cold in death. proposed to the Pope a deIt finitive treaty of alliance. passed away (27th August 1590) it had become clear that he would be no party to the Spanish bargain. The ' '' Catholic faith. During the thirty years covered by these pontificates than France.. Philip of Neri with the morally and intellectually deadening effect of Inquisition and Index. had thus in the main followed the lines au3[ Moral and ^ intellectual the emploved the ao-encies adopted by it ' effects of the couiiter-Refor. Before Sixtus V. murder of tlie Cardinal but the assassination of Henry HI. ' is even nearer to our heart But Henry had resolved upon his course. The results produced were of that mixed character with which partisan history has no patience. combining as they did the edifying influence of lives and labours like those of St. Luxemburg. Doubtless examples of saintly lives -. or some vassal pure and simple of Spain. and the assurances of his agent. . no escape remained from one of two alternatives Henry IV. . whom the Leaguers recognised as King Charles X. ' are to be found in many periods of Italian history . was then that Philip II. the policy of Sixtus was accordingly one of postponement.prcvious period..' said Sixtus. For a time it seemed necessary to go hand in hand with Spain in opposing the accession of Henry of Navarre. m .. So far as in her lay.. himself (August 1589) once more introduced a change in the situation. Rome had saved France from Spain.ii6 least for the The Counter-Reformation.. Charles Borromco and St. On the Cardinal's death (May I 590)..

pictorial. Italian literature shows unmistakable signs of this influence. emasculation. Nor has it proved difficult to show that Italian art. was substituted a system even less defensible than the hard exclusiveness of the Inquisition a method of reduction. a great extent worked itself out for the nor is there sufficient reason assumption that the Italian mind in general was prepared to turn with compensatory zeal to those scientific studies abhorrence.The Counter-Reforma tion a t besides this . is the question. which reached height under Gregory XIII. though it may savour of ex- — aggeration to attribute the blending of sensuousness (1544-95) to the principles instilled 'Into him as a boy by the Jesuits. i i 7 but. and musical. more especially in the sphere its of higher education. to Jesuit misdirection of consciences. begins in this period to Even more wide-reaching exhibit the same impress. expurgation. on tlie other hand. the Renascence. plastic. indisputably contributed to diminish For the freedom of the mental vigour of the nation. or the license into which it had too easily degenerated. The Renascence had . Statistics (even when perfectly trustworthy) . as it has been from Fra Paolo downwards. which shrank from nothing because it could assimilate everything. neither was the decay of learning and letters in Italy entirely owing to the Holy Office. its Height.. or even to the complete establishment in this period of the control of Spain over a large part to of the peninsula. which the reaction held in especial The steady progress and extension of the ^ operations of the Jesuits. whether the continuance (fbr it was in any case a continuance) of the moral corruption of Italian society is to with pietism in Torquato Tasso be ascribed.

of which the later Italian Renascence had set the fashion. of brigandage and piracy. which largely owed its origin to religious causes. .. and.. wliich time alonc could test the value ^ ^ . of crime and immorality. and the revolt of the Nether- . an enduring schism . of and superstitious remedies liardly must be viewed as results of many contributory causes. much of the Jesuit teaching of No authoritative exposition of its principles sanctioning any more advanced developement of them was. The yoke of the foreigner and the ascendancy of his influence over all national aspirations.ii8 The Counter-Reformation. of ecclesiastical government. the weakness of native. in Eng- land and the Scandinavian NortTi. affected . The progress of the conflict in France has been already touched upon. In the great struggle carried on by the CounterPeformation from these centres the resistance opposed to it varied alike in character and in results. m the . however. Netherlands. ^ . which had good reason to be on its guard under Popes so unfavourable to it as Pius V. especially before Sixtus V. influences attributed with good reason to this age. . From first to last. in this period put forth by the Society. for mere moral restraints. There remained the debateable land of Central Europe. and the ineradicable tendency of human things to go from bad all these causes should be taken into account to worse social disorganisation less pernicious than the disease. national defiance. It has been asserted that the real cause of the insurrection was the selfish discontent of the nobility. the struggle here was much I by the course of the revolt of the Netherlands. The Counterp i^eformation in J rauce the end was a compromise or . — too'ether with the deteriorating. the contempt. and Sixtus V.

and the !May edict. and sent instructions for the contiuuance of the persecution.000 persons ensued. i i 9 has been argued tliat Philip merely carried out the edicts periodically promulgated by his father. in truth. and seemed over. the establishment of the SimnisJi Inquisition was actually intended? For a moment it seemed. while the religious Peace of Augsburg its extension about the time in question. had the Reformation at the time of his accession obtained much real hold over the inhabi- tants of the Provinces at large. by the sentence of the Inquisition and subsequent royal pro' By midsummer all began (1566). nnder the government of Margaret of Parma.The Co un ter-Reforma tion at Moreover. sufficiently explained by the character helps to account for the comparative rapidity of of the ^^opulation. and for the enforcement at Egmont (with the usual reservations) of the Tridentine decrees.' to whose extreme penalty. notwithstanding the King's denial (1562). An the emigration of some troubles 30. triumphant. which The led to the outbreak of the real struggle (i 568). how could the increased activity of religious persecution early in Philip's reign. Council of Blood. Again. that a measure of concessions mig^lit be obtained bv Madrid (1565). earlier The slowness of the is. nor. cite the to ex- most serious fears that. But Philip protested before the crucifix that he would never call himself master of recreants. demanding summary . it its IIeigii t^. immediate death against the preachers of the reformed religion. advance of Protestantism in this quarter however. and the excesses of authority ensuing. Yet it was Alva's arrival (August 1567). when the government of the fail Provinces was becoming wholly Spanish.

included. After the emigration in Alva's days. torising. fifteen southern provinces. and thereby shut the door upon the emigrants. whose mind was wholly set upon a great naval expedition for the liberation of Mary Queen of Scots. 1568). Papal blessing expressly descended upon the symbols of his military authority.120 clamation. Orange attempted to maintain the national union against Spain on the basis of mutual tolerance between Protestants ber 1577. popular feeling recognised the agent of Rome not less than the servant of Spain. Under the administration of Don John of Austria (1576—78). They were found ready to abolish the Inquisition . The Counter-Reformation. and but they conceded no more than the liberty of private worship to the Protestants. and through him the revolt of the Netherlands was definitively stamped as both a popular and a religious up- Breda (1575) came to a speedy end on the religious question. the large majority of the inhabitants in the southern provinces were Catholics. even had not the is as declared heretics. hut his and Catholics (Decemnoble and unique endeavour must . The peace negotiations at gether with these northern. and it was as exclusively Protestant communities that these Provinces formally emancipated themselves from Spanish control under the stadtholderate of William of Orange (1575—76). to annul the obnoxious edicts of Charles V.000 human beings to death by the executioner's hands. in the Pacification of Ghent (1576). reckoned to have durinsf the seven vears of Alva's government doomed i 8. It was again the religious question that largely helped to break up the wider confederation. all the inliabitants of the Netherlands were. In Alva. which. rendered obnoxious (Feb.

The events which followed made no change in these general relations. and the fate of the whole of the Southern Netherlands was decided by the fall of Antwerp (August). and to exclude all forms of faith but the Eoman Catholic. In the earlier of these years Parma's powers were crippled . with a reservation to the Protestants of the right of private worship. and the United Provinces renounced the sovereignty of the Congress at Cologne dissolved ' who claimed to be their ruler. were indeed followed by further negotiations with France. but they were cut short by the capitulation of Brussels to Parma (March 1585) . and with it the Belgic provinces were permanently lost to the Union and to Protestantism. The Peace itself (1580). The city was speedily re. and the murder of William of Orange.Catholicised with the help of the Jesuits. The Union of Utrecht (1579)? though it left the door open to the Catholic provinces. i 2 r even had nese's victory of it not been for Alexander FarGemblours (January 1578). whose con- temptible part had been played out. In I 584 the victories of Parma led to the subtyrant ' mission of Flanders and to the restoration of Catholicism there. dualism. the balance between them and the Spanish Netherlands was finally adjusted. and in the same year the sack of Macstricht decided the Walloons to return to their allegiance to Philip of Spain. Under Parma's own administration (1578—92) the separation of North and South was accomplished.The Counter-Reforma tion a t have failed its Height. by the restoration of the whole of the United Provinces to independence. The death of Anjou. During nine further years the struggle continued before. announced the inevitable The dualism established.

by the armaments for the invasion of England. this movement must be viewed as an inevitable intellectual revolt ag^ainst the risfid Calvinism which triumphed over the Arminians at Dort (16 18—19).Reformation. as well as the conquest of England and his death (December I 5 9 2) closed the prospect of any further advance of the Counter-Eeformation in the . Even in Lanca- needed the personal exertions of William wards Cardinal) Allen to arrest the practice of conforFrom this time mity in his native county (1562). Both Rome and the Escurial convinced themselves very slowly of the delusiveness of the hope that Queen Elizabeth would adhere to the Church reTlie Catholic Propaganda established lu England by her sister nor of a Catholic reaction powerful ill England. could of her conversion. Low Countries. forward the English mission periodically attracted the efforts of Catholic zeal. in which he was to have taken part.- . If in the very province (Holland) which had been the mainstay of the great revolt may be descried. But the first enduring impulse in tliis direction was .122 The Counter. half a century later. During the remainder of his life the intervention of Spain in the French civil war obliged him to postpone the reconqnest of the Netherlands. the pendulum of public opinion shire it swung (after- btrongly in the Protestant direction. the traces enough to command the adherence of the favourite national poet (Joost van den Vondel). himselr to despair secret Whatever may have been the after her accession wishes of the majority of the English clergy. From 1594 ^^^^ ^^"^ against Spain becomes an international war. bring -5= =. bixtus —— V. and English Jesuits were spora- dically engaged in missionary labours in this country.

was of special moment for the course of the religious struggle in England. the first the Roman faith. (1570)5 and doomed to a violent death The manager of this by the Ridolfi plot (1571). under his influence that Gregory XIIL allowed the Jesuit mission to go forth.Reforma tjon at p"iven its Heigh t. originally an offshoot of Douay. was likewise due the reorganisation of the English College at Rome And it was (1579). plots for her liberation had been formed. and the strugHer release gle for the English throne had begun. To Allen. latter scheme was armed with credentials from the Pope to ccmmeaid him to the Catholic nobility of England. who took up arms for the restoration of the Catholic religion under the banner of the Five Wounds of Christ (1569). formed part of the programme of the rebellion of the Northern Earls. it was she who was to take the place of Elizabeth. who superintended the management of the college in both places. throuGfh the zeal of Allen of an English College in the University This was the year in ^^ Douay in 1568.The Co un ter. The foundation of the English College at Douay. which Mary Queen of Scots became a fugiand a prisoner in England. sig- and others. tbe college was speedily re-established at Rbeims under the protection of the Guises and with a subvention from Philip II. Driven some years from Douay (157^—93). excommunicated by the bull of Pius V. 123 bv the establishment. after in Scotland the tive Parliament which had accepted her forced resignation had done its utmost to accomplish the extirpation of Before the year was out. nificant as the earliest result of the Tridentine decree on clerical seminaries. which in April 1 5 80 left away for . TiieEncriish Colleges.

towards the members of the order surrounded caused themselves to be received into face to face with death. more generally of Oxford. only Those ~> Rome / \. . 250 Catholic priests were sent into England within the years 1575 to 1585 and sixty of these suffered martyrdom. had been members of an Large English university. tl . when interrogated on the subject at their trials.issionof its members had been trained at Douay many. suffered death in these years . under the penalty of treason. or at Rheims. though many of them. that many when actually And as the English propaganda of the Jesuits con- . The rigour of these persecu- tions against the Queen's was increased by the discovery of the plots life. it it with so glorious a halo in the eyes of the zealous. for Eugland under the leadersliip of Robert Parsons and of Edraund Campion. steadily professed their recognition of the Queen as their lawful sovereign. Paris and Rome. Most of rr]^g Jesuit 7i. for the protection of her w^ere.124 The Counter-Reformation. sanctioned by Act of life. With in the Jesuits England prethe memories of Catholic martyrdom eminently connect themselves the special rigour shown . . for and. numbers followed in their wake according to an authorised computation. revenge upon those who had taken Many suffered under another Act ordering Jesuits and other seminary priests to leave the kingdom within forty days. who were executed for denying the Queen's ecclesiastical supremacy they were therefore punished as traitors. if need it. before they had resided here. which in 1584 led to the formation of the association. Parliament. afterwards (December 11^81) its protomartyr.

tinned. and to what extent the Catholic revival of the days of James I. misliked by Philip IL. while the recusancy statutes of this and the following reign placed a considerable proportion of the gentry of tlie land within the walls of its prisons. object was to restore French influence. whoui James VI. and perhaps by a marriage between Lennox and Arabella Stuart. — Among the colleges designs elaborated at Rome. and thus gradually to re-establisli a Catholic ascendancy in Scotland. . . to be follow^ed by the association of the liberated Mary with her son in its government. was the central figure. and Charles I. however. their colleges in Flanders. and the great Armada came and was dissipated. case. reaction ia Count d'Aubigny. The plan was.The Counter-Reforma tion a t its Height. till a whole series of refuges stood open to the expatriated. To what extent the steady endurance shown by so many Catholic families in England was due to the Eliza- bethan propaganda. in the Jesuit and in the family council of the Guises. created Its Earl of Lennox. had been the intrigue of which Esme Stuart. Spain. cannot be easily determined. always a possible claimant for the English throne. the fruits of the Counter-Keformation in England were not all gathered in when the great issues of the European conflict seemed to decide themselves when Duessa was caught in the toils. Lorraine. Yet the Jesuits had no monopoly of martyrdom many other priests suffered death and the tortures which preceded or accompanied it. 125 and elsewhere increased and multiplied. was In any prepared by it. and extinguished by the Raid of Ruthven (1582). which had at its back a solid popular resistance.

different. cannot be said to have availed itself to much purpose effectively by the loyalty of the Irish people to the Church of Rome. The episcopal system came to a virtual. Munster 1^:60. j. nor was it till 1 579 that the outrages of Drake effectively supplemented the arguments urged upon the King two years before by Nicholas Sanders. had atWesterasin i 529 completely transferred to himself the supreme authority in matters ecclesiastical. \ -i r* -\ ^ -t . but only with the result of causing the massacre of Smerwick. end. Philip hesitated about taking out. and the people's assent was won of the vantage-ground offered to it ^ '^ -. the liberator or Sweden. In Tyrone's insurrection Spain co-operated late and in- Thus the Oounter-Eeformation (1602). After Sanders and his companions had landed in Kerry and the insurrection of Desmond had broken of the Irish But though the eyes Spain. but under conditions almost Attempt at a p n Countei -Refer. In one of the Scandinavian kingdoms an attempt was made within this period to bring about a reaction towards Rome. (iustavus niatioTi by ^•^ ^ r{ John III.prohibitory or permanent success. of course. largely gained for the Reformation by being allowed a share in the spoils.126 The Counter. Very was the state of religious feeling in Irelandj^ where a long hacl series of popular in- surrections CUlster Mttemptsin i^6s. .to sever the connexion between Enofland and Ireland. uonnaught 1577) ness 01 Jiilizabeth s Jrrotestant had long turned to any measures tendino. Philip connived at the despatch of a slight re- inforcement from Spain (1580). of Yasa(i 5 2 3-60).Reformation. and the The nobility was monasteries to an absolute. exposed the hollowEstablishment.

largely influenced by his beloved consort. however. favoured by King John. Charles. the penalty I. more or less overshadowed it till he actually seated himself there.The Counter-Reformation at over ratlier than forced ... Catharine. of Poland. whose authority. that while the nation remained unmoved. to work upon Hereupon the Counter-Reformation Swedish opinion. drifted nearer and nearer to Pome. the King himself. endanger theo- Possessed of some first logical learning. approved of the tortuous proceedings of the Jesuits. As early as 1572 Cardinal Hosius was full of his praises. and in 1576 he commissioned two Jesuits. the attitude of John towards the religious question contributed materially to his tenure of the throne. 127 for in tlie reign of Gnstavus which counts so many political victims. a daughter of Sigismund I. But under John III. the tempted. While Charles steadily professed his adherence to the national Church as founded by their father upon the Bible. though he had formally renounced his claim to a share of the throne. to promulgate his . and called upon the King openly to profess the Catholic faith. unhappy Eric XIV. in alliance with his younger brother. began. which had been already rejected by in I . Augsburg Sweden 549 but the result was. He preferred. and of religions concessions such as those contained in the Interim. its Height. under the guise of Lutheran preachers. of death was never undergone for the sake of religion. but in so uncertain a fashion as to disquiet Pope Gregory XIII. who dis. John at show^ed a desire to unite the contending tenets and usages on the basis of the of the primitive Church. (1569—92) a reaction was atJohn had overthrown his elder brother.

Liturgy or Eed Book (1576). and the death of Queen Catharine (1583) completed the estrangement. with a view to preparing the complete resumpmass. concluded under the mediation of Possevin in 1582). reprimands from the Council of State. Luther's Catechism was banished from the schools the Bishop of Linkoping la Gardie. and by conformity on the part of the King to heretical worship and the Jesuit Possevin was sent to Sweden to urge Whether or not he actually a more decided course. and while Jesuits continued to preach with so much audacity as to incur . But before long the King's zeal began to cool. both clergy and lay estates. accompanied by interimistic concessions (the marriage of priests and the Communion in both kinds for the laity). and all converts to Rome were .128 The Counter-Reformation. tion of the At the diet of 1577. whicli was based upon the missal approved at Trent and edited by the Jesuits. He had been disappointed in the political expectations he had founded on the influence of Rome (especially in the matter of the peace between Russia and Poland. Pontus de was publicly divested of the insignia of his office for calling the Pope Antichrist the archiepiscopate was kept vacant for four years. . gave in the required adhesion. the Counter-Peformation now progressed with much greater openness. the most violent of the recalcitrants having been removed. received John into the Church of Rome (at Wadstena in 1578). with few exceptions. a number of Swedish youths were sent abroad to be trained in the jfaith of Rome. failed . But the King's to obtain special envoy. Gregory XIII/s assent to the policy of gradual conversion. Soon the Jesuits were expelled the realm.

Duke Charles. i 29 When John's heir. was elected King of Poland (1587). imprisoned. Sigis- mund. had before this maintained a diplomatic intercourse with Elizabeth and Henry IV. and more turbulent opponents paid the penalty of their lives. and a kind of covenant for its maintenance adopted by a mixed clerical and lay assembly at Upsala (1593). ^^^ were its results permanently affected by the coronation visit (i 593—94) of the Catholic King Sigismund.. as from 1604 he formally consented to be called. In 1592 King John died. On his death Lutheranism was reintroduced. project of union with the Greek Church. His attempt to establish Swedish Protestantism on a broader basis than that of the Augsburg Confession was defeated by the decree of the Upsala Assembly of 1607. and in 1608 sought an alliance with the United Provinces. openly stood forth as the adversary of his innovations. No attempt at a Catholic reaction followed upon the establishment of the Reformation in Denmark by Christian III. and both in his reign and in c. clung to the compromise of his Red Book.' But now this liturgy met with widespread resistance clergymen who shrank ' . (15 36). I . his father exhorted him not to bind himself in obedience to the John himself. While the King embittered the conflict by per- from sonal violence. its Height. it were deposed.The Counter-Reforma tion at threatened with banishment. Charles IX. after indulging in the fleeting Pope. or banished. sick at heart of the results of his futile en- deavour to reconcile extremes by his rojaljiat. his brother. The struggle between Sigismund and his uncle Charles which followed. accompanied by the Papal legate Malaspina. forms part of the European religious conflict.H..

Beyond a doubt the variations of Protestantism which both these princes desired to reduce or to remove are to be reckoned among the causes which / The \ [ divisions Protestants as aids of among contributed to the progress or the uounter- c* ^ rA the Counter' Kciormation. ^ p t persecutions had been refused shelter at Copenhagen. into the fire. mula concordicey by which the latter sought to extinguish all Protestant disunion. to the variations of Protestantism. and by the greed of Church lands patent in many of the princes who adopted it. by insisting on the doctrine of . ^p. the year after John a Lasco and a large Protestant p n \ -\t intolerance in numoer of othcr fugitivcs from the Marian Denmark. their illustrious historian. that of his successor. prescribed that all strangers should satisfy the authorities on the subject of their faith before being allowed to settle in Denmark and in 1559 Frederick II. I he Catholic reaction 01 tJie /-^ t t • p i sixteenth century benefited by the disunion produced among the Protestants through variety of dogma. just as it profited by the scandals of the Re- formation (the divorce of Henry YIIL. Frederick II. In 1 5 54. Danish Protestantism grew typically intolerant. the Yet the celebrated FovElector Augustus of Saxony.130 The Counter-Reformation. King Frederick threw pi • • ^ - . of Jacob Andre^e. recommended to Frederick by his brother-in-law. (1559—88). i i . With regard. a rigid Lutheran theologian. when he traces them to their Luther. Christian III. assuredly vindicates their riofht of existence real source. ' ^ . Bossuet. the bigamy of Philip of Hesse). however. promulgated a confession of faith which was to serve as a uniform test on such It had been drawn up at the suggestion occasions.

most frequent. and most perplexing to pious souls. by no means always obviously consistent with one another. according to which the Church has always professed the same truth through all its members. The Co un ter-Reforma tion at the universal priesthood of the axe at the for roofc its Heigh t. marked with perfect distinctness the divergence between the doctrinal position of the Lutherans and that of the Zwinglians. to the Conjessio tdra- denned the Zwinglian standpoint with unprecedented plainness Bucer's surrender on the cardinal subject of (1531). The very Augsburg Confession (1530). and two years before his death Luther did his utmost to render it permanent by reasserting in their harshest form his views an a. however..". Still. the Eucharist in the Wittenberg Concordia (15 36) was not ratified by more than a section of the Zwinglian Calvin. Henceforth. as iu the Emi>ii e. which . who about this time began the Churches. and and Calvinism led. work of his life.. 131 laid Cliristian of tlie mighty growth which had the religious life centuries overshadowed of the nations. Protestant sect emulously strove to find a generally acceptable definition of the visible Church. believers. exerted himself at Ratisbon (i 541) to keep Melanchthon firm against concession to Rome but the schism remained unhealed. it was on the Protestant side that the variations of doctrine had been most striking. accordingly. theologians of every Neither. any longer be upheld without a great variety of explanations and interpretations. even before the Council of Trent had promulgated its dogmatic decrees. could the Catholic definition. sense while in a conceived in a spirit of concilia- tion towards Rome... m its turn ^ . 2^)0 1 it if dcsigucdlv.


The Counter-Reformation.

Euclianstic question (1544). Liitlier's deatli encouraged the tendency to disunion with whicli itself the application to religious matters of the principle


of territorial sovereignty so completely




among the Protestant princes and cities of the Augsburg Confession each claimed the right of determining
the precise nature of their subjects' creed, after caus-



to be defined

by the court or

city preacher, or

by the divinity faculty in the
short the principle,

local university.


Ciijus est rcf/io,


was asserted with perfect frankness. As between the Lutherans and Calvinists, the fact that the religious peace of Augsburg included the former alone created
an unprecedented bitterness, while their political interests began to diverge as widely as their confessional Hence a desire on both sides to find the tenets.
clearest formal expression for existing





eagerness quite in

harmony with the


of the contemporary Inquisition in Spain and Italy to

purge each

Church from elements regarded as strange or intrusive, and a persecution at In the last too frequently carried on for its own sake. Empire, the religious division among the Protestants soon acquired a very marked political significance, more especially after Frederick III., Elector Palatine, had, by
territorial or local

the promulgation of the Heidelberg Catechism in

562, taken his natural place at the head of the Calvinists, and had sent a large force under his son, John Casimir,

to aid the

French Huguenots (1567), thus opening the long political drama which ended with the catastrophe





Calvinist era in the Palatinate

marked by


The Co un ter-Reforma tion at its Heigh t.


and the execution

of Silvanns at Heidel-

berg (1573) is hardly less typical than is the burning "oT^eFvetns at Geneva twenty years before. The headquarters of the most rigid Lutheran orthodoxy


for a

time at Jena, where Flacius, to




systematisation of Lutheranism
1 5

largely due, resided





the service of the ill-used Ernestine


of the

Saxon house.


found an unrelenting


in the head of the Albertine line, the

Augustus, who in the earlier part of his reign (1553— 86) attempted to maintain a moderate Lutheran attitude

but his opinions afterwards stiffened


he became

i\ie Formula concordice.

^^® promulgator of the Formula concordicc


and harried




Calvinists "with so deadly a zeal, that hopes were in-

dulged at Rome of his ultimate conversion to the CathoIn the case of the Brandenburg Albert, lic Church.
who, before converting East Prussia into a secular duchy,

had introduced the Reformation there, the Lutheran bigotry displayed by his clergy and nobility against Osiander and the Osiandrists, culminating in the execution of his

own confessor(Funcke)in the midst of a psalmThese currents of

singing mob, lent more colour to the report that he

had died a Roman Catholic (1568).
bine them into a

feeling perverted even the very attempts



comOf the numerous


formulae of belief composed, in more or less sincerity, with

such a design duringr the latter half of the sixteenth
century, the earliest

was Melanchthon's (1559)5 ^^^

died in the following year, without having accomplished
his long


and much-misunderstood endeavour to reunite Soon the hope passed away of a recon-


The Counter-Reformation.
have warranted

ciliation, sucli as miglit

schemes of a general Protestant League, which prompted Queen Elizabeth's message to Heidelberg (1577) and Segur's

German mission when the French
at its height (i 584).

relisfious O

strug-ofle DO

For the object of the


concordice of


notorious because

of the ineans employed to enforce

— was



be the repression of



trimminof as well as of Calvinist doctrine.

and was

signed by the majority of the Protestant Estates of the Empire and by several thousands of theologians but the Calvinists, who refused it, had the moral support of Elizabeth of England, of Henry of Navarre, and of Augustus of Saxony's own brother-in-law, Frederick 11. of Denmark while a significant comment upon it was furnished by the breach opened about this time (1585— Sy) in the Netherlands between the Calvinists and
; ;

the less rigidly disposed adherents of the Eeformation.

Meanwhile a school or tendency of Protestant tliought and Opinion began to become perceptible, of which the seeds had been blown hither and thither northwards at first and westwards by the blast of persecution, and on which the anathemas of the Churches both old and new called down the repressive force of the secular arm. During the earlier times of the Reformation these often isolated efforts had been officially and popularly lumped together as Anabaptism in this later period more than one noteworthy endeavour of the kind came from those Latin countries where the activity of the Counter-Reformation had nipped resistance to Rome in the bud, and left independent thinkers to confront her in isolated defiance. The cities which had


The Co un ter-R eeorma tion at
rigidly formulated


Heigh t.


formerly offered a refuge to Protestant free thought
their specific creeds, or, like

Strasburg, had themselves to submit to the Catholic




to pass that these varieties of

thought found a home on the eastern boundaries of European civilisation, in Poland, where they

were welcomed by members of an educated, and to a large extent self -governed, aristocracy. Yet even here, as will be seen, Anti- Trinitarians were carefully excluded from the 'Consensus^ of Sandomir (1570). Thus was isolated the sect or community associated with the name of Faustus Socinus (1539— 1604), like his uncle, Lselius Socinus, a native of Siena and a religious refugee. In Transylvania a Unitarian Church arose about the same time, not, however, organically connected with the Polish Socinians.'


course the advocates of



their finger

upon these
Protestant tendencies of

and Bellarmine dissected


qucm Lutherani vacant Concordice in the / n ^\ i-ii itit same year (1580) m which he published the first volume of his chief controversial Kvork. The manifest disunion among the Protestants was the main negative cause of the progress of the Counter-Reformation in this period, and went far to

neutralise whatever

advantages the Protestant cause

micfht have derived from the accession of Maximilian
II. to

the imperial throne (1564).

During the reign


Ferdinand I. (1558-64), imne?Ferdf-"^ ^^^^o, Spaulsh though he was, strove to rule nund 1. -j^ unity, the ^l^g interests of peace and advance of Protestantism throughout the Empire admitted of no doubt. In Franconia, on the Rhine, and

and confirmed the concession of the cup which the Estates of Lower Austria had obtained in 1 555. Carniola. Ferdinand's government allowed this agreement to be interpreted with considerable . In 1 5 64 Pope Pius IV. together with nearly all the burghers of the towns. while the more advanced to be doctrines of the Bohemian Brethren continued I. In Bohemia. In Styria. earth would force many of his subjects to forego their demand till for the sacrament in both forms nor was (i it the election of Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau 590) that the reaction which led to an emigration was here In Austria no movement has ever so powerfully seized upon both the German and the Slav elements of the population as that of the Reformation and Ferdinand's home-rule was from the Peace of Augsburg onwards consistently tolerant. and in 1564 the Papal concession of the cup to the laity was here also proclaimed. and carried out. and those of Upper Austria in the following year. were Protestants. where. . told the fathers at Trent The Archbishop of Salzburg (1563) that no power on .136 The Counter-Reformation. where Utraquism was tending to merge into Lutheranism. after a futile religious discussion at W^orms (i5 57)> ^^i© Diet of Augsburg (1559) had declared its adhesion to the Religious Peace. In the Empire at large. . Ferdinand policy of likewise soon found a mere repression impossible. was as good as his word. widely cherished. the great majority of the nobility. Carinthia. in Westphalia the Reformation progressed and even the orthodox Duke Albert of Bavaria informed the his nobility Pope that a great part of would rather forego religious worship altogether than return to the Eoman rites (1570).

The Co un ter-Reforma tion at


Heigh t.


and the notorious " Ecclesiastical Eeservation " by whicli it was accompanied to be treated with scant

Protestant administrators enjoyed the revenues of Catholic sees, and a system of imperial " indulgences "

even made


occasionally possible for married prelates

and vote as spiritual estates at the diet. All this was hard to bear for Ferdinand I. for although he had long advocated a liberal religious policy at Trent, he was a true Catholic at heart. Thus he fell in with the plan of a gradual recovery of lost ground, and was persuaded to introduce the Jesuits into the Austrian duchies and Bohemia. But the Catholic reaction had not yet taken a firm footing in these countries, when here and in Hungary Maximilian 11. succeeded his father as ruler, the remainder of the hereditary dominions being assigned to the two younger brothers.
professing Protestant opinions to

Maxim ilianj^I._{25_^4~7 ^)
part towards the religious

played only a negative

as Emperor.


P^^^ "^^s About the year of the religious Peace of

movement of his age, but this by no meaus without importance.

Augsburg (l5 5

the rumours of an incli-

nation on his part towards Protestantism began to take
shape. The outward conduct of the young King, who was at this time much under the influence of John Sebastian Phauser, a married ecclesiastic, lent colour to the report, and he was denounced to his

by the Jesuit Canisius.

Although, notwithstandis

ing his grievances against Spain, he




have interfered with the strictly Catholic life of his Spanish wife, and although he did not withdraw from
the observance of the ordinary usages of the Church,



The Counter-Reformation.


he kept away from specifically Catliolic solemnitieSj and insisted on receiving the sacrament in both kinds while he engaged in the study of Protestant works and

Every effort was made by Ferdinand I. to turn his son back from the path on which he had obviously entered, though at the same time the Emperor remained deaf to the admonition of Pope Paul IV. (which he had every reason for rein correspondence with Protestants.

senting as well as mistrusting) that he should disinherit

Maximilian found himself in a position which only a heroic type of character would have borne itself with steadfastness. There is no proof that he ever changed his opinions, and some noteworthy evidence to the contrary but he henceforth outwardly conformed to the Church of Kome, heard orthodox preachers, and even permitted three nuncios in succession Hosius, Delfius, and Commendone to prove their zeal by attempts to complete his conversion. Inasmuch as, notwithstanding his declarations, both public and private, the Protestant Electors conhis eldest son.



tinued to look forward to his adoption of the Confession of



he should have ascended the

62 must be looked upon as the result of an unworthy double game. For Maximilian had now no intention of abandoning either the creed of Pome or the renewed
imperial throne, his election as
I 5

Poman king

intimate co-operation of the Austrian with the Spanish

branch of the House of Habsburg.
prevailed over
father's death

Dynastic ambition

other motives, and just before his

Maximilian was in

good odour

of orthodoxy for his claim to the imperial succession to

be recognised by the Pope in

full consistory.


The Counter-Reforma tion a t its Height,




to pass that

no such changes as had

been at one time anticipated resulted from the accession of Maximilian II. to the imperial throne. While the imperial authority grew weaker and weaker, unstrengthened by any effective foreign policy, which might have shared the glory of Lepanto, or have
achieved an earlier Lepanto by land, and while the
perverse doctrinal disputes


the Protestants con-

went its way. Maximilian's mind, impatient of nice theological distinctions, and offended by the quarrels of bigotry, seems
gradually to have settled

tinued, the Catholic propaganda steadily

very near the centre of
Tolerance, in the true

the balance, though


would be grossly unjust to charge

him with

religious indifference.

sense of the word, was the guiding principle of his


stood firm against the pressure put upon

him by Pope Pius V.

become a persecutor of



the other hand, he likewise refused the



his Austrian Estates for the expulsion of the Jesuits his business, he told them,


to expel, not the Jesuits,

but the Turks.

While, however, at the beginning of his reign he had remained in touch with the Protestant



without abandoning his principle

of tolerance, turned in the opposite direction.


marriage schemes, and perhaps speculations on the Polish crown, added their influence, and fears were
even entertained that the disappointment caused
lead to the outbreak of a religious conflict.


the Protestant Estates by the Emperor's bearing might

however proved premature.

In his hereditary dominions, Maximilian, while exacting securities of fair treatment for the CatholicSj

of the

The Counter-Reformation.

Estates of

tlie laity

to order tlie services

Church in accordance with the Confession of But cvcn in Lower Austria Protestantism Augsburg. "^^ refrained from establishing a Protestant dantin liiT" Consistory under his own headship, and inAuJtriSl^ dominions. gtructcd the Lutheran Chytra3us, who drew up the service-book both here and in Styria, to include in it as many passages as might be from the Roman ritual. In Austria above the Enns the Estates maintained a more complete religious independence. In Carniola the tide continued in favour of Protestantism for some years beyond the close of Maximilian's reign. In Bohemia, by declaring the Hussite Compactates out of force, he put an end to the established dualism of Catholics and Utraquists, and hastened the amalgamation of the latter with the Lutherans, while the Bohemian Brethren spread more than ever. In Hungary, too, in so far as Maximilian's authority was acknowledged there, Protestantism continued its course unchecked, and deemed itself distinctly countenanced by the King. Among the German temporal princes since the death (1568) of Duke Henry of BrunswickWolfenbiittel (Luther's hoser Heinz), none adhered to Catholicism but Dukes Albert V. (1557—79) and William V. (1579-97) of Bavaria, and, more fitfully, Duke William of Julich-Cleve-Berg (i 539-92). The former, though by no means fanatically disposed (he had obtained the concession of the Cup for The Catholic m\ n \ ^^ Heaction in his nobilitv), Opened the door to the Catholic
Bavaria, &c.


..,.,.. dominions m







sanctioned the

establishment of a very active Index Commission at

Munich under

the Jesuits Canisius and Peltan

( I 5

6 1 ),

The papa in suis tcrrisy ^ could not withhold from the greater part of his subjects the desired right of attending Protestant worship. or lay. Abbot Balthazar summoned the Jesuits to Fulda. and encouraged tlie 141 opening of a Jesuit College at Munich (15 59). but under the bigoted William V. together with clerical all the officials. whose six predecessors in succession had allowed the Reformation to spread unhindered among their subjects. Protestant preachers. l^hilibert. whose father. the entire faculty of arts in this university was committed to Duke of Cleves. albeit proverbially them in i^crpctuum. the regions in which (1569). In the University of lugolstadt the Jesuits were not established on a solid footing till 1576. but appealing. had fallen on the Huguenot side in the battle of Montcontour. to the territorial principle established by the Religious Peace. TVithin three years (1573-76) the Catholic . wliicli soon emptied^the higher Protestant schools. Naturally. of Bavaria. and of a nother at Landshut (1578). and expelled all the . however. -^^ Spiritual potentates. like Albert Y. But in the neighbouring Margravate of Baden Catholicism was restored (1570—71) under Margrave Philip.The Counter-Reforma tion at its Heigh t. who refused to accept the Tridentine decrees. In Wiirtemberg the ascendancy of the Lutheran clergy and the representatives of the towns in the dominant Committees of the Estates assured the stability of the Reformation. Encouraged by Pope Gregory XIII. "^^^ Counter-Reformation made the most intheSpiri^apid advauccs were the territories ruled ates ailrprYncipahties. One of the first ecclesiastical magnates to exert himself in that direction was the Abbot of Fulda (Balthazar Gravel).

although the intention to connect them with the university (founded 1567) was not carried out and more enduring foundation by Bishop Julius Echter (1587). The Protestant clergy were likewise driven out of part of the dominions of the Elector of Mainz (the so-called Eichsfeld). In the important Westphalian bishopric of Miinster. the members of the Society. bishop of Osnabrtick (1566). was completely Jesuitised under Cardinal-Bishop Otto Truchsess. the election of John of Hoya. had (1560) appointed his Icgatus a latere in Germany.). and in 5 entered the Electorate of Treves. after two bishops had resigned rather than submit to the Council of Trent. whom Pius IV. in 1564.142 The Counter-Reformation. The Bamberg and Worms were likewise active 1 in suppressing Protestant worship. all 70 the Thus in nearly the ' lands of the crozier' the further reac- . and Jesuits introduced in their stead. and not long afterwards the Fathers found till at the time of its second admission bishops of Jesuits into the free imperial city itself. who thence found their way into the diocese of Paderborn and the much-reduced diocese of Hildesheim (1576). when all the chairs of the philosophical faculty were filled by In 1564 Dillingen. but resumed Duke Ernest of Bavaria Into Wurzburg the Jesuits were introduced (1585). restoration in territories . liis was complete and a long and bitter conflict. newly-founded University of Augsburg. ended with his reinstatement and the complete victory of the reaction (1602). in the course of which he was expelled from his abbacy. led to the beginnings of a reaction which was arrested by protracted disputes as to his successor's rights after the election to the see of (1574 scqq.

Pro^essofthe ^ J^^ T—Tt n Catholic Kemiau and Hungarian as well as on . who had been brought up with him in Spain. I All these endeavours glaringly contravened the declaI. At the diet which met in 1575 to elect Maximilian's eldest son Eoman king. -. . which had been fostered by his early Spanish'training. diet he declared himself to be of no party but the conditions of the religious conflict were now complicated with foreign alliances and their interests. honour) was from first to last for peace. a palpable disunion between Lutherans and and the Emperor. till the Archduke's death (1595). For the Calvinists. Almost from the outset of his reign (1577) he resided continuously at Prague.^ the action in the Empire under imperial tlironc. T 1 -. keenly alive to the dangers threatening his authority from the increase of the territorial power of the princes by the secularisations. . that there was no desire on the part of the ration made by Ferdinand Catholic princes to force their creed upon their Protestant subjects. . had not occupied them Rudolf II. . long be lore it became apparent that beneath his silent and solitary ways lay concealed a deep religious bigotry. however. at the religious Peace of Augsburg. who succeeded on the Bohe(1576— 1612). tion of tlie 143 lax following reign was prepared under tlie rule of Maximilian II. • . 1 1 f> . there was. ^ -. while the government of Austria was left in the hands of his brother Ernest. and thus the germs of the Great War which swallowed up into it all the wars of Europe are already visible during the reign of an Emperor whose heart (be it said to his Pudolf II.The Counter-Reforma tion a t its Height. was able to resist the demands of the more In his last message to the active of the Protestants.

much mian nobles were not yet less to obey. . interest Unusual its ortlio- was excited at the diet. instituting a kind of Catholic throughout his duchy. have fain seen a Capuchin friar or a Jesuit father. of Bavaria. Styria Archduke Charles (1564-90). letter for a full generation (till The inflictions of Turkish invasion and occuthe brutal bigotry its pation did not save tions Hungary from late of Rudolf. The Boheaccustomed to receive. orthodoxy of whose religious opinions was doubtful In were dismissed from the service of the Court. the husband of Maria.144 ^-^^ Counter-Reformation. although they deferred till active operareign. whom his pious mother w^ould visitation . and admitting iuto it a Papal nuncio and active sympathisers from Bavaria but it was not till the actual accession to power (i 596) of his son Ferdinand. and the ordinance remained a dead 1602). that Rudolf's religious persecution seems to have begun. grew in the prela- tical regions of the Bavarian circle that the Protestants were subjected to a process of extrusion. a comparatively period of his conflict Meanwhile in the Empire at large the more and more acute nor was it only . in his latter years followed suit. own attempts at a Counter-Reformation in Bohemia opened in i 5 8 i with the royal ordinance exiling all the Bohemian Brethren from the realm. commands from their King. with the result of provoking serious resistance In 1578 all persons the at both Vienna and Linz. when the Protestant population of historic Aachen defied not only . sister of Duke Albert V. time no attempt was made to toucli the privilege of tlie Austrian nobility of determining for themselves the form of faith they would allow on tlieir own estates but a strict Catholic uniformity was enforced on the towns.

bishop of Ltlttich (Liege). After a contest of several years. utilise the situation for a Protestant combination. Elector and Resolved both to Archbishop of Cologne (i 577—83). as Ernest was supported by Spanish as well as Bavarian troops. H. As I the reign of Rudolf if a time as C. no graver scandal had ever been brought upon the Church than that arising out of the conduct of Gebhard II. K .The Counter-Reforma tion a t its Height. Ernest of Bavaria. while Henry of Navarre sought to stead. dox town council. chapter was so hopelessly divided. where he was dean. he issued an edict (January 1583) granting to his subjects freedom of religious worship. Here the retired to Strasburg. and which did not end till He now 1589. But the Lutheran princes refused struoforle to take part in the which ensued. archbishop in his Very widespread consequences might have followed. that on a vacancy in the bishopric in 1592 a schism took place. but the very Imperial 145 army of exeThe religious agitation extended cution (i 58 I— 82). it seemed for the Protestant interest would oppose a II. and communicated itself to two cities so different in the character of their religious history In the eyes of pious and Strasburg. w^hen Gebhard threw up the game. marry his mistress and to Protestantise his electorate. wore on. the Catholic and the Protestant party each choosing a bishop. and accomplished Soon afterwards (April) he the marriage (February). and his Protestant rival was compensated in money. and the Catholic majority as Cologne Catholics of the chapter elected his former coadjutor. was deposed by a Papal bull. the Catholic bishop (Cardinal of Lorraine) retained the see. (of Waldburg-Truchsess). alonof the Rhine.

great body of his passionately the guardians of his youthful son and successor. the Te Deiun at Santa Maria de' Tedeschi. the Catholic propaganda continued with unabating zeal. where Pope Sixtus V. . Christian II. In 1 591 died amidst a storm of religious excitehis ment provoked by mula in baptism. wherever in this period the Counter-Reformation was at work. Rome was during this period not rich in representatives of eminence in popular Ger- . . Saxony and the Palatinate. held sway IV. Christian I. through the exertions of Pistorius. was Christian I. himself a convert.. a mere daydream. On the other hand. . more united front to the advance of the Catholic Eeaction. The successor of Augustus of Saxony. and afterwards The joy was great at court-preacher to Rudolf 11. ^ . ( I 1586— Q I ).146 The Counter-Reformation. the the Huguenots. objected to the rigour of the Formula concordim.Calvinism suffered death. • Protestants. of Baden-Hochberg. Rome. as Jrhilippists. the Jesuits were in the van. llreil. went on foot to and from As a rule. proceeded by means of a visitation to uproot Calvinism and Crypto.. was either inclined to Continued r^ ? i r>n disunion of the ualvinism. and Krell While the two main divisions of Protestantism thus went farther asunder than ever. subjects abolition of the exorcistic for- to which the clung . or at least he and his Chancellor ^ - i -. in the electorate. ally and comrade in arms of But the union between where John Casimir. more especially at the courts and in the sphere of higher education. In 1590 the Church of Pome made her first convert among reigning Lutheran princes in the person of Margrave James III. (i 591 — 161 1). as regent during the earlier years of Frederick (1583— 1 610). .

whose chief works were produced about 570. who not only established a Collcgmm Ildvdiorganisation. The author of the league was the illustrious Archbishop of Milan. could hardly be reckoned the equal of the Protestant Fischart. and soon afterwards they reached Freiburg.The Co un ter-Reforma tion at man its Heigh t.. of which the Mtlhlhausen troubles ( I 587) . 147 polemicSj where the bare-footed Franciscan Nasus I (Nas). Uj^per Germany. logically followed in the same year by an alliance between these confederates and Spain. . Inasmuch as the Protestant cantons about the same time united view of the danger more closely together. together with Solothurn and Freiburg. which were subject to Swiss cantonal authority. One of the truest representatives of the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuit ^ • CW71 in his cathedral city for the reconversion actively for of "Switzerland. . and the Rhine) covered nearly the whole of the south and west of TheBorromean . n south-western and north-eastern frontiers. tics he consistently combined the persecution of herewith endeavours at Catholic reform. League in the Lmpu^e. but himself laboured the same purpose in the northern districts of his province.. In 1574 the religious autonomy possessed by the several Swiss cantons enabled the Jesuits to find a welcome at Lucerne. was likewise strona: on its ^ bwitzerland. But the most important Catholic achievement in Switzerland during this period was the conclusion in 1586 of the Golden or Borromean League between the ancient cantons. the Golden Leasfue might have brought about an enduring conflict in the confederation. which in three provinces (Austria. especially in threatenino* Geneva from Savov.

foretaste. were never accepted by the diet and in defiance of the labours of Archbishop Hosius. among whom AntiCatholic clergy. The decrees of the council itself. While Lutheranism had Bona 1558). Siofismund Auc^ustus latter years"^f (i 548—72). the doctrines of Zwingli and Calvin gained more ground among the nobles. full liberty of religious worship was granted to the nobility by another vote While in Poland the cry arose of the diet (1556). Sigismund Augustus proffered to the — Pope demands for concessions similar to those so long urged at Trent by the French and Imperial Governments. which in the organisation j — was hoped would result perhaps under the experienced it of a guidance of the reformer Laski (John a Lasco) national Polish Church. Before their arrival the Eeformation had on the whole steadily advanced. would have been a mere of the schemes of Philip had not the faihiro in France and elsewhere so gradually inclined the Catholic as well as the Protestant interest in Switzerland to lean upon France . Protes. notwithstanding the efforts to the contrary of the by the Queen-mother. II. spread in the towns chiefly inhabited by German settlers. little progress diiring his reign. . they made but . where the Jesuits were gradually intro- duced in the The Catholic ciiurchand tionin the last representative of the male Jao-ellon line. that the confederation was included in the Peace of Yervins (1598). assisted Sforza Trinitarian speculations also largely found admission.148 The Counter-Reformation. for a national synod. (d. In Poland. as has been seen. After the decrees of the ecclesiastical courts had been deprived of civil effect (1552).

allowed himself to be persuaded to profess the though he unhesitatingly confirmed and steadily maintained all the liberties of the Pro- Roman testant confessions. Reformed (Helvetian). after a visit of enquiry by Canisius (1558). then. elected his successor. by the confederation adopted by the ' ' Diet of 573). Henry of Navarre. and thence. in order to secure faith. that union between the Protestant Churches established which had alone seemed wanting for the victory of their cause trines . largely under the influence of the news of the massacre of St. the crown. Stephen. secured the principle of the religious equality of all the Christian confesI Warsaw (January King sions. into so unpromising a field that. spread over the country at large. Anna.' It was. Bartholomew. Like"^ who married the late King's sister. Lainez. and In 1 5 70 the Synod of Sandomir at last Lutheran. the Catholic interest having been at last thrown on his side. Henry of Anjou was. But with the aid of his consort . forced the before his coronation to swear to maintain the religious liberties of the land. but those holding Anti-Trinitarian doc' were excluded from the Consensus. at the request of Hosius. though not favoured by the King. and daring his brief sojourn After in Poland the prospects of Rome brightened. i 49 tantlsm continued to flourish in a great variety of forms. The Protestants having. Boliemian (Waldensian). On the death of Sigismund Augustus.The Co un ter-R e for ma tion at its Heigh t. after a complicated struggle. who estab- lished themselves at Braunsberg. his shameful escape to his new throne another struggle ended in the in France (i 574)j election of Stephen Bathory. But Henry's word was as water. sent a mission of Jesuit fathers.

the Protestants by their disunion missed a last opportu- At the election consequent The Reformaanested under Sigismuud III. had already in ^^ g^j. where Jesuit colleges were established at Dorpat and Piofa. Qf i^jg against the Union peign (1578) declared Purely political conof Sandomir. they are likewise said to have estabStephen Bathory was lished a dominant influence. and to arrest him in his victorious career against Muscovy. among a population of which the majority belonged to the Protestant or Greek Churches while at the University of Cracow. the Jesuits insinuated themselves into his favour. Their colleges and schools spread over the country.|y ^. pursued a consistent policy against Protestantism. siderations led to the election of Sigism und III. by the treaty of peace negotiated by Possevin (1582). conscientiously averse to religious persecution. but more especially under the influence of the Jesuit Posse vin he allowed the Church of Rome to gain a vantage-ground even in wholly Protestant Livonia. and the King himself set up the central seat of their teaching. which he opened . seek- . son of John of Sweden. to all confessions.g^j. which were to administer justice to clergy and laity alike. the University of Wilna. on Bathory 's death. he five years (1587—1632). who reigned over Poland for fortyGuided by the Jesuits.150 The Counter-Reformation.. in accordanco with the intolerant Spirit of the age. and during"' Ms reign (1576—86) the influence of their order was firmly established in Poland. Over the newly created elective judicial tribunals. they contrived to neutralise this liberality. He even allowed the same influence to affect his foreign policy. ^^^7 J ^^ Luthcraus.

but its partisans contented themselves with protesting.. The Protestants made more than one attempt by themselves (1595). The by force. in his later years ranged himself and his Polish kino-dom aofainst Sweden on the Catholic side in the great European struggle. in which would have lain their best defence. cerned. But what was specially characteristic of the reaction in Poland was its worst feature. 1605). mob was repeatedly incited to acts of violence against the Protestants. or in combination with the adherents of the Greek Church ( I 599). The enlightenment of the country even among Catholics. knew how to control her own destinies . was on the side of religious liberty. the Counter- Reformation had begun the extinction of a nation. to oppose to these proceedings a imity of their own. Thus a new generation upper classes were conSigismund III. and where possible the Catholic worship was restored in edifices which had been appropriated by Protestants. so far as the grew up. .The Co un ter-R eforma tion at its Hei ght. the pupils of the Jesuits. trained by the Jesuits. who had formerly lost his Swedish crown for the sake of his faith. such as the patriotic Zamoj^ski {d. plish 151 ing to obtain by corruption what he dared not accom- The Catholic clergy were encouraged to bring actions at law for the recovery of Church property. and prominent among the most infuri- ated of the fanatics who shared in these manifestations of bigotry and barbarism were the students of Cracow. Poland no longer largely.

humanly speaking. though Philip by no In England and Ireland. the most obvious . meaiis tliought to have staked everything upon the Grand Armada. ment no longer shrank from intervening effectively in France. About the beginning of the last decade ^ . was the failure of Philip II. of the century all these achievements had. become impossible. were quenched in death (1592). the chastisement of England. while with Spain it began to dispute her own ports as well as the waters of the Old World and the . yet with it the moment which The English Governseemed his had passed away. THE RELIGIOUS CONFLICT MERGED IN THE GREAT WAR. In the Netherlands the United Provinces assumed the offensive two years before the efforts of Parma. sehemef?of peau policv. scheme were the recovery of the Netherlands. "^ . and they had practically become an independent power more than half a century before they were acknowledged as such by Spain.C 152 ) CHAPTER V. iho Cardinal pomts of that ^ Philip II. diverted by Philip's policy and crippled by his jealousy.|^. As against England ^^^ ^^^ heretic Quceu.'s scheme of Euro. Of tlie causes contributing to arrest the great religious reaction of Failure of the the sixteenth century. and the subjection of France.

Essex's monstrous blunder only hastened his doom. and of the acquiescence founded * ' ^ ' head of the Jesuit organisation in England. . Still position between them and native the prospect of a settlement permitting a free exercise of the Catholic form of faith (i 599) passed away as rapidly as it had presented itself. postponed indefinitely any mitigation of the recusancy The exaction of the oath of allegiance denying laws. in it of the which. the Pope's deposing power (1606) not only extinguished all hopes of the conversion of James L. 153 Spain's reprisals in Ireland would have been feeble unspeakable infelicity of England's disaffection. necessarily impeded the propaganda. flashes but for the in the Great War. to intervene authoritatively against the acceptance of this test by the English Catholic clergy. It was an age of plots. but induced Pope Paul V. and the defeat of the hopes by many English Catholics upon his wild plot (1601) can hardly be reckoned among Rome's lost opportunities. Such conquests as Catholicism England during the next dozen years made were made Their clandestinely and in the teeth of public opinion. while the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot (1605). and the redoubtable Bellarmine (1607—12) on the other.The Conflict Merged New. The result was a controversy between King James and his apologists on the one side. like in all such controversies. like other interests. Hardly better founded were the sanguine expectations which the Catholic. persisted in concentrating upon the person of Queen Elizabeth's inevitable successor (1603). and upon plots the more active and unscrupulous spirits among the Euglish Roman Catholics had after all to fall back. They profited by neither 'Main' nor Bye (1603).

On France. by the turs jparti in France to abjure Protestantism. Pius and assume the sovereignty (November 1591). desire that the . at the very time James ' I. who had no crown should fall to Philip. pressure put upon Henry IV. tliougli they included intrinsic importance Queen Anne . who adhered unhesitatingly to the policy of Philip II. overthrew the Sixteen. (Sfondrato). '' . and unscrupulously expended the treasure reserved by Sixtus V. had it not been for the inability of the Cardinal of Bourbon to assume the office of Patriarch. the Papal chair was occupied (December 1590) by Gregory XIV. the death. and the of orthodox monarchy. was small. and of the League.154 ^^^^ Counter-Reformation. Maj^enne. He could not reconcile himself to the ' Vendome. Pope Urban VIL. was gratifying popular feeling when and his own balancing instincts by marrying his daughter to the Palatine. completed the unfolding of the situation. and began to base his calcuIn December lations on the recosfnition of Ilcnrv IV. twelve days after his election.' as he called Henry IV. whose ambassador protected such agents of Rome as Luisa de Carvajal (1613). but they helped to show the power of Spain. The interception of Pope Sixbegging him to relieve tus's letter to Philip 11. accession to the throne of France of ..' The at the In crucial part of the religious conflict in Europe beginning of the last decade of the sixteenth century lay in the affairs of France. for the extreme needs of the Church on the hire of auxiliaries for the cause This enthusiasm. might (1591) have led to the establishment of the French Church as a really independent branch of the Catholic.

Henry of Navarre. showed a sense of favours to come. he at first proceeded cauOn the 25th July 1593 Henry IV. and the tide of national and anti-Spanish feeling. 1594 followed his coronation. fully set in. though exiled by Henry IV. in the opinion of both the Sorbonne and. abjured Protestantism... Curiously enough. was at heart anxious to gain the good-will of the Pope . which might almost have seemed a defiance of Pome. Clement VIII. influence. he was a tyrant whom it was right to remove. situation still further. it was becoming more and more clear to him.. felt Henry IV. and some influential members of the order exerted themselves for the absolution of the King.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. as it formerly had to Sixtus V. When this was at last granted (17th Septem- ber 1595). 1592 Parma Meanwhile. Philip of Spain's hope of mastering France . Unabsolved by the Holy See. But though Clement VIII. who at the begin- ning of 1595 himself strong enough as a national sovereign to declare war against Spain. could not claim to be King of France opinion of Jean Chastel. the in the Jesuits.. 155 and tlie time became ripe for Henry reign of to take the step for which he had long been prepared. marked by the publication of the On the 27th February Satire McnipiJ^e. which strained the . whose design upon Henry's life was discovered in time. after the brief Innocent IX. The result was the banishment of the Jesuits from France (1594). that France must not be allowed to cut herself adrift from Pome. formally tiously. Though no friend of Spain. still hesitated. and the the Pope in his turn resented the constant pressure upon him of Spanish Jesuits. died. had begun his pontificate (i 592— 1605).


The Counter-Reformation.
finally extinguished,


and before





cluded peace (May 1598).
shortly before


Edict of Nantes, which
the rights of the


French Protestants on much the same basis as the earlier pacifications obtained and undone in the course of the religious wars, was at first received very wrathfully by Clement VIII., who even threatened to recall his absobut the latter took little account of these vapourings, being well aware of the interest
lution of the


which (quite apart from the more special question of its claims on Ferrara) the Papacy had in keeping France In the years which folstrong as against Spain. lowed, Henry lY. on the whole successfully preserved balance on which his tenure of the ^^1® System of Henry IV. His throue Seemed primarily to depend. chief councillors were chosen from both sides, a natural
preponderance being allowed to the Catholic majority. After a time (1603) he gave his consent to the readmission of the^J^uits into France, and even accepted a Jesuit father as his confessor; nor had the order

any corporate or collective responsibility for the crime Yet his real sentiments which put an end to his life. and sympathies remained Protestant to the last, and his foreign policy was only biding its time, and the time of France, who, however marvellous her powers
of recuperation,

could not be herself ag-ain at once.

Thus he gradually laid down the lines of that policy by which France ultimately succeeded in overthrowiug the predominant influence of the House of Habsburg and the House of Habsburg had by this in Europe time once more identified itself in both its branches with the cause of Pome.

The Conflict Merged in the Great War.


Undoubtedly the Catholic reaction had now more than ever to reckon with an adversary whom a geneI'ation since it had suited Lutheran as well aiiviiiism to

Qatholic Statesmanship to ignore.




a militant creed, had determined to bring to

an issue the struggle against the common foe, with whom the Lutherans were already again on speaking terms. The centre of these aspirations and schemes

was Heidelberg, whence communication was easy to Switzerland^ the Netherlands, and France. Here
Frederick IV., during the period of his independent



592— 16 10), remained

true to the policy

of his uncle and~ guardian,

John Casimir.


himself by no means (except in his potations) an extraordinary man, Frederick lY.
in with the de-

signs and intrigues of his advisers and agents,





of Anhalt, himself a

convert to

Calvinism, was the chief.

Between the half-mechanical

impetus of the Catholic reaction and the apathy of the Lutherans, they foresaw, and by their efforts helped
to make inevitable, the Great War. In this spirit Anhalt conceived and afterwards, though on a much reduced scale, carried into effect, the plan of the Protestant Union, To this revival of combatant energy in its most determined adversaries the Catholic movement no longer opposcd its former strength and inThe CounterSfakeTed


The very right arm of Rome, the



Order of Jesus itself, was lamed by internal Already Sixtus V. had cherdissensions. jghed projccts of reforming the order, and


not suppressing,

its political influence.



The Counter-Reformation.


Spain, the true home, as


was the original

source, of the order, that its disintegration began.






of the


Claudio Acquaviva (1581 — 1615) had excited much discontent among the Spanish Jesuits, who began to

think of emancipating themselves in some measure

from his control.

In return, the general, himself a


in his prime, superseded


of the fathers of

more advanced age in the Spanish colleges by younger men, and the consequence was a kind of revolt of the adherents of the ancien rdgime. This movement, led by Henriquez and Mariana, attracted the good-will of
never at heart a friend of the Jesuits. At Eome, however, the imperturbable Acquaviva obtained

from Gregory XIV. (1590-91) a decision against the contentions of the Spanish faction. But under Clement VIII. the Spanish malcontents succeeded in bringing about the summons of a General Congregation of the order as supreme over the general himself (1592); and notwithstanding Acquaviva's success in influencing
the results of the discussions of this congregation, he

was obliged to submit to an adverse Papal ruling. The effect of these changes was slighter than had been either hoped or feared, but the order inflicted a serious moral loss upon itself by the internal divisions which provoked Pope Clement's reforms of its s^'stem. They were followed (1599) by the same Pope's courteous contravention of one of the most cherished principles of the order by pressing the purple upon the great Jesuit controversialist Bellarmine, the first volume of whose magnum opus had been j)laced upon the Index by Sixtus V. because of its refusal to acknowledge the

The Conflict Merged
Pope's immediate

in the

Great War,





death of Clement VIII. (1605) P^t ^ term to the
attempt, largely inspired by Spain, to undermine the

unique position which the Jesuits had hitherto maintained, but the struggle

had been


and preju-

dicial to their credit in the Catholic world.

But there was yet another aspect under which the great order seemed, more especially in the judgment of Spaniards, to fall away from its former





I 5










{Ratio studioru7n) of his Society, and therein showed

an evident desire to relieve it from the duty of adhering to pure Thomist dogma, a great shock was given to the conservatism of the schools, and a quarrel prepared itself between Jesuit teaching and the traditions
of Spanish theology as especially cherished by the


This quarrel came to an outbreak


Jesuit Molina at Coimbra, in his Concordia gratice

liheri arhitrii (1588), pushed to an extreme the doctrine of free-will as formulated by the Council of Trent. Other Jesuits wrote about this time on the same subject, but Molina's deductions were the most ambitious The members of the order and the most complete. were by no means unanimous in his favour, but the

large majority, including the general, Acquaviva, took
his side.


a matter of course the Dominicans began



against Molinism,

which Bannez was

their leader

equally of course the Inquisition,


under Manrique, set up its claim to intervene, and a serious crisis seemed imminent in the history of the


as heterodox in Spain, the Jesuits


The Counter-Reformation.

gave so mucli offence in France by tlieir political tlieories, and the supposed consequences of these for the safety
of the sovereign and the welfare of the state, as to be

about this


(1594) expelled from the country.

Acquaviva accordingly contrived to have the settlement of the controversy removed to Rome itself, where it passed through several interesting and perilous phases, to be finally quashed by Paul V. ( 1 606). Half a century afterwards it was asserted on the one side, but solemnly denied on the other, that this Pope had drawn up a
bull in support of the pure Thomistic doctrine.

The political doctrines imputed to the Jesuits excited even more misgivings and mistrust than their specuon the central mystery of moral thcology. Laiucz had at Trent insisted on the theory, subsequently developed by him in several books, that while the Papacy derives its authority from direct divine institution, the power of princes emanates from, and is therefore in the last resort subject
Jesuit teachings on tyrannicide,



the sovereignty of the people.


right of the

spiritual authority to bridle the temporal,

deduced from this

which Lainez contrast between their sources, was

extended by Bellarmine to the case of heretic as well as orthodox princes. These principles were consistently elaborated in Mariana's book Be rcge et regis




after the

accession of

As to the rewas dedicated. lations between prince and people, the theory here adopted is the familiar fiction of a contract between them. As to the relations between prince and Church, he is bound to support her privileges, but the Church is not in return bound to bear with him, if, as a tyrant, he
Philip III., to


The Conflict Merged in the Great War.
ruins the



or brings religion into contempt.


he act thus, the people is entitled in the last

him as a public enemy, and individual members of the commonwealth may come to the rescue Thus Mariana approves of the assassiof the whole. nation of Henry III. of France by Jacques Clement,
resort to treat


he praises as resembling the heroes of antiquity.^ The substance of Mariana's theory was broached as
early as the fifteenth century,





Views not unlike to it were expressed by Calvin, and gained ground while its accordingly among the French Protestants practical consequences were approved by Pius V. in the case of Ridolfi's plot, and by Sixtus V. in the case Moreover, the theory has been of Henry III.'s murder. denounced by many Jesuit, as it has been held by many

condemned by the Council of Constance.


non-Jesuit, authorities.



question remains

open whether or not Mariana's teaching was in general accordance with the principles of his order, and Ibrmed a necessary development of the views of Lainez and Bellarmine. Acquaviva is asserted to have condemned it, but there is a good deal of reservation in his extant declaration nor in truth could he well have afforded to treat the subject as settled, or have done more than

insist (as

he did) upon the proper supervision of every On the other on the subject. doubtful




of the


of justifiable

tyrannicide indisputably interfered with the progress
^ Clement himself never doubted tlie intrinsic lawfulness of his deed, though he had scrupled about committing it as a priest; and Ravaillac took up much the same ground in stating his motives for taking vengeance on Henry IV.

C. //.




The Counter-Reformation.
wLere a Protesa Catholic suspected of Protestant leanings,

of tlie Catliolic reaction in countries
tant, or

on the throne. In France, Mariana's book was prohibited by tlie Parliament of Paris after Henry's

murder (1610), though the Queen Pegent suspended the decree. In England the enforcement of the oath
denying the Pope's right to authorise the deposition of kings led to a split among the Roman Catholic clergy, to which Paul Y. sought to put an end by a
606). After (in 16 10) Bellarmine had fully elaborated the conclusion that the Pope posdeclaratory brief
( 1

power of releasing the subjects of temporal princes from their allegiance and transferring it to some other quarter, King James I. himself descended into the arena. One thing at least was clearly demonstrated by the famous controversy which ensued, viz., Rome's real want of foothold in England, notwithstanding all the efforts of the advanced guard of the Papacy. It may be noticed in passing that Clement VIII. in
sesses the


declined to entertain a proposition for the cano-

nisation of Ignatius Loyola.

But the Papacy itself seemed no longer able to sustain the movement of the Counter-Reformation at Clement VIII. (l 592Decline of the i^s prcvious height. means unsuccessful in spii-it™t'Rome. I^^S) ^as by uo Clement MIL j^-g making peace p^^-aisewortliy attempts at between the kings' (Vervins, 1598); but he was content with adjusting v/here his predecessors would

have claimed to arbitrate. In matters religious, he sought to maintain the purity of the faith by the customary methods the Inquisition was by no means inactive at Rome during his reign, and immolated a

showed little disposition to carry on the religious movement aggressively. — — apparently interminable injustice.The Coxflict Merged few heretics. one of whom. Paul V. Revival under ^ chango secmcd once more to come over Paul v. when of Ferrara (1598) the great jubilee of 1600 lay behind him. a lower tone once more begins to characterise the whole system of government and life at Borne. and in the remotest regions of the Old in the East Indies. mighty a position the Church of Rome now occupied through the successful activity of the Catholic. China. ment YIII. Leo XL (Medici). 163 seems no longer posBut under Clesible to donbtj was Giordano Bruno. though he did what he could to maintain some of the reforms of Sixtus V. chair Yet when. He refused to have any part in the " attempt of Charles Emmannel of Savoy to " escalade Geneva. as The Vatican swarmed with ncpoti^ and nearly two-thirds of the Sacred Col- Well pleased with an acquisition long coveted by the Papacy that Clement in his later years. he saw the finger of God bidding him follow the examples of the most conscientious and the most zealous among Nor should it be forgotten how his predecessors. The new Pope seemed as it were transformed l)y his election. and Japan. in the it Great War. in which. Peter's (1605-2 i). having contributed nothing to the resnlt himself. and in vain exhorted the English Catholics. missions in the World. ^i^Q spirit of the Papacy. the citadel of Calvinism (1601). rendered desperate by lege were pensioners of foreign courts. At the very time — New . to refrain from such remedies as sedition and conspiracy after the brief pontificate of ( 1 604). (Borghese) was seated in St. and more especially of the Jesuit.

of Spain nor Paul V. time in her history exposed . increased his ambition to an extraordinary degree. . out shaping his foreign policy in subservience to either France or Spain.'s quarrel with re-cnactcd. Paul V. . replied state over criminous ecclesiastics. which had recently -~i Paul V. At home. together with a kind of mortmain statute. under the orders of the State. The clergy. and city. withfulfilment of their duties. to the Papal thunder. he set about the restoration of the authority of the Church where it seemed to have been impaired. consistently. Seigniory. and had asserted the jurisdiction of the Paul V. though without harshness. the idea arose of a reunion under the Papal supremacy of a whole series between the Indus and Euphrates with the Church of Rome and to this lofty dream neither Philip III. unless within twenty-seven days these laws were repealed of Eastern Churches . in Europe Catholicism was preparing for a final when struggle against the Protestant revolt. and the imprisoned Venice.164 The Couxter-Reformation. a law requiring the assent of the temporal authorities to the opening of new churches. not for the ecclesiastics first given up (April 1606). stood firm and the interdict descended upon Doge. exacted from both bishops and clergy a rigorous At the same time. high-handed proceedings by threatto these rather ening to place Venice under an interdict. himself remained strangers. continued to perform . and before the first year of his pontificate was ended he had become involved in a serious quarrel with the Republic of Venice. beginning with certain ecclesiastical These successes grievances in Spain and in Genoa.

The Conflict Merged their spiritual functions. he had no wish Pope should be secured to Spain beforehand moreover. public. Thus through the mediation of Cardinal Joyeuse a pacification was patched up between the Pope and Venice (1607). set in scene a futile blaze of indignation. who pressure was effectually applied refused submission to the civil authorities. Car- ments . under Sarpi's guidance. nor were the indirectly given to the Pope. of France to allow the conflict with issue. but the obnoxious laws were not repealed. for Spain to break out on this that the good-will of the . 165 and administer the sacra- where there was hesitation. after the efforts of their Bergamesque printing-press had been met by the great Venetian publicist and patriot Fra Paolo Sar23i. in which. were. were summarily expelled from the territories of the Republic. The weakness of the Papal authority even on the Italian side of the Alps had been unmistakably exposed. The imprisoned clerics were and a semblance of absolution was supposed to have been pronounced. headed of course by the Jesuits. more or less of and the Jesuits. Hereupon the literary champions of Rome. suit But it did not Henry IV. if . and rumour represented Rome as reduced to employing the assassin's dagger by way of counter-argument to the State theology of Venice. up Jesuits recalled for half a century to come. . in the to Great War. still What if the Reno longer a great power. Spain herself was too much impoverished to be willing to enter suddenly into war. altogether to throw ofT its allegiance to the Church and to become Protestant ? Such thoughts accorded oulv too well with the a great name. dinal Bellarmine himself took part.

of re-establishing the Papal supremacy in Europe. and preferred tentatively to resume his scheme of a union of the Italian states.. in which Pome ' and her Jesuit vanguard actually founded hopes upon the enterprise of the first false Demetrius in Eussia (1605—6). After the overthrow of the great plan of it seemed for a time as if the renewal of the religious conflict must inevitably take the shape of an assault upon the European ascendancy of the House of Philip II. and humoured the Jesuits in their theological controversy with the Dominicans. and eager aspirations of eager Protestants like the Hugue- not Daplessis-Mornay his friend Sir Henry Wootton. Paul V. sought to reintroduce Catholicism into Sweden. 1 66 The Counter-Reformation. the movement of the Catholic Eeaction still seemed in more remote reofions to even in Catholic ad- foUow a well-cstablished imjpdus. who declined to hasten a disruption of the Church in Italy. He maintained the Papal claims in theory. or he founded the fame of the Borghese family as the most splendid patrons of art at Rome. with the same thorn in his foot' (Malaspina). and instead Italy.ind und llussia. never ao'ain allowed his zeal to outrun his discretion. in which the same prince. the diplomatic agent of England at Venice nor probably was Fra Paolo's own attitude on the subBut it was again ject of a purely negative character. ^^ period \\\ wliicli the Catholic Church regained her ascendancy in Poland under Sigismund III. as it had in the Venetian imbroglio. though his reign lasted for nearly fourteen years longer. Henry IV... Enfeebled at its centre. . But these were merely operations on the outskirts. but the spirit of combat had passed out of him.. This was vancesin r<)l.

Francois de Sales. and to effect this. of which Charles Emmanuel of Savoy had in 1594 despoiled the Genevese. of Philip's adversarics. under a distinct order. His marriage with Maria de' Medici (1600) was followed by the recall of the Jesuits into France (1604). who were ultimately. modelled on that of the XJrsulines.The Coxflict HIerged in the Gee at War. he made concession upon concession to the Church of Rome. Huguenot associates and disappointing his most trusted counsellors. Great activity manifested itself in the religious orders of both sexes. of France. even ^^^^ at the risk of offending his old France. which had come into France from Italy. of thought. a mystic with whom fervour of feeling took the place of subtlety. identified with the many of which were reformed. pious Baroness de Chantal he founded the female order of the Visitantines (1610). Teresa. But Henry was determined before cathoiic revivaim abovo everything to rally the whole French nation round his throne. where it had flourished under the protection of Cardinal Borromeo. when charged with the task of re-Catholicising the district of Chablais. i6j Habsburg under tlie leadersliip of Heniy IV. after- wards canonised (1567— 1622). . the last. and perIn conjunction with the haps of depth. largely under the influence of the Spanish movement name of St. constituted prominent in these endeavours than that of Francois de Sales. No name was more Clement VIIL. and not the least successful. ^^^ ^o obstacle was placed by his government in the way of a religious movementwhich recalls some of the most attractive features of the earlier stages of the Counter-Refor- mation. some putting out fresh shoots. as did the Cistercians in the Feuillcmts. had displayed extraordinary energy.

strove to uphold the liberties of the Galilean Church. did her best to preserve the public peace principle of national unity represented fered very palpably but the by Henry sufThe great Huguenot lords began to claim extended securities.Reformat! ox. from the great Paris priory assigned to their use. afterwards. in 1627. and. a native of Gascony (1576— 1 660). . when his career was cut short by the knife of the Feuillant Pavaillac (May 14. led by Edmund Richer. while the Sorbonne. Henry IV. in 163 i). but continuing at the same time to carry on his designs for the extension of the influence of France both in Italv and amonir the German Protestants. by Pierre de Berulle. in which he accomplished so much. The double marriage treaty with Spain (161 2) implied a Catholic political alliance once more monarchical by his death. of the Sisters of Charity known as the Grey Sisters He had been introduced to the sphere of (1634). . the founder of the Priests of the Mission (confirmed by Louis XIII. now Regent of France.000 converts. His widow. known as the Lazarists. a kind of intermediary between France and Spain in the work of the great Theresian reform. and clerical ideas and interests were in unison. and in 1602 he had been appointed Bishop of Geneva in loartibus. and the Guises once more sought to lay hands upon the helm. whose Union (1608) was greatly in his favour. liaving being credited in a Papal bull with made 72. 1610). was thus pursuing a cautious religious policy at home. . No alliance was. Maria de' Medici. in conjunction with Louise de Gras. and by Urban VIII. home missionary work.1 68 The Counter. Of hardly less importance were the labours of Vincent de Paula.

the genius of France seemed to have Sully). Henry But IV. Rohan..The Conflict Merged in the Great War. 169 however. . that an imminently dangerous complication alliance with arose.g "been such it ir. Fuentes) in the Milanese. hard by their frontier. after the of the Alps seemed in question. . active at ^ Lucerne. that the Spanish and Imperial troops were again ejected from this important valley. over which the Protestant canton of the Grisons held sway. effected between the national section of the clergy and the Huguenots. Soubise. and Spain secured to herself by a brutal massacre the control of the Valtelline (1620) nor was it till many years later (1635). was in Germany and in the kingdoms ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg ^hat the relations between the confessions The Reaction under iiuduii as to make the open j^^j^l ]Q^-. who relied chieily on the heads of the great houses (Bouillon. in France had reacted upon Switzerland. when Richelieu had resumed the policy of . and a fepanish party n o • t formed itself in several of the Cantons. where Catholics and Protestants were far more evenly balrevivaiin auccd. the Catholic interest in Switzerland felt reassured. and were by them once more carried in the direction of that aristocratic decentralisation. about the time of his Venice (1603).. Henry IV. death of Henry IV. and the eastern passes But when. were answered by the construction of a Spanish fortress (F. abandoned. Tlio Catholic propaganda had been Switzerland.'s overtures to the Grisons. But it w^as in the Catholic district of the Valtelline. French policy changed. The course of religious afflxirs under Henry IV. which under Henry IV.

the Styrian alone Ernest's Ferdinand of styria. even the Styrian CounterIn Keformation only partially accomplished its work. of his archduchy into his own hands. He had sucand ceeded his father as a boy of twelve years of age to him. tlie conflict a mere question of time and opportunity. III. survivcd in nuuierous scions. except that it would be always dicOf the tated by his immediate personal interests. All Protestant worship was prohibited . accompanied by . of whom . As the reign of Rudolf II. the administration. and another died as a nun in alone. Archdukes Ernest and Albert. mother of Philip vSpain. after his brother Of Archduke Matthias death (1595) Eudolf's probable successsor. .. all Protestant all Protestant preachers banished schools were closed under pain of death while to the laity was left the choice between conversion and exile. side-lines of the House of Austria. but his brothers. nothing could be predicted as to his religious or general policy. . were successively connected with the Spanish Of his sisters. one was the government and policy. The peasantry came in swarms to be converted before soldiers but though the pressure were quartered upon them applied was assuredly severe. his Spanish bigotry continued to make itself felt as He was unmistakably as his political incompetence. harsh conditions as to the disposal of propert}^.170 outbreak of The Counter-Reformation. he at once began the experiment which at a later date and on a larger scale he put into practice in Bohemia. the head was Archduke Ferdinand. proceeded. owing to the childlessness or celibacy of the princes of the main line. unmarried. a strong and widespread inteWhen in 1596 he took rest began to attach itself. .

and Bohemian Brethren alike of a settled religious status. and their enforcement by the Archbishop of These feelings were intensified by the proPrague. and cognate influences prevailed upon him. including the suppression of the Carmel of the Bohemian Brethren at Jungbunzlau the . Outside the Austrian dominions the best ally of the Roman reaction had long been the incurable disunion . renewed found replying to a of the nobility and peasantry of Styria. ceedings of Rudolf's government in Hungary. and afterwards confirmed the code of laws in which the concession of free religious worship to both Lutherans and Calvinists had by him). Capuchin. in 1602. Calvinists.The Conflict Merged 1 in the Great War. bore its fruit when Stephen Bocskai. is and Caruiola Confession. by reviving and extending the operation of an ordinance promul- gated in I 5 8 1 . to deprive Lutherans. while the majority of the diet resented acceptance of the Trent decrees by a Catholic synod. was now added to a contemptuous This policy neglect of the national laws and usages. * 171 609 Ferdinand ' application Carintliia. Jesuit. Much persecution and hardship ensued. w^here. in the parts of the kingdom unoccupied by the Turks. Matthias. listened to been incorporated (1608). religious persecution to be able to conclude peace with the Turks. after invading the country (1604). for the free exercise of the Augsburg Rudolfs own attempts at a Counter. was by a numerous diet proclaimed In order ruler of Hungary and Transylvania (1605). as the representative of Rudolf (though anything but trusted Stephen Hleshazi and the other Magyar nobles (1606).Reformation in his favourite Bohemia began to take practical effect when.

an era of unrelenting intoler- whom Yet while beyond the frontiers of the Empire allies were on all sides proffering themselves to the Protestant cause. and under his successor. nexus of the Empire being regarded as out of question. and in other sees. (161 1—56). John George I. he stood successively in the relations of As the new century opened. This was the time of the of Bavaria Catholic. In the three spiritual electorates. first efforts of Duke ]\Iaximilian (1597— 165 i). such as Paderborn in especial (where Bishop Theodore of Flirstenberg in 1604 issued forth completely victorious from a desperate struggle with his nobility and burghers). (from Protestantism 1594 onwards) had been of the wrecked upon the Saxon the bScked^in th? Grovernment to co-operate with him.. rcaction seemed to be left without a check. still refused ance set in. and in the supreme court of appeal {Ecichskammergcriclit) all decisions of cases turning on the disputed points in the religious Peace of Augsburg were as a matter of Secession from the course against the Protestants. Saxony under Christian II. the sole expedient left was that of the union in impcrio which had so repeatedly been essayed in vain. the Protestants. among The endeavours refusal of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV.172 The Counter-Reformation. brother and son-in-law. the endeavours of the spiritual princes to bring their stray subjecl^s back into the fold became more and more alarming. afterwards called Max the and almost as important a factor in the great Catholic effort of his age to as Ferdinand II. no Protestant grievance had a chance of being listened to at the diet. . and Empire. whose counsels were inspired by the court preacher Hoe von Hoonegg. himself.

. regardless of the counsels of either friend or foe. 173 dally with Calvinism but in Brandenburg the latter form of Protestantism was in the ascendant under Joa. the Tlie Palatine policy of was uot till the critical year 1 600 that an event happened which was to lead The Emperor to the accomplishment of his design. When the Palatine policy.chim Frederick (1598—1608). where. and actually established (1614) under John Sigismund (1608—19).^ -n i i ^ • • % with the severity of his ordinances. was straining every nerve to bring about. while in Transylvania. and the Jesuits in particular.The Conflict Merged to in the . that it seemed time to deprive him of at least the reality of monarchical authority. embodied in Christian of Anhalt. with neither reason to steady nor religion to console him. asfent-in-chief of the Palatine policy. Arch- duke Matthias hereupon completely identified himself with the Hungarian demands. and federation of Henry IV. Gabriel Bathory had succeeded Bocskay (1608). Baden. especially in matters of religion. and the impotence of his rule exhibited so shameful a contrast ihus it ^. had now in their turn to undergo persecution. Brunswick. Hesse-Cassel. Meanwhile. the Catholics. after a brief interval. Rudolf's mania had now reached such a pitch. and Anhalt were likewise more or less favourable to a scheme of conWiirtemberg too was gained over. Great JVar. with the it was chiefly the quarrel Huguenot Duke of Bouillon which for a time foiled . the indefatigable efforts of Prince Christian of Anhalt. in . . Rudolf was sinking deeper and deeper and whatever power remained to him in any of his dominions would clearly soon slip away from his weakly grasp.

of Spain and Pope Paul v. As in Moravia. was one a of neither creed tremendous shock nor to the imperial authority. at last (June 1608) forced upon Rudolf. who. co-operation with the foreign enemies of the house. It was furnished by the proceedings at Donauworth. besides being now at the head of the national party in Hungary. retaining with the imperial crown Bohemia. but. This partial victory of Matthias principle. by means of whom Matthias had climbed into power. in so far as these two objects were inseparable from one another.1/4 The Counter-Reformation. too. whereby he resigned to Matthias Hungary. with the aid of Philip III. a pretext for action was sure to be found before long. and (for his lifetime) Moravia. Matthias was to succeed him. his efforts being seconded by Bishop Khlesl of Vienna. Early in the following year the issue decided itself between Rudolf and Matthias. ready to take the side on which most could be done for the glory of God. the overthrow of the Austrian Habsburgs and the ruin of the Church of Rome. with Jesuit aid. now attempted a thorough restoration of Catholicism in the city (1607). as a pupil of the Jesuits. had tampered with the loyalty of the Austrian Estates. Taken together with the loss suffered by the Protestant . who. had led to the city being first placed under the ban of the Empire. a bigot. where. and the Catholic Tyrol. Matthias found support.. and then left in the hands of Maximilian. instigated by the Duke of Bavaria and the Bishop of Augsburg. however. where a riot consequent upon attempts at a Counter-Reformation. Austria. an agreement was. and added enormously to but it gave the self-consciousness of the Protestant Estates.

Cathoiic nature of the Letter of Majesty at Prague the Catholic League had been founded at Munich. grew. but the victory was anything and two days before the sigbut assured Confession of Augsburg. thousfh desirous of remaininof on amicable terms with Spain and Rome. cause at Donauwortb. found himself obliixed still further to conciliate Protestant feelinor- in Austria. from Christian of Anhalt to Fra Paolo. the time had passed .churches or schools to certain of all the Estates. Meanwhile Matthias. to grant the famous Letter of Majesty (July 1 Hungary he was king in little more About the same time in Bohemia Rudolf the rio'ht 609). while restricting of buildino. opened a succession question likely at last to set Europe in flames. in his turn was constrained by the Protestant majority. even before the EstablishHabsburg compact was sealed. tliese proceedings could not 175 fail to impress upon Christian of Anlialt the necessity ^^r immediate action. . and although the Union was prepared to take every advantage of the difficulty. both inside and outside the diet. which. Yet. by reason of the local situation of the disputed territories. delayed to signify his adhesion. Thus. Anhalt's proposal to extend it to the hereditary dominions of the House of Austria was thought too daring. the ProtesPTOtesUn'r ^"^""tant Union was concluded at Ahausen (May Though the number of its members rapidly 1608). although the recent death of Duke John William of Juliers-Cleves-Berg had.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. while in than name. gave to inhabitants of Bohemia absolute freedom of choice between the Catholic faith and the There was joy at these successes among the opponents of Rome. and Henry IV.

III. hesitated. w^io took Rudolf's place on the imperial throne (1612). who imJuliers mediately entered into effective negotiations with Savoy. earlier A few months (February i6io) the high-handed occupation of by the Archduke Leopold had at last clinched the alliance between the Union and Henry IV.. which by of i6io included nearly all the more im- portant Catholic princes of the Empire. allowing Bethlen Gaboi' to seat himself firmly on the Transylvanian throne (1613— 15). and when early in May Henry announced that he found himself under the necessity of marching through the Spanish Netherlands in order to assist his ancient allies in the dis- puted Duchies. and James I.6 I "J The Couxter-Reformation. Matthias made no preparation. but Philip for a cordial co-operation such as the Guises had striven to bring about half a century before. and thus establish a firm anchorage for a4: Protestantism on the Bohemian frontier. home. of Even the Pope the summer Spain became Protector of the League. The Scandinavian powers were friendly. afterwards permitting the flat Yet soon violation of the Letter . he had virtually a confederation of Protestant Europe at his back. of England. however. His assassination once more postponed what had now seemed the inevitable outbreak of the great religious Juliers conflict. While the along. the United Provinces. became para- mount. the dispute dragged of its slow length to question the succession Matthias. between the Catholic powers. after ousting him (161 i) from the Bohemian. The choice of Ferdinand of Styria as the future head of the House of Austria implied a policy of combat against the Union as well as against Protestant claims For such a struggle.

and by the hesitation of its members. flict^o7thecin. of France. by half-heartedness. represented. when the time of its formal exj^iration drew near. notwithstanding many failures be avoided. for Matthias. which had substituted James I. was the son-in-law of James I. was no longer to And such. The collision between these two forces. though inadequately.impotent agaiust fessions. too. to diet at Prague and inducing the recognise Ferdinand as his successor. as was shown by the indecisiveness of its action in the Duchies. had been the caprices of fortune. the 3'oung Elector Frederick V.. to bind themselves for a longer period than three years. as with the United Provinces 1 (161 3—14). o i The Catholic i c^ prospects of I rauce and opam were at peace with one success. and utterly the forces which they. the Union had concluded treaties of alliance. The new head of the Palatine house. M . reverses. But its strength was apparent rather than real. of lyj' MajesW in Boliemia itself (1616). and by apprehensions which the event justified a hundredfold. the imperial election. and was about to substitute Ferdinand II. with whom (16 1 2). that the case of the Eeaction was now anythinfy but hopeless. (from 6 10). Matthias at this time (16 1 7) stood helpless against the association of the Imminence of ^^^^ Confcssions in the Empire. There only remained. T T c another. Like Henry III. when the time should come. at which the opposition of the Palatine policy would have to be overcome. and the religious policy or the — "^ • • t former State was rapidly reassimilating c. though postponed by policy. for Henry IV. itself to that H. of England.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. had been the persistent and indefatigable and activity of the Counter-Reformation movement such.

and the day w^as soon at hand when they would acknowledge as their head the most unflinchingly orthodox of tbeir number. of Spain had been by his Minister Lerma brought to perceive that the day had passed for aiming at a hegemony over Western and Central Catholic Europe. the decree wliicb in 617 ordered the restoration of the Church of the estates in Beam was world. . House of Habsburg. of the Edict of Kestitution. in his later years anxiously strove to avert anything that might impair its unity. the period of the comedias de santos and autos sacramentalcs of Lope. and their contemporaries. Ferdinand II. through which. directed to the courts rather than to the peoples. powers. which was no altogether of ineffective preparation for the resumption more direct efforts for the aggrandisement of the power of Spain and Eome. Philip III. for Abroad. the Inquisition maintained its and asserted it by such acts as the expuland at no time sion of the Moors from Spain (1609) has the influence of the Church over the minds of men been more visibly omnipotent in Spain than in the authority. early half of the seventeenth century. the Spanish some time carried on a propaganda Government had alternating between conversion and corruption. Among the German Habsburofs the miserable Bruderzwist was at an end. in the earlier years of his reisrn. 1 traditional to the Indeed. an anticipation in small Again.. the spiritual head Paul V. Moreover.. Calderon. intimately allied by marriage and in religious policy with Maximilian of . his arroofance had threatened to make a breach. although king and people still believed in the mission of Spain as the foremost of the Catholic At home.1/8 The Counter-Reformation.

Never had the labour expended. the influence of Spain had never been more in the ascendant with the English court and Government than now the Spanish marriage negotiations were uppermost in the mind of James I. France seemed lost as an alh". and was about to make war on its Protestant occupant. 179 head of the Catholic League. less direct. upon the compilation of vast and provocative bodies of theolo(?ical doctrine been more intense. but hardly less alarming to Protestant popular sentiment. and in 1 6 1 8 he sacrificed Ilalei2:h to the demands of Gondomar. who shared the English and Scottish thrones. the in the Great War. entered into the struggle disunited. except the youthful Elector Pala- / tine. Gustavus Adolphus. had become a secret convert to Eome.The Conflict Merged Bavaria. In Denmark the signs of a Catholic reaction were still few and scant. They were without ^ . Nor was the day distant when further efforts would be made towards the recovery of England for Home. In the meantime. Never had the religious controversies between the several Protestant parties and The Synod of Dort met in the sects been more bitter. Frederick V.West. Even in the North and East there was some reason for hopefulThe orthodox Sigismund of Poland had never ness. and whose sister Hedwig was about this time suggested as a consort for Ferdinand of Styria. very year in which the Great War broke out (16 18). abandoned his claims to the Swedish throne. and England hopeless. rity to the Pro- J- testant chances. and for the Their superiomost part dispirited. . The Protestants. on the other hand. and the chief potentate of the German South. a leader. especially among the Calvinists.. than those devised by Philip II. but the Danish Princess Anne.

George Edkoczy's : insurrection led to a fairly satisfactory settlement of the Protestant grievances and demands (1645—46). Bethlen Gp^bor (1613—29). tween that house and the Turk. There Were stages in the progress of Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) when that movement seemed on the eve of more notable advances than any which have been recorded in the course of The one enduring gain of the Counterthis sketch. hardly contain a second . i8o The Counter-Reformation. (1619—37). and that of movements analogous to it. No attempt can be made here to narrate the course of the struggle. trived to maintain itself in Hungary throughout the reign of Ferdinand II. Eeformation was the recovery by Rome of Bohemia. he naturally availed himself of the Protestant feeling in Hungary and in the hereditary dominions of the House of Austria his own temperament inclined towards tolerance rather Protestantism conthan confessional enthusiasm. ^ in Ins endeavours to hold the balance beTransylvania. tlie ThTny Years' War. This gain would have undoubtedly been far more extensive had it not been for the sasfacious vigilance and untiring energy of the Prince of Bctlilen Gabor. The history of the Counter-Reformation. where she had lost her supremacy for the better part of two centuries. In some quarters the democratic tendencies of advanced Protestantism were alarming conservative sympathies elsewhere its increasing narrowness was estranging cultivated minds. which opened thus far from unfavourGeneraipro- ^^1 ^^ the cause of the CathoHc Eeaction. and after the pressure of his and his adviser Cardinal Pazmany's Catholic zeal had been removed..

i8r passage resembling the record of the restoration of After the so-called BoheCatholicism in Bohemia. or reconsecration of clergy of the Protestant churches followed the expulsion. and by the spring of 1 62 1 his authority was restored throughout his dominions. Their joint action was characterised by that species of deliberation which is best calculated to ensure completeas the ally of the . 1620) and the flight of Frederick. On the closing. of the Calvinists. who had formerly. as secretary of the kingdom. The reliofious reaction bei^an at Prasfue so soon as King* Frederick and his caravan had turned their backs on in the city gates. Swedish deliverer (163 i) and its operations were by no means at an end with the Peace of Westphalia (165 I was a notable year of emigrations). had come to an end with the ttti ttmi counter-Refor. Silesia and Moravia.battle 01 the AVhite Hill at Prague (November 8. of Bohemian Brethren. and to the Archbishop of Prague.-r Upper Austria. and mian The Bohemian War t* ^ • -r-k -«. Ernest von Harrach while under them the chief management fell to Count Paul Michna. Bohemia ness. and finally of . The general direction of the proceedings was entrusted to the governor of Bohemia. we cannot here concern ourselves.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. It continued to rise even after (Feb- ruary 1622) a general pardon had been issued. Bohemia lay at Ferdinand's mercy. after the first great victory of Gustavus AdolphuSj the Elector John George invaded . It was still in progress when. destruction. Prince Charles of Liechtenstein. countersigned the Letter of Majesty. a pupil of the Jesuits. in succession. With his measures of political punishment and retaliation in Bohemia. of the the Bohemian (Utraquist).

1 82 The Counter-Reformation. Within about fifteen years Catholic uniformity was re-established in of the expelled ministers. Commissaries. and and in other towns of Bohemia and the dependant provinces. at times with their the German. had been outwardly consummated. Beformation remains without a parallel for it a denationalisation of the government and official . transfer of estates followed. the Jesuits assumed a complete command of higher and secondary education but in the villages ignorant Polish monks had often to be put in the vacant incumbencies.. Olmlitz. effected this with By Ferdinand's wish they accompanied by Jesuits. In Prague. troops of dragoons often at back. In 1627 a royal patent of reformation offered to the Protestant nobility the choice between conversion and banishment. and the majority preferred the latter alternative. when possible. yet the thoroughness of the Bohemian Counter. especially on German and Bohemian Bibles. that he explicitly desired the restoration of religious unity to be unstained by bloodinvolved ad- shed. as revolts. A vast Nor was it only among the nobles and in the towns that a steadfast spirit was displayed. Lutherans. v/ere. Jesuits and Dominicans took the places brutal rigour. upon all Bohemian books whatever. a raid was made on all heretical books. so that no opportunity might be lost of converting the inhabitants. — Bohemia but the forced emigrations of recusants. As a matter of course. or there was for a time a complete solitudo clericorum. Breslau. which had begun in 1622. continued after the victory . indeed. is shown by some noteworthy peasants' Though it should be remembered to the lionour of Ferdinand II. to make sure.

the Counter-Reformation beofan with an exresults.^ At the close of the first period of the Thirty Years' War (1624 c). if the aid of Spain and the League action seemed assured. When. * p t Austria. 611 mcisse of ' Auabaptists. In the dependant countries. . who strengthen the cause of Rome. propontio immunitatis. ministration. secondly. was formally bestowed upon Maximilian of Bavaria. dcniquc obstixatonim fjccdo. . The accession to the Papac}^. and peasants rebelhons which ensued the work thus begun was accomplished.' . and the propagaiida had to content itself with a more ATidinthe Jrrotestant invasions I'aiatmate. left had contributed to Though an old and broken man. In Lower Austria the procedure was much the same. the prospect opened of yet another German land being brought back to the fold by a similar series of operatine Electorate. to the extent of the complete extinction of Protestantism (1628).The Conflict HIerged in the Great War. prceposita prcemia. simi- measures had similar pulsion The Cdnnterliefurnuiriou ill In Upper Austria. of Gregory XV. deinde mince. the good imderstanding between Spain and France endured. as was believed. (1621—23). which he had established with and. Moravia and lar Silesia. of the educational system. gradual advauce.. forfeited tions. in 1623. the progress of the Catholic Re- Emperor maintained his ascendancy in Germany. though to the nobility more consideration was here shown. early in the course of the Great War. f» a i • j After the . the Pala- by the unfortunate Frederick v. the entire management ^ of his affairs to Cardinal Lodovisio and at The Xuncio Caraffa of nurnial process counter-reformation Vienna thus succinctly summariped the Primo diliyens instructio : seductorum . and to 1S3 some extent of the very literatare and language of the land. if the .

the new Pope followed in the footsteps of his 23redecessor but his policy was True. he pursued a rigidly orthodox policy. . So far as the advancement of his family (1623—44). was succeeded by Urban VIIT. in St. During the earlier years. as were any If Gregory of the Popes of the Counter-Eeformation.1 84 The Counter-Reformation. monument authority. of Denmark had been unwillingly left . and he symbolised its claims by a . and at least did nothing to hinder the victorious progress of Gustavus Adolphus and of the Protestant cause. But he hereby likewise expressed his defiance of the imperial and emphasised his determination to treat conflict.'s papacy. Gregory XV. and as alive to the importance of Catholic effort. encouraged the efforts of France to recover her influence in Italy. He accordingly viewed with undisguised displeasure the overwhelming coalition of Spain and Austria. Peter's to the Countess Matilda. and exhibited a devotion Pope Urban ^'^^^' Vatican since the days of Clement YIII. Christian IV. XV. at the very time of the triumph of the Emperor. he renewed the bull In ccend Domini. In 1627. to Spain unknovrn at the his other nepoti. as consistent an adversary of Protestantism. Urban was in principle peculiar to himself. he canonised Francis Borgia. of Urban VIII. the advance of the Catholic Peaction knew no break and the results of the so-called Successes of the Danish Uauish war (162 15—29) were such as to su^:gest an attempt to undo on a large scale the compromise of the religious Peace of Augsburg. had canonised Ignatius Loyola. (the Barbarini) was concerned. however. the Great War not as a religious but as turn- ing on the political relations between the powers.

by the Peace of Moneon France seemed less likely than ever (March 1626). in which Buckin o-ham's ambition had led to the futile intervention of England. The complete triumph in the Danish War of the armies of Emperor and League. and when the war against the Huguenots. ended with the fall of Rochelle (1627—28)For the moment it might even seem as if a complete Catholic restoration were possible in France. when the great plot was formed against Richelieu ( 1625—26). Thus he had to allow the Danish War to take its course. He granted was far removed from any such intention.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. in which his couj) de main had intervened. desire was to resume the contest with Spain. in tlie 185 by Ivichelien. moderate terms to the Huguenots in the Edict of Nimes His (1629). lurch both by Charles of England and the question of the Mantuan succession soon furnished him with the desired opportunity. and then derided for having offered them a conciliatory settlement (1625). who since 1624 stood at the head of affairs in France. The relations between Kino. though the French Government had taken serious note of the great increase of power which had accrued to the House of Habsburg from the results of the Bohemian and Palatinate wars. which were overrun- . whose hand grew firmer and firmer on the helm. to oppose the cause of Habsburg and Rome. As for Eichelieu. and made peace with England (1630). and for this I. and even to compromise the Valtelline question. Charles and his Parliament made it impossible for him to transmit more than a fraction of the promised subsidies. he was first hampered by the aggressive movements of the Huguenots. But Richelieu.

intoxicatcd the Catholic world with tZliTof'^'m' them. the be settled once for .Reformation. The moment naturally seemed propitious for redressing those long-standing and bitter grievances. in I'oland. . particular. it originated in the desire expressed at Mlihlhausen (1627) by the members of the League. or tions on behalf of the Catholic Reaction its exer- more varied. had armies in the field in the Low Countries. And rather more than two months before concluding peace with his vanquished adversaries at Liibeck (May 1629) he promulgated that Edict of Restitution which sought to carry back the religious history of the Empire more than seventy years. poor Queen the part of a kind of latter-day Anne being Mary Queen The air was full of other visionary schemes and although the arrogance of Wallenstein was defied by the walls of Stralsund. Restitution. of a new Grand Armada against Protestant England.1 86 The Counter. notion. took up the and Richelieu assigned of Scots. over the first substantial Protestant combination which had yet been And the hopes formed. it w^as declared to have been inspired by the craft of Richelieu. never had the power of the house of Habsburg been more imposing. and before Mantua and soon Pope Urban VIII. ning the whole of Lower Saxony. Afterwards. and by the spiritual electors in The Edict of Ferdinand II. . must have consented to crown him Roman Emperor on Italian soil. that all Catholic complaints as to violations of the all rcsevfatum ecdesiasticum should by a general imperial rescript. In truth. Even Pope Urban VIII. when the Edict of Restitution had proved to have been a fatal blunder. which both Olivarez pretended to favour.

spect for rewarding his faithful servants. expulsion of Protestant in- habitants from the territories of Catholic estates was . and the Papal nuncio. governments. bishopric. 's own mind was peculiarly of thousands of souls. such as his son Leopold William. the exercise in the Empire of any Confession by the side of tlie Roman except that of Augsburg was prothe hibited .Thr Conflict Merged in the Great War. for whom were destined the great North German sees of Bremen. and it was some time before the Emperor himself was gained over But it opened too seductive a proto the scheme. open to such ideas. that had not been in Protestant hands before 1552. and the confiscation of smaller conventual estates by ProtesThe Elector tant. Implicitly. of Saxony at once showed signs of alarm. but also to the salvation of hundreds In many Catholic eyes the whole of Germany was a mere question recovery of the of time. of the reservatum ecdesiasticum for the period i 5 1 7— 1552 was left a dangerously open question. Lammermann. Minden. . liable to being forcibly brought back into the lloman commmunion while the retrospective validity . looked forward not only to the restoration of wealth to the Church. or ecclesiastical foundation whatever immediate to the Empire. Thus the Edict of Bestitution promulgated by him (March 1629) was so radical in its provisions as to render every archbishopric. especially Calvinist. however. was the religious side Magdeburg. and for endowing the cadets of his house. Verden. 187 occupation by Protestant administrators of bishoprics and abbeys held immediately of the Empire. and Ferdinand II. Halberstadt. explicitly. and the Emperor's conof the question lost sight of fessor. and Neither. Caraffa.

and religious and educational likewise. This latter proceeding. and nearly 150 churches and convents. princes. after fire and sword had overthrown this Chancery of God. a large proportion of the fell recoveries to the older and less .' five bishoprics. but the Jesuits were and would probably in the end have been the . in the feudal network ot the Franconian circle. ' From the nature of the case. active orders. and elsewhere. to a very considerable extent. especially spiritual.Reformation. were still under the control of the Liguistic or imperial forces. thougLi at the time approved. In the imperial cities of Elsass. the edict was carried out with relentless and it was enforced in those parts of the rigour Empire which. Material infrom opposing the Emperor in arms.1 88 The Counter. The execution of the near edict spread terror far and among the Protestant Estates. in the diocese of Augsburg. the Benedictines and the Cistercians vigilant. like the Lower Saxon circle. were threatened by its incidence. . -^^^^ taken part in the Danish war and those like which. Saxony. had loyally abstained terests. Hesse-Cassel. Bremen and Magdeburg. and the neighbouring districts. while passive and at times active resistance was opposed to it in Wiirtemberg. both those which Results of its execution. with about 200 parsonao-es in villaofes and towns hitherto Protestant. two immediate abbeys. By the autumn of 163 I there had been recovered for the Church of Rome two archbishoprics. had been persistently resorted to by Catholic. and a great increase of these numbers was in near prospect. of the religious Peace of Augsburg the attempt had been expressly made to guard against it.

a chapter closed in the history or France 1 T • 1 1 • /» -n and of French Pj'otestantism. or that of Bavaria for a postponement of execution for fortv vears. The latter ceased to be an imrpcrixim in imperio^ and Richelieu began to feel his hands free for a national policy of opposition to the . but it was prepared in no small measure by the fears and jealousies excited by the edict itself. great indignation was excited among the members of the League by the application of so of the many of the gains to the purposes Habsburg dynasty. On the otlier bancl. As it was. the revolt of Saxon V and the Estates followius: her lead might conceivably even now have been averted. vention i r» * i • Adolphus. action of the imperial differences. 163 i). About half the operations taken in hand under its provisions had been actually carried out before the close of the The collapse of the victorious reaction year 163 1. the Edict of Restitution become a dead letter. and by the unscrupulous general. been OTanted. after the fruits of the alliance between Saxony and Gustavus Adolphus had been swiftly secured by his great victory at Breitenfeld (September 17. Had this demand. accepted France and -r» Gustavus the agreement known as the Feace of Alais. but they encouraged John George of Saxony to manoeuvre against it. When its leader. These which led to the dismissal of Wallenstein (June 1630). Wallenstein. and at the Frankfort Con- (autumn 163 1) to demand its revocation.The Conflict Merged cliief in the Great War. The year notable for the issue of the Edict of Restitution is also marked by the last Huguenot rising in France. marked bv the edict was due to the sword of Gustavus Adolphus. Rohan. 189 gamers. did not interfere with the operation of the edict.

. But this was not to be. effected secret understandings with Savoy and Bavaria.1 90 The Counter-Reformation. Kichelicu preceived ^ ' . tempted into an alliance with the foes of the Emperor. of Habsburg. m the new condition of thino's the real opnor° ^^ . and had Wallenstein. which. helped to secure to France the decisive voice in the affairs of Europe and France neither would nor could assent to any pacific settlement. and by entering npon the all deliberate execution of his great political plan. it might have proved j)ossible to detach Bohemia and its dependencies under a national king from the Habsburg rule. to the subject of this sketch. But neither the deeds nor the plans of Gustavus Adolphus belong hands. by restor. Wallenstein's assassination (February 1634). . and concluded an agreement with Gustavus Adolphus. /' tunity of i ranee . Gustavus Adolphus. been actually lic Reaction in the Empire. though it removed a serious obstacle to the complete reunion of the interests of the two branches of the House of Habsburg. of which he of course intended to keep the development in his own During the wonderful years 163 i and 1632 the European problem seemed at last to have found its master in the great Swedish king. . opposition to the Habsburg he intervened with a high hand in the question of the Mantuan succession (1630-31). 1632). and they might have recovered their religious liberties in due sequence. Skilfully availing himself of Italian feeling and of Pope Urban VIII/s growing policy. ID. intermention after the death of French After his death (Novcmbcr . cut off prospect of a revival nnder any conditions of the Catho- The Convention of Heilbronn (1633) kept alive the Protestant alliance. aggrieved and ambitious. and in the first House instance to Spain.

^^^ forefront of the . but supported by F. as . unwillingly followed by Sweden. however. headed by the Elector The Peace Prague. in substance. was strongly opposed by Urban VIII. Thus. though the great victory of Nordlingen (September 1634) made the Emperor it master of the whole of the south-west. made either of the Bohemian or of a pos- sible restoration of Protestant rights in the hereditary dominions of the House of Austria of this treaty. were not extended to the Calvinists. l^g^^ ^^^ ^j. and the Jesuit influence at Vienna. This compromise with the Lutheran interest. the Protestant princes of the northern part of the Empire. and the benefits of the religious peace concluded eighty years before. soon concludcd with the Em- peror the Peace of Prague left it (May 1635). to the only led of Treaty of Paris. No mention liberties was. the greater part of bishoprics — and the Northern therefore. — the immediate territories obtained by them before 1627 tlio in other words. Quiroga and other leading Capuchins. should have crowned the Habsburg policy with success. of ^^ Saxouy. which threw into the arms France the German members of the League of Heilbronn (November).The Conflict Merged in the Great War. and all This treaty included in in the hands of the Protestants princes all their mediate acquisitions. jj^ the religious Sa'^rSous struggie! ' character of the struggle was nearly altogp^i^gj. During the weary and awful years which remained of Thewar loses the Great War (1635-48). 191 ing to the Catholic reaction the advantages formerly gained by it. the which Edict of Restitution had so unwisely offended. On the other hand. undid Edict of Restitution.

and to save what he could save of the remnants of the imperial authority. was accounted a victory for Spain but he was a pontiff' of slight personal significance. the more fiery adherents of selves of setting the Spain bethought themof a General cumbrous machinery Council to work against the Pope. (Pamrope innoceiitx. w^as quarrelling with Cardinal Borgia. the integrity of his ^ . Innocent X. ^ •. being readier to temper zeal with discretion. dynastic inheritance. He succeeded better in the attempt than his father might have done. . who represented Spanish interests at the Vatican and . While Eichelieu was unfolding his designs for the overthrow of the Habsburg ascendancy. The task of Ferdinand III. and though blameless in his life. Urban YIII. But the miofhty impulse which he had oiven to the policy of France must have survived. t . . ever. .2). The contest had not yet been fought out to its final issue when Richelieu died (December 164.192 figlit The Counter-Reformation. his eyes Gradually. and his support proved of very secondary value . The clcction of his successor. and the attitude of the head of the Church contributed to the confusion of accustomed conceptions. to the House of Habsburg in the last phases of the struggle. (1637—58) was simply to preserve as far as possible Ferdinand III. stood on opposite sides the two great Catholic powers France and Spain. how- for counterbalancing the were opened to the futility of his devices power of the House of Habsburg without damaging the Catholic cause and before long he once more paid subsidies to the Emperor. standing less under ecclesiastical control. g|^^ 1644—55). even had his dvinof recommendation of Mazarin as his .

right counter -reformation the Bohemian Protestants suffered anew 1 65 1 and Neither. 1652. but never resumed after him. successor failed to be respected by Lewis XIII.. and for the other parts of the Empire. which foreign invasion and occupation had sucked dry of their very life's blood. concluded peace in January 1648. the successes of the Swedes. of Spanish birth Philip IV. continued their from of time to time in to assert . . of course. 193 Thus. aud the Vaudois in 1655. the policy of France pursued its consistent course. On the other hand. which was peculiarly active among the princely houses of the Empire and in other quarters in the latter half of the seventeenth century. and the stir created on the eastern frontier by Prince George Rakoczy of Transylvania.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. which followed in the autumn of the same year. it put an end to the long-sustained endeavour. though after the young king's death (Ma}^ 1643) the regency of France was in the hands of a princess (Anne of Austria). as well as for Bavaria. nor allay the spirit of religious animosity between the Confessions. the United Provinces.. Spain had been likewise unfortunate in her struggle against France. who sought by doubtful manoeuvres to hasten its conclusion. to re-establish the dominion of the C. The Peace of Westphalia. encouraged by the great victories of Conde and Turenne. did it arrest the propaganda of private conversion. Peace had become an absolute necessity for the House of Austria. Church of Rome over the whole of Western N H. renewed under Ferdinand II. did not put an end to the Reiicrious persecutions whereby the Catholic powers pSof'^*"^^ webtphaha. with whose ally. begun under Philip II.

Protestantism had Bavaria retained obtained a measure of concession. o i . Pichelieu's services to Protestantism were limited to the changes wrought in the religious con- . Empire was concerned. the the Upper Palatinate as the reward of her efforts. More Empire not dubious was the advantaofe accruins^ from the locus standi for intervention in the affairs of the granted to France and Sweden. the balance of the Confessions but the Protestants. the date now fixed as regulating the tenure of ecclesiastical lands. tria which had more or less fallen away from the faith were now secured to Rome. Bohemia and those tt I'rotestunt hereditary territories of the House of Ausgaiiis. — except in the House of Austria —secured to all three forms of faith alike. the progress of Catholicism was very definitely arrested at the point which it had reached on January I. effected no violent alteration in . So far as the and Central Europe. however. be settled by arrangeand the securities thus obtained derived additional strength from the recognition of the right of the princes of the Empire to form alliances questions were henceforth ment. At the diet religious to. had gained the full acknowledgment of the right of every the toleration of private worship being hereditary dominions of the territorial sove- reign to determine the established religion of his lands. as has been seen. but Lower was restored to the Protestant Palatine line. 1624. territorial The other changes in the Empire. Calvinists as well as Lutherans. . . as territorial sovereigns with other powers.194 I^HE Counter-Reformation. . gary. including the cessions made for the "satisfaction " of the Swedish and French crowns. In HunCatholic and . or not at all .

another form was denied by himself. Europe. dition of the Empire. to the actually existing balance of . vanishing for ever. as in Italy and the Cathoover Spain. that just. was lishing an abnormal as proprietary ascendancy. and the day of Spain's greatness in Europe. the great insurrection of i 64 1 had served as a pretext to victorious Puritanism for estab- and unnatural religious as well It is said that in France itself Pichelieu at different times hoped to restore religious unity to the nation by conference. and in the struggle which ensued the Jesuits allowed themselves to be played off by him against the Sorbonne. Catholicism had maintained but the intimate alliance between the its position two branches of the House of Habsburg was drawing to a close. even by corruption . 195 His policy had indirectly contributed to the success of the English Eevolution.The Conflict Merged in the Great War. lic cantons of Switzerland. In unhappy Ireland. they on the whole corresponded in as in other respects. The End of Treaties of Westphalia furnished a durable the guarantee of religious peace in becausc. which had made the Counter-Reformation possible. These difficulties descended to his successor. notwithstanding the victories of France In Spain itself. but he constantly combated the pretensions of the clergy to independence as towards the state. but on such designs at least Pome and the Holy Office could place a sufficient That he hereupon aimed at a schism in one or veto. and Mazarin's alliance with the Protectorate (1655) was in full accordance w^ith the system continued by him. nKidonVi.fa^^^" reii^*iI!iTre-'^ much in them was uuuatural and much that was unnotwithstanding this. coiiqucst. . by concessions.

the endeavour of the Counter-Eeformation Europe was by common consent allowed to have come to an end nor was it within the power of any pope. test against the peace remained unheeded. . and this not merely because canon law makes it impossible for the authority of the Pope to dissolve a public treaty between Catholics and non-Catholics. other words. Yet in a less specific or king to revive this attempt. emperor. but also because the religious conditions of the peace agreed with the In necessities of the case as generally recognised. movement ever wholly come to an end so long as the Church of Pome retains the character formed for her by the course of her history as well as by the p)rinciples of her existence. sense the Counter-Reformation maintained its continuity in much of the enthusiasm and energy perceptible in the religious life of Western and Central to dictate a revision of the religious of .195 opinioTis The Counter-Reformation. The Papal proand sentiments in Europe. map Nor can the Europe during subsequent generations.

his . 171 Letter of Majesty signed in. Sforza. the Acquaviva alleged religious conflict at. demands urged on. Alva. under Ferdiin. Bayonne. lnquisi^or-Gelle9. Bocskai. Anabaptisni. . 44 the counter-refor- failiu-e ral. uEgidius of Viterbo. 133. in. the. Borromeo. Queen of Poland. Queen of Scotland 154. made his controversy with cardinal. a common terra for Protestant heterodoxy. See Pakma. 163. Francis Duke of. : Andrese. Albert of Prussl. the. 69 seq. 140. Austria. diets at. 158. Hronsset (Jesuit). 122. . de. 10 scq.INDEX Aachen. Jesuits in. Borgia. repressive meathe sures of Rudolf II in. Bohemian Bretliren. St. 121. 125. Alais. Jacob. 179. 9 the attempt of.suit). Bishop 142 . Borromean or Golden League. 15 . 131. Cardinal.. Bucer. advance of in. Gabriel. (Jesuit general). 142. Breitenfeld. of. Anjou. of Denmark. 29. Cardinal of.reformation. 41. Cardinal Otto Truchsess. Alexander. (Pope). Bethlen Gabor. 173. Stephen. de. the.. Alliert V. the counter-reformaII. 82. the. 121. 44. Prince of Transylvania. tLe earlier career of. Brussels capitulates to Parma. Bossuet. 112. 188. Bamberg. lost to Protestantism. 120. . in. sigiiiticance of his election to tlie Papacy. Aiiiboise. II. 44. Barnabites. no. Armada. 76. 33. M. archbishopric of. . Bavaria. the Great. and dealli. 168. 8 his relations with Charles v. the Conspiracy of. Cardinal. 44.. A'lriaii VI. Baden. Borgia.. Alien. 167. 194. of Bavaria. Bologna. ib. the agreement cil Anne Anne of Austria. 136. restoration of the Church estates Peace of. Bannez (Dominican). 115. the Formula Concdvdice of. See HOHENEMS. B&thory. 121. and Etiglaud.. Coun- removed to. 189. 178. 17s the counter-reformation in. concludes peace with Paul IV. the religious policy of Maximilian II. 136. 144. Albert. in the Netherlands. mation in. the battle of. 18 seq. 148. 107. 31. James I. under Ferdinand de. 161. the 68. 'Anabaptists' expelled from Upper Austria. Cardinal. 73. Protestantism prevails in. 189. 134. the fall of. Berulle. 135. Belgic provinces. 130. 7 . Beam. 153. Giordano. 184. 136. Peace Bourbon. 136. 183. 125. Conference of. 180. Alnmhrados.). 184 the. 112. . 114. 112. Francis. 140 . Duke of. the Con- Bobadilla (Je. of. Bellarniine. Bohemia. 50. by tlie . 41. of Saxony. 154 Bre<ia. Keligious the. in. Catholicism restored 159. 144. 130. I. Altenips. nand II. Bassi. 171. 158. Juau teacliing. 133. 33. Bruno. . Interim. in. Queen of France. 147. 119. liis Cfindemnatiou of Mariaua's Rudolf tion in. vention of. iu. the measures of Augustus Bremen. Augsburg. 186. Archd\ike. 162. 80. in. 70. 144 . 147. 142. Cardinal. 121. 144. 170. 48.. Jesuits in. dies. Bona Antwerp. 106 his Colleyium Helveticiim atMiliui. 44. 193. Admonet vos (liull). peace negotiations at. a convert to Rome. Sacred College. 192. 26. 183. Aviha.. 13. . P. Bislio)) of Meaux. Jesuits Protestantism 45. of.. 140. 176. Araoz (Jesuit). Martin. 136. 164. Arabella Stuart. from Trent. the. 141. at a coiniter.

Diet. . and Adrian VI. Prince Conde. the counter-reformation 174. 18. . iiiFulda.. Duplessis-Mornay. 184. 97. 142. fteq. the Jesuit College at. Emperor. Caraffa. Cliristian I.198 Buckingham. El zaiieth of England. Doininicans. Henry T. 23. 185. Capuchins. the Synod of.'s new cardi16. at. attempts to Protestantise his electorate. 107. . to the laity. in in Bohemia. Caraffa. seq. Protestant intolerance in. Cardinal. 31. 183 vote. the. 129. 185. the policy of. Dnlce of. with the Inquisition. sion. further hopes of. of Saxony.. and projects of reformation. . Prince of. and the Inquisition. Baroness de. 16 seq. . 15. 167. Charles Emmaiuiel I. 122. Alliance of. 45. the militant policy of. religious. of Denmark. Carmelites. Demetrius.seq. the soul of the reform commission. the insurrection of. S2 of the Index. hopes of the conversion of. lis. < Hiytrseus.82.. 83. Donauworth. 97. Clement VIII. of. Cup. religions questions at. 47. 62. Catharine de' Meilici. Crespy. Delfius. the results of the. 58. Peace congress at. the concession of the. Concilium de emendandd ecclesid. iii. Cardnial. 26 seq. 19 nals.. Cai vajal. 146.. seq. 26. 24 the relations of. 104. Cardinal. England. 141 . Dejddos. Coimbra. Cruz. . the great. seq. 72. Burlainacclii. SJ Danish Charles I. Campion. 163. 164. 66. plots against. 44 at the Conference of Worms. ih. Councils. 142. at Trent. Churches. ih. ib. 166. of Saxony. in tlie spiritual elecKichsfekl. the University of. 196. in Bavaria. 50. 157 agent of the Palatinate policy of aggresCliastel. 181 Poland. 127. . 124. 91. 22. 146. grants absolution to Henry of. Contarini. 45. the first of Paul III. the Peace of. Queen of Sweden. Cliristian II. 179. Commendone. 10 seq. 186. tlie English College at. of Sweden. 82. Codure (Jesuit). Juan de la. 63. Edmund (Jesuit). of the Empire. Charles. the death of. 155. 72 dies. 187. 60. 185. his Catechisms. Doctrivoe Christiance. . Catholic efforts m. Arclibisliop of. in Germany. demands a General Council. Cardnials. tire false. mider Rudolf II. . in wliat sense ended by the Peace of Westplialia. Archduke of Styria. warns Clement VII. 25.. of the fifteenth century. . the. IV. 136. of Denmark. Christian III. Ernest of Bavaria. (de Vio). 55 controversy of. of Aidialt. 136. Archliishop Gebhard IT. progress of. Caraffa.Juan di. 12. -war. 13. the. 14. Francesco (Papal Legate). Carniola. Colleijium < 'ollegium Eastern union of. Pope. 126.suit influence in the Universi'y of.. Cond^. 122 seq. Carlo. Douay. Louis I. 173. . at. . (Papal Nuncio). Cracow. 134. . Carranza. reaction in. his Simima in Poland. seq. 138. 31. Council of Blood. in Austria. Charles V. Canisius (Jesuit). the i^roposed re- under Papal supremacy. 145. Je. . 196. 40. . 76 the 'Marian tlie Catholic jiropagaiida in. attempts to escalade Geneva. Philip. Cond^. in Atistria. 113. 138. 127. Pope. of the Holy Office. Di)rpat.. Chantal. Eichsfeld. 153 . Congregation. the Catholic satisfaction at. Crypto-Calviiiism in Saxony. 119. Crescentio. in the 140: in Baden. . . Francesco. with the Jesuits.. under James I. with Saxony anil Brandenburg. Counter-reformation. 155. 130 Desmond. 50. 91. . 142 torates and principalities. excommunicated.. 156. .. Queen of France. 33. Gennanicum. 123. Charles IX. Clement VII. . of Savoy. Archbishop of Toledo. 179. at Ratisbon. Bishop of Zante.. 150 . the. 149. Dii). 194. 149 seq. 166. of the Council of Trent. Calvinism. the chief Christian I. Cajetano Calvin. 14 Diliingen. J. Conferences. Campeggi. Romanum. adheres to the scheme of a General Council. . conflicts of. Confessio Tctrapolitana. the Reformed. ij2seq. Caiiialilolites. dogmatic labours of. the College of. Cardinal. Chieregati. 167. Carintliia. Louis II. of England. the. 124. reformed. the Jesuit College Admiral. Cardinal. after the Peace of Westplialia. 137. 183 in the Palatinate. Cologne. 113. iig. 48 seq. 172. ih. receives the Cardinal of Lorraine at Innsbruck. Chambord. 77.. the. the. Confessio Augnsttma. Cardinal. the.1 . Catharine. 8 loses his great opportunity of reformation. . the Earl of. Cervino. the. 106. 159. 162. 40. 2^seq. Jean. and the Index. . 142. 150. Denmark. 2. Gian Fierro. Prince of. 59. 121. 76. Coligiiy. 57 . 143 seqr. 131. 31. . in the Netherlands. ih. 146. . 9. the Discalced. David. and Paul IV. of. 140. tlie religious policy Dort. 78. Cardinal. her trimming policy. 157. attempted by Adrian VI. . 42. See Paul IV. 104. after tlie Danish war. 73. Index. 102. 129 Christian IV. 144. Carlo (Nuncio). 179.

under Maria de' Medici. 93. Ferdinand of. Gonzaga. tempts to introduce. in. 185 . 116.. Pope. Gandauuis. of Denmark. 114. assassinated. his Hedwig. ib. of France. 102. tbe relations of. 167 siq. 28. the. i)owers conferred on by Paul IV.. 186. Protes- tantism maintains itself in. 157. 127. Pope. urges the of a General Council in a German town.. bis bargain with Pi)is IV. 72. 82. the. of France and Navarre. 22. Flagellants. the battle of. no. early Jesuit mission to. Cardinal. 189. 71. under Riclie. 112 seq.. Faenza. 179. 167 seq. . 56 '<eq. 171. 178. D. 22. 84. Ireland. 92 the advance of Proassenil)!iiig . 148. . in Italy. Grey Sisters. 144. ib. willi tiie Popes in the period preceding the Reformation. 180. ceterna Dei (b)dl). Guise. I. 149. la. 144. . Erasmus. 12. Grisons. Flacius. Bisliop of Minister. 8r. Guise.. of. the. the Gfrmun victories of. Gras. itJ. repressive measures of Rudolf in. 176. 153. the. liijunclum nobis (bull).ouis XIII. the. Convention of. See Cologne... Adolplius. Philip II. N. Henry IV. 147.. Archbisliop of Cologne. Ingolstadt. Cardinal. Elector of the religious conflict in. Index. the. 35. III. Jesui<ts at. 114 negotiates with Sixtns V.. in Poland. 130. 154. Duke of. 126. the disunion in. Pope. Hildesheim. 153. In ccena Dominis (bull). and Spanish attempts upon. Ferrara added to the Papal dominions. Jiiimen. 192. assassinated. Gregory XV. Hungary. 145. . the Spanish origin of. 44. . : Formula Concordice. 190. Fregoso. appeals for a settlement to Pius IV. under Henry II. Emperor. ib. lieu. 133 seq. Stephen. . . P. Cardinal. the Pacification of. 135. 48 Manrique.. 170.. Cardinal. 195. 171. 184. 127. J. 81 Ins Libellns de reformatione at Trent. Gemblours. 165 . 141 . . Huguenots.. Gardie. l)y Papal authority. liis idea of reformation.. counter- Illeshazi. 55 earliest examples of the comjiilation of. Ernest. 6 ami Adrian VI. Fontus de II. 184. Arcliliislioji Guerrero. Gregory XIII. Henry. seq. 168. 107. 69. Jesuits at. 141. 169. Elector Palatine. Louise de. Innocent JX. 163. chosen as future head of the House of Austria. in France. Henriquez (Jesuit). the advance of Protestantism 140. the governDieut and policy of. the. 40. of. 88 dies. Convention of. Fiiida. Duke of. Hohenems.. Gustavus Gustavus I. Eurl of. the instability of. 153. 108 stq. 167.. 147. Francois de S:des. 84. 47 . 102. Giustiniani. assassinated. Mattliias. Cmint. 172 . 49. in. Ghent. 132. II. Cardinal. 81 under Francis II. lands.. Guise. oi the Protestants the attempts at union among the Protestants in. jures Protestantism. 170. in Spain. Innocent X. ib. last insurrection of the.. Frederick V.. 114. <iranvelle.. 121. 158. . 155. his religious his schemes l>olicy on the throne. 172. ab. under I. 190. Guise.. 126. Legate at Trent. 24. adheres to Spain anil the licague. the. 177. at. in. 19. 115. Gaetano Gebhard of Thiene. 82 tlie religious wars of. 168. Gunpowder Plot. 91. Ferdinand 11. of Denmark. Ferdinand Einpt-ror. 139. 39. 52. 142. Abbot Balthazar. . in France. 44. reformation Funcke. Elector Palatine. of France. 154. his relations with Kictidlieu. Heilbronn. 172. 114. 81. 154. Cardinal. undertakes the {u'Otection of. 183. 141. 132. France.. Frederick II. . the religious condition of. Gregorian Ciilendar. 120. its authority in Spain under Philip III. 50 seq. 156 against the House of Habsburg. Hosius. and Naples. 168 seq. France. F. Peace of. Frederick III. 173.. Frankfort-oii-Main. . Archdiilce. 26. Hoe von Hoenegg. throughout the Thirty Years' War. Fleix. Johann. schemes and hopes. tlie Catholic revival ni France under.. ib. 79. 178. St. . ib. 193. maintains . Index. of Sweden. 91.. under Ximenez. 115.. into thel Netiier179. 199 Gregory XIV. 133. 176. insurrections in. in Spain. II. Fischart.. the. his counter- reformation in Styria.. log. Ghiberti.. the clo. III. 83 . Heidelberg Catechism. 128. ib Valdez. Assembly of Notables at. 155. Gondomar. . testantism under. 113 a claimant to the French throne.. ib. Francis.. Eric XIV. Vasa... 142 Essex. 54 seq. 154. 168. Cardinal. Emperor. Granada. the character Henry Henry II. Adrian. Feuillants. 138. 179. revolution in. effects of. 133. . 127. Geneva and Savoy. Frederick IV. Fontainebleau. the. Pojie. 105 . . the 189. Ernest of Bavaria. 163. Protestant ascendancy established ni. Princess. 86. crushes Protestantism otit of Sjiain. 44. 130. Inquisition. Habsburq family compact. Germany. Pope. tlie House of.

the. . Leo XI. the Cardinal of. 171. 173. her policy as regent. founded. the mission of. Maximilian I. Fpiritual movements in. 48. Queen of France. THE James a con- ecclesiastical arch-pluralist.-^tq. 172. 40 seq. De rege et regis of England. 71. Leopold. between Charles V. iu Germany. 109 . 123. IV. 20O IXDEX. the meeting at. 156. of France. . 178. his helplessness. 120. cluriiig the earlier part of the sixteenth century. Archduke. Liechtenstein. 181. St. 3. Magdeburg. 79. 153. into France. . moral and intellectual effects of the Le Jay (Jesuit). John Sigismund of Brandenburg. M irjatia (Jesuit). Lepanto. their confirmed by Paul . 18. his institutione. influx of members of.. 132. Lope de Vega. at the time of the death of its founder. Emperor. 45.. of Vienna. 175 seq. 176.. la. 163 recalled into France. 184. 170 intrigues against Rudolf II. 167.. the. . 46 the condition of. . 31 seq. 160. the rigidity . witli Bellarmine. 131 . the Jesuits at. in tlie Bohemian counter-reformation. Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg. Duke of. canonised. Company lated. 146. KhleSL. . &c. John. Switzerland. 190. 188. ih. Loyola. at Rome. 43 iu Germany. in Spain. 102. (Papal Legate). IjOuIs XIII. 117. Lul)eck. 6. in the Netherlands. Jews. controof. . couuterreformatiou on.). 173. . of Austria. in. 54. Bishop Krell. 177. ii6 stq. Lodovisio. indigenous to Spain. Lazarist-!. 125. 59. into remote parts. 132. banished from France. 159. effects of . 95. the spiritual territoPolaud. 146.«eg. 91. at Innsbruck. ih. Mary I. Cnancellor. Lutlieranism. 185. Laudshut. the Catliolic reaction iu. his death. Lucca. the Molinist controversy in. with the Protestant Union. 187. William. gained over by Pius . John Casimir. 93. 43. 116. 51. tue question of the. 31 seq. . Cardinal. of Baden-Hochberg. 174. Matthias. Leo X. 93. a fugitive in England. 148. the greater part of his doniiuions. and jiolicy . Maria de' Medici. 128.. Count Palatine. 46. of Sweden. 162. Prince Charles of.. in France. See Pakma. the Catholic. the. the Jesuit College Ijasco. 56. 146. Lorraine. ib. 108. 52. in France. the. 137 restrained from renouncing Catliolicisin. 176. members of. 34 . Pope. the Inquisition at.. vert to Catholicism. Lateral! Council. and Paul III. Madre 104. II. Louvain. Jarnac. 43. 175. Juliers succession. 140. Catholic expectations of. League. 32. 42 seq. 37 . Count. January Edict. Maestricht. the. 90. 33.. 177. 39 seq. . Leasue. its earliest arrival at Rome. John III. 37.. the sack of. 67. . Justification. 83. in Portugal. 86. 187.. at the Council of 158. 155 internal dissensions mitted tliither. 31. 172. 187. 36. James versy I. 138. 120. 141 . his Spiritual Exercises. the proposal to canonise. 107 his inclination towards Protestantism. 182 and the Edict of Restitution. colleges of. Licet ab initio (bull). Maurice of Saxony. 123 seq. plots against. 128. the religious reac- Trent. 127 his Rid Book. Malaspina (Papal Legate). 176. Lainez (Jesuit general). succeeds Loyola as general. 117. 93. 173. 103.. at Trent. Earl of (Esme Stuart). Lipiiomano. 81 . the tolerant character of. . of Bavaria. 66. . attempts a counterreformation. 168. iu England (1580). 130. Leon. 33. John a. . 61. ib. de Dios. Lucerne. Ignatius. 50. seq. . Cardinal. missionary propaganda of. . Declarations. Bavaria. 97. Luxemburg. 114. 73. 149. i8. 150. Peace of. iu England.and. iMantuan succession. 169. 193. Los Angeles. 41 seq. 92. and the Council of Trent. 131. in Po. 35. 175 OF. Letter of Majesty. of. 112. A. fully established at Rome. Cardinal. 176. Luis de. Emperor. at. acquires . the battle of. 74. Le Fevre (Jesuit). 183.. 147 read153 . John George I. 157 . Mary. 52. 166.. . visits Charles V. iu Sweden. Count. tne fifth. seq. teachings on tyrannicide in. iu Italy. 125. iu Germany. Juan of. Luna. Lainuiermauu (confessor of Ferdinand II. 178. Jungliunzlau. its Constiso-called tutions. ib. Pope. activity of. decree on. the Holy. III. . 99. ib. and the religious movement. 76 seq. 42. points in its system. 162. succeeds as Emperor. persecuted by Paul IV. battle of. 44. vio- COMPANY Jesus. 167. . 165. urges reforms at Trent. an III. 174. in Flanders. Luther and the Papacy. of Saxony. Maximilian II. 33. Italy. of England. Joyeuse. 129. . 121.. its distant missions. 188. members. granted. ib. Manrique (Inquisitor-General). allied Lennox. 160 seq. the or Order of. Jjeriua. 5. Pope. Marcellus Margaret. ries. missions of. See Jesus. Livonia. as Archduke. its early progress in Italy. Queen of S^ots. 36 tlie cardinal Secret InstUutions. 141. 186. Jerome Gratiau de Madruccio. 115 influence of. 168 . the Index of the University of. . 72. tion under. 33. Jesuits. 139 seq. i6. 160 seq. Don.

. Margaret of. the religious revival. in assembling the Council. Puteo. heterodox movements in.. Count. 142. 148 seq. 77 dies. . Bishop Theodore of Fiir- Possevin (Jesuit). 91. of the Century before the . Paul officii cura (bull). Paiierliorn. 53. 54. 123. Cardinal. Pope. at Viterbo. to Vicenza and to Trent. Rome into re- mote the Theatines. 191 . Raleigh. 180. 64. battle of. fail. and Maximilian II. 72. the Calvinist era in.lesuit). Nilrnberg. Ci)unt Paul. 59. 76. Osiander. 156. 80. in 13. 49. 29. 22. 112. 194. 20.. stenberg Cardinal. Peter Martyr (Vermi^li). Colloquy of... parts. intervenes in the Bishops of. Navagero. 24 the progress of. Pius v. Parma. Oratory. 147. . 133. 119 . 186. 35. 180. followed at Vicenza and elsewhere. . his quarrel with Venice. the seq. 29 aeq. Johann (Catholic divine). Nantes. repulseil. seq. 91 seq. with Charles V. Treaty of (1634). 181. Philip. 59. the counter-reformation of. in Germany and tlie neighbouring countries. the so-called Council of. Philip of Baden-Hochberg. the Congregatiou of . Peter of Alcantara. 130. in Poland. 138. 27. George. proposed for the Papacy. 75. the. 59. Philip IV. creates new cardinals. 186. ins policy at Trent. 173. the prosnects of. in England. lit). Munich. 52. 173 seq. the religious policy of. largely due to religious causes. Paul IV. no. 49 seq. 142. 155. 178. 148 restoration of Catholic ascendancy in. 107 Poissy.. . i65 . 3. 114. 53. Ill . attempts at a union of. Index.. Poland. 108. Edict Nordlingen. 53. Pope. the. ib. 102. expelled from Moravia. . 125 seq. Piirma. 159. Cur<iinal. Meiuloza. bestowed upon Max of Bavaria. the. attempts at a dogmatic miionof. 42. Parsons. St. Roln-rt Pastoralis (. 137. and the Inquisition. Postel (Jesuit). Archbishop Ernest von Harrach Padua and '. 179. 21. Naumburg.. Pighino. 191. Joliu of Hoya and Ernest of Bavaria. in. 141. 40. loi his relations with the Inquisition. Mivyeniie. 178.. 12. tlie Missions of Church of 114. under. 84. 179 seq. the. Michna. Meianclithon. Miinster. Peace of. . 133. i8r. Protestantism penetrates into Italy. 152. . 151 . 92. 82. retained by Bavaria. of Spain. religious revival Molina (Jesuit). 83. 178. 146. Northern Rebellion. French religious conflict. seq. . 140 . Pazm^ny. Jesuit college at. 19 the earlier experiences of. England. the Reformation in.tulines. supports the ecclesiastical ix)licy of Adrian VI.. the revolt of the. 88 . 176. the Counter-reformation in. of Spain.. 68 III. the rupture of. 35 summons a General Council to Mantua. 141. Sir Walter. Bernardino. failure of his anti-Spanish policy. 33 contirms the Order of Jesus. 47 crushed out of Spain by the Inquisition. Nimes. 22. 121. Philip III. Morone. the. 115. of. . Edict of. Diet of (1523). 20 a founder of . motives of. 26 seq. 164 P. Minims. 79. I. Orders. Prince of Transylva193. 28. Sebastian. Cardinal (Papal Legate). 183. 193. Monsieur. 4. St. Mon9on. Moors. Rak(5czy. in the emi)ire under . at Trent. Pistorius. Pisa. Paris. confers new powers on the Inquisition. of Divine Love at Rome. Pole. Pius IV. Pope. P^usquier-Brout^t (Jes 39. 122. disunion in. ib. the character and government of. . Peace of. 183 the Upper. many. 59 . Postynam verus die (bull). 19 the precedent of. Reformation.. from the latter part of the fifteenth century onward. his procedure at Trent. the. . Cardinal. motives of the policy of. ib. 121 dies. the. ih. significance of the election to the Papacy of. at Padua. Lucas. at Rome. of. (Pope). Siiain. 162. 30. Cardinal. Paul v. 156. 17. dies. 163. before the deatli of Henry IV. with Sixtus v. and out of Italy. the Parliament of. Convention of. his religious jiolicy. Miililhausen. 176 the religious and political ideas of. 183. 30. Nasus (Franciscan). 79.. Prague. 53 seq the variations of. 104. 70. 201 Dnko of. Mocenipo. of. the progress of. appoints a commission on Churcli reform. 74 his hatred of Spain and the Emperor. 163. 147. disunion between the chief divisions of. tht. 132 the aggressive policy of. Alexander of. 134 advance of. 51 . Netherlands.. in Ger- Ferdinand . 124. 78 . new monastic. 0CHIN"0. 132. 26. 119. QuiROOA Ilia. 172. 86. Popes. 181 . 70. 66. 42. final adjustment of the struggle in the. . 80. Pence of. 118 . . 78. of S|)ain. dies. 133 seq'. 21. . of France. 191. before the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War. Legate at Trent. 128. 43. 44 . 154.. Palatinate. Count. 191. Phauser. 185. Alberti (Legate). (Capuchin). Pope. Ohvarez. 63. Pliilip of Neri. the battle of. the. Pacheco. ure of his schemes. Doge.. Philip II.

St. League of. dead letter. Simonetta. ih. 42. the. Spanish theatre. under Pnilip II. . Tasso. Francisco de. 67. religious reaction in. 86. Bartholomew. the. . Rheims. Sigismund . 99. Protestantism in. Quintin. 169 seq. 174. E. Kati3V)on.. battle of. the. 125. 29. the new presiding legates at. her Interior Castle. the . Habsburg. Transylvania. 116. Salzburg. after the Thirty Years' War. resumed. 72. of Sweden and Poland. ib. 186. . outbreak of. to. the Edict of. Segur. II. Peace of. 109 the religious and foreign policy of.. Ravaillac. decree on. Stephen Bathory .. i58. Sebastian of Portugal. 135 schism in the chapter at. loi . 84. Somasciues. 19 the counter-reformation at. Dominico de. 170. 68. 88 seq. 123.. Sigismund 148. 171. ih. . 30 seq. 143 the Catholic reaction under. . Cardinal. 108 responsibility of the. the. Sulmeron (Jesuit). Theatines. seq. . 185. 135. 137. 86. ih. . 136 . Nicolas. composition of. the spiritual influence of. 165. under Philip II. 3 . Augustus of Poland. 189 seq. St. 192 his ser. seq. 19. the. . seq. before and in the Coiiciliar period. of. in the fifteenth century. Eome. 84. and the Jesuits. . 136 tlie religious visitation of. 103. IDS. Cardinal. Eughsh College transferred 123. Cardinal. Ratis'iion. 63. Protestant Paul . . the. in. 168. Sadoleti. early efforts of. Restitution. 178. 102. . Rudolf tlie training and character of. under Archduke Charles. 33. Strasburg. attempts at. fully restores Catholicism in Po129 land. . circumstances of the assembling of. 116. 149 seq. III. Thirty Years' War. and the Jesuits. the legates presiding over. Riga. Toulouse. Francois. . the fall of. summoned afresh. St. 42. 73. 178. 51. 186 seq. religious conference at (1541). 60. 59. Sanchez. undone by the Peace of Prague. 103. Servetus. Trent. . 6. Interim. the French " libel" presented at. .. Catholic revival 123. Catholic and Protestant prosjiects of success in. Silvanus executed. 172. ib. Richer. its significance in the history of the Church of. in its concluding period. Smalcaldic War. 64 . under Archbishop Wolf Dietricli von Raitenau. the mouthpiece of Venice in her quarrel with Paul Y... Renee of Ferrara. Switzerland. Sixtus v. Sorbonne. 170 173 deprived of most of his dominions by Matthias. 115. tlie. Micliael. 126. 90 . by keeping out of an alliance with Philip II. counter -reformation attempted 126 seq.. 179. 150. 134. 189 . 84 question as to the legates' ini85 tiative at. comjmsition of. (of Poland). Pope. the idea of a. ih. Rochelle. 15 . abandoned. tlie Enghsh College at. . Reformation in the Church of Eome. 103. decrees passed at. 61 . III. massacre of. .. R(jmorantin. seq. . Socinianism. in religion. vices to Protestantism. 91. 54. See Pro- testantism. 128. treatment of Protestant grievances by.i'ichshuinmer(jericht. 76. Prince of. dispersed. . the Raid of. reassenililed by Pius IV. question as to the continuity of. the. 104 seq. 191. Stralsund. the. the Council of. Massacre of. Seripando. 25. 112. the rise of. St. 25.. Oardiiial. proposed. 194 seq. the second series of the sessions of. the Protestant. . . the. i66. again suspended. II. tlie intellectual condition of. 1S3. results becomes a of its execution. Germain. Torquato. 135. the brothers and sisters the mania and impotence of. 83 . Smerwick. hrst summoned by . reopens at Trent. 202 L\DEX. 169. advance of Protestantism in. 60 . Richelieu. Reservatum ecclesiusticum. 103. 33. at Trent. ambassa<lors at. 106. work accomplished in the first eight sessions of. 132. dies. the. the. conflicts between the Imperial and Papal parties at. ib. 177. the general progress of. Sweden. 133. ib. removed to Bologna. Archduke Ferdi- nand's counter-reformation in. Sarpi (Fra Paolo). i . tlie general desire for. 113. 191 seq. 83. 195. Roilriguez (Jesuit). Eilmond. 16. Ridolfi ]ilot. 189. 66. 186 sfq. pr»*serves France from Spain. the Unitarians of. 82. the cautious foreign unfolds his policy against policy of. 146. the Edict Teresa. Reformation. the sack of. and of the Renascence. Spanish mysticism. 144. 103 under Philip III. tlie earlier career of. .. at the head of affairs in France. becomes favourable to the independence of France. Count. Rohan.. 188 seq. ih. reopens. . under Philip II. and Philip III. 22. dies. 87 seq. Kegimini (buU). discusses the questions of residence and of the concession of the Cu)) to the laity. in. 39. Si>aia and the counter-reformation. the Sanders. Silesia. Spanish universities. Soto. 62 . under Philip III. 150 seq. 113. Ruthven. ih. Soderini. 35. Emperor. . 28. in. by Pav)al authority. . Territorial principle. 180 the latter years of. no seq. order of business at. Cardinal. Residence. 185. in Germany. 12. of. . 145- Styria.

191 seq. of Orange. Vervius. 97 seq. gravamina.. 39. 186 assassinated.. of Bavaria. . Bishoii Viscouti of. 177. S|>anish occupation of. of Juliers-Cleves-Berg. business of. . 150. 131. i58. S. Index. 193. 157. tlie. 141. the University of. tlie Protestant. counter-reformation at. its relations witli Henry IV. the. . 41. 126. in tlie several States of Europe. 142. . . Richelieu intervenes Venegaz. Ursulines. Marshal. in. Julius Echter. Alejo. the religious discussion at. 140 William I. conclude i)eace with Spain. the. I. 47. stability of Protestantism Wiirzliurg.. 46. 177. Villanueva (Jesuit). St.. 185.. 30. the results of. prevails lip. 44. Valdez. 193. 168. . Bi. 196. witii Paul V. Peace of. HANSON AND EDIN'BLKGH AND LONUON CO. Zapata Valtelline. . . suuimarised. Urhau VI 1. 142. Visitautiues. 121. Waldenses. 19 (Jesuit). 22. IV. Urban VIII. J. Catholic and Protestant gains in. 203 legates at. Sr. 190. 186. Wallensteiu (Duke of dismissed. the policy of Pius ih. Feruaudo 49- (Inquisitor-General). the University of. tlie. Peace of. ib. 160 seq. Wurtemberg. . William IV. concluded at Ahausen. the anti-Habsburg policy of. Jesuit teacliings on. in. Upsala. 33. I'yrannicide. 54 the quarrel of. Treves. Tyrone.. testant sympatliies surviving at. 167. 193. 189 . 164 seq. 184. Pone. Veiitimiglio. its effects upon the counter-reformation.. the iusurrectiou of (1602). PklNTEU BY BALLAN'TYNE. 129. and the religious revival. Uuiou of. Wittenberg Concordia. Worms Wiliia. Valdez. 169 Francis. 142. allied with the Protestant Union. 95 . 195 seq. Pro- Venice. Union. Westphalia. Juan. 151. 154. 55. 136. William seq. 31.. wound 94 . Frie(llan<l).jhop of. religious agreement at. Ximeuez. 140. ception of tlie decrees of. . Papal protest against. new . the. United Provinces. 4. 176.seq. Tnreune. reclosing of. Zamovyski. 91 at. Vincent de Paula. 175 the foreign alliances of. 148. Cardinal. seq. 84. 194 a durable guarantee of religious peace. Utrecht. 120. 4. Pope. the. 100. Unam sanctam (Inill). the. Earl of. Xavier. 41. 5.


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