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n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang

LI NI U
T khi ra i cho n nay, cp si quang chng t c nhng u im vt
tri so vi cc phng thc truyn dn khc nh suy hao thp, cho php ko di
trm lp, trng lng nh, kch thc nh d lp t , hon ton cch in, khng b
can nhiu bi trng in t, vt liu ch to sn c trong t nhin (SiO2), gi thng
thp Chnh v th h thng truyn dn thng tin cp quang hin nay ang chim mt
t l rt ln nc ta .
n ny nhm em thc hin nhm tm hiu mt cch y v r rng v vic
thit k, trin khai cp quang cng nh cc phn t trong h thng truyn dn quang.
n ca chng em c th hon thnh v kt qu thu c ny l do s lm vic
tch cc ca cc thnh vin trong nhm c bit l s hng dn v ch bo tn tnh
ca cc thy c trong khoav c bit l thy Nguyn L Cng ngi trc tip
hng dn nhm 5 t lc bt u lm n n khi n hon thnh.
n c chia lm 4 chng
Chng 1 : Tng quan v h thng thng tin quang
Chng 2 : Cc phn t quang th ng
Chng 3 : Cc phn t quang tch cc
Chng 4 : Bi ton tnh ton mt tuyn thng tin quang thc t

Nhm 5 chng em xin chn thnh cm n Thy !
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 3
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
MC LC
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN QUANG 7
1.1. Gii Thiu Chung . 7
1.1.1. M hnh h thng thng tin quang. 7
1.1.2. Nguyn l hot ng ca h thng thng tin quang.. 8
1.1.3. u im ca h thng thng tin quang.. 9
1.2. Phn loi cc phn t quang in trong thng tin quang 9
1.2.1. Cc phn t th ng... 10
1.2.2. Cc phn t tch cc 11
CHNG 2: CC PHN T QUANG TH NG... 12
2.1. C s vt l chung cho cc phn t th ng.. 12
2.1.1 S phn x v khc x nh sng.. 12
2.1.2. nh lut Snell 13
2.1.3. Phn cc nh sng.. 14
2.2. Si quang 16
2.2.1. Cu trc si quang.. 16
2.2.2. Phn loi si quang. 16
2.2.2.1. Si n mode(SM). 16
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 4
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
2.2.2.2. Si a mode chit sut nhy bc(MM-SI)... 17
2.2.2.3.Si a mode chit sut bin i (MM - GI) 18
2.2.3. Cc tham s nh hng ti truyn lan trong si quang.. 19
2.2.3.1. Suy hao 19
2.2.3.2 Tn sc 21
2.3. Coupler quang 25
2.4. B lc quang 26
2.4.1. Chc nng ca cc b lc 26
2.4.2. c im, tham s ca b lc. 26
2.4.3 B lc quang 27
2.4.3.2 B lc cch t Bragg si. 27
2.4.4. B Isolator v Circulator 28
CHNG 3: CC PHN T TCH CC. 29
3.1. C s vt l chung ca cc phn t tch cc 29
3.1.1. Cc khi nim vt l bn dn... 29
3.1.1.1 Lp tip gip p-n. 29
3.1.2. Cc qu trnh c trng trong vt l bn dn. 31
3.1.2.1. Qu trnh hp th v pht x... 31
3.1.2.2 Trng thi o mt . 32
3.2. Ngun quang... 33
3.2.1. it pht quang... 33
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 5
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.2.1.1 Cu trc LED.. 34
3.2.1.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca LED 34
3.2.1.3. ng dng ca LED. 36
3.2.2. Ngun pht laser (Light Amplication By Stimulate Emission of Radiation ) 36
3.2.2.1 Nguyn l hot ng... 36
3.3. B thu quang
37
3.3.1. Photodiode PIN.. 38
3.3.1.1. Cu trc ca PIN. 38
3.3.1.2. Nguyn l hot ng... 38
3.3.1.3 c tnh ca PIN. 40
3.3.2. Photodiode quang thc APD... 41
3.3.2.1. Cu trc ca APD 41
3.3.2.2. Nguyn l hot ng.. 41
3.3.2.3. c trng ca APD. 42
3.4 B khuch i. 44
3.4.1. B khuch i quang bn dn 44
3.4.1.1. Cu trc b SOA 44
3.4.1.2. Cc thng s ca b khuch i SOA 45
3.4.2.1. Cu trc v nguyn l hot ng ca b EDFA. 47
3.4.2.2. c tnh ca b EDFA 48
3.5. B chuyn i bc sng 50
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 6
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.5.1. B chuyn i bc sng quang in.. 50
3.5.2. B chuyn i bc sng dng cch t quang 50
3.5.3 B chuyn i bc sng dng b trn song.. 51
CHNG 4: THIT K TUYN THNG TIN QUANG 52
4.1. Khi qut.. 52
4.2. Thit k mt tuyn thng tin quang.. 53
4.2.1. Bc 1: Tnh c ly gii hn bi cng sut.. 54
4.2.2. Bc 2: C ly gii hn do di thng 57
4.2.3 Bi ton c th. 58
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 7
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
CHNG 1
TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN QUANG
1.1. GII THIU CHUNG
H thng thng tin c hiu mt cch n gin l mt h thng truyn thng
tin t ni ny n ni khc. Khong cch gia cc ni ny c th t vi trm mt n
vi trm kilmt thm ch hng trm ngn kilmt vt qua i dng. Thng tin c
th truyn thng qua cc sng in vi cc di tn s khc nhau. H thng thng tin
quang l mt h thng thng tin bng nh sng v s dng cc si quang truyn
thng tin. Thng tin truyn i trong h thng thng tin quang c thc hin tn s
sng mang cao trong vng nhn thy hoc vng hng ngoi gn ca ph sng in t.
1.1.1. M hnh h thng thng tin quang
truyn thng tin gia cc vng khc nhau, h thng thng tin quang cng cn
phi c m hnh truyn tin c bn nh ch ra trong hnh 1.1, v n nay m hnh chung
ny vn c p dng. Trong m hnh ny, tn hiu cn truyn i s c pht vo mi
trng truyn dn tng ng, v u thu s thu li tn hiu cn truyn. Nh vy tn
hiu c thng tin t ni gi tn hiu i ti ni nhn tn hiu n. Thng tin quang
c t chc h thng cng nh cc h thng thng tin khc, v th m thnh phn c
bn ca h thng thng tin quang cng nh m hnh chung, tuy nhin mi trng
truyn dn y chnh l si quang. Do si quang s thc hin truyn nh sng c
mang tn hiu thng tin t pha pht ti pha thu.

Mt h thng thng tin quang bao gm cc thnh phn c bn: Phn pht quang,
si quang, v phn thu quang.
Phn pht quang c cu to t ngun pht tn hiu quang v cc mch in iu
khin. Cc mch iu khin c th l b iu ch ngoi hay cc b kch thch ty thuc
vo cc k thut iu bin. Ngun pht quang to ra sng mang tn s quang, cn cc
mch iu khin bin i tn hiu thng tin thnh dng tn hiu ph hp iu khin
ngun sng theo tn hiu mang tin. C hai loi ngun sng c dng ph bin trong
thng tin quang l LED (Light Emitting Diode) v LASER (Laser Diode).
Si quang l mi trng truyn dn trong thng tin quang. So vi mi trng
truyn dn khc nh mi trng khng kh trong thng tin v tuyn v mi trng cp
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 8
Ni pht
tn hiu i
Thit b
pht
Mi trng
truyn dn
Ni tn
hiu n
Thit b
thu
Hnh 1.1 M hnh truyn thng tin vi cc thnh phn c bn.
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
kim loi th truyn dn bng si quang c nhiu u im ni bt l : hu nh khng
chu nh hng ca mi trng ngoi, bng tn truyn dn ln, v suy hao thp. Vi
nhng u im , cng vi nhiu tin b trong lnh vc thng tin quang, si quang
c s dng trong cc h thng truyn ng di, h thng vt i dng. Chng
va p ng c khong cch va p ng c dung lng truyn dn cho php
thc hin cc mng thng tin tc cao. Si quang c 3 loi chnh l : si quang a
mode chit sut nhy bc, si a mode chit sut bin i v si quang n mode. Ty
thuc vo h thng m loi si quang no c s dng, tuy nhin hin nay cc h
thng thng s dng si n mode truyn dn v u im ca loi si ny.
Phn thu quang c chc nng chuyn tn hiu quang thu c thnh tn hiu
bng tn c s ban u. N bao gm b tch sng quang v cc mch x l in. B
tch sng quang thng s dng cc photodiode nh PIN v APD. Cc mch x l tn
hiu in ny c th bao gm cc mch khuch i, lc v mch ti sinh.
1.1.2. Nguyn l hot ng ca h thng thng tin quang
Ngay t thi k khai sinh, h thng thng tin s dng nguyn l truyn thng
tin theo m hnh chung nh hnh 1.1 trn. Nguyn l ny thc hin vic truyn thng
tin t pha pht qua mi trng si quang v cui cng n pha thu. Ti mi phn tn
hiu thng tin c bin i nh sau :
Pha pht : Ngun tn hiu thng tin nh ting ni, hnh nh, d liu sau khi
c x l tr thnh tn hiu in (c th dng tng t hoc s) s c a n b
pht quang (c th l ngun quang). Cc tn hiu in a vo b pht quang c
iu ch quang theo nhiu phng php iu bin khc nhau (iu bin trc tip
cng nh sng hay iu bin gin tip) thu c tn hiu quang. Tn hiu quang
ny s c ghp vo si quang truyn i ti pha thu.
Mi trng si quang: L mi trng truyn dn nh sng (tn hiu c iu
ch quang) t u pht ti u thu. Trong qu trnh truyn dn ny, do c tnh quang
hc ca nh sng v si quang m tn hiu quang b suy gim (suy hao v tn sc). C
ly truyn dn cng di th nh sng b suy gim cng mnh, iu ny dn n kh khn
khi khi phc tn hiu pha thu. Do vy, trn tuyn truyn dn thng tin quang,
thng c cc b khuch i tn hiu quang v cc trm lp nhm ti to li tn hiu b
suy gim trn ng truyn.
Pha thu : Tn hiu thu c t mi trng truyn dn s c b thu quang tip
nhn. Ti y, tn hiu quang s c bin i ngc tr li thnh tn hiu in nh tn
hiu pht ban u. Cui cng ta thu c tn hiu cn thng tin.
1.1.3. u im ca h thng thng tin quang
H thng thng tin quang s dng mi trng truyn dn l si quang nn h
thng c nhng u im hn cc h thng truyn thng s dng cp ng hay h
thng thng tin v tuyn trc y, l :
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 9
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Dung lng truyn dn ln : Trong h thng thng tin si quang, bng tn
truyn dn ca si quang l rt ln (hng ngn THz) cho php pht trin cc
h thng WDM dung lng ln. So vi truyn dn v tuyn hay truyn dn
dng cp kim loi th truyn dn si quang cho dung lng ln hn nhiu.
Suy hao thp : Suy hao truyn dn ca si quang tng i nh, c bit l
trong vng ca s 1300nm v 1550nm. Suy hao nh nn si quang c th
cho php truyn dn bng rng, tc ln hn rt nhiu so vi cp kim loi
cng chi ph xy dngs mng.
Khng chu nh hng ca mi trng bn ngoi : Bi vt liu ca si
quang cch in, khng chu nh hng ca cc yu t nh in t trng
nn khng b nhiu in t
tin cy : Tn hiu truyn trong si quang hu nh khng chu nh
hng ca mi trng bn ngoi, khng gy nhiu ra ngoi cng nh s
xuyn m gia cc si quang. Do si quang thc t cho cht lng
truyn dn rt tt vi tin cy cao, tnh bo mt cng cao hn so vi
truyn dn v tuyn v cp kim loi.
Chi ph thp : V vt liu ch to si quang sn c, ng thi si li nh hn
cp kim loi v c th un cong, lp t d dng v t b h hng do cc yu
t thin nhin tc ng (nh nng, ma) nn h thng c th tit kim
c chi ph xy dng.
Thng tin si quang c nhiu u im t si quang em li tuy nhin si quang
cng tn ti mt s nhc im nh kh ch to, hn ni phc tp v si quang rt b,
v rt d t gy.
1.2. PHN LOI CC PHN T QUANG IN TRONG THNG TIN
QUANG
Mt h thng thng tin quang c cu thnh t rt nhiu phn t quang in khc
nhau. Mt tuyn thng tin quang c th bao gm cc phn t nh th hin trn hnh
1.3.
Cc phn t ny c nhiu c tnh, chc nng, tc hot ng v v tr khc
nhau. Ty thuc vo yu cu ca h thng c s dng m cc phn t ny c s
dng cho chc nng no hay v tr no trn h thng.
phn loi cc phn t quang in trong h thng thng tin quang ta c nhiu
tiu ch phn loi nh: c im. v tr, chc nng hay ng dng Da vo c
im hot ng ca cc phn t quang in trong h thng thng tin quang c th chia
thnh hai nhm l cc phn t th ng v cc phn t tch cc.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 10
Tn
h
i

u

vo
Tn

h
i

u
ra
S

i

d n q u a n g
B pht
quan
g
B ni
quang
Mi hn si
B chia
qu
an
g
Mch
i

n
Pht
qu
an
g
Khuch
i quang
u
t
h
u
quang
Chuyn

i
tn hiu
Mchi

u
khin
Ngun
pht
q
u
a
n
g
B thu quang
Khuch i
Trm lp
Thu
quang
Hnh 1.3 Cc thnh phn trong mt tuyn thng tin quang.
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
1.2.1. Cc phn t th ng
Cc phn t th ng l cc phn t quang hot ng khi c chm sng truyn qua
n. Phn t th ng hot ng khng cn ngun kch thch, n ch n thun bin i
cc tn hiu trong min quang m khng c s chuyn i sang min in. Nhng
c im ny dn n v nguyn l hot ng cc phn t th ng ch yu da vo
cu trc quang hnh ca chnh bn thn chng, v tun theo cc nh lut hay cc
nguyn l nh sng. Cc phn t th ng c nhng u im v cu trc, v tr lp t,
v ng dng nh :
D dng lp t bt k v tr no trn h thng v khng cn c ngun cung cp
hot ng i km theo.
n gin v cu trc.
D dng bo tr.
An ton v in cho ngi s dng.
Tuy vy chng c nhng nhc im so vi phn t tch cc chnh l th ng
v cu hnh nn kh nng thay i, iu chnh hot ng km, khng linh hot. Cht
lng hot ng ca cc phn t th ng cng ph thuc vo vt liu v cng ngh
ch to ca bn thn thit b nh cc vn v suy hao hay tn sc ca cc phn t th
ng. Cng ngh cng pht trin th kh nng ca cc phn t th ng cng cao.
Cc phn t th ng trong h thng thng tin quang bao gm :
Si quang, cp quang
Coupler quang
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 11
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Cc b lc quang
B cch ly quang
B b tn tc
1.2.2. Cc phn t tch cc
Cc phn t tch cc l cc phn t quang in hot ng da theo vo tnh cht
ht ca nh sng v c s vt l bn dn. Khi hot ng, cc phn t tch cc da vo
kch thch in ngoi bin i tn hiu m n cn x l. Do vy khc vi cc phn
t th ng, hot ng c cc phn t cn ngun kch thch. iu ny dn n
yu cu ca phn t tch cc phc tp hn cc phn t th ng nh : v tr lp t, c
ch bo dng chng qu p ca ngun, yu cu an ton v in Tuy nhin cc
phn t tch cc c th iu chnh hiu qu hot ng khi thay i ngun cung cp.
Cc phn t tch cc bao gm :
Ngun quang
B tch quang
B khuch i quang
Chuyn i bc sng
CHNG 2
CC PHN T QUANG TH NG
2.1. C S VT L CHUNG CHO CC PHN T TH NG
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 12
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Phn t th ng ch n thun bin i cc tn hiu trong min quang m khng
c s chuyn i sang min in. Do vy c s vt l chung cho cc phn t th ng
l vt l quang hnh.
2.1.1 S phn x v khc x nh sng
Hin tng khc x v phn x nh sng c xem xt trong trng hp c hai
mi trng khc nhau v ch s chit sut. Khi nh sng i t mt mi trng trong
sut ny n mt mi trng trong sut khc th nh sng s thay i hng truyn
ca chng ti ranh gii phn cch gia hai mi trng. Nh vy c hai kh nng xy
ra :
nh sng b i hng quay ngc tr li
nh sng c pht tip vo mi trng trong sut th 2.
Cc tia sng khi qua vng ranh gii gia hai mi trng b thay i hng nhng
c th tip tc i vo mi trng chit sut mi th ta ni tia b khc x. Cn cc tia
sng khi qua ranh gii ny li quay ngc tr li mi trng ban u th ta ni tia
b phn x. Hnh 2.1 m t qu trnh khc x v phn x nh sng qua hai mi trng
trong sut vi chit sut mi trng th nht n
1
ln hn chit sut mi trng th hai
n
2
.
Trong :
i
l gc ti gc hp gia php tuyn ca mt phn cch hai mi trng
vi tia ti.

r
l gc khc x - gc to bi php tuyn ca mt phn cch hai mi
trng vi tia khc x.
hnh 2.1, chit sut n
1
> n
2
cho nn gc ti
i
nh hn gc khc x
r
(hnh
2.1a). Khi gc ti ln dn ti mt gi tr gc ti
c
to ra tia khc x nm song song
vi ranh gii phn cch hai mi trng, lc y
c
c gi l gc ti hn (nh hnh
2.1b).
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1
Tia
khc x
Tia
ti
Tia
phn
x
Hnh 2.1 S khc x v phn x nh sng ca vi gc ti khc nhau.

i
n
2
n
1

i
=

c
a) b) c)
13
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
2.1.2. nh lut Snell
nh lut Snell pht biu : T l gia sin gc ti v khc x s lun l mt hng
s. Tia khc x lun nm trong cng mt phng vi tia ti v sin gc khc x (
r
) ph
thuc vo sin gc ti (
i
) nh sau :

1
2
sin
sin
n
n
r
i

= a (hng s). (2-3)


Trong : n
1
, n
2
l chit sut ca hai mi trng vt liu m nh sng i qua.
Khi mt tia sng ti c gi tr gc ln hn gc ti hn th nh sng b phn x hon
ton li mi trng u ti mt phng phn cch hai mi trng. Lc ny ta gi l
hin tng phn x ton phn (Total Internal Reflection). Hnh 2.1c minh ha qu
trnh phn x ton phn - TIR.
Nh vy c th nu ra iu kin xy ra hin tng phn x ton phn l :
Cc tia sng phi i t mi trng c ch s chit sut ln hn sang mi trng
c ch s chit sut nh hn.
Gc ti ca tia sng phi ln hn gc ti hn c =arcsin (n
2
/n
1
).
nh lut khc x v phn x nh sng trn l nguyn l c bn p dng cho vic
truyn tn hiu nh sng trong si dn quang s dng trong thng tin quang. Trong si
dn quang, cc tn hiu nh sng kt hp c lan truyn da vo hin tng phn x
ton phn, iu ny c th gii thch nh sau:
Xt nh sng truyn qua cc mi trng vi ng bin song song (ng thy
tinh). Cc mi trng ny c chit sut nh sau : chit sut mi trng u tin v mi
trng cui cng bng nhau (cng l khng kh - n
1
), nhng khc vi mi trng trung
gian (l thy tinh - n
2
>n
1
).
- Khi nh sng ti mi trng u tin vi mt gc ti thch hp (gi s
1
<
c
)
(nh hnh 2.2), nh sng s khc x t mi trng u tin vo mi trng th 2
vi gc khc x
1
<
1.
(v n
1
<n
2
). Tia khc x ny truyn trong mi trng th
2 v ti bin gii gia mi trng th 2 v mi trng cui vi mt gc ti c gi
tr l
2
=
1
(v bin gii phn cch gia cc mi trng l song song). Lc
tia sng s b khc x vi gc khc x
2
=
1
. V tng t c
2
>
1
(v n
2
>
n
1
).

Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 14

1

2

1
Thy tinh n
2
Khng kh n
1
Khng kh n
1
Hnh 2.2 ng i ca nh sng qua khi thy tinh
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
- Khi ngun sng t trong mi trng thy tinh th c mt s tia sng di khi
ngun ti bin gii phn cch gia thy tinh v khng kh. Nu gc ti ca tia nh
hn gc ti hn
c
th n s b khc x v i ra khi mi trng thy tinh. Ngc
li gc ti ln hn gc ti hn th s c s phn x ton phn trong mi trng
thy tinh (nh hnh 2.3). Hn na, cc mt ca khi thy tinh song song vi nhau
nn cc tia sng ti b mt s phn x bn trong ng vi cng mt gc bng gc
ti. Cc tia phn x s phn x lin tip trong thnh ng cho n khi t ti im
cui ca ng. Ta c s truyn dn nh sng trong ng thy tinh.
.

2.1.3. Phn cc nh sng
S phn cc c nh ngha thng qua in trng. Trong m t bi hm phc,
vect in trng ny c th c vit di dng sau :
E(z,t)= Re[Aexxp(it-ikz)] (2-4)
Trong A l vect phc trong mt phng xy.
Chng ta kho st hai thnh phn E
x
v E
y
nh sau :
E
x
=[Acos(t- kz+
x
)] v E
y
=[Acos(t- kz+
y
)] (2-5)
i lng A c th biu th dng sau : A =
x
A
x
exp(i
x
) +
y
A
y
exp(i
y
)
Trong : A
x
v A
y
l cc s thc dng.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 15
Tia
sng

i
Tia phn x
n
1
n
2
n
1
Hnh 2.3 Tia sng i trong ng thy tinh

y '
x '
x
Hnh 2.5 Phn cc thng thng ca nh sng theo elip c trc
x v y lch mt gc .
y
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Sau khi bin i bng cch s dng tnh cht cc hm lng gic cc phng trnh
2-4 v 2-5 ta c :

2
sin
cos
2 +
y x
y x y
y
x
x
E E
A A A
E
A
E
v =
x
-
y
(2-6)
Phng trnh ny l phng trnh elip v c th kt lun sng nh sng trong
trng hp thng thng l c phn cc elip. Trc ca elip thng phi l trc x, y m
lch i mt gc nh hnh 2.5. Gi tr ca gc c th xc nh c nh sau : tg
(2)=
2 2
2
y x
y x
A A
A A

cos . V t cc gi tr khc nhau ca ta c cc phn cc khc nhau


ca sng nh sng nh hnh 2.6. Nh trong hnh 2.6 cc dng phn cc : tuyn tnh,
trn v elip i vi mt s sng truyn khc nhau.

2.2. SI QUANG
2.2.1. Cu trc si quang
Si quang c cu trc nh mt ng dn sng hnh tr bao gm phn li v lp v
bao bc xung quanh li, c hai u lm t vt liu trong sut nh thy tinh hoc cht
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 16
=/4 = /2 = 3/4 =
=-3/4 = -/2 = -/4 = 0
Hnh 2.6 Cc trng thi phn cc i vi mt s sng truyn khc nhau
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
do. Lp li thng c chit sut cao hn lp v bn ngoi, iu ny cung cp c ch
hng qu trnh truyn lan nh sng vo bn trong li.
Ngoi ra bo v si ngi ta dng mt lp bao bc bo v bn ngoi thng
lm t vt liu polyme (nh hnh 2.7). Lp cht do ny nhm ngn chn cc tc ng
c hc v bc si thnh cp.

Li(n
1
)
Hnh2.7Cutrcsi quang
V( n
2
) Lpbov
Thng thng ng knh li si quang l rt nh khong t 10 50 m, cn
ng knh v l 125 m. Do vy si quang c kch thc rt nh. Khi bc cc lp,
bo v th ng knh ca si mi t c t 200 900m.
2.2.2. Phn loi si quang
Si quang c rt nhiu loi khc nhau, ty thuc vo vic s dng v cch phn
loi m ta c cc loi si quang khc nhau. Theo s phn b chit sut trong li si
ngi ta chia si quang thnh si chit sut nhy bc (Step Index) v si chit sut
bin i (Graded Index). Si chit sut bc c phn b chit sut trong li khng i
trong khi si chit sut bin i c chit sut li phn b gim dn t trong ra ngoi.
Ngi ta cn phn si quang thnh hai loi : si n mode (Single mode) si a
mode (Multi mode). Si a mode l si cho php truyn dn nhiu mode trong n, cn
si n mode l si ch cho php mt mode truyn dn trong n. (Vi mi mt mode
l mt mu cc ng sng trng in v trng t c lp i lp li dc theo si
cc khong cch tng ng vi bc sng).
Ngoi ra si cn c phn theo vt liu nh si thy tinh v si plastic. Hay cc
loi si tin tin hin nay mi sn xut nh si duy tr phn cc v si dch tn sc.
Tuy vy trong thc t ngi ta thng xt cc loi si quang sau : Si a mode
chit sut nhy bc (MM-SI), si a mode chit sut bin i (MM-GI) v si n
mode (SM).
2.2.2.1. Si n mode(SM)
Si n mode l si ch cho php truyn dn mt mode trong n nhng kh nng
v bng thng ca si kh ln (khong 40GHz). Si quang n mode ph hp i vi
h thng ng trc vi gi thnh thp. Mc d giai on u, si SM mi ch s dng
trong vng ca s 1300nm, nhng chng cng c th hot ng hiu qu trong vng
ca s 1550nm i vi cc h thng ghp knh theo thi gian TDM v ghp knh theo
bc sng WDM.
Cu trc si SM nh hnh 2.8
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 17
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Li

V
Lplt
Lpbov
Chs
khcx
Hnh2.8Cutrcsi nmode
Si n mode c li rt nh thng khong t 8 10 m. Kch thc ny
thng nh hn so vi bc sng nh sng c s dng rt nhiu. Thng th 20%
nh sng c truyn vo si n mode b khc x ra ngoi v.
u im ca si n mode l ch ghp mt mode nn khng c tn sc mode bng
tn ca si tng ln. Tuy nhin, kh ghp nh sng vo si.
2.2.2.2. Si a mode chit sut nhy bc(MM-SI)
c im ca si MM-SI l kch thc ln, ng knh li thng l 50m. Si
thng dng trong h thng truyn dn c c ly ngn vi bng thng si khong
20MHz.
Cu trc mt ct chit sut c m t nh trong hnh 2.9.
a
a
n
1
n
2
V
Li
Hnh 2.9 Cu trc s i a mode nhy bc
Trong si MM - SI, chit sut li v v to thnh dng hnh bc thang. Thng
thng, si c ch to vi chit sut v nho hn 10% so vi chit sut li.
Khu s (NA) ca si c trng cho kh nng nhn tia sng c tnh nh biu
thc 2-7 :
NA= n
1
(2)
1/2
(2-7)
Trong : =
1
2 1
n
n n
l chnh lch chit sut tng i gia li v v.
V ch s chit sut trong si MM-SI l khng thay i dc theo si nn khu
s ca MM-SI cng l hng s.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 18
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
S lng mode trong si a mode ph thuc vo tn s chun ha V ca si nh
cng thc 2-8:
M=V
2
/2 vi V=

NA a. 2
(2-8)
u im ca si a mode chit sut nhy bc l ch s chit sut ca v v li
khng i, do tc truyn khng i. Tuy nhin do qung ng truyn dn ca
cc mode khc nhau nn c th gy nn hin tng tn sc mode.
2.2.2.3. Si a mode chit sut bin i (MM - GI)
c im kch thc ca si cng ging nh si MM-SI, tuy nhin si li c ch
s chit sut ca li thay i. S bin i ca ch s chit sut li c m t nh
trong cng thc 2-9.
n
2
(r)=
( )

'


<
1
1
]
1

,
_


a r n n
a r
a
r
n
1 2
2
1
1

(2-9)
Trong : l h s mt ct chit sut
n
1
l chit sut v
n
2
l chit sut cc i ti tm si
Ta c mt ct chit sut ca si c biu din nh hnh 2.10.
a
a
n
1
V
Li
Hnh 2.10 Cu trc s i amodenhy bc
r
n
2
Qua hnh 2.10, chit sut li gim dn t trung tm li ra n bin gii phn cch
gia li v v. iu ny gim c tn sc mode do s chnh lch ng i gia cc
mode, tng rng bng tn truyn dn. Tuy nhin nh hng n hiu sut ghp nh
sng. V lc khu s NA cng l hm ph thuc vo h s mt ct chit sut .
NA=
2
1 2
) ( n r n ( xt vi r < a ) (2-10)
S lng mode truyn ca si MM-GI c tnh theo cng thc 2-11.
M=
2 2
2
V
+

(2-11)
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 19
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
2.2.3. Cc tham s nh hng ti truyn lan trong si quang
Trong qu trnh truyn sng t pha pht n pha thu, tn hiu c th b thay i
rt nhiu. Do vy ti pha thu tn hiu khng c nh mong mun. S suy gim v
cht lng tn hiu do rt nhiu yu t gy ra. Mt trong nhng yu t quan trng l
tham s gy nh hng ti truyn dn trong si quang. Ta xt cc tham s sau.
2.2.3.1. Suy hao
A. Khi Nim
Suy hao l thng s c lin quan n s thay i cng sut quang trong qa trnh
lan truyn. Tham s suy hao c th c xc nh theo nh lut Beer :
P
dz
dP

trong l h s suy hao. (2-12)

P P - dP
dz
L
z
Hnh 2.11 Cng sut vo ra ca tn hiu truyn qua s i quang v i di L
Bin i cng thc 2-12 ta c cng sut truyn ti khong cch L :
P(L) = P(0)exp(- L) hay
) (
) 0 (
ln
1
L P
P
L

(2-13)
Trong : P(0) tng ng cng sut vo u si P
in
P(L) tng ng cng sut ra si c chiu di L (P
out
)
n v ca l m
-1
hoc km
-1
Theo n v dB th ta c :
343 , 4 lg
10

in
out
dB
P
P
L
(2-14)
Trong thng tin quang c khi n v cng sut c tnh theo n v dBm nn h
s suy hao c th tnh theo cng thc :
L
P P
out in
dB


B.Nguyn nhn v cc loi suy hao
Suy hao trong si quang c nhiu nguyn nhn nhng nguyn nhn c bn gy suy
hao trong si quang l do cc suy hao do hp th, do tn x v do b un cong si.
- Suy hao do hp th: Bn cht nh sng l cc ht photon, m si quang cng l
vt rn c cu trc mng tinh th, nn cc in hay in t u nt mng c th hp
th photon khi nh sng truyn qua si quang. S hp th ny ph thuc vo bc
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 20
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
sng v bn cht ca vt liu hp th nh cc tp cht trong si hay vt liu ch to
si. C th, trong qu trnh sn xut si quang c rt nhiu tp cht nh cc in kim
loi (Fe,Cu, Cr) hoc cc in OH
-
. Cc in ny gy nn cc nh hp th ti bc
sng chnh l 2,7 m v cc nh sng ph nh 0,94 m; 1,24 m; 1,39 m gy
nh hng n sng lan truyn trong si.
Bn cnh , bn thn vt liu chnh lm nn si quang l thy tinh cng gy nn
cc di hp th l hp th cc tm ch bc sng < 0,4 m v hp th hng ngoi
ch bc sng >7 m nh hnh 2.13. Tuy nhin vi cng ngh hin i ngy nay,
ngi ta c th gim thiu c s hp th bng cch loi tr cc tp cht hnh thnh
trong qu trnh sn xut (c bit l in OH
-
).
- Suy hao do tn x : Tn x l kt qu ca nhng khuyt tt hay nhiu lan trong
si v cu trc vi m ca si. Tn x suy ra t nhng thay i v cu trc phn t v
nguyn t ca thy tinh hay t nhng thay i v mt v thnh phn si. Nhng
thay i ny do qu trnh sn xut si to ra. N gy nn s thay i v chit sut dn
n thay i s phn x ca tia sng ti nhng im trn li si m ta c th gi l cc
tm tn x. Xt hnh 2.12 sau :
V
Li
Tia t i
Hnh 2.12 S tn x
Gc lan truyn ca tia sng ti giao din li v v c nhng thay i lm thay i
tia c khc x theo ng dn mi v khng xy ra hin tng phn x ni ton
phn (TIR), iu ny gy gim lng nh sng c lan truyn dc theo li si. C hai
loi tn x chnh l : Tn x Rayleigh v tn x Mie, trong tn x Rayleigh rt quan
trng. Nguyn nhn ca n l do s khng ng nht ca thy tinh v thnh phn v
mt . iu ny gy nn s thng ging v ch s chit sut v dn n suy gim
cng sut bc sng theo cng thc sau :
R
=C/
4
vi hng s C nm trong di 0,7
0,9 dB/km v ph thuc vo cu trc si. Cn tn x Mie l tn x xy ra ti nhng ni
khng ng nht, nh nhng im c khuyt tt trong cu trc si hay s khng ng
u ca ch s chit sut v bt kh to ra trong qu trnh sn xut. Tuy nhin ta c th
coi tn x Mie l khng ng k bng cch ch trng ti qu trnh sn xut gim
thiu cc nguyn nhn gy tn x.
Nhng suy gim bi s tn x l mt qu trnh tuyn tnh, bi n khng gy ra s
dch tn, bc sng trc v sau tn x khng thay i.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 21
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang

Hnh 2.13 Cc ph suy hao do hp th v tn x trong si quang [9].
- Suy hao do un cong si: y l nhng suy hao do s un cong v thay i v
bn knh cong ca si. C hai loi suy hao do un cong l : suy hao do un cong c
nh v suy hao do un cong c ln. Suy hao do un cong c ln xy ra khi bn knh
cong ca si gim. Ban u bn knh cong ca si ln hn bn knh si. Khi si b un
cong th gc lan truyn s thay i dn n mt s tia sng khng cn m bo iu
kin phn x ton phn v dn n gim s lng tia sng truyn trong li si. Do
khi bn knh cong gim th mc suy hao s tng. Bn knh cong cho php l R
c
= a/NA.
Trong thc t yu cu bn knh cong phi ln hn bn knh cong cho php suy hao
khng vt qu 0,1dB.
Suy hao do un cong c nh l do cc un cong c bn knh cong nh theo trc
si xut hin do trong qu trnh ci t, o kim hay thit lp c cc lc tc ng ln
si quang lm si b mo dng v thay i cc gc lan truyn ca cc tia sng. nh
sng s b mt mt ra ngoi v si. Ngoi ra n cn gy ra qu trnh ghp cp mode.
2.2.3.2 Tn sc
A.Khi nim
Tn sc trong thng tin quang xt v mt thi gian l s dn rng xung nh sng
khi lan truyn trong si quang nh hnh 2.14.
H s tn sc c xc nh theo cng thc :
L
T
D

(ps/nm.km) trong T =
ra
-
vo
(ps/nm)

L

vo

ra
S i quang
Hnh 2.14 S tn sc
Tn sc c th c gii thch bi nh sng truyn trong si quang c th coi l tp
hp ca nhiu thnh phn v d c th coi l cc thnh phn trong bin i Fourier ca
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 22
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
n hay tng cc mode truyn. Cc thnh phn ny c tn s khc nhau zmode truyn
dn vi vn tc nhm l tc m ti nng lng trong mode ring bit lan
truyn dc theo si. Ta c :
Vn tc nhm :

d
d
v
g

v tr nhm l :
dK
d
c v
g

1 1

(2-15)
Trong : l h s lan truyn c gi tr = n/c
K l h s sng c gi tr K = /c.
B. Nguyn nhn v cc loi tn sc
C bn nguyn nhn chnh gy ra tn sc v cng l cc loi tn sc ch yu
l : Tn sc vt liu, tn sc ng dn sng, tn sc mode v tn sc phn cc mode.
- Tn sc mode: Nguyn nhn chnh l do trong si c nhiu mode truyn dn, cc
mode li c tc truyn dn khc nhau, nn thi gian truyn dn trong si cng khc
nhau, v xy ra hin tng tn sc. Loi tn sc ny ch xy ra trong si a mode. Tn
sc mode ph thuc vo kch thc si c th l bn knh li si a mode. Tia kinh
tuyn truyn trong cc si a mode (chit sut nhy bc v bin i) s i theo cc
ng khc nhau vi qung ng khc nhau. Gc truyn lan ca tia cng dc th tia
i cng chm. Do c nhng tia thi gian truyn l T
min
v c nhng tia thi gian
truyn l T
max.
. Ta c h s tn sc mode:
c
n
L
D
m

1
(2-16)
Gia hai si a mode chit sut nhy bc v chit sut bin i th si chit sut
bin i c mo tn hiu t hn. Do chit sut li trong si MM-GI gim dn t trc
si ra pha v, nn cc tia sng c ng i gn ranh gii tip gip v - li s truyn
vi vn tc nhanh hn cc tia gn trc si cho nn cn bng c thi gian truyn.
- Tn sc vt liu: Nguyn nhn ca loi tn sc ny l do tn sc bn trong. N l
s dn xung tn hiu nh sng xy ra trong mt mode. Trong si c s thay i v
chit sut do vt liu to ra. T c s khc bit v tc ca cc thnh phn ph
(bc sng) khc nhau chy trong mode v vn tc ca cc bc sng ph thuc vo
chit sut theo phng trnh :

) ( n
c
v
(2-17)
Do vy m c s chnh lch lan truyn ca cc thnh phn bc sng khc nhau
dn n tn sc. Ta c h s tn sc vt liu :
2
2
) ( 1

d
n d
c
D
M
(2-18)
Vi chit sut ph thuc vo bc sng theo cng thc Sell Miner :
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 23
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang


+
M
i
i
i i
n
1
2 2
2
2
1 ) (

Trong :
i
,
i
l cng v tn s cng hng tng ng.
M l tham s ph thuc vo vt liu (v d M
thy tinh
=3).
- Tn sc ng dn sng : Cng nh tn sc vt liu, tn sc ng dn sng l do s
tn sc bn trong mode. nh sng truyn trong si khng phi l n sc, n chim
mt rng ph no . V hng s lan truyn l hm ca i lng a/ do n
ph thuc vo ph (bc sng ) nh sng v kch thc ca li si. Mt khc theo
cng thc 2-18, tr nhm chu nh hng ca h s lan truyn . Do vy vn tc
nhm ca cc thnh phn ph l khc nhau ( y cha xt n s thay i vn tc do
s thay i chit sut). iu ny dn n s chnh lch v thi gian truyn dn v v
vy c hin tng tn sc.
T cc phng trnh ca tr nhm ta xc nh c h s tn sc ng dn sng.
]
) (
[
2
2
1
dV
Vb d
V
C
n
D
w

(2-19)
Vi tn s chun ha c tnh gn ng theo cng thc :
2
1 0
an K V
(2-20)
Trong si a mode tn sc ng dn sng tng i nh so vi tn sc vt liu v
vy c th b qua c.
Tn sc tng trong si s bao gm c ba loi tn sc : D = D
w
+ D
m
+D
M
Ta c hnh 2.15 biu din cc tn sc trong di bc sng 1,1 - 1,7 m ca si
n mode. Bc sng
ZD
l bc sng ti tn sc tng c gi tr 0. R rng tn sc
ng dn sng lun m, cn tn sc vt liu th bt u dng ti bc sng
1.33 m.

Hnh 2.15 Cc h s tn sc trong si n mode[9]
- Tn sc phn cc mode (PMD) :
Tn sc phn cc mode (Polarization Mode Dispertion) l mt c tnh c bn ca
si quang v cc thnh phn si quang n mode. Trong nng lng tn hiu ti
bc sng cho c chuyn vo hai mode phn cc trc giao c vn tc lan truyn
khc nhau. iu ny dn n dn xung ca tn hiu tng hp u thu v gy chng ph
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 24
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
v li bt i vi cc h thng truyn dn tc cao. Khi c ngun pht quang mnh,
s dn xung thng lin quan n hiu ng lng chit. Bn knh ca si quang dc
theo cc trc x, y khng ng u, chit sut cc mode phn cc theo trc x, y b thay
i v sinh ra hiu ng lng chit. Khi xung u vo kch thch c hai thnh phn
phn cc, xung s dn rng u ra ca si v hai thnh phn s phn tn dc do
vn tc nhm khc nhau. Hin tng ny gi l PMD. Lng chit c th tnh ton
thng qua s chnh lch gi tr chit sut hiu dng ca hai thnh phn phn cc mode
:
=
( )
y x y x
K n n
0 (2-21)
Trong : y x
n n ,
l chit sut hiu dng ca mi mode phn cc
y x
,
l hng s lan truyn ca mi mode phn cc
i vi mt xung quang th nng lng chia ra thnh hai phn : mt phn mang
bi trng thi phn cc trc nhanh v mt phn mang bi trng thi phn cc trc
chm nh hnh 2.16.
Hnh 2.16 Hin tng tn sc do phn cc.
S dn xung c th c xc nh t chnh lch thi gian T gia hai thnh
phn phn cc mode trc giao khi xung c truyn. i vi si di L th T c
xc nh theo cng thc 2-22:
T =
gy gx
v
L
v
L

=L
x
-
y
1
(2-22)
Biu thc 2-22 khng th dng trc tip tnh tham s PMD do tnh ghp ngu
nhin gia hai mode c sinh ra t s xo trn ngu nhin ca lng chit. Thc t
PMD c xc nh bi gi tr cn trung bnh bnh phng RMS ca T. Gi tr trung
bnh ca bin ngu nhin ny l :
( )
1
]
1

,
_

+
h
L
h
L
h T
T
2
exp 1
2
2
1
2 2 2 2

Trong : h l di hiu chnh c gi tr tiu biu nm trong khong 1- 10 m.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 25
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Ta c hm mt xc sut PMD nh sau :
P(T) =
3
2
2
2

T
exp 1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
T
(2-23)
Nh vy kt hp vi phng trnh 2-22 gi tr trung bnh ca tr T lin quan
n tn sc phn cc mode nh sau :
L
h
D
T
PMD

8

Trong : D
PMD
h s tn sc phn cc mode vi cc gi tr tiu biu nm trong
khong 0,1 1ps/ km .
T y ta thy dn xung trong PMD tng i nh so vi cc hiu ng vn tc
nhm. Tuy nhin do ph thuc vo chiu di si nn PMD c th nh hng n cc
h thng truyn dn c ly xa.
2.3. COUPLER QUANG
Coupler l cc thit b quang th ng n gin, c s dng tch hoc ghp
tn hiu nh sng u vo hay u ra si. Mt coupler bao gm n cng vo v m cng
ra. Coupler 1 x n c gi l b tch (splitter), cn coupler n x 1 c gi l b kt
hp (combiner); c khi coupler kt hp c hai chc nng ghp v tch vi n cng vo
v m cng ra.
n gin nht l coupler 1x2, 2x1 v 2x2 nh hnh 2.17a, b,c

B chia quang 1x2 nh trn hnh 2.17 a) c t l cng sut u ra c gi l t l
chia quang v c th iu khin c. Gi tr ny biu th t l chia quang di
dng dB s cho chng ta suy hao do chia quang. B chia quang hai cng vi t l chia
quang 50:50 l rt ph bin, kt qu l suy hao do chia quang s l 3 dB cho mi cng
ra.
Cc b coupler c dng tch mt phn cng sut t lung nh sng c th
c thit k vi cc gi tr rt gn vi 1, thng l t 0.90 ti 0.95. Khi chng
c gi l b r v thng dng cho cc mc ch gim st hoc cc mc ch khc.
Nguyn l hot ng ca coupler c th xt thng qua nguyn l chung ca
coupler 2x2.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 26
a, Splitter b, Combiner c, Coupler
Hnh 2.17 Coupler 1x2, 2x1 v 2x2.
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
2.4. B LC QUANG
2.4.1. Chc nng ca cc b lc
Vic ghp v lc l mt phn quan trng ca truyn dn quang. Khng c thit b
ny khng th thc hin bt k s chuyn mch cng nh truyn dn mt vi tn hiu
trong cng mt si quang ti cng mt thi im. B lc quang l phn t th ng
hot ng da trn cc nguyn l truyn sng khng cn c s tc ng t cc phn t
bn ngoi. Chc nng ca b lc l lc tn hiu khc nhau c truyn trong cng mt
si, trc tin phi tch ring cc bc sng khc nhau khi tn hiu tng. C rt nhiu
cch thc hin vic tch cc bc sng quang, nhng v nguyn l chng u da
trn quan im : cc bc sng s b tr pha so vi bc sng khc khi chng c
hng qua cc ng dn khc nhau. Ty thuc vo cch nguyn l hot ng ca
tng thit b m ta c hai nhm cc b lc khc nhau nh : B lc c nh v b lc
iu khin c. B lc quang c nh l cc b lc v nguyn l n loi b tt c cc
bc sng, ch cho php gi li mt bc sng c nh c xc nh trc. B lc
iu chnh c l cc b lc c th thay i bc sng m chng cho qua ty theo
yu cu.
2.4.2. c im, tham s ca b lc
Hai c im quan trng ca b lc cn c nhc n l di ph t do (FSR- Free
Spectral Range) v kh nng phn bit ca b lc hay mn (F - Finesess).
A. mn ca b lc F
mn ca b lc c o bng rng ca hm truyn t. N l t s gia di
ph t do vi rng knh.
f
FSR
F



Trong rng knh (f) c nh ngha l rng 3dB hay rng ph na
cng sut ca b lc. f c trng cho hp ca nh hm truyn t.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 27
FSR
1 2 3 N 1 2
f
f
.. ..
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
n
f
P
Hnh 2.20 FSR v F ca b lc vi N knh khc nhau.
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
S lng knh ca mt b lc quang b gii hn bi di ph t do v mn. Tt
c cc knh phi nm gn trong FSR. Nu gi tr F cao, hm truyn t (nh bng
thng) s hp v dn n l c nhiu knh c cha trong di ph t do hn. Khi
mn thp, cc knh cn phi c dn cch nhau thm mt khong trnh xuyn m.
Do s lng knh trong di ph t do cng gim i.
2.4.3 B lc quang
2.4.3.2 B lc cch t Bragg si
Cch t Bragg si l mnh bin iu ca si quang m trong chit sut ca li
si thay i theo mt chu k dc theo li si quang.

L
S i quang
Hnh2.23Ccht Braggs i
Cch t Bragg hot ng theo nguyn tc : Khi chiu mt chm nh sng a sc
qua cch t, n cho php phn x duy nht mt bc sng tha mn iu kin phn x
Bragg c phn x tr li ngun v cho i qua tt c cc bc sng khc. T iu
kin phn x Bragg ta c :
m
m Ln 2
(2-34)
Trong : n l chit sut li si quang.
Ti cc bc sng khng tha mn iu kin trn th nh sng khng b nh hng
v c truyn qua cch t n u thu.
B lc cch t Bragg c suy hao xen thp, c tnh ph c dng b lc bng thng
(BPF) vi kh nng t c khong cch gia cc knh l 50 GHz. Hai tham s quan
trng nht ca mt b lc cch t Bragg l h s phn x v rng ph. Thng
rng ph vo khong 0, 1 nm trong khi h s phn x c th t hn 99 %. u im
ca chng l n gin v cu to v s dng, ng thi li c h s suy hao xen thp.
Cn v nhc im l c ch s chit sut ph thuc vo nhit .
Cch t Bragg c th c s dng nh mt b ghp hay tch khi kt hp vi cc
b coupler quang. Nh hnh 2.24 ta c hai cch t Bragg kt hp cng hai coupler
quang 3dB.
Khi a chm tia sng a sc c bc sng l
1
,
2
, vo cng 1, chm sng qua
coupler 3dB th nht c chia thnh hai lung n hai cch t. Gi s bc sng
1
tha mn iu kin phn x Braggm th nh sng c bc sng
1
s b phn x bi
cch t v ti cng ra 4 ta tch c bc sng
1
.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 28
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
2.4.4 B Isolator v Circulator
Isolator l thit b cho php truyn dn ch theo mt hng v khng cho truyn
dn theo hng no khc na. N hot ng da theo nguyn l phn cc ngn
cch tn hiu. Bng cch s dng cc b ny th cc phn x t cc b khuch i hay
laser c th c cch ly khi tn hiu.
Circulator l mt thit b tng t Isolator, nhng n c nhiu cng. Hnh 2.27 m
t mt Circulator vi 4 cng vo v 4 cng ra. Tn hiu t mi cng c hng ti
mt cng ra v b ngn ti cc cng cn li.
ng dng ca b cch ly ny c th l dng trong cc module tch ghp knh
quang. Tn hiu ti u ra mi b pht mt bc sng ring, nhng tia sng ny
c ghp li v truyn vo si quang. Thit b thc hin chc nng ny gi l b
ghp knh quang (Multiplexer hay MUX). Ngc li, pha thu c mt thit b tch
tn hiu quang thu c thnh cc knh quang c bc sng khc nhau a n mi
b thu quang ring bit.
CHNG 3
CC PHN T TCH CC
3.1. C S VT L CHUNG CA CC PHN T TCH
Khc vi cc phn t th ng, c s vt l chung cho cc phn t tch cc l vt
l bn dn. Tuy nhin do tn hiu x l ca cc phn t ny l nh sng nn cc kin
thc vt l v nh sng (nh nu chng 1) cng c s dng trong phn t tch
cc.
Khi hot ng, cc phn t ny cn phi c ngun kch thch. Cc ngun ny
lun i km theo nn yu cu ca cc phn t tch cc cng phc tp hn phn t th
ng. V tr t thit b, cc vn v bo dng, an ton v in cng cn c quan
tm. T a xt n c s vt l chung cho cc phn t tch cc ny.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 29
1 2
3
2
3 4
1
4
Hnh 2.24 Circulator 4 cng ra v 4 cng vo
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.1.1. Cc khi nim vt l bn dn
Vt l bn dn l c s hot ng cho rt nhiu linh kin in t trong c cc
phn t tch cc hot ng trong h thng thng tin quang.
3.1.1.1 Lp tip gip p-n
Bn thn cc vt liu pha tp loi p hay n ch nh l nhng cht dn in tt hn
so vi bn dn thun. Tuy nhin khi ta s dng kt hp hai loi vt liu ny th s c
c nhng c tnh ht sc ng ch . Mt vt liu loi p c ghp vi vt liu loi
n s cho ta mt lp tip xc c gi l tip gip p-n. Khi tip gip p n c to ra,
cc ht mang a s s khuch tn qua n : L trng bn p khuch tn sang bn n, in
t bn n khuch tn sang bn p. Kt qu l to ra mt in trng tip xc E
tx
t
ngang tip gip p n. Chnh in trng ny s ngn cn cc chuyn ng ca cc
in tch khi tnh trng cn bng c thit lp. Lc ny, vng tip gip khng c
cc ht mang di ng. Vng ny gi l vng ngho hay vng in tch khng gian.
Khi cp mt in p cho tip gip ny, cc dng ngun ni vi vt liu n, cc m
ni vi vt liu p th tip gip ny c gi l phn cc ngc. (Nh hnh 3.2b). Nu
phn cc ngc cho tip gip p n, vng ngho s b m rng ra v c hai pha. iu
ny cng cn tr cc ht mang a s trn qua tip gip. Tuy nhin vn c mt s lng
nh ht mang thiu s trn qua tip gip ti iu kin nhit v in p bnh thng.
Cn khi phn cc thun cho tip gip (cc m ni vi vt liu n, cn cc dng ni
vi vt liu p nh hnh 3.2c) th cc in t vng dn pha n v cc l trng vng ha
pha p li c php khuch tn qua tip gip. Lc ny vic kt hp cc ht mang
thiu s tng ln. Cc ht mang tng ln s ti hp vi ht mang a s. Qu trnh ti
kt hp cc ht mang d ra chnh l c ch pht ra nh sng.

Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 30
Loi n Loi p Loi n Loi p
Loi n Loi p
Vng ngho
Tip gip
p-n
Hnh 3.2 Phn cc cho cc lp tip gip
a) Tip gip p-n
c) Phn cc thun
b) Phn cc ngc
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Cc cht bn dn thng c phn ra thnh vt liu c gii cm trc tip v vt liu
c gii cm gin tip ty thuc dng ca di cm (nh hnh 3.3).
Xt qu trnh ti hp ca l trng v in t km theo s pht x photon, ngi ta
thy qu trnh ti kt hp d xy ra nht v n gin nht khi m l trng v in t c
cng ng lng. Trong trng hp ny ta c vt liu gii cm trc tip. Cn trong
trng hp vt liu c di cm gin tip, cc mc nng lng nh nht vng dn v
cc mc nng lng nh nht vng ha li xy ra cc gi tr ng lng khc
nhau. Nh vy vic ti kt hp y cn phi c phn t th ba duy tr ng lng
bi v ng lng photon l rt nh.
3.1.2. Cc qu trnh c trng trong vt l bn dn
3.1.2.1. Qu trnh hp th v pht x
Trong vt liu, iu kin bnh thng c xy ra cc qu trnh tng tc gia vt
cht v mi trng xung quanh, v to ra cc hin tng pht x, bc x hay hp
th phn tch cc qu trnh pht x v hp th ta xt mt h c hai mc nng
lng E
1
v E
2
vi E
2
> E
1
nh hnh 3.4 sau. Trong E
1
l trng thi c s, cn E
2
l
trng thi kch thch.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 31
Nng
lng
vng
cm
trc
tip
Nng
lng
vng
cm
gin
tip
E
dir
Chuyn dch in t
hf=E
dir
E
ind
hf=E
ind
+E
ph
Nng lng
photon E
ph
a) b)
Hnh 3.3 S pht photon vi vt liu di cm trc tip (a) v gin tip (b)
Vng dn Vng dn
Vng ha tr
Vng ha tr
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Khi photon c nng lng hf = E
2
E
1
i vo vt cht, in t s hp th v
chuyn ln mc kch thch E
2
. y l qu trnh hp th nh sng. Cc in t mc
kch thch E
2
, y l trng thi khng bn nn n nhanh chng chuyn v mc c s E
1
v lc s pht ra mt photon c nng lng l hf = E
2
E
1
. Ta c qu trnh pht x
t pht. Photon c to ra t pht th c hng ngu nhin v khng c lin h v
pha, tc l nh sng khng kt hp. Cn pht x cng bc xy ra khi c mt photon
c nng lng ph hp tng tc vi nguyn t trng thi kch thch v pht x ra
cc photon ging ht nhau v nng lng v pha. Ta c cc phng trnh tc c
trng cho cc qu trnh ny nh sau :
Tc pht x t pht : R
spon
=A.N
2
Tc pht x kch thch : R
stim
= B.N
2
.
Tc hp th : R
abs
= C. N
1.

Trong : N
1
, N
2
l mt nguyn t ti mc E
1
v E
2
,
l mt ph nng lng chiu x.
iu kin cn bng nhit th mt ph nng lng chiu x phn b theo thng
k Boltzman nh sau :
) exp( ) exp(
1
2
T k
hf
T k
E
N
N
B B
g

(3-2)
Trong : T l nhit tuyt i ca h nguyn t.
N
1
, N
2
khng ph thuc thi gian trong trng thi cn bng nhit, ngha l tc
chuyn di ln xung ca nguyn t phi bng nhau. Do :
A.N
2
+ B.N
2
.= C. N
1.
(3-3)
T cng thc 3-2 v 3-3 ta c mt ph nng lng c tnh nh sau :
1 ) exp(

T k
hf
B
C
B
A
B

(3-4)
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1
E
2
E
1
hf hf
hf
1
hf
2
hf
a, Hp th b, Pht x t pht c, Pht x kch thch
32
Hnh 3.4 S qu trnh hp th, pht x v pht x kch thch
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Theo cng thc Plank mt ph nng lng chiu x phi bng mt ph pht
x vt en tuyt i :
1 exp
8
3
3

,
_

T k
hf
c
f
h
B


Nh vy : B
c
hf
A
3
3
8
v C=B (vi A, B l h s Anhxtanh).
3.1.2.2 Trng thi o mt
nh sng c th pht ra t vt liu bn dn l kt qu ca qu trnh ti hp in t
v l trng (e-h). Trong iu kin cn bng nhit, t l pht x kch thch rt nh so vi
pht x t pht, tc l nng e h sinh ra do kch thch rt thp. c pht x kch
thch ta phi thc hin tng s lng ln cc in t v l trng trong vng dn v
vng ha tr. Ta xt mt tip gip p n vi hai loi vt liu bn dn loi n v p pha tp
cao n mc suy bin. Mc Fermi bn bn dn loi n nm vo bn trong vng dn v
mc Fermi trong bn dn p nm vo bn trong vng ha tr. Ti cn bng nhit mc
Fermi hai bn bn dn loi n v p nm trng nhau, lc ny khng c qu trnh bm ht
ti (hnh 3.5a). Khi phn cc thun ln, cc mc Fermi hai min tch ra, lc ny
th cc in t bn bn dn loi n v l trng bn bn dn p c bm in tch khng
gian (hnh 3.5b). Khi in th t vo tip gip p-n tng ln qu trnh bm ny
t n mc cao th trong min in tch khng gian c rng l d s c mt s
lng ln cc in t nm trn vng dn v mt s lng ln l trng nm di vng
ha tr. Trng thi ny gi l o mt .
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 33
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Nh vy iu kin c trng thi o mt l bn dn hai min p v n phi
pha tp mnh cc mc Fermi nm vo bn trong vng dn v vng ha tr. Th
phn cc thun phi ln in t v l trng c th bm vo vng dn v vng
ha tr. Hiu hai mc Fermi hai vng bn dn loi n v p ln hn nng lng vng
cm, ngha l : E
fc
E
fv
> E
g
.
Trn y l cc c s vt l bn dn phn tch c ch hot ng ca cc phn t
tch cc trong thng tin quang c cp trong cc phn tip theo.
3.2. NGUN QUANG
Vai tr ca cc b pht quang l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang v a
tn hiu quang ny vo si quang truyn ti pha thu. Linh kin chnh trong b pht
quang l ngun pht quang. Trong h thng thng tin quang cc ngun quang c s
dng l it pht quang (LED) v laser bn dn (Laser Diode LD). C s vt l ca
cc ngun quang bn dn ny nh nu trn. Chng c nhiu u im nh : kch
thc nh, hiu sut chuyn i quang in rt cao, c vng bc sng pht quang
thch hp vi si quang v c th iu bin trc tip bng dng bm vi tn s kh
cao.
3.2.1. it pht quang.
LED (Light Emitted Diode) l mt loi ngun pht quang ph hp cho cc h
thn thng tin quang c tc bt khng qu 200Mb/s s dng si dn quang a
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1
P N
E
c
E
fv
E
v
E
fc
E
g
E
c
E
v
E
fv
E
g
E
fc
V
F
E
c
E
v
E
fv
E
fc
V
F
d
hf
a, Ban u cha
bm
b, Mc Fermi tch
ra khi c phn cc
thun
c, Bm cao pht x
photon
Hnh 3.5 Gin nng lng ca tip gip p-n vi bn dn suy bin
34
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
mode. Tuy nhin hin nay trong phng th nghim ngi ta c th s dng c tc
bt ti 556 Mb/s do c s ci tin cng ngh cao.
3.2.1.1 Cu trc LED
C hai loi cu trc LED c s dng rng ri l cu trc tip gip thun nht v
cu trc tip gip d th. Trong qu trnh nghin cu v thc nghim, cu trc d th
kp mang li hiu qu hn v c ng dng nhiu hn. c im ca cu trc d th
kp l c hai lp bn dn khc nhau mi bn ca vng bn dn tch cc, y cng
chnh l cu trc khai trin nghin cu LASER . Vi cu trc d th ta c, hai loi
l cu trc pht x mt v pht x cnh.
A. Cu trc LED pht x mt
LED pht x mt c mt phng ca vng pht ra nh sng vung gc vi trc ca
si dn quang (hnh 3.6a). Vng tch cc thng c dng phin trn, ng knh
khong 50m v dy khong 25m. Mu pht ch yu l ng hng vi rng
chm pht khong 120
o
. Mu pht ng hng ny gi l mu Lambertian. Khi quan
st t bt k hng no th rng ngun pht cng ngang bng nhau nhng cng
sut li gim theo hm cos vi l gc hp gia hng quan st vi php tuyn ca
b mt. Cng sut gim 50% so vi nh khi =60.
B. Cu trc LED pht x cnh
LED pht x cnh c cu trc gm mt vng tip gip tch cc c vai tr l ngun
pht nh sng khng kt hp, v hai lp dn u c chit sut thp hn ch s chit
sut ca vng tch cc nhng li cao hn chit sut ca cc vng vt liu bao quanh
(hnh 3.6b). Cu trc ny hnh thnh mt knh dn sng hng s pht x v pha
li si. tng hp c vi li si dn quang c ng knh nh ( c 50- 100m),
cc di tip xc i vi LED pht x cnh phi rng t 50m n 70m. di ca
cc vng tch cc thng l t 100m n 150m. Mu pht x cnh c nh hng
tt hn so vi LED pht x mt.
3.2.1.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca LED
Nguyn l lm vic ca LED da vo hiu ng pht sng khi c hin tng ti hp
cc in t v l trng vng tip gip p-n. Do vy, LED s pht sng nu c phn
cc thun. Khi c phn cc thun cc ht mang a s s khuch tn t qua tip
gip p-n : in t khuch tn t pha n sang pha p v ngc li, l trng khuch tn t
pha p sang pha n, chng gp nhau v ti hp pht sinh nh sng. Vi cu trc d th
kp, c hai loi ht dn v trng nh sng c giam gi ti trung tm ca lp tch
cc (hnh 3.7). S khc nhau v rng vng cm ca cc lp k cn giam gi cc
ht in tch bn trong lp tch cc. ng thi, s khc nhau v chit sut ca cc
lp k cn ny giam gi trng quang v cc ht dn ny lm tng bc x v
hiu sut cao.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 35
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
mt cht bn dn pht sng th s cn bng nhit phi b ph v. Tc ti hp
trong qa trnh ti hp c bc x t l vi nng in t trong phn bn dn p v
nng l trng trong bn dn n. y l cc ht dn thiu s trong cht bn dn.
tng tc ti hp tc l tng s photon bc x ra th cn phi gia tng nng ht
dn thiu s trong cc phn bn dn. Nng ht dn thiu s c bm vo cc phn
bn dn t l vi cng dng in ca LED, do cng pht quang ca LED
t l vi cng dng in qua it.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 36
Cht nn
Cht nn
Ta nhit
Kim loi
Lp dn nh
sng
Gii tip xc
Min hot tnh
SiO
2
nh sng pht ra
Hnh 3.6b Cu trc LED pht x cnh
Si quang
Phin chu nhit
SiO
2
SiO
2
Cc lp
tip gip
Ging khc
hnh trn Vt liu bao ph
in cc
Lp cu
trc d
th kp
Hnh 3.6a Cu trc LED pht x mt
Cc lp d
th kp
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.2.1.3. ng dng ca LED
Thng th nh sng pht x ca LED l nh sng khng kt hp v l nh sng t
pht. Do cng sut pht x ca LED thp, rng ph rng v hiu ng lng t
thp. N thng ch c p dng cho cc mng c khong cch ngn nh mng
LAN. Tuy nhin do cng sut u ra ca n t ph thuc vo nhit v c ch to
n gin, n nh cao, LED vn c s dng rng ri trong cc h thng truyn
tc thp.
3.2.2. Ngun pht laser (Light Amplication By Stimulate Emission of
Radiation )
- C rng ph hp
- Bc song n nh
- c s dng vi si n mode
- Cho php s dng vi h truyn dn tc cao v c ly di.
3.2.2.1 Nguyn l hot ng
L kt qu ca 3 qu trnh : hp th proton , bc x t pht v bc x kch thch.
- Hp thu: khi proton c nng lng ln hn E2 E1 c th b hp th bi cc
in t ti mc nn v chuyn ti mc kch thch.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 37
E
g
Ti hp in
t v l trng
hf
Dng l trng
Dng in t
Nng
lng
in t
Vng dn sng
Vng tch
cc
Ch s
chit
sut
Hnh 3.7 Cu trc d th kp hiu sut pht x cao nh chnh lch: a) rng
vng cm v b) chnh lch chit sut
a)
b)
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
- Bc x t pht: in t trng thi kch thch c th b chuyn v trng thi nn
v pht ra proton c nng lng hv= E2 - E1
- Bc x kch thch: nu proton c nng lng hv tc ng vo h thng trong khi
in t ang trng tri kch thch th in t s b ri xung trng thi nn v
pht ra proton c hng cng hng ca proton ti.
3.3. B THU QUANG
B thu quang l phn chu trch nhim chuyn i tn hiu quang thu c t mi
trng truyn dn sang tn hiu in v phc hi cc s liu truyn qua h thng
thng tin quang ny. Linh kin ch yu thc hin chc nng chuyn i quang in
trong b thu quang l cc b tch quang cn c gi l detector. Hai b tch quang
thng c s dng trong thng tin quang l photodiode loi PIN v APD.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 38
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.3.1. Photodiode PIN
y l b tch sng quang thng dng nht c s dng. c im ca cc
Photodiode PIN l c thi gian p ng nhanh v hiu sut lng t cao. N khng c
kh nng khuch i dng quang in nhng n li trnh c s khuch i nhiu.
3.3.1.1. Cu trc ca PIN
Cu trc c bn ca Photodiode PIN l bao gm mt lp tip gip p-n v cch
gia hai lp bn dn ny l nt lp bn dn yu loi N t kch hot ni ti hay cn gi
l lp t dn i. Lp p thng rt mng hp th ht cc photon vp lp bn dn i.
Lc ny rng ca vng ngho (W) c tng v chiu di ca lp bn dn i (i cng
dy th W cng ln). Thm vo trnh gy tn hao nh sng vo th trn b mt
ca vng ngho c ph thm mt lp chng phn x. Cu trc ny c m t trong
hnh 3.27 sau.
3.3.1.2. Nguyn l hot ng
Nguyn l hot ng ca Photodiode PIN da trn hiu ng quang in. Khi chiu
mt photon c nng lng ln hn nng lng vng cm vo b mt bn dn ca
Photodiode th qu trnh hp th photon xy ra. Khi hp th mt photon, mt in t
c kch thch t vng ha tr ln vng dn li mt trong vng ha tr mt l
trng, ta ni photon to ra mt cp in t v l trng (nh hnh 3.28).
Cc cp in t - l trng ny c sinh ra trong vng ngho. Khi c in trng
t vo linh kin, s c s chuyn ri cc in tch v hai cc (in t v pha n cong
l trng ht v pha p nh hnh 3.28) to ra dng in mch ngoi, dng in ny
c gi l dng quang in. Bnh thng mt photon ch c th to ra mt cp in
t - l trng, vi gi thit hiu sut lng t bng 1, ngha l vi mt lng photon xc
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1
InGaAs
p i n
W
E
di
Au/Au-Sn
InP
InP
p
i
n
n
+
-InP
4m
a) b)
Hnh 3.27 Cu trc PIN vi phn b trng dng hnh xin(a) v
cu trc PIN s dng vt liu InGaAs (b).
39
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
nh ch c th to ra mt dng in xc nh. Tuy nhin trong thc t khng c nh
vy v nh sng cn b tn hao do nhiu yu t trong c yu t phn x b mt.
L trng int
i
p n
hv
R
p
I
Tnhiura
Photon
Vngdn
Vnghatr Vngngho
L trng
int
Vngcm
g
E h
Hnh3.28Sv ngnnglngca
PIN
Ta c cng thc bc x quang b hp th trong vt liu bn dn tun theo hm m
sau : P(x)= P
in
(1-
) (
e ) (3-8)
Trong : P(x) l cng sut quang c hp th c ly x
P
in
l cng sut quang ti
() l h s hp th ti bc sng .
Nh vy kh nng thm nhp ca nh sng vo lp bn dn thay di theo bc
sng. V vy, lp bn dn p khng c qu dy. Min i cng dy th hiu sut lng
t cng ln, v xc sut to ra cc cp in t v l trng tng ln theo dy ca min
ny v do cc photon c nhiu kh nng tip xc vi cc nguyn t hn. Tuy nhin,
nu di min i cao th thi gian tri ca cc ht ny di hn, xung nh sng a vo
cng phi tng ln tng ng vi thi gian tri tng. iu ny khin cho p ng
v bng tn iu bin b hn ch. Do , rng ca min i khng c qu ln v
nh th tc bt s b gim i. Ta phi chn di min i rng m bo iu
kin nht nh l hp th ht photon trong vng ngho v khng nh hng thi gian
tri.
Thng hay chn :

2 1
< < W
Vi ty thuc vo vt liu.
Khi bc sng nh sng tng th kh nng i qua bn dn cng tng ln, nh sng
c th i qua bn dn m khng to ra cc cp in t v l trng. Do vt liu bn
dn phi c s dng bc sng ti hn. Bc sng ny c tnh da vo rng
vng cm E
g
theo cng thc sau :
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 40
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang

c
=
) (
24 , 1
eV E E
hc
g g

Tm li PIN hot ng da trn nguyn l hp th nh sng bin i tn hiu
quang thu vo thnh dng tn hiu in. Cc thng s bin i ca chc nng ny c
phn tch phn tip theo sau y.
3.3.1.3 c tnh ca PIN
c tnh ca Photodiode thng c c trng bi h s p ng (cn gi l
nhy ca ngun thu) v hiu sut lng t .
A. Hiu sut lng t
Hiu sut lng t c nh ngha l xc sut mt photon ri vo b mt linh
kin b hp th lm sinh ra mt cp in t v l trng gp phn vo dng in mch
ngoi. Khi c nhiu photon n b mt bn dn th hiu sut lng t l t s ca
thng lng cc cp in t v l trng sinh ra gp phn to ra dng quang in
mch ngoi trn thng lng ca photon ti. Nh vy, hiu sut lng t ca PIN l t
s gia s lng ht ti chy trong mch v s photon i vo c b mt PIN trong
cng mt n v thi gian.

e
h
h
P
e
I
in
p

vi l p ng ca PIN (3-9)
Theo cng thc 3-8 th hiu sut lng t ph thuc vo bc sng. Khi ta xt n
phn nh sng b phn x ti b mt tip xc bn dn th cng sut truyn qua ca nh
sng ch cn l : P = P
in
.
W
e

(1-R) vi R l h s phn x ca b mt bn dn. Lc
hiu sut lng t ca PIN s c tnh nh sau :
= (1- R) [1-exp(-d)] (3-10)
Thnh phn d ( dy vng t dn) cng thc cho thy rng Photodiode PIN c
hiu sut lng t cng ln khi kch thc vng i cng ln.
B. nhy ca PIN
Khi hin tng hp th nh sng xy ra PIN th c mt dng quang in c
sinh mch ngoi. Dng ny t l vi cng sut i vo PIN, v c xc nh theo
cng thc sau : I
p
= . P
in

Trong l nhy ca PIN. Theo cng thc 3-9 ta suy ra :
24 , 1 .
.


c h
e
h
e
[A/W]
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 41
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Nh vy nhy PIN t l vi bc sng, vi mt hiu sut lng t l hng s
th nhy PIN tng tuyn tnh theo bc sng. Ta c hnh 3.29 m t s h thuc ca
nhy vo bc sng.
Mt khc, hiu sut lng t ca PIN ph thuc vo mt dy W ca vng tri
v h s hp th ca vt liu bn dn to ra PIN. Do , nhy ca PIN cng ph
thuc vo h s hp th ca vt liu bn dn hay ph thuc vo vt liu bn dn la
chn lm PIN.
3.3.2. Photodiode quang thc APD
Photodiode APD l loi Photodiode khng ch c kh nng chuyn i quang in
nh PIN m cn c kh nng hot ng vi c ch khuch i bn trong, tc l dng
quang in do APD to ra c kh nng c khuch i ln nhiu ln do mt s c ch
nhn ht ti.
3.3.2.1. Cu trc ca APD
V c bn, cu trc APD ging nh cu trc ca PIN nhng APD bao gm 4 lp :
p
+
- i - p - n
+
. Bn dn p
+
, n
+
l

cc bn dn pha tp mnh. Vng nhn ht ti ca APD
c hnh thnh do bn dn p n
+


3.3.2.2. Nguyn l hot ng
APD cng da vo hin tng hp th nh cc Photodiode khc to ra cc cp
in t v l trng. Bn cnh , APD cn hot ng da trn nguyn l khuch i
dng.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1
[m]
Hnh 3.29 S ph thuc ca
nhy vo bc sng.
[A/W]
z
Hnh 3.30 Cu trc APD v phn b nng lng.
Vng ngho Vng nhn ht ti
a)
p
+
i p n
+
R
L
E
b)
p
+
n
+
i
p
Vng va cham
in to
khuch i
42
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Ban u, khi cc photon c chiu vo b mt APD, chng c hp th v sn
sinh ra mt cp in t v l trng. t mt in p ngc vo APD nh hnh 3.30a, ta
thy c hin tng khuch i xy ra khi in p ny t n mt gi tr ln gy
hiu ng thc l : Cc ht mang trong vng nhn p- n
+
c in trng rt mnh, in
trng ny khin cho chng tng nng lng dn dn n khi t c trng thi in
ha, chng c tng tc, va chm vo cc nguyn t trong vng nhn to ra cc cp
in t v l trng mi. Cc ht mang in mi ny li tip tc c tng tc, va chm
v to ra cc cp in t v l trng mi. V th cc ht mang c tip tc nhn ln v
dng quang in pht ra ngoi c khuch i m ta gi l hiu ng thc l. Ta c
th xt qu trnh ny thng qua cc biu thc ton hc sau y. Tc sinh ra ht ti
th cp c c trng bi cc h s in ha
e
v
h
[cm
-1
]. i lng ny cho bit s
lng ht ti mi c sinh ra hay s lng ht ti dch i trong 1cm chiu di. Lc
qu trnh khuch i dng ca APD th hin qua phng trnh tc sau :

dx
di
e

e
.i
e
+
h
.i
h
v
dx
di
e

e
.i
e
+
h
.i
h

Trong : i
e
, i
h
l dng in t - e v l trng - h (tc l c in t v l trng u
tham gia vo qa trnh nhn ht ti) v dng tng l : I = i
e
+

i
h
.
Nu coi dng tng khng i, ta c :
dx
di
e
= (
e

h
)i
e
+
h
.I
Xt trng hp kh nng in ha ca in t ln hn ca nng in ha ca l
trng ta c :
e
>
h
. Coi nh dng in t chim ch yu, v ch c in t i qua c
vng bin n vng bn dn n, th i
h
(d) = 0 i
e
(d)=I. Ta c h s khuch i dng
(hay h s nhn M) c nh ngha l t l gia dng c khuch i v dng khi
cha c khuch i. Nh vy :
) 0 (
) (
e
e
i
d i
M
vi d l dy ca vng nhn ht ti.
Kt hp vi phng trnh tc ta c :
A e A
A
k d k
k
M

] ) 1 ( exp[
1

vi
e
h
A
k


(3-11)
Nh vy, APD thc hin bin i dng tn hiu quang vo thnh dng tn hiu
in ra, ng thi khuch i dng ra vi mt h s khuch i l M nh cng thc 3-
11.
3.3.2.3. c trng ca APD
Cng nh PIN, APD c cc c trng ca mt Photodiode, tuy nhin v APD c
kh nng khuch i so vi PIN nn cc tham s c trng ca n c thm h s nhn
M.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 43
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
nhy ca APD c xc nh theo cng thc sau :

APD
= .M =

h
e .
.M
Trong l nhy ca PIN.
Nh vy nhy ca APD cng ph thuc vo bc sng nh PIN ng thi cng
ph thuc vo h s khuch i. Thc cht c ch khuch i l mt qu trnh thng
k, n ph thuc vo h s in ha ca cc nguyn t khc nhau.
Theo nh cng thc 3-10, th thy rng M rt nhy cm vi cc h s
e
, v
h
.
Xt i vi cc trng hp khc nhau sau :
+ Khi
h
= 0 (qu trnh nhn ht ti ch yu ch do in t) th k
A
= 0.
Lc : M = exp (
e
.d)
+ Khi
e
=
h
tng t ta c : k
A
= 1.Lc ta c :
M lim
d k d k
k
e A e A
A

1
1
] ) 1 ( exp[
1

Cc vt liu khc nhau th h s in ha in t v l trng khc nhau. Khi
e
.d
1 th M , nn APD thng chn
e

h
hoc
h

e
. qu trnh nhn ht ti ch
bi mt loi ht.
Bn cnh M l mt hm ph thuc vo tn s :
M()= M
0
[1+(
e
.M
0
)
2
]
-1/2
Trong : M
0
l gi tr M ti = 0

e
l thi gian chuyn tip hiu dng
M cn l hm V
b
(V) ph thuc vo nhit . Nh m t trong hnh 3.31 th M tng
khi V
b
tng v c tuyn ny ty thuc vo cc nhit khc nhau.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 44
100 200 300 V
b
(V)
T
1
T
2
T
3
1000

100

10
M
Hnh 3.31 S ph thuc ca c tuyn M/V
b
vo nhit
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.4 B khuch i
Nh cp trong phn trc, khong cch truyn dn ca bt k h thng
thng tin quang si no cng b hn ch bi cc suy hao hay tn sc. Trong cc h
thng thng tin quang ng di cc mt mt quang ny c khc phc bng cc
trm lp, trong tn hiu quang suy gim c bin i thnh tn hiu in v c
a vo b pht li phc hi tn hiu quang ri tip tc truyn i. Tuy nhin khi s
dng cc h thng thng tin quang ghp theo bc sng WDM th cc thit b lp ny
li gy ra kh khn, v i hi k thut v vt liu phc tp, tn km hn.
T nm 1980, vn khuch i quang trc tip bng cc linh kin quang c
nghin cu v trong nhng nm 1990 cc h thng ng trc thng tin quang s
dng cc b khuch i quang trc tip mt cch rng ri. Trong nm 1996, cc b
khuch i quang c s dng trong cc tuyn cp bin xuyn i dng. n nay
c nhiu b khuch i quang c nghin cu v ng dng nh : khuch i
quang Laser bn dn, cc b khuch i quang pha tp t him, cc b khuch i
Raman si, v cc b khuch i Brillouin si. Trong , hai b khuch i c s
dng rng ri nht l : khuch i quang bn dn (SOA) v khuch i quang si pha
tp t him Er (EDFA) v ln lt c xt trong phn ny.
3.4.1. B khuch i quang bn dn.
Cc b khuch i quang bn dn hot ng ch yu da trn nguyn l ca Laser
bn dn, nguyn l khuch i c s dng trc khi xy ra ngng pht x Laser.
3.4.1.1. Cu trc b SOA
Cu trc c bn da trn cu trc ca Laser bn dn thng thng, c d rng
vng tch cc W, dy d v chiu di L, ch s chit sut l n. Hnh 3.35 m t mt
b khuch i bn dn , tnh phn x b mt u vo v ra c k hiu tng ng l
R
1
v R
2
.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 45
d
W L
P
vo
P
ra
R
1
R
2
Hnh 3.35 Cu trc b khuch i bn dn.
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
C hai loi khuch i quang bn dn l khuch i sng chy (Travelling
Wave -TWA) v khuch i quang Fabry- Perot (FPA).
B khuch i quang bn dn TWA l cc Laser bn dn khng c hp cng
hng. B ny khuch i c hng v pha trc m khng c phn hi tn hiu. Cn
b khuch i quang FPA s dng cc cnh tinh th l gng phn x trong b cng
hng (vi R 32%), khi dng bm Laser bn dn di ngng pht, n s hot
ng nh mt b khuch i, tuy nhin cc thnh phn phn x trn ngng vn tham
gia vo qa trnh khuch i.
3.4.1.2. Cc thng s ca b khuch i SOA
Cc thng s trong cc linh kin khuch i bn dn bao gm : h s khuch i,
tp m v hiu ng nhy phn cc.
a, H s khuch i
H s khuch i trong b khuch i quang bn dn c th hin thng qua
cng thc : G = P
ra
/P
vo
. Ty thuc vo b khuch i AW hay FP m ta c h s
khuch i khc nhau tuy nhin mt h s chung c xt cho cc b SOA ny l h
s khuch i bo ha (hay h s tng ch bo ha). Tng ch (khuch i) nh gi
thit s tng dn theo mt ht ti nh sau:
g(N)= (
g
/V) (N-N
0
) (3-12)
Trong : l yu t chn

g
l tng ch vi phn
V l th tch vng hot tnh
N
0
l gi tr ca mt ht ti cn thit mi trng tr nn trong sut
vi bc sng.
H s khuch i gim khi yu t chn tnh n s dn n ca cc mode dn
sng vt ra khi vng tng ch. Mt ht ti N thay i theo dng bm I. ta c cng
thc cho tc thay i N l :
P
h
N N
N
q
I
dt
dN
m
g
c

) (
0


(3-13)
Trong : P l cng sut quang tn hiu ti

m
l in tch tit din ca mode dn sng

c
l thi gian sng ca ht ti
Khi chm sng ti l lin tc hoc l xung vi rng ln hn
c
, trng thi dng
ca N c th xc nh khi dN/dt = 0 . Thay vo cng thc 3-12 ta tnh c N. Thay
gi tr N trng thi dng vo cng thc 3-11Ta c :
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 46
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang

s
o
P
P
g
g
+

1
(3-14)
Trong : g
0
= (
g
/V)(I
c
/q-N
0
)
P
s
=h .
m
/(
g

c
) l cng sut bo ha ca b khuch i.
T cng thc ta thy tng ch bo ha ca SOA ging nh h hai mc, lc ta c
cng sut ra bo ha ca b khuch i l :
s
o
S
ra
P
G
G
P
2
) 2 (ln
0

Gi tr ca cng sut ra bo ha trong cc b khuch i quang bn dn hin nay


thng l 5-10 mW.
B. Tp m ca SOA
Tp m ca SOA c nh ngha l t l gia t s tn hiu trn tp m ca tn
hiu vo v tn hiu ra v c k hiu l F
n
. H s tp m ny ca SOA ln hn 3dB
v ph thuc nhiu vo thng s, c bit l yu t pht x ngu nhin:
0
N N
N
n
sp

S mt mt quang ni nh hp th quang do ht ti t do v tn x s ng gp
thm tp m vo hnh nh nhiu thng qua h s tng ch g
int
. Do ta c tp m
b khuch i c tnh nh sau :

,
_

,
_

int 0
2
g
g
N N
N
F
n
Thc t gi tr thng thng ca F
n
trong b SOA nm trong khong 5-7dB.
C. Hiu ng nhy phn cc
H s khuch i G i vi cc mode TE v TM l khc nhau ( 5-6dB) do G v

g
khc nhau vi cc mode phn cc trc giao. Hiu ng trn dn ti h s khuch
i ph thuc vo trng thi phn cc ca chm sng ti. Hiu ng ny khng c li
cho cc h thng thng tin quang.
C rt nhiu phng n lm gim hiu ng nhy phn cc ca b khuch i
SOA v phng n kh thi trong cng ngh ch to l dy v rng ca vng hot
tnh phi tng thch. Th d chnh lch tng ch gia cc mode TE v TM l 1,3dB
khi dy ca lp hot tnh l 0,26m v dy l 0,4m.
3.4.2.1. Cu trc v nguyn l hot ng ca b EDFA
B khuch i quang si EDFA c cu trc bi mt on quang si pha tp
Erbium cng cc thnh phn cn thit khc. Cc thnh phn ny gm cc thnh phn
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 47
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
thit b ghp th ng WDM, b cch ly quang Isolator, Laser bm Ta c th m t
mt b EDFA thc t nh hnh 3.35. y l cu hnh bm xui ca b EDFA.
Thnh phn chnh ca b khuch i quang si EDFA l mt on si quang pha
tp Erbium, c chiu di t vi mt n vi chc mt. Si ny c xem l si tch cc
v chng c kh nng khuch i hoc ti to tn hiu khi c kch thch ph hp. on
li si l thy tinh SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
pha trn t him Erbium vi nng 100 -2000
ppm. Cc si EDFA thng c li nh hn v khu s NA cao hn so vi si tiu
chun. Cc in Erbium tp trung phn trung tm ca li. Ngoi s pha tp Erbium
trong vng li, cu trc on si quang pha tp l hon ton ging vi cu trc ca si
n mode. Lp v thy tinh c ch s chit sut thp hn c bao quanh li hon
thin cu trc dn sng. ng knh ngoi ca lp v ny l 125m.
Nguyn l hot ng ca EDFA da vo c tnh ca nguyn t Erbium- mt
nguyn t c tnh nng quang tch cc.
Cc in Erbium c bm ti mt mc nng lng pha trn do s hp th nh
sng t mt ngun bm, chng hn nh bc sng 980nm. S chuyn dch ca in
t t mc nng lng cao ny xung mc nng lng c bn pht ra mt photon,
photon ny c bc x c th l do hin tng bc x t pht hay bc x kch thch .
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 48
Tn hiu vo
Hnh 3.36 Cu trc in hnh ca b khuch i quang si EDFA.
Tn hiu ra
EDF
Coupler WDM
LD
Bm nng
lng
=980nm
Mc kch thch
Phn r khng bc x
Mc siu bn
Tn hiu c
khuch i
Mc c bn
Tn hiu ti
Hnh 3.37 Gin nng lng ca Erbium
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Cc photon tn hiu trong EDFA kch thch s ti nh c trng thi kch thch v
khuch i tn hiu. Thi gian sng ca in t mc nng lng cao vo khong
14ms, m bo rng nhiu bc x gy ra do qu trnh bc x t pht thay bng cc
bc x kch thch do cc nguyn t Erbium.
S hp th nh sng bm kch thch cc in Erbium m chng tch tr nng lng
s xy ra cho n khi mt cch l tng l c mt photon tn hiu kch thch s chuyn
i n thnh mt in tn hiu khc. nh sng bm c truyn dc theo si c pha
Erbium v b hp th khi cc in Erbium c a n trng thi kch thch. Do khi
tn hiu c truyn vo b EDFA, n kch thch s pht x ca nh sng t cc in
trng thi kch thch, v khuch i cng sut tn hiu u ra.
3.4.2.2. c tnh ca b EDFA
B EDFA cng c nhng thng s nh mt b khuch i nh cc thng s v
khuch i, tp m, nhy phn cc. Sau y ln lt xt cc thng s c tnh ny.
A. H s khuch i
H s khuch i cng sut ra v nhiu khuch i l cc c tnh quan trng nht
ca EDFA trong vic dng n trong h thng thng tin quang. H s khuch i l t
s gia cng sut tn hiu ra v cng sut tn hiu vo bc sng 1530nm v
1550nm m ti EDFA c kh nng khuch i cao nht. H s ny ca EDFA ph
thuc nhiu vo thng s ca linh kin nh : nng in Er
+3
, di khuch i, bn
knh li si v bn knh pha tp, cng sut bm xc nh h s khuch i ny
ta xt m hnh 2 mc nng lng ca EDFA (b qua mc trung gian )
Gi mt ht mc nng lng 1, 2, ln lt l N
1
, N
2
. Ta c phng trnh tc
c vit nh sau :
1
2
1 2 1
2
) (
T
N
N N W N W
t
N
s p

v N
1
= N
t
N
2
(3-15)
Trong : N
t
l mt ca nguyn t
T
1
l thi gian sng mc kch thch
W
p
, W
s
l tc chuyn di ca sng bm v sng tn hiu.
Ta c : W
p
=
p
P
p
/a
p
.h
p
v W
s
=
s
P
s
/a
s
.h
s
(3-16)
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 49

P P

S S
1.Trng thi nn
2. Trng thi kch
thch

2
1
Hnh 3.38 Gin nng lng
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Vi
p
,
s
l tit din chuyn di ca tn s bm v tn hiu ti tn s bm
p
v tn
s tn hiu
s
a
p
, a
s
din tch tit din cu mode bm v mode tn hiu
P
p
v P
s
l cng sut bm v cng sut tn hiu.
T vic gii cc phng trnh 3-15 v 3-16 ta xc nh c cng sut bo ha:
1
T
h a
P
p
p p sat
p

v
1
T
h a
P
s
s p
sat
s

.
Cng sut bm ph thuc v cng sut tn hiu thay i dc theo di b khuch
i bi hp th, pht x cng bc v pht x ngu nhin. Nu coi thnh phn tham
gia ca pht x ngu nhin rt nh, c th b qua, th ta c th xc nh c gi tr
tng ca cng sut tn hiu c khuch i trong EDFA. H s khuch i cn ph
thuc vo di b khuch i L khi ta c dng bm c nh, khi di L ln hn gi
tr ti u ca dng bm, on si pha tp tha s khng c bm v trong b
khuch i s xy ra hin tng hp th tn hiu c khuch i trc. Ta c
biu h s khuch i ph thuc vo cng sut bm v chiu di khuch i nh
hnh 3.38.
B. Tp m ca b khuch i
Tp m trong b khuch i quang si c nh gi thng qua cc h s tp m
F
n
= 2n
sp
c phn tch trn. Yu t pht x ngu nhin n
sp
lun ln hn 1 v vy
F
n
lun ln hn 3dB. V h s pht x ngu nhin l thnh phn ph thuc vo mt
ht ti N
1
v N
2
nn F
n
cng nh h s khuch i, n cng ph thuc vo cng sut
dng bm, cng sut tn hiu v chiu di khuch i. Thc nghim cho thy : vi F
n
=3,2dB ca b khuch i EDFA th c di 30m v bm vi cng sut 11mW
bc sng 980nm.
3.5. B chuyn i bc sng
B chuyn i bc sng c s dng nhm chuyn bc sng ca mt tn hiu
vo thnh mt bc sng khc. Chng c th c s dng nh mt phn ca chuyn
mch, b ni cho hay mt b lp 3R. Cc b lp 3R l thit b c kh nng ti sinh
bin tn hiu trong min tn s cng nh min thi gian.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 50
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
B chuyn i bc sng c th l thit b quang in (khng ph bin) hoc c
th l thit b da trn c s cch t quang hoc b trn sng.
3.5.1. B chuyn i bc sng quang in
Trong b chuyn i bc sng quang in, tn hiu quang u tin c chuyn
sang min in thng qua s dng Photodetector (k hiu R). Lung bt in c lu
li trong mt b m theo nguyn l FIFO. Sau tn hiu in ny c hng vo
mt Laser iu chnh (k hiu T) c iu khin bc sng mong mun u ra.
Hnh 3.39 m t b chuyn i bc sng quang in.
T FIFO
Bm ha
ach
R
Hnh 3.39 B chuyn i b c sng quang in
c

Nhc im ca b ny l nh hng n tnh trong sut ca tn hiu. Ngoi ra n


cn yu cu tn hiu phi c dng v tc bt c nh.
3.5.2. B chuyn i bc sng dng cch t quang
Hai kh nng ng dng cch t quang cho b chuyn i bc sng l : Kh nng
iu ch li cho (cross-gain converter- XGC) v iu ch pha cho (cross phase
converter - XPC).
XGC s dng li ca cc b khuch i bn dn SOA theo cng sut u vo.
Tn hiu d cng sut thp vi bc sng mong mun c gi ti b SOA. V tn
hiu d c li thp hn so vi tn hiu u vo nn n s t c li cao khi tn
hiu u vo c trng thi 1 ( li thp). Ngc li tn hiu d s c li thp khi
tn hiu u vo c trng thi 0 ( li cao). Hnh 3.40 ch ra nguyn l ca XGC.
c

SOA
Lc
Hnh 3.40 Nguyn l ca XGC
XPC s dng pha ca tn hiu d thay i c ban tn hiu vo. Sau chuyn
sang iu ch mt bng vic s dng giao thoa k. Phng php ny c u im
hn XGC v n ch cn cung cp cng sut thp. Thm vo , n khng b nh hng
nhiu nu mo xung.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 51
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
3.5.3 B chuyn i bc sng dng b trn sng
tng ca b ny l to mt tn hiu mong mun bng vic s dng cc tn hiu
d vi cc bc sng m khi i cng vi tn hiu vo c th nh dng c tn hiu
u ra vi bc sng mong mun.
u im ca b trn sng l gi c tnh trong sut ca tn hiu. Tuy nhin n
li to thm tn hiu u ra, do mun thu c tn hiu mong mun th phi lc.
CHNG 4
THIT K TUYN THNG TIN QUANG
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 52
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
4.1 KHI QUT
Trnh t thit k tuyn
- Chn tuyn
- Chn cp quang
- Tnh ton chiu di cc i cho php ca thit b
- Kim tra suy hao
Mng vin thng cng cng thng c chia lm 3 phn:
Mng ng trc (Trunk network)
Mng trung k (Junction network)
Mng thu bao (Subscriber network)
Si quang hin nay c s dng trong mng ng trc v trung k. Trong
tng lai tin ti s dng si quang trong mng thu bao, ngha l ti tn ngi s
dng.
Ngoi ra si quang cn c dng trong cc mng khc nh:
Mng ring ca cc cng ty ng st, in lc,
Mng truyn s liu, mng LAN.
Mng truyn hnh.
K thut thng tin quang v ang pht trin vi tc rt nhanh. Cho n nay
c nhiu th h h thng quang c s dng. Chng khc nhau v loi si quang,
bc sng hot ng, loi linh kin thu pht quang. Khi thit k mt h thng thng
tin quang ngi ta c gng chn cc phn t trong cng mt th h gim chi ph
cho vic u t v thit b o, phng tin lp t, thit b v cp d tr, hun luyn
ngi s dng Khi cn chn la cc phn t trong cng mt h thng thng tin
quang cn cn nhc gia yu cu truyn dn ca h thng v c tnh ca cc phn t.
C s ca vic chn la c tm tt nh sau:
Si quang: si n mode (SM) c kh nng truyn dn tt hn si a mode
(MM) c v suy hao ln di thng. Ngy nay s chnh lch v gi thnh gia si
n mode v si a mode khng ng k. Vic hn ni, o th si n mode cng
khng cn l vn kh khn nn si quang n mode ang c dng rng ri. Ch
nhng tuyn c ly gn v dung lng thp ngi ta mi ngh n vic dng si a
mode.
Bc sng: gi thnh ca cc phn t hot ng bc sng 850nm l thp
nht. Nhng suy hao ca si quang bc sng ny qu cao v cc photo it s
dng cho bc sng 850nm thng ch to bng silicon khng th thu c bc
sng di (1300nm v 1550nm).
Bc sng 1300nm ang c s dng ph bin v tn sc ca si l thp
nht. Khi cn c ly tip vn di ngi ta chn bc sng 1550nm do suy hao
bc sng ny thp nht. c bit nu dng si n mode dch tn sc (SMDS) th
tn sc bc sng 1550nm cng rt nh.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 53
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Linh kin pht quang: c hai kh nng chn la l LED v laze, LED hot
ng n nh hn v gi thnh r hn nn c chn dng cho nhng h thng m s
hn ch v cng sut pht v b rng ph ca n khng nh hng n h thng. Laze
c chn dng trong nhng tuyn c c ly di v tc truyn dn cao. Laze cng
c nhiu loi vi nhng c tnh khc nhau v d nhin gi thnh cng khc nhau.
Linh kin thu quang: c th chn PIN v APD. PIN hot ng n nh hn
nhng b hn ch v nhy v tc lm vic. Ngy nay ngi ta thng chn APD
hoc PIN kt hp vi FET.
Cc h thng truyn dn s Vit nam xy dng theo h thng ghp knh ca
Chu u. Mt knh thoi tiu chun c ph gii hn t 0.3 n 3.4kHz c chuyn
sang dng s c tc 64kbit/s.
4.2. THIT K MT TUYN THNG TIN QUANG
S tuyn thng tin quang n gin
Mt tuyn truyn dn quang c th hiu n gin l mt ng truyn quang
gia hai im, gm mt b pht, mt cp quang v mt b thu. B pht bin i cc
tn hiu in thnh nh sng. nh sng c a vo cp quang truyn ti b thu.
B thu li bin i tn hiu nh sng ngc li thnh tn hiu in. Lng nh sng
c a vo cp quang c hiu l cng sut ghp ni ca b thu. Vi cc cp
quang c kch thc khc nhau, lng nh sng a vo cng khc nhau. Cp cng ln
th nh sng a vo cng c nhiu. Cp c hai loi chun, n mt (thng dng
trong ng truyn di, hay vin thng) v a mt (dng trong thng tin c ly gn
di 4.8 km). B thu nhn tn hiu nh sng t cp quang ti v bin i thnh tn hiu
in tiu chun. S chnh lch lng nh sng a vo cp quang v lng nh sng
cn cho b thu c gi l qu cng sut tuyn.
Vic tnh ton mt tuyn truyn dn quang c th c tin hnh theo nhiu hng
khc nhau ty theo yu cu t ra, chng hn:
Tnh c ly ti a ca on tip vn khi bit tc bit cn truyn dn v
c tnh ca cc phn t trong tuyn.
Tnh gii hn c tnh ca cc phn t khi bit tc v c ly cn
truyn.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 54
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Hng th nht c thc hin khi cn xc nh v tr v s lng cc trm tip
vn trn cc tuyn di. Hng th hai dng chn loi si quang, thit b thu pht
quang khi bit c ly thng tin.
C ly ti a ca on tip vn phi c lu c v qu cng sut ln di
thng v ch cn mt trong hai b gii hn th thng tin gia hai trm cng khng thc
hin c. Nu qu cng sut b gii hn th cng sut ca tn hiu quang n u thu
di mc ngng ca my thu. Cn nu di thng b gii hn (do tn sc cao) th tn
hiu quang n u thu b mo dng, cc xung b ni rng qu mc gii hn nn
khng cn nhn bit c xung 1 hoc xung 0.
Thng thng ngi ta tnh c ly ti a gii hn bi qu cng sut ri nghim li xem
di thng c ly c rng cho tn hiu cn truyn khng. Nu di thng ca on
tnh c rng hn di thng ca tn hiu cn truyn th c ly gii hn bi qu cng
sut c chn. Ngc li phi gim c ly di thng ca tuyn rng cho tn hiu
cn truyn.
4.2.1. Bc 1: Tnh c ly gii hn bi cng sut
Cc thng s cn bit:
Cng sut pht ca ngun quang:
Cng sut b pht phi c nh ngha l cng sut nh sng a vo mt cp quang
cho trc. Khi vng tch cc ca cp quang gim, lng cng sut a vo cng gim.
Ngoi kch thc ca cp quang, cn mt thng s quan trng na ca cp quang l
gc nhn nh sng, thng c nh ngha l NA (khu s) ca cp. NA l hm
sin ca gc nhn nh sng ca cp quang. NA gim khi vng tch cc gim, do lm
gim gc nhn nh sng.
Nu si cp cng nh v gc nhn sng cng nh th lng nh sng i vo cp quang
truyn i ti u kia ca tuyn cng nh. Bng 1 cho ta kt qu l thuyt cc t s
khi s dng cc cp vi ng knh khc nhau.
Bng 1: Bng h s ghp nh sng t mt LED vo cc cp quang c ng knh
khc nhau (t s/ dBm)
Cng sut ny ph thuc:
+ Loi ngun quang: LED, laser.
+ Tc bit hot ng
+ ng knh li si quang (lin quan n h s ghp nh sng)
nhy ca my thu quang:
Thng tnh mc li BER = 10
-9
, nhy ca b thu quang biu din theo n v
dBm (tng ng vi 1mW) v mW ging nh cng sut ca b pht. Trong hu ht
cc trng hp, b thu c thit k vi mt nhy nht nh v khng d thay i
c.Khi thit k b thu quang, ngi ta tnh n tc v nhy. Thi gian p
ng ca b thu cng nhanh th nhy cng km. nhy ph thuc:
+ Loi linh kin thu quang
+ Tc bit
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 55
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
+ Bc sng hot ng
Cc yu t suy hao:
+ Suy hao trung bnh ca si quang: ph thuc loi si v bc
sng hot ng. Thng s ny tnh c bng cch nhn ch s suy hao
dB.km
-1
ca si quang vi chiu di si. Ngi ta thng gi cc suy
hao xy ra trong khong 100m u si quang ni vi LED l suy hao tc
thi. Vi cc on si quang ngn hn th suy hao trn mi kilmet ln
hn thng s m nh sn xut a ra.
+ Suy hao ca cc mi hn (splice) v ca cc khp ni (connector):
ph thuc loi v s lng khp ni c dng. Ti thiu phi c 2 khp
ni cho hai u si. Suy hao trung bnh ca mi khp ni l 0.5 dB. Cc
suy hao ny c th tnh c d dng bng cch nhn gi tr suy hao o
c hoc thng s do nh sn xut cung cp vi s ln xut hin cc
linh kin ny trn tuyn. Vi s lng linh kin nh, s dng ch s suy
hao cao nht cho mi linh kin. Vi s lng linh kin ln, s dng ch
s suy hao trung bnh cho mi linh kin.
+ Suy hao ca cp ni i: c th b qua nu chiu di ca cp
trong i ngn.
Suy hao d phng:
+ D phng cho cp: suy hao ca cp c th tng ln theo thi gian
s dng do nhit thay i, s tn cng ca m, s xut hin cc
mi hn ph khi sa cha. Thng thng nn t suy hao d phng cho
cp khong 0.2 n 0.3 dB/km.
+ D phng cho thit b: Cng sut pht ca ngun quang gim dn
theo thi gian s dng. nhy ca my thu cng km dn. Cc mch
in ca thit b cng c th b lo ha. Do cn t suy hao d phng
cho thit b t 3 n 5dB. i khi d phng c tnh trong cng
sut pht v nhy my thu.
S phn b suy hao trn tuyn c biu din trn hnh v:
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 56
P (dBm)
Cng sut ngun quang phng vo si
Suy hao ca khp ni
Suy hao ca mi hn
Suy hao ca si
Suy hao ca khp ni
Cng sut thu
d phng
T

n
g

s
u
y

h
a
o

(
d
B
)
C ly ti a (km)
nhy ca
my thu
l (km)
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Hnh: Phn b suy hao trn mt tuyn thng tin quang
Cch tnh:
Tnh qu cng sut tng qut:
Gi P
S
: cng sut phng ca ngun quang ti im S (dBm)
P
R
: nhy ca my thu ti im R (dBm)
L
m
: suy hao d phng cho thit b (dB)
L
c
: suy hao ca cc khp ni (dB)
Qu cng sut ca tuyn l: P
b
(dB) = P
S
P
R
L
m
- L
c
Tnh suy hao ca cp:
Gi
f
: suy hao trung bnh ca si quang (dB/km)

S
: suy hao trung bnh ca mi hn trn mi km (dB/km)
C th ly gi tr gn ng:
(km) cp cun di chiu
(dB) hn mi mi binh trung hao suy

m
: suy hao d phng cho cp (dB/km)
Suy hao trung bnh ca cp l:
c
(dB/km)=
f
-
S
-
m
Khong cch ti a ca on tip vn:
(km) cp ca binh trung hao Suy
(dB) sut cng Qu
(km) vn tip cch ng Kho
m S f
c m R s
c
b
L L P P P
km L


) (
Bng gi tr suy hao trung bnh
Cc gi tr suy hao trung bnh trn tuyn thng tin quang
Bc sng
v mt
Kch
thc si
Suy hao
trn si
(dB/km)
Suy hao ti
mi hn
(dB/mi)
Suy hao ti
khp ni
(dB/u ni)
Bng thng (MHz x km)
850nm / NM 62.5/125 3dB 0.1dB 1.0dB 160
1300nm /
NM
62.5/125 1dB 0.1dB 1.0dB 500
850nm / NM 50/125 3dB 0.1dB 1.0dB 400
1300nm /
NM
50/125 1dB 0.1dB 1.0dB 500
1310nm /
SM
9/125 0.3dB 0.1dB 1.0dB v cng
1550nm /
SM
9/125 0.2dB 0.1dB 1.0dB v cng
4.2.2. Bc 2: C ly gii hn do di thng
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 57
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Cc thng s cn bit:
Tc bit cn truyn: 8 34 140- 565 Mbit/s
Loi m ng dy c s dng: khi dng m 1B2B th
tc bit tng i, khi dng m 5B6B th tc bit tng 6/5 ln.
tn sc mode (nu dng si a mode). Thng thng
tn sc mode c cho di dng di thng gii hn bi tc sc mode, n v
GHz/km.
tn sc sc th: thng ch tnh tn sc cht liu v b
qua tn sc dn sng.
rng ph ca ngun quang
Cch tnh:
Di thng v tn sc ca tuyn t l nghch vi nhau theo biu thc:
t
D
B
44 . 0

Trong B l di thng, n v GHz


D
t
l tn sc, n v ns
Do thay v so snh di thng ca tuyn vi di thng ca tn hiu cn truyn ngi
ta so snh tn sc tng cng ca tuyn vi tn sc ti a cho php ca tn hiu.
Tnh tn sc ca tuyn:
chr
t
D D D
2
mod
2
+
trong : Dt: tn sc tng cng
D
mod
: tn sc mode, c tnh theo cng thc:
) (
) . (
44 . 0
mod
km L
km GHz B
D
L

B
L
: di thng gii hn bi tn sc mode
L: c ly gii hn bi qu cng sut
D
chr
: tn sc sc th
D
chr
= D
mat
+ D
wg
D
wg
<< D
mat
D
chr
= D
mat
= d
mat
L
D
mat
: tn sc cht liu ca tuyn (ns)
D
wg
: tn sc ng dn sng (ns)
d
mat
: tn sc cht liu n v (ns/nm.km)
: rng ph ca ngun quang (nm)
Tnh tn sc ti da cho php:
tn sc ti a cho php ph thuc vo tc bit thc t ca chui xung trn ng
dy, ph thuc vo cp ghp knh v loi m ng dy c s dng.
tn sc ti a c tnh theo cng thc:
) / ( 4
1
max
s Gbit Br
D
Br: tc bit thc s trn ng dy quang.
Br = tc bit h s tng bit ca m ng dy.
So snh tn sc ca tuyn vi tn sc ti a:
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 58
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
Nu max
D D
t

: di thng khng b gii hn
Nu max
D D
t
>
: di thng b gii hn
Trng hp sau phi gim c ly ca on tip vn sao cho D
t
= Dmax.
Si n mode ch c tn sc sc th nn: D
t
= D
chr
= d
mat
L
Do tn sc ca si n mode rt nh, c bit khi dng bc sng 1300nm, nn
di thng ca si n mode rt rng. Trong nhiu trng hp ngi ta khng cn tnh
n bc 2 i vi si n mode.
4.2.3 Bi ton c th
Xt tuyn truyn dn quang ( ng trc H Ni ---- H Nam ). Bit khong
cch tuyn l 80km. Dng si n mode chit sut nhy bc (SI ) truyn tc
140Mbit/s vi m ng dy 5B6B v thng s ca cc phn t nh sau:
Cng sut pht ca ngun quang (Laser): P
S
= - 0.5dB
nhy ca my thu quang:
R P
= -44dB
Suy hao ca mi connector: L
c
= 0.5 dB; mi u dng 2 connector.
Suy hao trung bnh ca si:
f
= 0.4 dB/km ( bc sng 1300nm)
Suy hao mi mi hn:
S
= 0.1 dB, mi cun cp di 2km
Tn sc cht liu: d
mat
= 3ps/nm.km ( bc sng 1300nm)
rng ph ca ngun quang: = 3nm.
Suy hao d phng cho thit b:
m L
= 3dB
Suy hao d phng cho cp:
m=
0.25dB/km.
CCH TNH
C ly ti a ca on tip vn c tnh nh sau:
Bc 1: C ly gii hn qu cng sut:
- Qu cng sut:
Pb = P
S
- P
R
- L
m
- L
c
Pb = -0.5dB - (-44dB) - 3dB - 4x0.5dB
Pb = 38.5dB
- Suy hao trung bnh ca cp:

c
=
f
-
S
-
m

c
= 0.4 + 0.1/2 + 0.25

c
= 0.7dB/km
C ly gii hn bi qu cng sut:
km L
km / dB .
dB . P
L
c
b
55
7 0
5 38

Bc 2:
- tn sc tng cng:
chr
chr mod
t
D D D D +
2 2
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 59
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
D
t
= D
chr
= d
mat
L
= 3ps/nm.km x 3nm x 55km
= 0.5ns
- tn sc ti a cho php:
ns . D
s / Gbit . Br
D
max
max
5 1
10 140 4
1
4
1
5
6
3

- So snh tn sc:
Dt < Dmax: nn di thng khng b gii hn
Nh vy c ly ti a ca on tip vn l: L = 55km.
Nh vy m bo cht lng ca tin hiu cng nh bng thng ,tc truyn dn th
ta phi t mt trm lp trn tuyn.
T tnh ton trn ta chn thit b c th cho tuyn quang.
Ta chn si quang : l si n mode SI, dmat = 3ps/ nm.km suy hao trung bnh
ca si l 0.4 dB/ Km v Si n mode l si ch cho php truyn dn mt mode trong
n nhng kh nng v bng thng ca si kh ln (khong 40GHz). Si quang n
mode ph hp i vi h thng ng trc vi gi thnh thp. Si n mode l ch
ghp mt mode nn khng c tn sc mode bng tn ca si tng ln.
Thit b pht quang l: ngun lasez (light Amplication by stimulate Emission of
radiation ) v ngun pht c rng ph hp, bc song pht n nh, s dng vi si
n mode, s dng trong h truyn dn tc cao.
Thit b thu quang l: s dng thit b thu quang APD c nhy my thu l
Pr = - 44 dB.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 60
n: H Thng Thng Tin Quang
CHNG 5
KT LUN
n vin thng trnh by nhng nt c bn nht v mng thng tin quang,
v vic thit k tuyn thng tin quang. Nhng trong qu trnh lm n chng em cn
c phn b ng nn vic hon thnh n cn nhiu thiu st. Chng em rt mong c
c nhng kin nh gi, gp ca thy v cc bn n thm hon thin.
Nhm 5 : Lp 2_TVT1 61