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LI NI U

S pht trin ca khoa hc k thut trn th gii t c nhng thnh tu to ln trn nhiu lnh vc khc nhau. Trong phi k n l s pht trin nhanh chng ca cng ngh ch to in t v vi in t to ra c nhng thit b mng, my tnh vi kh nng x l ngy cng cao. i lin vi n l s pht trin rt nhanh ca mng Internet ton cu. Mng Internet to ra mt mi trng hot ng ton cu cho tt c mi ngi tham gia, gn nh xa i bin gii gia cc quc gia, thu ngn li khong cch a l. Mt trong nhng vn quan trng m k thut mng trn th gii ang phi nghin cu gii quyt l i mt vi s pht trin vi tc qu nhanh ca mng li Internet ton cu. S pht trin ny cng vi s tch hp dch v, trin khai nhng dch v mi, kt ni nhiu mng vi nhau, nh mng di ng vi mng Internet t ra vn thiu ti nguyn dng chung. Vic s dng h thng a ch hin ti cho mng Internet l IPv4 s khng th p ng ni s pht trin ca mng li Internet ton cu trong thi gian sp ti v kho a ch IPv4 chnh thc cn kit sau 30 nm s dng v chng ta ang phi tn dng nhng di IP cui cng cn st li. Nhm gii quyt vn ny, IPv6 c ra i vi mc ch thay th hon ton v khc phc cc nhc im ca IPv4. Do em la chn ti Nghin cu v trin khai IPv6 cho doanh nghip va v nh cho ti n tt nghip ca mnh V hiu r hn v cng ngh IPv6 em xin p dng kt qu tm kim, hc hi ca mnh trin khai h thng IPv6 cho cng ty TNHH Vnh Phan Ni dung n cp n mt s vn cn nghin cu: chng giao thc TCP/IP, a ch IPv4/IPv6, cu trc, phng php nh a ch, cch thc s dng trn Internet v cc vn trin khai IPv6 - IPv4. B cc bn bo co n c chia ra lm 2 phn ln: SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 1

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Phn 1: Nghin cu v IPv6 Chng 1: Gii thiu v IPv6 Chng 2: Cu trc a ch IPv6 Chng 3: Trin khai mng IPv6 Phn 2: Trin khai IPv6 cho cng ty TNHH Vnh Phan Chng 1: Chng 2: Chng 3:

hn : N H N CU V

V6

CHNG 1 : GII THIU CHUNG V A CH IP


1.1 Khi qut v TC /
1.1.1 Khi nim chung v TCP/IP TCP/IP l vit tt ca Transmission Control Protocol (Giao thc iu khin truyn thng)/ Internet Protocol (Giao thc Internet). Giao thc TCP/IP c pht trin t mng ARPANET v Internet v c dng nh giao thc mng v vn chuyn trn mng Internet. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) l giao thc thuc tng vn chuyn v IP (Internet Protocol) l giao thc thuc tng mng ca m hnh OSI. H giao thc TCP/IP hin nay l giao thc c s dng rng ri nht lin kt cc my tnh v cc mng. Hin nay cc my tnh ca hu ht cc mng c th s dng giao thc TCP/IP lin kt vi nhau thng qua nhiu h thng mng vi k thut khc nhau. Giao thc TCP/IP thc cht l mt h giao thc cho php cc h thng mng cng lm vic vi nhau thng qua vic cung cp phng tin truyn thng lin mng. TCP/IP khng ch gm 2 giao thc m thc t n l tp hp ca nhiu giao thc. Chng ta gi l 1 h giao thc hay b giao thc (Suite Of Protocols). TCP/IP l mt b giao thc c thit k t hai mc tiu chnh: SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3

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Cho php truyn thng qua cc ung dy ca mng rng (Wide Area Network WAN).

Cho php truyn thng gia cc mi trng a dng.

Do hiu c ci gc ca cc giao thc gip ta hiu c s quan trng ca chng trong cc mng ngy nay. Mt h thng mng l tp hp ca nhiu my tnh hoc cc thit b tng t, chng c th lin lc vi nhau thng qua mt trung gian truyn ti Trong phm vi mt h thng mng, cc yu cu v d liu t mt my tnh c chuyn qua b phn trung gian (c th l dy cp mng hoc ng in thoi) ti mt my tnh khc. Mt my tnh tng tc vi th gii thng qua mt hoc nhiu ng dng. Nhng ng dng ny thc hin cc nhim v c th v qun l d liu ra v vo. Nu my tnh l mt phn ca h thng mng, th mt trong s cc ng dng trn s c th giao tip vi cc ng dng trn cc my tnh khc thuc cng h thng mng. B giao thc mng l mt h thng cc quy nh chung gip xc nh qu trnh truyn d liu phc tp. D liu i t ng dng trn my ny, qua phn cng v mng ca my, ti b phn trung gian v n ni nhn, thng qua phn cng ca my tnh ch ri ti ng dng. Cc giao thc TCP/IP c vai tr xc nh qu trnh lin lc trong mng v quan trng hn c l nh ngha hnh dng ca mt n v d liu v nhng thng tin cha trong n my tnh ch c th dch thng tin mt cch chnh xc. TCP/IP v cc giao thc lin quan to ra mt h thng hon chnh qun l qu trnh d liu c x l, chuyn v nhn trn mt mng s dng TCP/IP. 1.1.2 Cu trc b giao thc TCP/IP Trc khi xem xt cc thnh phn ca TCP/IP, chng ta nn bt u bng cch tm hiu qua nhim v ca mt h thng giao thc. Mt h thng giao thc nh TCP/IP phi m bo kh nng thc hin nhng cng vic sau: Ct thng tin thnh nhng gi d liu c th d dng i qua b phn truyn ti trung gian. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 3

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Tng tc vi phn cng ca adapter mng. Xc nh a ch ngun v ch: My tnh gi thng tin i phi c th xc nh c ni gi n. My tnh ch phi nhn ra u l thng tin gi cho mnh.

nh tuyn: H thng phi c kh nng hng d liu ti cc tiu mng, cho d tiu mng ngun v ch khc nhau v mt vt l.

Kim tra li, kim sot truyn thng v xc nhn: i vi mt phng tin truyn thng tin cy, my tnh gi v nhn phi xc nh v c th sa cha li trong qu trnh vn chuyn d liu. Chp nhn d liu t ng dng v truyn n ti mng ch. c th thc hin cc cng vic trn, TCP/IP c chia thnh nhiu lp ring bit, theo l thuyt, hot ng c lp vi nhau. Mi lp c chc nng v nhim v ring trong h thng mng. Network Access: Cung cp giao din tng tc vi mng vt l. Format d liu cho b phn truyn ti trung gian v to a ch d liu cho cc tiu mng da trn a ch phn cng vt l. Cung cp vic kim tra li trong qu trnh truyn d liu. L p nternet: Cung cp a ch logic, c lp vi phn cng, d liu c th lt qua cc tiu mng c cu trc vt l khc nhau. Cung cp chc nng nh tuyn giao lu lng giao thng v h tr vic vn chuyn lin mng. Thut ng lin mng c dng cp n cc mng rng ln hn, kt ni t nhiu LAN. To s gn kt gia a ch vt l v a ch logic.

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Hnh 1.1: M hnh TCP/ IP

L p Transport: Gip kim sot lung d liu, kim tra li v xc nhn cc dch v cho lin mng. ng vai tr giao din cho cc ng dng mng. L p Application: Cung cp cc ng dng gii quyt s c mng, vn chuyn file, iu khin t xa, v cc hot ng Internet. ng thi h tr Giao din Lp trnh ng dng (API) mng, cho php cc chng trnh c thit k cho mt h iu hnh no c th truy cp mng.

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1.1.3 So snh TCP/IP v OSI

Hnh 1.2: So snh m hnh OSI v TCP/IP So vi TCP/IP th OSI chia nhim v ca lp ng dng (Application) thnh 3 phn lp: Application, Presentation v Sesion. Lp Network Access cng c tch thnh 2 lp Data Link v Physical. Vic chia nh chc nng lm tng thm s phc tp, nhng ng thi cng to ra s linh hot cho cc nh pht trin. By lp ca m hnh OSI nh sau: L p Physical: Chuyn i d liu sang cc dng xung in, i qua b phn truyn ti trung gian v gim st qu trnh truyn d liu. L p Data Link: Cung cp giao din cho b iu hp mng, duy tr kt ni logic cho tiu mng. L p Network: H tr a ch logic v nh tuyn. L p Transport: Kim tra li v kim sot vic lu chuyn lin mng. Lp Sesion: Thit lp cc khu vc cho cc ng dng tng tc gia cc my tnh. L p Presentation: Dch d liu sang mt dng tiu chun, qun l vic m ho v nn d liu. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 6

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L p Application: Cung cp giao din cho cc ng dng; h tr ng dng gi file, truyn thng

1.2 Cu tr

1.2.1 Thnh phn v khun dng ca a ch IP a ch IP ang c s dng hin ti ( IPv4) c 32 bit chia thnh 4 Octet ( mi Octet c 8 bit tng ng 1 byte), cch m u t tri qua phi t bit 1 cho n bit 32. Cc Octet cch bit nhau bng mt du chm (.). * a ch biu hin dng bit nh phn: xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy x, y = 0 hoc 1.

Hnh 1.3: Khun dng tiu

v4

* a ch biu hin dng thp phn: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx V d: 146.123.110.224 Dng vit y ca a ch IP l 3 con s trong tng Octet. a ch IP thng thy trn thc t c th l 53.143.10.2 nhng dng y l: 053.143.010.002 Bao gm c 3 thnh phn chnh. Bit nhn dng lp (Class bit), phn bit a ch lp no. 7

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a ch ca mng ( Net ID). a ch ca my ch ( Host ID). Class bit Net ID Host ID

Bit 1...32 Tn l a ch my ch nhng thc t khng ch c my ch m tt c cc trm lm vic, cc cng truy nhp, v..v.. u cn c a ch nhn dng.

1.2.2 nh a ch IP. Mt b nh tuyn s dng a ch IP chuyn tip gi tin t mng ngun ti mng ch. Gi tin phi ch ra c a ch mng ngun v mng ch. Khi mt gi c nhn ti b nh tuyn, n s xc nh a ch mng ch v xc nh ng i ca gi tin v chuyn tip gi tin qua cng tng ng. Mi a ch IP cng gm c 2 phn: nhn dng a ch mng- ch ra mng, v nhn dng a ch host - ch ra host. Mi octet u c th chia thnh nhng nhm a ch mng khc nhau, qu trnh chia a ch c th c thc hin theo m hnh phn cp. Cc a ch c thc hin theo m hnh phn cp bi n cha nhiu mc khc nhau. Mt a ch IP thc hin 2 ch s v a ch mng v a ch host

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trong cng mt a ch. a ch ny phi l duy nht, bi khi thc hin mt a ch trng lp s dn n nhng vn v nh tuyn. Phn u l a ch mng (hay a ch ca h thng), phn th 2 l a ch host trong mng. Hnh 1.4: M hnh phn p h

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a ch lp A B C D (Multicast) 126*

S mng

S my trn tng mng 16,777,216 65,535 254 N/A

16,384 2,097,152 N/A

a ch lp

Bit nhn dng

Di a ch

S Bt dng phn cho mng

Class A Class B Class C Class D

0 10 110 1110

0 127* 128 191 192 223 224 239

8 16 24 28

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Hnh 1.5: Cu tr

l p

a ch IP c chia thnh cc lp, A, B, C, D, E. Hin ti dng ht lp A, B v gn ht lp C, cn lp D v E. T chc Internet ang dnh cho mc ch khc khng phn, nn chng ta ch nghin cu 3 lp u. Qua cu trc cc lp a ch IP chng ta c nhn xt sau: Bit nhn dng l nhng bit u tin: ca lp A l 0, ca lp B l 10, ca lp C l 110. Lp D c 4 bit u tin nhn dng l 1110, cn lp E c 5 bit u tin nhn dng l 11110. a ch lp A: a ch mng t v a ch my ch trn tng mng nhiu. a ch lp B: a ch mng va phi v a ch my ch trn tng mng va phi. a ch lp C: a ch mng nhiu v a ch my ch trn tng mng t. thc hin nhng mng vi quy m khc nhau, trc ht ta phi hiu c c ch phn lp trong mng, a ch IP c chia thnh nhng nhm c gi l nhng lp. Cc nhm ban u c gi l a ch phn lp y . Mi a ch IP bao gm 32 bit c chia thnh 4 phn, mi phn 8 bit v s th t ca cc bit s dng cho vic xc nh a ch mng v a ch host ty theo lp m n thuc v. L p A thc hin trong nhng mng ln c kh nng h tr trn 16 triu my. Ch bao gm octet u tin c s dng ch ra a ch mng, 3 octet cn li s dng xc nh a ch ca host trong mng.

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Hnh 1.6: Cu tr l p A

Bit u tin ca lp A lun bng 0. s thp nht ca octet u tin c th th hin l 0, v gi tr ln nht l 127. Tuy nhin gi tr 0 v 127 ca octet u tin khng c s dng trong vic nh a ch mng, do tt c cc a ch mng ca lp A s thc hin gi tr t 1 ti 126 ca octet u tin. h l p B c thit k h tr nhng nhu cu cho nhng mng ln.

a ch lp B s dng 2 trong s 4 octet u tin lm a ch mng, 2 octet cn li c s dng ch ra a ch host.

Hnh 1.7: Cu tr l p B Hai bit u tin ca octet u tin ca mt a ch thuc v lp B lun l 10, 6 bit cn li ca octet u tin c th thay i l 0 hoc 1. Do gi tr nh nht ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp B s l 10000000 = 128, gi tr ln SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 12

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nht s l 10111111 = 191. Bt c a ch no c gi tr ca octet u tin nm trong khong t 128 191 u l nhng a ch mng ca lp B. h l p C cng c quy lut tng t c thc hin, gi tr 3 bit u tin

ca mt a ch lp C lun l 110. Do gi tr nh nht ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp C c th l 11000000 = 192, gi tr ln nht l 11011111 = 223. Nu mt a ch mng c gi tr ca octet u tin ri vo trong khong 191 223 th l mt a ch IP thuc lp C. Lp C thc hin 3 octet l a ch mng cn 1 octet cn li c s dng lm a ch host. N c kh nng h tr 254 a ch host cho mi mng thuc v lp C.

Hnh 1.8: Cu tr l p C h l p D c to ra to kh nng v a ch multicast. Mt a ch

IP multicast l mt a ch c kh nng thc hin vic truyn thng tin ti mt nhm cc my trm vi a ch IP unicast. Do , mt my trm khi s dng a ch multicast c kh nng truyn ng thi mt gi tin ti nhiu ngi nhn. Bn bit u tin ca mt a ch IP ca lp D lun l 1110. Do octet u tin ca mt a ch mng thuc v lp C c gi tr nh nht l: 11100000 = 224 v gi tr ln nht s l 11101111 = 239. h l p E thc hin trong phng th nghim phc v mc ch nghin

cu. Bn bit u tin ca mt a ch ca lp E l 1111. Do khong gi tr ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp E s l: 240 255. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 13

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1.3 Khun dng gi tin


Version IP-V4: Khi gi tin ti b nh tuyn, b nh tuyn s phn tch nu thy phin bn c hn th b nh tuyn s hy b gi tin v thng bo cho trm ngun bit. Header length: di ca gi tin tnh theo n v 32 bit.

Type of service: Kiu dch v c s dng trong tiu gi tin IP ch ra quan h u tin cho vic chuyn cc gi tin, thng thng cc gi tin IP c x l theo nguyn tc FIFO, cc bit 0,1,1 trong trng kiu dch v ch ra cc thng tin v tr, thng lng v tin cy. Total length: di ton b ca gi tin Max 216=64 KB, thng thng ngn hn. ID: s nh danh ca gi tin. Nu 1 gi tin phi phn thnh nhiu mnh truyn i th tt c cc mnh phi c cng nh danh.

Hnh 1.9: Khun dng gi tin Flag: 1 bit d tr

v4

Offset: Cho bit v tr ca mnh tin trong gi tin, n v tnh l 8 byte

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Time to live (TTL): Thi gian sng ca gi tin. Trng ny c 8 bit ban u tnh n v l giy, vy thi gian gi tin c php tn ti trn mng l: 28=256 giy > 4 pht Trong thc t trng ny cha s bc nhy chnh l s b nh tuyn m gi tin c php i qua. C mi ln gi tin qua mt b nh tuyn th TTL s tr i 1 v khi bng 0 th gi tin s b hy v thng bo cho trm ngun. y l gii php iu khin tc nghn. Protocol: Cho bit giao thc c s dng tng trn. - Nu tng giao vn l TCP th c m l 6. - Nu tng giao vn l UDP th c m l 17. - Nu l ICMP th c m l 1. Heder checksum: Kim tra li cho u gi tin. Soure Address: a ch ngun. Destination Address: a ch ch. Cc a ch ny c dng nh ng trn mng Internet nn cn gi l IP address. a ch di 32 bit c chia thnh 4 byte, mi byte c th hin bng mt s thp phn v cch nhau bi du chm. Option and padding: La chn. Record Route: ghi li a ch ca tt c cc b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua. di ca trng la chn ny do trm ngun quy nh. Nu s b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua qu nhiu th a ch ca cc b nh tuyn sau s khng c ghi vo gi tin. Time Stamp (nhn thi gian): ghi li thi gian m gi tin i qua b nh tuyn. C 3 cch ghi: Khi gi tin i qua b nh tuyn, ghi li danh sch thi gian gi tin qua b nh tuyn. Ghi a ch IP v thi gian tng ng khi gi tin i qua. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 15

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Trm ngun s ghi sn mt s a ch cn o thi gian v gi tin ti b nh tuyn c a ch tng ng th s c ghi thi gian vo.

1.4

ii php

nh tuyn theo

1.4.1 Cc phn t c bn ca mt h thng nh tuyn. B nh tuyn l mt thit b lp 3 trong m hnh OSI 7 lp. N c hai chc nng c bn l nh tuyn v chuyn mch gi tin IP t u vo n u ra. Qu trnh nh tuyn l qu trnh tp hp cc thng tin v cu trc topo mng nhm to ra mt bng nh tuyn. Qu trnh chuyn mch gi tin l sao chp mt gi t mt giao din u vo ti mt giao din u ra thch hp da trn thng tin cha trong bng chuyn tip gi. Bt k h thng nh tuyn no u cn 4 phn t c bn thc hin qu trnh nh tuyn v chuyn mch gi tin l: Cc phn mm nh tuyn. B phn x l gi. Mt ma trn chuyn mch. Card ng truyn.

Bn phn t c bn ny cu thnh mt b nh tuyn theo cu trc nh hnh v. B x l chnh thi hnh phn mm nh tuyn, phn mm nh tuyn ny thc hin cc chc nng nh tuyn v duy tr cc thng tin v cu trc mng Internet thng qua cc giao thc nh tuyn. Ma trn chuyn mch thc hin hot ng chuyn mch gi tin bng cch s dng b x l gi, b x l ny thng l mt ASIC ( Application Specific Intergrated Circuit-Mch tch hp c trng cho ng dng) c ti u thc hin nhim v c th vi tc cao. im ny th n ph hp vi b nh tuyn trn ng trc hin nay. Ngoi ra b nh tuyn thng xuyn duy tr mt bng khc gi l bng chuyn gi, bng ny c trong cc b my chuyn tip gi ( FE-Forwarding Engine). FE thc hin vic c a ch ch t tiu gi n, thc hin vic SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 16

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tm kim tuyn, tm tin t ph hp di nht ( Longest Prefix Matching) v chuyn gi n giao din u ra c xc nh.

Hnh 1.10: Cu tr

nh tuyn thng th ng

V c bn th bng chuyn gi bt ngun t bng nh tuyn nhng n t c cp nht hn. Bng nh tuyn c duy tr bi phn mm nh tuyn, phn mm ny thc hin qu trnh x l tng i chm trong khi cp nht bng v khi bng c cp nht, bn sao ca n s c chuyn n b my chuyn gi. Bn sao ny c th l mt tp hp con ca ton b bng nh tuyn v c th c bin i ph hp vi phin bn nh hn. Ma trn chuyn mch l thnh phn ct yu ca mt b my chuyn gi. V bn cht, mt b nh tuyn bao gm phng tin nh tuyn c thc hin trong phn mm v s dng CPU chnh ca b nh tuyn tin hnh hot ng phc tp hn nh thc hin cc giao thc nh tuyn, cc c im k thut lu lng, m bo QoS, bin i tiu gi trc khi truyn i v cc c im da trn cc phn mm khc ca b nh tuyn. Ngoi ra, FE cn tin hnh cc nhim v n gin hn ti tc cao.

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1.4.2 X l gi tin b nh tuyn. Cc gi tin b nh tuyn cn c vo b m ca b nh tuyn v cc thng s phn tiu ca gi IP a ra cc quyt nh ph hp vi gi tin. Kim tr gi tin Header checksum nu c li th b nh tuyn hy gi tin. Kim tra 1 s thng s : Version, Header length, Total length, Protocol nu sai hy b gi tin. Kim tra xem nu TTL=0 th hy gi tin. Nu b m ca b nh tuyn y khng cha c gi tin th hy gi tin. Chun b truyn : Phn tch trng (Type of service) tm ra ng i tng ng. Xc nh gi tin c phn mnh khng? Nu phn mnh th thc hin chia gi tin. Nu khng c phn mnh nhng b nh tuyn li khng c kh nng truyn c gi tin th s hi cc b nh tuyn lng ging v nh b nh tuyn lng ging chuyn gi tin. Nu khng c b nh tuyn lng ging no chuyn c gi tin th b nh tuyn s hy gi tin v thng bo cho trm ngun. Tnh ton li mt s thng s gi tin: TTL - 1 (khi qua 1 b nh tuyn). in cc thng s cho trng hp phn mnh . in cc thng s cho trng la chn (Option). Tnh li Header checksum.

1.4.3 X l gi tin khi ti ch. Kim tr gi tin . SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 18

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Header checksum: Nu c li th my ch hy gi tin. Kim tra 1 s thng s: Version, Header length, Total length, Protocol nu sai hy b gi tin.

Kim tra xem nu TTL=0 th hy gi tin. Nu b m ca b nh tuyn y khng cha c gi tin th hy gi tin.

Chun b Khng kim tra Type of service v y l trm ch nn khng cn chuyn n trm khc. Kim tra xem gi tin c phn mnh? Khi nhn c mnh tin u tin ca gi tin phn mnh, trm ch s khi ng mt ng h thi gian, nu ht thi gian quy nh m mnh tin cui cng cha n th trm ch s hy b tt c cc mnh tin nhn. Nu cc mnh tin n ng gi th trm ch s ghp cc mnh tin thnh gi tin gc. Chuyn gi tin ln tng trn x l tip. 1.4.4 nh tuyn trn mng Internet (IP Routing). Bng 1.1: Bng tm a ch ch a ch tip theo ca Router Giao din (Cng ca Router) Mt n mng con ng Khong cch t ngun ti ch -- --i o th tm --ng ( --roto ol). ---Thi gian cp nhp bng tm ng

Chc nng ca giao thc tm ng Thit lp bng tm ng. Cp nht bng tm ng.

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Tnh ton qung ng i ngn nht chn a ch ca b nh tuyn tip theo nhm chuyn gi tin i nhanh nht.

Giao thc tm ng n gin l giao thc da vo topo mng lp bng tm ng bng tay v cp nht bng tay nhm tm ng ngn nht. Giao thc ny ch s dng cho mng n gin. Giao thc tm ng trn Internet, s dng trong mng phc tp. Cp nht t ng. T ng tnh ton tm ra b nh tuyn tip theo da trn hin trng ca mng. Tiu chun nh gi giao thc tm ng: Thch nghi rt nhanh vi thay i ca mng. Tnh c con ng ti u. D dng nng cp khi mng pht trin. Tit kim ti nguyn ca my. Bng thng tit kim nht. S o s dng trong nternet.

S o c tnh nh sau: S bc nhy m gi tin i qua. S bc nhy m gi tin i qua nhng c trng s. Tng hp t nhiu thng s nh bng thng, tr, ti hin ti, gi thnh.... Thut ton da trn s o tnh ng i ngn nht gi l DVA (Distance Vector Algorithm). Giao thc RIP s dng thut ton DVA. Thut ton trng thi lin kt gi l LSA ( Link State Algorithm). Giao thc OSPF s dng thut ton LSA.

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1.5 Kt lun h

ng

Trong chng ny cp ti cu trc a ch IPv4. a ch IPv4 c hai chc nng c bn: a ch cc giao din mng ( cung cp mt a ch duy nht cho nhng giao din khi tham gia vo mng Internet), h tr cho nh tuyn ( truyn ti thng tin t mng ny sang mng khc). Giao thc tng mng trong b giao thc TCP/IP hin ti ang l IPv4. IPv4 cung cp truyn thng host- to- host gia nhng h thng trn Internet. Mc d IPv4 c thit k kh tt, nhng IPv4 c nhng thiu ht khin cho n khng ng b cho s pht trin nhanh ca Internet nh sau: IPv4 c 2 level cu trc a ch (netid v hostid) phn nhm vo 5 lp ( A, B, C, D v E). S s dng cc a ch khng hiu qu. V d nh khi c mt t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp A, 16 triu a ch t a ch c phn phi duy nht cho t chc s dng. Do s dn dn khng cn a ch cp cho bt k mt h thng mi no mun kt ni vo Internet. Internet phi thch nghi c vi s chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Loi chuyn giao ny yu cu nhng sch lc tr hon t nht v s t trc ca ti nguyn khng c cung cp trong thit k. Internet phi thch nghi c vi s m ha v s chng nhn ca d liu cho mt s ng dng. Khng mt s m ha v s chng nhn no c cung cp trong IPv4 Chng tip theo s trnh by v a ch Internet phin bn 6 - IPv6, y l phin bn c thit k nhm khc phc nhng hn ch ca giao thc Internet IPv4.

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21

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

CHNG 2 : CU TRC A CH IPv6


im v6

2.1

Ti sao th gii cn nhanh chng chuyn sang chun IPv6 t chun IPv4 qu c k? chnh l vic cung cp s lng a ch IP qu t, khng th p ng nhu cu s dng Internet hin nay ca cc qun tr vin cng nh ngi dng c bn. Hin nay kho a ch IPv4 chnh thc cn kit sau 30 nm s dng v chng ta ang phi tn dng nhng di IP cui cng cn st li. Nhm gii quyt vn ny, IPv6 c ra i vi mc ch thay th hon ton v khc phc cc nhc im ca IPv4 IPv6 c pht trin theo cp s nhn m rng bng thng c sn cho a ch IP, trong khi cng cung cp mt s li ch khc. Sau y l nhng li th ca IPv6: Thm s l ng l n h : a ch IPv6 s dng cng ngh 128-bit thay v

32-bit a ch hin ti, cho php tng theo hm s m ca cc a ch IP c sn. Mng li s lng a ch IP ca IPv4 c tn ti t nhng nm 1980, iu m lc th gii cha ngh rng Internet c th pht trin v tn ti nhanh n mc nh hin nay, c bit l khi Web tr nn ph bin. Vi 32-bit, IPv4 ch cho php cung cp khong 4,3 t a ch IP. V mi thit b c kt ni Web nh: my ch, my tnh bn, xch tay, in thoi thng minh, Tablet PC v nhiu hn na cn phi c a ch IP. V k t khi Web bng n cc nc nh Trung Quc v n , th gii ang nhanh chng tip cn n nhng a ch c sn cui cng ca IPv4. Trong khi , vi 128-bit m IPv6 mang li, n c kh nng cung cp mt s lng rt ln a ch IP vt xa nhu cu s dng Internet hin nay cng nh cc thit b kt ni web. Thay v 4,3 t a ch gii hn ca IPv4, a ch IPv6 c cung cp hng t t a ch IP cho ngi dng trn khp hnh tinh ny. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 22

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Kh nng t

ng th h ng : IPv6 c th tng thch ngc vi IPv4 cc

mng khc nhau hoc cc nh sn xut phn cng c th chn nng cp vo cc thi im khc nhau m khng lm gin on s pht trin hin ti ca d liu trn internet. Do s ph thuc ca th gii trn mng Internet v web tin tc, thng mi, an ton cng cng, an ninh quc gia, y chnh l mt tnh nng quan trng ca IPv6. Cui cng, tt c cc thit b IPv4 s dn dn c thay th v IPv6 s l a ch giao thc ch c s dng duy nht trn Internet trong tng lai. Tuy nhin, n c th mt n hng thp k, do , tnh tng thch ngc s rt quan trng cho tng lai.

Hnh 2.1: M hnh mt s thit b kt ni Web m n

Kh nng bo mt tt h n: IPv6 c thit k vi cng ngh m ho v xc thc mt cch an ton. Trong khi IPsec l mt thnh phn bo mt ty chn ca IPv4 th i vi IPv6 n l thnh phn bt buc. Vi Ipsec, mi gi d liu c nhn c m ha v xc thc, khin cho nhiu thnh phn hot ng cc v tn cng m c hi gy rc ri ca Internet ngy nay khng th - hoc t nht l thc hin kh khn hn.

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23

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Hi u sut hot ng tt h n: Thay i c thc hin v c hnh thnh cho cc gi tp tin IP, vi cch thc m IPv6 thc hin trong qu trnh nh tuyn cc gi tin ci thin hiu sut s gip vic mt d liu b t xy ra hn, tin cy cao hn cng nh hiu qu kt ni tt hn. Vi nhiu ngi cng nh cc thit b chia s Internet hn, nhu cu s dng cho VoIP (thoi qua IP) v video, hiu sut s cng quan trng hn bao gi ht. N c tn ti ti hn hai thp k, nhng cuc khng hong a ch IPv4 ang l rt thc t. Vic ch i s thay th ca IPv6 s din ra trong thi gian gn nht. Sau y chng ta s nghin cu c th chi tit v nhc im ca IPv4 v u im vt tri ca IPv6: * Giao thc Internet phin bn 4 ( IPv4) tuy ang c s dng rng ri hin nay nhng c mt s nhc im : a ch IP c 32 bit, cho ti nay gn cn kit, cn phi c m rng. Phn u ( phn tiu ) ca khun dng gi tin IPv4 c nhng thng tin d tha. An ninh thng tin cha tht m bo, cn thiu. Cha h tr tt cho vic truyn thng a phng tin ( multimedia). * S ra i ca IPv6 s khc phc nhng nhc im trn l: nh dng Tiu mi. Khng gian a ch rng. C s h tng nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu. Cu hnh a ch Stateful v Stateless. Bo mt. H tr tt hn cho QoS. Giao thc mi cho s tng tc node lng ging. 24

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

C kh nng m rng.

Kiu

nh dng tiu m i.

Tiu ca IPv6 c mt kiu nh dng mi c thit k gi cho tiu bn trn mc ti thiu. iu ny t c bng cch chuyn c cc trng hp khng cn thit v cc trng la chn sang phn tiu m rng, phn m rng ny i theo sau phn tiu ca IPv6. Tiu IPv6 c t chc tt, x l hiu qu hn ti cc b nh tuyn trung gian. Cc tiu IPv4 v IPv6 l khng gn lin. IPv6 khng phi l siu tp ca chc nng m tng thch ngc vi IPv4. Mt host hoc mt b nh tuyn phi dng mt s b sung ca IPv4 v IPv6 nhn ra v x l c 2 kiu nh dng tiu . Tiu IPv6 mi ch rng gp 2 ln IPv4 mc d a ch IPv6 rng gp 4 ln IPv4.

Khng gi n

h m rng.

IPv6 c a ch IP di 128 bit. Mc d 128 bit c th biu din hn 3.4x1038 t hp, khng gian a ch rng ca IPv6 c thit k cho php nhiu mc subneting v chia vng i ch t a ch gc Internet n cc mng ring trong cng 1 t chc. Mc d ch mt s lng nh a ch hin ti c chia phn cho host, vn cn nhiu a ch cho tng lai. Vi mt s lng a ch ln nh vy th cc k thut tit kim a ch nh NAT l khng cn thit na.

C s h tng

nh tuyn v nh

h phn p v hi u qu.

Cc a ch IPv6 ton cu c dng trong phn IPv6 ca Internet c thit k to mt c s h tng nh tuyn c th tm tt, phn cp v hiu qu. C s h tng ny c da trn s trin khai chung nhiu cp ca cc nh cung cp dch v ISP. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3

25

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Cu hnh

h St teful v St teless

n gin ha cu hnh host, IPv6 h tr c hai kiu cu hnh l stateful, nh l cu hnh a ch trong s c mt ca mt DHCP server v stateless ( cu hnh a ch trong khng c mt ca mt DHCP). Vi kiu cu hnh a ch stateless th cc host trn mt lin kt s t ng cu hnh vi a ch IPv6 cho lin kt ( c gi l a ch lin kt ni b) v vi cc a ch c phn pht t Prefixes qung co bi cc b nh tuyn ni b. Ngay c khi khng c cc b nh tuyn th cc host trn cng mt lin kt vn c th t ng cu hnh vi cc i ch lin kt ni b v lin lc vi nhau m khng cn cu hnh nhn cng.

Bo mt.

Trong hot ng Internet, bo mt ti tng IP c thc hin ph bin bng cng ngh IPSec. IPSec thc hin chc nng xc nh ni gi v m ha ng kt ni, do vy m bo c kt ni bo mt. Cng ngh IPSec h tr c a ch IPv4 v IPv6. Tuy nhin trong IPv6, IPSec c nh ngha nh l mt c tnh bt buc ca a ch IPv6 khi cc th tc bo mt ca IPSec c a vo thnh hai c tnh l hai tiu m rng ca a ch IPv6. l tiu Xc thc, v tiu M ha.

H tr tt h n ho QoS.

Cc trng mi trong tiu ca IPv6 nh ngha cch thc m lu lng qun l v nhn dng. S nhn dng lu lng dng mt trng nhn lu lng trong tiu IPv6 cho php cc b nh tuyn nhn dng v cung cp vic qun l c bit cho cc gi thuc cng mt lung, mt seri cc gi gia ngun v ch. Bi v lu lng c nhn dng trong tiu IPv6, vic h tr QoS c th t c ngay c khi trng ti ca gi c m ha thng qua IPSec.

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26

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

i o th m i ho s t

ng t Node lng ging.

Giao thc tm kim lng ging cho IPv6 l mt seri ca ICMP cho cc bn tin ca IPv6, chng qun l vic tng tc gia cc node lng ging. Tm kim lng ging thay th cho cc bn tin giao thc ARP da vo vic broadcast, cc bn tin ICMPv4 b nh tuyn tm kim v multicast hiu qu.

C kh nng m rng. IPv6 c th d dng c m rng cho cc tnh nng mi bng cch thm vo cc tiu m rng vo sau tiu ca IPv6. Khng ging nh cc la chn ca tiu IPv4 ch c th h tr 40 byte option, kch thc ca tiu m rng ca IPv6 khng ch bi kch thc ca gi IPv6.

2.2

Nhng hn h

v4

Giao thc tng mng trong b giao thc TCP/IP hin ti ang l IPv4 (Internet- working protocol verision 4). IPv4 cung cp truyn thng host-tohost gia nhng h thng trn Internet. Mc d IPv4 c thit k kh tt, s thng i thng tin tin trin t lc khi u IPv4 vo nhng nm 1970, nhng IPv4 c nhng s thiu ht khin cho n khng ng b cho s pht trin nhanh ca Internet, gm nhng th sau: IPv4 c 2 level cu trc a ch (netid v hostid) phn nhm vo 5 lp (A, B, C, D v E). S s dng nhng a ch l khng hiu qu. V d nh khi cos mt t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp A, 16 triu a ch t a ch c phn phi duy nht cho t chc s dng. Nu 1 t chc c cp cho 1 a ch lp C, mt khc ch c 256 a ch c phn phi cho t chc, y khng phi l mt s . Cng vy, nhiu triu a ch b lng ph trong nhm D v Phng thc phn a ch ny dng ht nhng a ch ca IPv4, v mau chng s khng cn a ch no cn cp cho bt k mt h thng mi no mun kt ni vo Internet. Mc d sch lc subnet v supernet gim bt nhng vn v a ch, SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 27

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

nhng subnet v suprnet lm cho ng truyn tr ln kh khn hn. Internet phi thch nghi c vi s chuyn giao audio v video thi gian thc. Loi chuyn giao ny yu cu nhng sch lc tr hon t nht v s t trc ca ti nguyn khng c cung cp trong thit k. Internet phi thch nghi c vi s m ho v s chng nhn ca d liu cho mt s ng dng. Khng mt s m ho v s chng nhn no c cung cp trong IPv4.

khc phc thiu st trn IPv6 c bit n nh l IPng (Internet working Protocol, next generation), c xng v nay l mt chun.

2.3

S kh bi t gi

v4 v

v6
v4 v v6.

Bng 2.1: S kh bi t gi IPv4 Dng a ch 32 bit IPSec l ty chn

IPv6 Dng a ch 128 bit IPSec l bt buc

Khng c xc nhn lung gi cho vic Vic xc nhn lung gi cho qun l qun l QoS bi cc b nh tuyn QoS bi cc b nh tuyn c dng trong phn tiu trong trng nhn lung.

Phn mnh c thc hin bi host v Phn mnh ch thc hin bi host gi b nh tuyn Tiu bao gm c phn checksum Tiu khng bao gm phn

checksum

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28

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Tiu c phn ty chn

Tt c d liu ty chn c chuyn sang phn tiu m rng.

ARP dng broadcast ARP Request ARP Request frames thay th bng cc frames chuyn mt a ch IPv4 bn tin Neighbor Solicitation multicast sang a ch MAC IGMP c dng qun l cc local IGMP c thay th bi cc bn tin subnet group membership. Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD).

ICMP b nh tuyn tm kim c ICMP b nh tuyn tm kim c dng xc nh ia ch IPv4 default thay bng cc bn tin ICMPv6 b nh gateway tt nht v y l mt ty tuyn Solicitation v b nh tuyn chn qung co v y l 1 yu cu.

Phi c cu hnh nhn cng hoc Khng yu cu cu hnh nhn cng thng qua DHCP hoc thng qua DHCP

Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn trong Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn con tr min DNS nh x a ch IPv4 sang trong min DNS nh x a ch IPv6 tn host sang tn host

Phi h tr mt kch thc gi l 576 Phi h tr mt kch thc gi l 128 byte ( c th c phn mnh) byte ( khng phn mnh)

Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn a ch Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn a ch host trong DNS nh x tn host sang host trong DNS nh x tn host sang IPv4 IPv6

a ch broadcast c dng gi Khng c a ch broadcast. Thay vo thng tin ti tt c cc node trn cng l a ch link-local scope all-node mt subnet multicast

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29

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

2.4

v6

2.4.1 Khng gian a ch IPv6 Kch thc a ch IPv6 l 128 bit, rng gp 4 ln a ch ca IPv4. Khng gian a ch 32 bit cho php 232 hay 4.294.967.296 a ch. Khng gian a ch 128 bit cho php 2128 a ch hay 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456 (3.4x1038) a ch. Vo nhng nm cui thp nin 70 ca th k trc khi m khng gian a ch IPv4 c thit k th ngi ta cha tng tng c rng n s cn kit trong tng lai. Tuy nhin do c nhiu s thay i trong k thut v thc t phn vng khng thy trc c s bng n ca cc host trn Internet v khng gian a ch IPv4 c phn pht ht vo nm 1992, do cn 1 khng gian a ch mi thay th.. Vi IPv6 tht kh c th tng tng c rng n s c phn pht ht bi v theo c tnh khng gian a ch IPv6 s cung cp cho mi m2 b mt tri t l 655.570.793.348.866.943.898.599 ( 6.5x1023) a ch. Kch thc tng i ln ca a ch IPv6 c thit k chia nh thnh cc min nh tuyn phn cp phn nh topo ca Internet hin nay. Vic s dng 128 bit cho php nhiu mc phn cp v tnh linh ng trong vic thit k nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp. Khng gian a ch c nhiu mc ch khc nhau. Ngi ta thit k a ch IP chia khng gian a ch thnh 2 phn, vi phn u c gi l kiu tin t. Phn gi tr tin t ny cho bt mc ch ca a ch. Nhng m s c thit k sao cho khng c m s no ging phn u ca bt k m s no khc. Do khng c s nhp nhng khi mt a ch c trao kiu tin t c th d dng xc nh c. Hnh sau cho chng ta thy dng ca a ch IPv6:

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30

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Hnh 2.2 : Cu tr

v6

2.4.2 Cu trc a ch IPv6. Mt a ch gm c 16 byte, l 128 bt di. Kiu k hiu du 2 chm trong h m 16 ( Hexadecimal Colon Notation) lm cho nhng a ch tr nn c th c c nhiu hn, IPv6 trnh by r trong kiu k hiu du 2 chm trong h m 16. Trong kiu k hiu ny, 128 bt c chia thnh 8 phn, mi phn rng 2 byte. 2 byte trong kiu k hiu h m 16 yu cu 4 ch s trong h m 16 ny. V th cho nn a ch gm c 32 ch s trong h m 16 vi mi 4 ch s mt li c mt du : chm

Hnh 2.3 : *S rt gn:

phin bn 6 (

v6 Address)

+ Mc d l a ch IP ngay c khi trong nh dnh h s m 16, vn rt di, nhiu ch s 0 trong mt a ch. Th d: 1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A

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31

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Do c ch nn a ch c dng biu din d dng hn cc loi a ch dng ny. Ta khng cn vit cc s 0 u cc nhm, nhng nhng s 0 bn trong th khng th xo.

Hnh 2.4 : S rt gn

h (Abbrevi ted Address)

Hn na ta c th s dng k hiu :: ch mt chui cc s 0. Tuy nhin k hiu trn ch c s dng mt ln trong mt a ch. a ch IP c di c nh, ta c th tnh c s cc bit 0 m k hiu biu din. Ta c th p dng u hay cui a ch. Cch vit ny c bit c li khi biu din cc a ch multicast, loopback hay cc i ch cha ch nh.

Hnh 2.5: S rt gn

h s 0 lin tip

(Abbreviated Address with consecutive zeros) xc nh c bao nhiu con s 0 ng gia :: th ta c cng thc sau: N= ( 8-n)*16

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32

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

trong n l s khi bit 16 bit a ch cn li c biu din dng s hexa. Vic nn 0 ch c dng 1 ln i vi 1 a ch cho trc, nu khng th ta s khng th xc nh c con s khng c gin lc. 2.4.3 Prefix ca IPv6. Prefix l mt phn ca a ch IPv6, n ch ra cc bit c gi tr c nh hoc l cc bit ng vai tr l ID ca mng. Cc prefix cho nh danh mng con ca IPv6, cc tuyn, cc vng a ch c biu din nh trong k hiu CIDR ( classless Inter-Domain Routing) cho IPv4. V d 21DA::/48 cho mt a ch Prefix tuyn v 21DA:D3:0:2F3B::/64 cho 1 prefix mng con. Trong IPv6 ch dng prefix ch khng dng mt n mng con nh IPv4. 2.4.4 Cc dng a ch IPv6. Cc dng a ch IPv6 gm: a ch unicast a ch multicast a ch anycast. h uni st.

a ch unicast xc nh mt giao din duy nht trong phm vi tng ng. Trong m hnh nh tuyn, cc gi tin c a ch ch l a ch unicast ch c gi ti mt giao din duy nht (Hnh 2.6). a ch unicast c s dng trong giao tip mt mt.

Hnh 2.6: i tin gi t i

h Uni st

Vi mt topology nh tuyn unicast thch hp, cc gi c nh a ch unicast c chuyn n mt giao din n. a ch unicast IPv6 bao gm cc loi sau: a ch unicast ton cu, a ch link-local, a ch site-local v a ch c bit. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 33

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

h Uni st ton u

a ch Unicast ton cu tng ng vi a ch public ca IPv4. N c th nh tuyn ton cu trong Internet. Khng ging nh Internet da trn IPv4 c s nh tuyn trn c dng phng v phn phn cp Internet IPv6 c thit k t nn mng ca n l h tr cho vic nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu. Cc trng ca a ch Unicast ton cu c m t nh sau: Phn c nh c gn cho gi tr l 001. Prefix nh tuyn ton cu: ch prefix nh tuyn ton cu cho mt site ca mt t chc c th. Ba bit c nh cng vi 45 bit prefix nh tuyn ton cu to thnh mt prefic site 48 bit, prefix ny c cp cho mt site c nhn ca mt t chc. Mt khi c cp cc b nh tuyn trn Internet IPv6 s chuyn lu lng IPv6 ph hp vi prefix 48 bit n cc b nh tuyn thuc site ca t chc. Subnet ID: Subnet ID c dng cho site ca t chc xc nh cc mng con. Kch thc ca trng ny l 16 bit. Site ca t chc c th dng 16 bit ny vi site ca n to 65.536 mng con hoc nhiu mc ca s phn cp nh a ch v mt c s h tng nh tuyn hiu qu. Giao din ID: ch giao din trn mt subnet c th ca mt site. Kch thc ca trng ny l 16 bit. Cc trng vi a ch unicast ton cu to ra cu trc 3 cp nh hnh v:

Hnh 2.7: SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3

h Uni st ton u 34

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Topology cng cng l tp hp ca cc ISP ln hn v nh hn m cung cp truy nhp vo Internet IPv6. Topo ca site l tp hp ca cc mng con trong cng site ca t chc. Ch th giao din ch mt giao din c th trn mt mng con trong cng site ca mt t chc. - h Uni st dng ni b.

C 2 loi: a ch link-local v a ch site-loca + a ch Link-Local. y l loi a ch dng cho cc host khi chng mun giao tip vi cc host khc trong cng mng. Tt c IPv6 ca cc interface u c a ch link local Cc a ch link-local c dng bi cc node khi truyn thng vi cc node lng ging trn cng 1 lin kt. V d nh trn mng IPv6 lin kt n khng c b nh tuyn, cc a ch link-local c dng truyn thng gia cc host trn link. Mt a ch link-local cn thit cho cc qu trnh x l tm kim lng ging v lun lun c t ng c cu hnh ngay c khi khng c tt c cc a ch unicast khc.

Hnh 2.8: M t u tr

h link-local

Cc a ch link-local lun lun bt u vi FE80. Vi 64 bit xc nh giao din. Prefix cho a ch link-local lun lun l FE80::/64. Mt b nh tuyn IPv6 chuyn lu lng link-local vt ngoi gii hn lin kt. Lu : Mt router khng th chuyn bt k gi tin no c a ch ngun hoc a ch ch l Link Local Address + a ch Site khu vc (Site-Local). Cc a ch site-local tng ng vi khng gian a ch IPv4 ring ( 10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0/24 v 192.168.0.0/16). V d cc mng ni b ring m SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 35

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

khng c mt hng, nh tuyn kt ni n Internet IPv6 c th dng cc a ch site-local m khng xung t vi cc a ch Unicast ton cu. Cc a ch site-local khng n c t cc site khc v cc b nh tuyn phi khng c chuyn lu lng site-local ra ngoi site. Cc a ch site-local c th c dng thm vo cc a ch unicast ton cu. Mt site l mt mng t chc hoc 1 phn ca mng t chc m c nh ngha v mt a l, nh 1 c quan hay 1 t hp c quan, mt trng hc. Khng ging nh cc a ch link-local, cc a ch site-local khng c t ng cu hnh v c cp pht bi cc qu trnh cu hnh a ch stateful hay stateless. Cu trc ca a ch site-locak nh sau:

Hnh 2.9: M t u tr

h Site-Local

10 bit u tin lun lun c nh cho cc a ch site-local ( FEC0::/10). Sau 10 bit c nh l trng ID Subnet cung cp 54 bit m ta c th to ra mt c s h tng nh tuyn c th tm tt v phn cp trong cng 1 site. Sau trng ID mng con l 64 bit trng ID giao din m ch th mt giao din c th trn mt subnet. Phm vi s dng Site-Local Addresses l trong cng Site. - h v6 bi t.

+ a ch khng ch r. a ch 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 hay :: ch c dng ch s khng c mt ca mt a ch. N tng thch vi a ch khng r trong IPv4 l 0.0.0.0. a ch khng ch r thng c dng nh l mt a ch ngun cho cc gi c gng xc nhn s c mt duy nht ca mt a ch khng ch r. a ch khng ch r khng c cp cho 1 giao din hoc l dng nh 1 a ch ch n. + a ch loopback. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 36

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

a ch loopback 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 hoc ::1 c dng xc nh 1 giao din loopback cho php 1 node c th gi cc gi gi ngc v chnh n. N tng ng vi a ch loopback 127.0.0.1 trong IPv4. Cc gi c nh a ch cho a ch loopback phi khng c gi trn ng lin kt hoc c chuyn tip bi 1 b nh tuyn IPv6. h multi st.

Hnh 2.10: Gi tin gi t i

h Multi st

Mt a ch multicast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topo nh tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch multicast s c chuyn ti tt c cc giao din m c xc nh bi a ch ny. Mt a ch multicast c dng trong truyn thng mt-nhiu, c chuyn n nhiu giao din. Trong IPv6 lu lng multicast hot ng ging nh IPv4. Cc node IPv6 c nh v ty c th lng nghe lu lng multicast trn 1 a ch multicast ty . Cc node IPv6 c nh v ty c th lng nghe nhiu a ch multicast ti cng 1 thi im. Cc node c th tham gia hoc ri khi nhm multicast bt c lc no. a ch multicast IPv6 c 8 bit u tin l 1111 1111. Mt a ch IPv6 multicast c th d dng nhn ra v n lun bt u bng FF. Cc a ch multicast khng th c dng nh l cc a ch ngun hoc l cc ch trung

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

gian trong 1 tiu nh tuyn. Pha sau 8 bit u tin a ch multicast bao gm cu trc thm vo xc nh cc c, phm vi v nhm multicast.

Hnh 2.11: M t u tr Cc trng trong a ch multicast l: -

h Multi st

C: ch cc c c thit lp trong a ch multicast. Kch thc ca trng ny l 4 bit. Nh RFC 3513 c ch c nh ngha l c T (Transient: tm thi). C T dng bit bc thp ca trng c. Khi c set v 0 c T ch ra rng a ch multicast l mt a ch multicast c cp thng trc, c cp pht bi IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority). Khi c set ln 1, c T ch ra a ch multicast ny l a ch multicast tm thi.

Phm vi: ch phm vi ca lin mng IPv6 cho lu lng multicast c d nh. Kch thc ca trng ny l 4 bit. Thm vo thng tin cung cp bi cc giao thc nh tuyn multicast , cc b nh tuyn dng phm vi multicast xc nh ni m lu lng multicast s c chuyn i. Cc gi tr thng thng nht cho trng phm vi l 1 (phm vi giao din cc b), 2 (phm vi lin kt ni b) v 5 (phm vi site ni b). V d lu lng vi a ch multicast l FF02::2 c 1 phm vi lin kt ni b th 1 b nh tuyn IPv6 s khng chuyn lu lng ny ra lin kt ni b.

ID nhm: ch nhm multicast v l duy nht i vi mi phm vi. Kch thc ca trng ny l 112 bit. Cc ID nhm c gn thng trc khng ph thuc vo phm vi. Cc ID nhm tm thi ch lin quan n 1 phm vi c th.

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Hnh 2.12:

h multi st

v6 nh x s ng

h MAC multi st

Vi 112 bit cho ID nhm th c th c 2112 ID nhm a ch. Tuy nhin theo cch m cc i ch multicast IPv6 nh x sang cc a ch MAC multicast ca Ethernet nn RFC 3513 khuyn co cp pht ID nhm t 32 bit bc thp ca a ch multicast IPv6 v xt cc bit ID nhm cn li l 0. Bng cch ch s dng 32 bit bc thp mi ID nhm nh x 1 a ch MAC multicast duy nht. h ny st.

Mt a ch Anycast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topology nh tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch anycast c chuyn n mt giao din n gn nht c xc nh bi a ch anycast ny. Khi nim giao din gn nht c xc nh gn nht trong gii hn khong cch nh tuyn. a ch anycast c dng trong truyn thng 1-1 trong nhiu.

Hnh 2.13 i tin gi t i

h Any st

Anycast Address l a ch c bit c th gn cho nhiu interface, gi tin chuyn n Anycast Address s c vn chuyn bi h thng Routing n SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Interface gn nht. Hin nay, a ch Anycast c s dng rt hn ch, rt t ti liu ni v cch s dng loi a ch ny. Hu nh Anycast addresss ch c dng t cho Router, khng t cho Host, l do l bi v hin nay a ch ny ch c s dng vo mc ch cn bng ti. V d : khi mt nh cung cp dch v mng c rt nhiu khch hng mun truy cp dch v t nhiu ni khc nhau, nh cung cp mun tit kim nn ch mt Server trung tm phc v tt c, h xy dng nhiu Router kt ni khch hng vi Server trung tm, khi mi khch hng c th c nhiu con ng truy cp dch v. Nh cung cp dch v t a ch Anycast cho cc Interfaces l cc Router kt ni n Server trung tm, by gi mi khch hng ch vic ghi nh v truy cp vo mt a ch Anycast thi, t ng h s c kt ni ti Server thng qua Router gn nht. y tht s l mt cch x l n gin v hiu qu. Khi tm hiu v a ch Anycast, s d nhm ln. Bi v nu nh gn a ch ny cho mt Interface th n y nh l a ch Unicast, nhng khi gn cho nhiu Interfaces th n li c v nh l a ch Multicast. Nhng tm hiu v Multicasr, s thy s khc bit gia Multicast v Anycast 2.4.5 S tng thch a ch. Nhm chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 v s tn ti ca c 2 loi host, cc a ch sau c nh ngha: h t ng th h IPv4.

a ch IPv6, a ch 0:0:0:0:0:0:w.x.y.z hoc ::w.x.y.z c dng bi cc node IPv6/IPv4 m truyn thng dng IPv6. Cc node IPv6/IPv4 l cc node dng c 2 giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. Khi a ch tng thch IPv4 c dng nh 1 ch n IPv6 th lu lng IPv6 s t ng ng gi vi 1 tiu ca IPv4 v gi n ch dng c s h tng IPv4. h nh x s ng v4

a ch c nh x sang IPv4 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:w.x.y.z hoc ::FFFF:w.x.y.z c dng din t 1 node ch dng IPv4 sang 1 node IPv6. N ch c SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 40

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

dng cho din t ni b. a ch c nh x sang IPv4 khng c dng nh l mt a ch ngun hoc ch ca 1 gi IPv6. h 6 s ng 4.

a ch 6 sang 4 c dng cho truyn thng gia 2 node chy c IPv4 v IPv6 trn 1 c s h tng nh tuyn IPv6. a ch 6 sang 4 c hnh thnh bng cch kt hp prefix 2002::/16 vi 32 bit ca 1 a ch IPv4 public ca node v hnh thnh nn 1 prefix 48 bit. h v6 ho 1 Host.

Mt host IPv4 vi mt b thch ng mng n thng c mt a ch IP n c cp cho b thch ng . Tuy nhin, 1 host IPv6 thng c nhiu a ch IPv6, ngay c vi giao din n. Mt host IPv6 c cp cho cc a ch unicast sau y: Mt a ch lin kt ni b cho mi giao din. a ch unicast cho mi giao din ( c th l 1 a ch site ni b v 1 hoc nhiu a ch unicast ton cu ) a ch loopback ( ::1) cho giao din loopback.

Cc host IPv6 thng thng l logically multihomed bi v chng c t nht 2 a ch m chng c th nhn cc gi, 1 a ch lin kt ni b cho lu lng lin kt ni b v 1 a ch ton cu hoc site ni b c th nh tuyn c. Thm vo , mi host lng nghe lu lng trn cc a ch multicast sau: a ch multicast tt c cc node phm vi giao din ni b ( FF01::1) a ch multicast tt c cc node phm vi lin kt ni b ( FF02::1) a ch soliticated cho mi a ch unicast trn mi giao din. Cc a ch multicast ca cc nhm c tham gia trn mi giao din. h v6 ho 1 B nh tuyn. 41

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Mt b nh tuyn IPv6 c cp cc a ch unicast sau y: Mt a ch lin kt ni b cho mi giao din. Cc a ch unicast cho mi giao din (c th l 1 a ch site ni b v 1 hoc nhiu a ch unicast ton cu) 1 a ch anycast subnet b nh tuyn. Cc a ch anycast thm vo (option). a ch loopback (::1) cho giao din loopback.

2.4.6 a ch IPv4 v s tng ng IPv6 Bng 2.2: h v4 v s t IPv4 Address Cc lp a ch Internet a ch multicast IPv4 (224.0.0.0/4) Cc a ch broadcast a ch khng r rng 0.0.0.0 a ch loopback 127.0.0.1 Public IP address a ch IP ring (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16)

ng

ng

v6

IPv6 Address Khng tng xng trong IPv6 a ch multicast IPv6 (FF00::/8) Khng tng xng trong IPv6 a ch khng r rng :: a ch loopback ::1 Global unicast address a ch site cc b ( FEC0::/10)

a ch t ng c cu hnh a ch lin kt cc b ( FF80::/64) (169.254.0.0/16) Cch th hin: k hiu du chm thp Cch th hin: dng du hai chm c phn phn cch gin lc cc s 0 v nn cc s 0 lin tip Th hin cc bit mng: dng Mt n Th hin cc bit mng: ch dng chiu mng con hoc chiu di prefix di prefix

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Chuyn i tn DSN: bng ghi ti Chuyn i tn DSN: bng ghi ti nguyn a ch host IPv4 Chuyn i ngc DNS nguyn a ch host IPv6 Chuyn i ngc DNS

2.5

Khun dng gi tin

v6

2.5.1 Khun dng gi tin IPv6 hin bn : 6. L p vn huyn: tng t cc kiu dch v (Type of service) trong IPv4. Nhn lung: dng nh du tt c cc gi tin cng thuc mt lung d liu. VD: cng ting ni, cng video. Trm ngun mun cc B nh tuyn trung gian x l cc thng tin cng lung ging nhau. Cc gi tin cng lung phi c a ch ngun , a ch ch v s nhn lung ging nhau. S nhn lung c pht sinh ngu nhin nhng khng c dng li khi thi gian sng ca lung vn cn tn ti trn mng. Nhn lung phc v cho truyn thng a phng tin.

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Hnh 2.14 : Khun dng gi tin

v6

Payload length_ di ti: Cha thng tin hu ch trong gi tin. Next header_Tiu tip theo: Tiu thm vo ph thuc ty chn b sung. N c t gia tiu ca IPv6 vi tiu ca tng trn. Tiu ny ch c a vo khi cn thit, trnh vic truyn nhng thng tin d tha. Mt s la chn : Routing: yu cu gi tin phi i qua ng no. Flagment: Trong trng hp cn phn mnh. Yu cu c x l trn ng truyn: hop by hop. Yu cu x l gi tin khi n ch. Thng tin xc thc trm thu nhn bit thng tin ch thc ca my ngun khng b gi danh, khng b thay i. M ha ni dung ca gi tin. nhy: s B nh tuyn m gi tin c php

Hop limit_ i i hn b i qua.

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

Sour e Add_

h ngun: 128bit h h: 128bit

Destin tion Add_

2.5.2 So snh khun dng IPv4 v IPv6. IPv4 Ver4 IH L Type of Service Total Length Frag Offset Ver 6 IPv6 Traffic Class Flow Label Next Hdr Hop Limit

Identification Time to Live

Flags

Playload Length

Protocol

Header Checksum Source Address

Source Address Destination Address IP Options IPv4 Header = 20 Bytes + Options IPv6 Header = 40 Bytes Hnh 2.15: Khun dng gi tin

Destination Address

v4/

v6 v4/ v6 IPv6

Bng 2.3: So Snh khun dng gi tin IPv4 Version

Cng trng nhng vi cc s phin bn khc nhau.

Tiu Length

c loi b trong IPv6. IPv6 khng cha trng Tiu Length bi v tiu ca IPv6 lun lun c nh l 40 byte. Mi tiu m rng c kch thc c nh

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Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

hoc c a ch ca ring n. Type of Service Total Length c thay th bng trng Traffic Class c thay th bng trng Payload Length ch kch thc ca trng ti. Identification, Fragmentation, Fragment Offset c loi b trong IPv6. Thng tin phn mnh khng c trong tiu ca IPv6. N c cha trong tiu m rng phn mnh.

Time to live Protocol Tiu Checksum

c thay th bng trng Hop Limit. c thay th bng trng Next Header. c loi b trong IPv6. Trong IPv6 vic pht hin li cp bit cho c gi IPv6 c thc hin bi lp lin kt.

Source Address

Trng ny ging nhau ch khc l a ch IPv6 c 128 bit.

Destination Address

Trng ny ging nhau ch khc l a ch IPv6 c 128 bit.

Options

c loi b trong IPv6. IPv4 options c thay th bi IPv6 extension header.

2.5.3 Cc tiu m rng ca IPv6. Tiu ca IPv4 bao gm tt c cc option. V th, mi b nh tuyn trung gian phi kim tra s tn ca chng v x l chng khi chng hin din. iu ny lm gim hiu sut vn chuyn trong vic vn chuyn cc gi IPv4. Vi SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 46

Ch

ng II: Cu trc

ch IPv6

IPv6, cc option phn pht v c chuyn sang cc tiu m rng. Tiu m rng duy nht phi c x l ti mi b nh tuyn trung gian l tiu m rng Hop-by-Hop Option. iu ny s tng tc x l tiu v tng kh nng x l chuyn tip. RFC 2460 nh ngha cc tiu m rng IPv6 sau y phi c h tr bi tt c cc node IPv6: Hop-by-Hop Option tiu . Destination Options tiu . Routing tiu . Fragment tiu . Authentication tiu . Encapsulation Security Trng ti tiu .

Trong 1 gi IPv6 thng thng th khng c mt tiu m rng no. Nu vic iu khin c bit c yu cu bi cc b nh tuyn trung gian hoc ch th 1 hoc nhiu tiu m rng c thm vo bi host gi. Mi tiu m rng c phm vi 64 bit. Cc tiu m rng c kch thc thay i cha 1 trng tiu Extension Length v phi dng m khi cn chc chn rng kch thc ca chng l 1 bi s ca 8.

2.6 Kt lun h

ng

Trong chng 2 gii thiu cc dng a ch, cu trc nh a ch IPv6, qua thy c s khc bit v thay i trong a ch IPv6. y l phin bn c thit k nhm khc phc nhng hn ch ca IPv4 v b sung nhng tnh nng mi cn thit trong hot ng v dch v mng th h sau. Chng tip theo s cp n vic trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn mng s dng IPv4.

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Ch

ng III: Trin khai mng IPv6

CHNG 3: TRIN KHAI MNG IPv6


3.1 Trin kh i mng v6 trn nn v4

3.1.1 t vn Giao thc IPv6 c nhiu -u im v-t tri so vi IPv4, p ng -c nhu cu pht trin ca mng Internet hin ti v trong t-ng lai. Do , giao thc IPv6 s thay th IPv4. Tuy nhin, khng th chuyn i ton b cc nt mng IPv4 hin nay sang IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn. Hn na, nhiu ng dng mng hin tich-a h tr IPv6. Theo d bo ca t chc ISOC, IPv6 s thay th IPv4 vo khong 2020- 2030. V vy, cn c mt qu trnh chuyn i gia hai giao thc trnh hin t-ng t-ng t nh- s c Y2K. Cc c ch chuyn i (Transition mechanism) phi m bo kh nng t-ng tc gia cc trm, cc ng dng IPv4 hin c vi cc trm v ng dng IPv6. Ngoi ra, cc c ch cng cho php chuyn tip cc lung thng tin IPv6 trn h tng nh tuyn hin c. Trong giai on chuyn i, iu quan trng l phi m bo s hot ng bnh th-ng ca mng IPv4 hin ti. Yu cu i vi cc c ch chuyn i: Vic th nhim IPv6 khng nh h-ng n cc mng IPv4 hin ang hot ng. Kt ni v cc dch v IPv4 tip tc hoat ng bnh th-ng.

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Hiu nng hot ng ca mng IPv4 khng b nh h-ng. Giao thc IPv6 ch tc ng n cc mng th nghim.

Qu trnh chuyn i din ra tng b-c. Khng nht thit phi chuyn i ton b cc nt mng sang giao thc mi. - Cc c ch chuyn i -c phn thnh 2 nhm vi hai chc nng khc nhau: Kt ni cc mng v cc nt mng IPv6 qua h tng nh tuyn IPv4 hin c. Cc c ch ny bao gm: -ng hm (tunnel), 6to4, 6over4. Kt ni cc nt mng IPv4 vi cc nt mng IPv6. Cc c ch ny bao gm: SIIT, NAT- PT, ALG, DSTM, BIS, BIA, SOCK64. Mi c ch u c -u, nh-c im v phm vi p dng khc nhau. Ty tng thi im trong giai on chuyn i, mc s dng ca cc c ch chuyn i s khc nhau. Giai on u: Giao thc IPv4 chim -u th. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni vi nhau trn nn h tng IPv4 hin c thng qua cc -ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4. Giai on gia: Giao thc IPv4 v IPv6 -c trin khai v phm vi ngang nhau trn mng. Cc mng IPv6 kt ni vi nhau qua h tng nh tuyn IPv6. Cc mng IPv4 kt ni vi cc mng IPv6 s dng cc ph-ng php chuyn i a ch giao thc nh- NAT- PT, ALG Giai on cui: Giao thc IPv6 chim -u th. Cc mng IPv4 cn li kt ni vi nhau trn h tng

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Ch

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nh tuyn IPv6 thng qua cc -ng hm IPv4 qua IPv6 khi chuyn hon ton sang IPv6.

3.2

h huyn i

Hin nay s lng cc mng IPv4 l rt ln; hu ht cc dch v v cc giao dch trn mng u da trn h tng mng IPv4; do vy xut hin nhiu c ch chuyn i cho php kt ni cc host IPv6 qua mng IPv4. Vic xy dng li giao thc ca tng Internet trong m hnh TCP/IP dn n nhiu thay i. Trong vn thay i ln nht ca IPv6 vi IPv4 l vic thay i cu trc a ch. S thay i ny nh hng n cc vn sau: nh hng ti hot ng ca cc giao thc tng trn ( Tng giao vn v tng ng dng) nh hng ti cc phng thc nh tuyn.

Mt khc , mt yu cu quan trng trong vic trin khai IPv6 l phi thc hin c mc tiu ban u ra khi thit k giao thc IPv6 l : IPv6 phi lm vic c trong mi trng s dng giao thc IPv4. S c hin tng ch c nhng host dng duy nht IPv6 v ng thi cng tn ti nhng host ch duy nht IPv4. ng thi nhng host thun IPv6 phi giao tip c vi nhng host IPv4 trong khi vn m bo a ch IPv4 l c tnh thng nht ton cu. Do vy, m bo thc hin cc s tng thch gia IPv4 v IPv6, cc nh thit k IPv6 xy dng mt s c ch chuyn i khc nhau. Cc c ch chuyn i ny c nhng c im chung nh sau: m bo cc host/b nh tuyn ci t IPv6 c th lm vic c vi nhau trn nn IPv4. H tr cc kh nng trin khai cc host v b nh tuyn hot ng trn nn IPv6 vi mc tiu thay th dn cc host ang hot ng IPv4. C mt phng thc chuyn i d dng, thc hin c cc cp khc nhau t pha ngi dng cui ti ngi qun tr h thng, cc nh qun l mng v cung cp dch v. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 50

Ch

ng III: Trin khai mng IPv6

Cc c ch ny l mt tp cc giao thc thc hin i vi cc host v cc b nh tuyn, km theo l cc phng thc nh gn a ch v trin khai, thit k lm qu trnh chuyn i Internet sang IPv6 lm vic vi t ri ro nht c th c. Hin nay cc nh thit k IPv6 a ra 3 c ch chuyn i chnh cho php kt ni IPv6 trn nn IPv4 nh sau: Dual Ip layer: c ch ny m bo mt host/b nh tuyn c ci t c IPv4 v IPv6 tng Internet Layer trong kin trc TCP/IP ca n. IPv6 tunnel qua IPv4: C ch ny thc hin ng gi mt gi tin IPv6 theo chun giao thc IPv4 c th mang gi tin trn nn kin trc IPv4. C 2 loi tunneling l ci t sn ( Configured) v t ng (Automantic). 6to4: C ch ny hot ng da trn cc host IPv4 sn c cc a ch IPv4 t xy dng mt a ch IPv6 c cu trc c bit; cc host s dng c ch ny khng cn phi thng qua mt ISP c h tr IPv6. 3.2.1 Lp IP song song ( Dual IP layer). C ch ny m bo mt host/b nh tuyn c ci t c 2 giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. Vi c ch song song ny, hot ng ca cc host/b nh tuyn hon ton tng thch vi IPv4 v IPv6. Theo c ch ny, IPv6 s cng tn ti vi IPv4 v n s dng c s h tng ca IPv4. S la chn s dng ngn xp ( la chn giao thc no trong lp TCP/IP) s da vo thng tin c cung cp bi dch v qua DNS server.

Application

TCP/UDP

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IPv4

IPv6

Network layer Hnh 3.1: Minh h h Du l l yer

y l c ch n gin nht cho php nt mng ng thi h tr c hai giao thc IPv6 v IPv4. C c kh nng trn do mt trm Dual Stack ci t c hai giao thc, IPv4 v IPv6. Trm Dual Stack s giao tip bng giao thc IPv4 vi cc trm IPv4 v bng giao thc IPv6 vi cc trm IPv6. Do hot ng vi c hai giao thc, nt mng kiu ny cn t nht mt a ch IPv4 v mt i ch IPv6. a ch IPv4 c th c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua c ch DHCP. a ch IPv6 c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua kh nng t cu hnh a ch. Nt mng h tr cc ng dng vi c hai giao thc. Chng trnh tra cu tn min c th tra cu ng thi c cc truy vn kiu A ln kiu AAAA (A6). Nu kt qu v l bn ghi kiu A, ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv4. Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi AAAA (A6), ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv6. Nu c hai kt qu tr v, chng trnh s la chn tr v cho ng dng mt trong hai kiu a ch hoc c hai. u im: y l c ch c bn nht nt mng c th hot ng ng thi vi c hai giao th do , n c h tr trn nhiu nn tng khc nhau nh: FreeBSD, Linux, Windows v Solaris. Nhc im: Kh nng m rng km v phi s dng a ch IPv4. Cho php duy tr cc kt ni bng c hai giao thc IPv4 v IPv6.

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ng III: Trin khai mng IPv6

3.2.2 ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4. y l cch nhanh v d nht trin khai IPv6 qua nhng v tr b gii hn. IPv6 ch xut hin cc access point c h tr cc IPv6 host. Interface h tr IPv6 segment s c cu hnh cho c IPv4 v IPv6 hay ch l IPv6. IPv6 traffic sau s c ng gi vo cc IPv4 packet truyn qua mng. Ch nhng router h tr cc tunnel interface u vo v c u ra mi yu cu l dual-stack (chy c IPv6 v IPv4). Mi tunnel interface s x l cc IPv6 packet ging nh cch cc interface vt l x l. Cc IPv6 host s s dng a ch ca tunnel lm default gateway v mt giao thc nh tuyn (nh RIPv6) forward cc packet gia cc tunnel. C s h tng mng Internet hot ng trn nn IPv4 hot ng kh n nh v c quy m rng ln. Tn dng kh nng ny, cc nh thit k IPv6 a ra gii php l thc hin c ch tunneling ( ng hm) trn nn IPv4.

Hnh 3.2: Cng ngh

ng hm

Nguyn tc ca vic to ng hm trong cng ngh tunnel nh sau:

Xc nh thit b kt ni ti cc im u v cui ng hm. Hai thit b ny phi c kh nng hot ng dual-stack.

Xc nh a ch IPv4 v a ch IPv6 ngun v ch ca giao din tunnel (hai u kt thc tunnel).

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Ch

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Trn hai thit b kt ni ti u v cui tunnel, thit lp mt giao din tunnel (giao din o, khng phi giao din vt l) dnh cho nhng gi tin IPv6 s c bc trong gi tin IPv4 i qua.

Gn a ch IPv6 cho giao din tunnel. To tuyn (route) cc gi tin IPv6 i qua giao din tunnel. Ti , chng c bc trong gi tin IPv4 c gi tr trng Protocol 41 v chuyn i da trn c s h tng mng IPv4 v nh nh tuyn IPv4.

Cng ngh ng hm l mt phng php s dng c s h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 thc hin cc kt ni IPv6 bng cch s dng cc thit b mng c kh nng hot ng dual-stack ti hai im u v cui nht nh. Cc thit b ny bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 v truyn ti i trong mng IPv4 ti im u v g b gi tin IPv4, nhn li gi tin IPv6 ban u ti im ch cui ng truyn IPv4. Ni chung, cng ngh ng hm gi gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 truyn i c trn c s h tng mng IPv4. Tc thit lp mt ng kt ni o (mt ng hm) ca IPv6 trn c s h tng mng IPv4.

C hai loi c ch Tunneling nh sau: l Automatic v Configured Tunneling. C hai c ch ny khc nhau c bn l vic quyt nh a ch cui ca qu trnh ng hm, cn li v c bn hot ng ca hai c ch ny l ging nhau.

C ch ng gi/ m gi thc hin ng hm: im khi to ng hm ( im ng gi tin) to mt tiu IPv4 ng gi v truyn gi tin c ng gi.

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Node kt thc ca qu trnh ng hm ( im m gi) nhn c gi tin ng gi, xa b phn tiu IPv4, sa i mt s trng ca tiu IPv6, v x l phn d liu ny nh mt gi tin IPv6.

Node ng gi cn duy tr cc thng tin v trng thi ca mi qu trnh trong ng hm. V d cc tham s MTU x l cc gi tin IPv6 bt u thc hin ng hm. V s lng cc tin trnh trong ng hm c th tng ln mt s lng kh ln, trong khi cc thng tin ny thng lp li v do c th s dng k thut m v c loi b khi cn thit.

Hnh 3.3: C

h ng gi th hi n

ng hm

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Ch

ng III: Trin khai mng IPv6

Hnh 3.4: C

h m gi khi th hi n

ng hm

Automatic Tunneling:

Cc k thut to tunnel ng: l mt k thut m 32 bit cui ca a ch IPv6 c thay th bi mt a ch IPv4 v 6 phn cn li bng 0. Do , s to ra mt a ch IPv6 c dng: 0:0:0:0:0:0:A.B.C.D hay ::A.B.C.D. Mc d cch ny cung cp mt cch ng xy dng cc tunnel, nhng s khng tn dng c tm a ch ln ca IPv6 v mi host phi c mt a ch IPv4 k thut ny s khng tn dng c IPv6 v khng ph hp cho nhng mi trng ln. ISATAP l mt k thut m rng ca k thut ny. Vi phng thc ny tunneling ny, a ch ch trong gi tin ng gi IPv4 c xc nh l a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6. Do vy, a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6 c ng gi phi c dng a ch IPv4 tng thch vi IPv6 ( IPv4 compability IPv6). i vi nhng gi tin IPv6 m a ch ch l dng a ch khng c dng IPv4-compabile th s khng th thc hin automatic tunneling. C ch Automatic Tunneling thng c s dng khi cn thc hin nhng kt ni vi cc host hoc vi cc mng IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn, hoc trong nhng tnh hung ngu nhin. c im ca ng hm t ng l a ch im cui ng hm c xc nh mt cch t ng. ng hm c to ra mt cch t ng v cng t ng mt i. M hnh u tin l dng a ch IPv6 c khun dng c bit: a ch IPv6 tng thch IPv4 m ho thng tin v a ch IPv4 trong a ch IPv6.

Hnh 3.5:

v6 t

ng th h

v4

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Ti im u ng hm, nt mng ng gi s tch phn a ch IPv4 lm a ch im cui ng hm ng gi gi tin. u im: ng hm t ng n gin, cho php hai nt mng IPv6 d dng kt ni vi nhau qua kt ni IPv4 hin c m khng cn cc cu hnh c bit. Nhc im: Hn ch v khng gian a ch do ph thuc vo khng gian a ch IPv4. Nguy c b tn cng ph hoi bi cc tin tc: Do a ch cui cng ng hm c xc nh hon ton t ng v gi tin ng hm s c gi n a ch IPv4 . Nu khng c c ch kim tra c bit, gi s c mt gi tin c gi n router ca mng (203.162.7.0) vi a ch IPv6 ch: 203.162.7.255. a ch IPv4: 203.162.7.255 l a ch broadcast ca mng do , cc gi tin ng hm s c gi ti mi trm trong mng. Do , cc ng hm t ng thng c hn ch s dng. Sau ny ngi ta xut mt s phng php ci tin nh 6over, 6to4. Cc thng s lin quan n Automatic Tunneling Kh nng ng dng: i vi cc host. Yu cu giao thc IPv4: Yu cu c cc kt ni IPv4 gia cc site. Yu cu a ch IPv4: ti thiu c mt a ch IPv4 Yu cu giao thc IPv6: khng cn thit. Yu cu a ch IPv6: i ch dng IPv4 compabile. Yu cu i vi host: ci t dual satck IPv4/IPv6.

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Yu cu i vi route: none.

Configured Tunneling Vi phng thc ny tunneling ny, a ch m gi c quyt nh bi cc thng tin c cu hnh node ng gi. i vi mi tunnel dng ny, cc node ny phi lu a ch ca cc trm cui ( cc trm m gi end-point ). Khi cc gi IPv6 c chuyn qua tunnel ny, a ch ca cc endpoint c cu hnh sao cho ging vi a ch ch trong phn tiu ca gi tin IPv4 ng gi. c im ca ng hm c cu hnh l a ch im cui ng hm khng c xc nh t ng m da trn nhng thng tin cu hnh trc ti im u ng hm.

Hnh 3.6. ng hm u hnh Cc thng s yu cu i vi c ch Configured Tunneling nh sau: Kh nng ng dng :site. Yu cu giao thc IPv4: kt ni gia cc site s dng IPv4. a ch IPv4: ti thiu c mt a ch IPv4 trong mt site.

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Yu cu giao thc IPv6: khng cn thit. Yu cu v a ch IPv6: khng cn thit . Yu cu host: IPv6 stack hoc IPv4/IPv6 stack. Yu cu i vi b nh tuyn: IPv4/IPv6 b nh tuyn.

3.2.3 C ch 6to4. C ch 6to4 tunnel ng: vi k thut ny th mng IPv4 s c xem nh mt lin kt unicast P2P. Mc ch ca vic s dng 6to4 tunnel l kt ni cc IPv6 domain ch khng phi cc host, tuy nhin k thut ny kh m rng. Mc d cc gi IPv6 c bao ng bn trong cc gi IPv4, nhng cc tunnel li khng c nh ngha. V 13 bit TLA l: 0x0002 hay :2002::/16. 32 bit tip theo (high level NLA) s l a ch IPv4 ton cc ca interface router. Khi mt 6to4 router nhn c mt IPv6 packet khng phi thuc domain ca n vi mt TLA l 2002, n s bao ng d liu trong gi IPv4 packet v thit lp trng protocol thnh 41. Router sau s s dng high level NLA (32 bit IPv4) nh l mt a ch ch v nh tuyn gi tin qua mng IPv4. Cn nu TLA khc 2002 th packet s c bao ng v gi ra mt default route n mt 6to4 router khc forward. a ch 6to4 c dng:

Hnh 3.7: C Khun dng ca mt a ch 6to4 nh sau:

h 6 to4

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Hnh 3.8: Khun dng C ch hot ng:

h 6to4

Khi c mt gi tin IPv6 vi a ch ch c dng 2002::/16 c gi n mt router 6to4, router 6to4 tch a ch IPv4 (a ch IPv4 va tch c chnh l a ch IPv4 ca 6to4 router ch), bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 vi a ch ch l a ch IPv4 va tch c. Sau , cc gi tin s c chuyn tip trn h tng IPv4. Khi router 6to4 ch nhn c gi tin, gi tin IPv6 s c tch ra v chuyn n nt mng IPv6 ch.

Hnh 3.9: C u im: -

h hot ng 6to4

Cc nt mng khng bt buc phi dng a ch IPv6 kiu tng thch IPv4 nh ng hm t ng.

Khi cn nhiu cu hnh c bit nh ng hm c cu hnh. Khng b nh hng bi cc h thng tng la ca mng, ch cn router ca mng c a ch IPv4 ton cc c th nh tuyn.

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Nhc im: Ch thc hin vi mt lp a ch mng c bit. C nguy c b tn cng theo kiu ca ng hm t ng nu phn a ch IPv4 ADDR trong a ch ch ca gi tin 6to4 l a ch broadcast hay multicast. 3.2.4 C ch 6over4 C ch cho php cc trm IPv6 c lp trn cc lin kt vt l khng c cc router IPv6 hot ng da trn cc gi tin multicast IPv4 nh mt lin kt cc b o. C ch ny cn gi l mng Ethernet o. h tr cc c ch Pht in lng ging v t cu hnh a ch stateless, mt s cc a ch c phm vi qun tr c s dng. Cc nhm multicast gi lp mt tng lin kt Ethernet. Do , c ch pht hin lng ging (ND) gia cc trm IPv6 vi cc trm 6over 4 ging nh trong tng Ethernet thng thng. Cch tip cn ny to ra lin kt IPv6 tht trn mt mng Lan o. im khc bit l cc trm 6over4 vo cng mt min IPv4 multicast thay v mt mng chia s ng truyn. Vic nh x a ch IPv6 sang a ch tng lin kt c thc hin ging giao thc ND. Trong trng hp ny, tu chn a ch tng lin kt ngun/ch s dng IPv4 lm tng lin kt. Do , ton b mng IPv4 c coi nh mt tng lin kt chia s ng truyn thng qua vic s dng cc a ch multicast sau y: a ch multicast tt c cc nt mng (239.X.0.1): a ch qun tr ny c dng n mi nt mng trong min IPv4 h tr c ch ny. a ch multicast tt c cc router (239.X.0.2): a ch qun tr ny c dng n mi router trong min IPv4 h tr c ch ny.

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a ch multicast solicited node (239.X.C.D): a ch qun tr ny c dng xc nh a ch nt lng ging (C v D l hai byte thp trong a ch IPv4).

Trong tt c cc a ch ny, X ch nh danh cc b lin kt (thng bng 192). S dng tng IPv4 lm tng lin kt loi b cc hn ch ca tng vt l i vi k hoch chuyn i. Cc trm c th tri trn nhiu min v thm ch cch nhiu bc so vi router IPv6.

Hnh 3.10: C

h 6over4

Cc trm 6over4 nhn cu hnh ( a ch lin kt cc b v tin t, a ch IPv4 ca router h tr IPv6) s dng giao thc ND trn cc a ch multicast IPv4. Sau cc gi d liu IPv6 c gi trong cc gi d liu IPv4 vi kiu giao thc 41. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. u im: Cc trm IPv6 khng i hi c a ch tng thch hay ng hm cu hnh. Chnh cc trm s thc hin ng hm. Kin trc SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 62

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c s bao gm mt router vi kt ni IPv6 v h tr 6over4, mt mng c kh nng multicast kt ni cc trm v router. Trong mi trng , cc trm 6over4 c th kt ni vi cc trm IPv6 khc. C tnh m rng nh IPv6 trn hu ht cc phng tin truyn.

Nhc im: Suy gim Mtu ca gi tin dn n gim thng lng. Trong qu trnh chuyn i, cc router phi qung b t nht hai tin t IPv6, mt cho lin kt LAN thc s v mt cho min 6over4. Ngoi ra, di tin t phi l 128 phn bit hai loi tin t cng c kiu FE80::/64. 3.2.5 Mi gii ng hm (Tunnel Broker) Hin nay, mng IPv6 s dng rt nhiu ng hm trn h tng IPv4. Tunnel Broker l hnh thc tunnel, trong mt t chc ng ra lm trung gian, cung cp kt ni ti Internet IPV6 cho nhng thnh vin ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker do t chc cung cp. Tunnel Broker c a ra gim nh chi ph cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm ny. C ch ny s dng mt tp cc server chuyn dng gi l Tunnel Broker cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm. Chng c th xem nh cc ISP IPv6 o cho cc ngi dng kt ni vo Internet IPv4. C ch ny ph hp cho cc trm (hoc site) IPv6 nh c lp mun kt ni d dng vo mng IPv6. Cu trc ca Tunnel Broker bao gm: Mt server Tunnel Broker. Mt DNS server. Mt s cc server ng hm.

Sau y l m hnh cng ngh ng hm trong cc im kt thc ng hm c thc hin bng mt thit b gi l Tunnel Broker.

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T chc cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker c vng a ch IPv6 c lp, ton cu, xin cp t cc t chc qun l a ch IP quc t, mng IPv6 ca t chc c kt ni ti Internet IPv6 v nhng mng IPv6 khc. Thnh vin ng k v c cp quyn s dng dch v Tunnel Broker s nhn c nhng thng tin t t chc qun l Tunnel Broker thit lp ng hm tunnel t host hoc t router gateway mng IPv6 ca t chc mnh ti mng ca t chc duy tr Tunnel Broker, t kt ni ti c Internet IPv6 hay nhng mng IPv6 khc m t chc duy tr Tunnel Broker c kt ni ti. Ngi s dng s kt ni ti c IPv6 Internet v cc mng IPv6 khc khi ng k v c php s dng dch v Tunnel Broker ca nh cung cp. Ngi s dng s c cung cp thng tin thit lp ng hm t host hoc mng ca mnh n mng ca t chc duy tr Tunnel Broker v dng mng ny nh mt trung gian kt ni ti cc mng IPv6 khc. Ngi ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker s c cp mt vng a ch thun IPv6, tu theo nhu cu s dng t khng gian a ch IPv6 ca nh cung cp dch v tunnel broker v c chuyn giao mt khng gian tn min cp di khng gian tn min ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker. y l a ch v tn min hp l ton cu, thnh vin ca Tunnel Broker c th s dng tn min ny thit lp IPv6 Website cho php nhng mng IPV6 c kt ni ti mng ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker truy cp ti.

Hnh 3.11: Kt ni Cch thc thc hin:

v6 v i Tunnel Broker

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Cc khch hng ca dch v Tunnel Broker l cc nt mng IPv6 stack kp (host hoc router) kt ni vo Internet IPv4. Trc khi thit lp ng hm, cn c s trao i thng tin gia Tunnel Broker vi khch hng nh xc thc, qun l v thng tin ti khon.

Khch hng kt ni ti Tunnel Broker ng k v kch hot cc ng hm. Tunnel Broker c th chia s ti cc im cui ng hm trn cc server ng hm. N cng c th ng k tn v a ch IPv4 ca u ng hm pha h, tn ng k trong DNS v l mt trm hay mt router.

Tunnel Broker chn mt server ng hm lm im cui ng hm thc s. N chn tin t cp pht cho khch hng (t 0 n 128) v c nh thi gian tn ti ca ng hm.

Tunnel Broker ng k a ch IPv6 cp cho cc im cui ng hm trong DNS.

Tunnel Broker cu hnh ng hm pha server v thng bo cc thng tin lin quan cho khch hng.

ng hm thit lp gia ngi s dng v mng ca nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker c cu hnh trn nguyn l Tunnel bng tay. Sau , khch hng c th kt ni vo mng IPv6 thng qua c ch ng hm nh bnh thng.

Cc n v kt ni vi VNIXv6 khng c ngn chn cc lu lng thng tin trong nc i vo/ra mng ca mnh qua kt ni VNIXv6.

Cc ISP kt ni ti VNIXv6 c th qua kt ni trc tip (native) hoc qua kt ni c hm (Tunnel).

Cc ISP kt ni ti VNIXv6 c ton quyn s dng cc dch v trn nn IPv6 do VNNIC cung cp.

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M hnh ca mt Tunnel Broker:

Hnh 3.14: M hnh mt Tunnel Broker Trong Tunnel Broker: l nhng my ch dch v lm nhim v qun l thng tin ng k, cho php s dng dch v, qun l vic to ng hm, thay i thng tin ng hm cng nh xo ng hm. Trong h thng dch v Tunnel Broker ca nh cung cp, my ch Tunnel Broker s lin lc vi Tunnel Server (thc cht l cc dual-stack router) v my ch tn min ca nh cung cp Tunnel Broker thit lp ng hm pha nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker v to bn ghi tn min cho ngi ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker. Ngi s dng thng qua mng Internet IPV4 s truy cp my ch Tunnel Broker v ng k ti khon s dng dch v Tunnel Broker thng qua mu ng k di dng Web. Tunnel Server: Thc cht l cc router dual-stack lm nhim v cung cp kt ni ngi ng k s dng dch v kt ni ti truy cp vo mng IPv6 ca t chc cung cp Tunnel Broker. Cc router ny l im kt thc tunnel pha nh cung cp dch v Tunnel Broker. Tunnel Server nhn yu cu SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 66

Ch

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t my ch Tunnel Broker v to, hoc xo ng tunnel pha nh cung cp Tunnel Broker. u im: Qun l tp trung cc ng hm pha server, gim bt chi ph. C th s dng cc ISP o trn IPv6. Cc Tunnel Broker trn mng Internet

3.2.6 Dch a ch - Dch giao thc (SIIT v NAT PT) Dch a ch v dch giao thc c pht trin trn c s c ch NAT trong IPv4 nhm cho php cc nt mng IPv4 v IPv6 kt ni vi nhau. C ch ny hot ng trn c s chuyn i cc khc bit gia cc gi tin IPv4 v IPv6. Khc bit v a ch: Dch a ch IPv4 IPv6. Khc bit v phn m u header: Dch giao thc thay i header gi tin. Thit b NAT PT c ci t ti bin gii gia mng IPv4 v IPv6. C ch ny khng i hi cc cu hnh c bit ti cc my trm v cc s chuyn i gi tin ti thit b NAT-PT hon ton trong sut vi ngi dng. Mi thit b NAT PT duy tr mt tp cc a ch IPv4 dng nh x cc yu cu vi a ch IPv6. NAT PT c th m rng thnh NAPT PT cho php s dng mt a ch - IPv4 cho nhiu phin lm vic khc nhau. NAT- PT cng nh NAT cng nh IPv4 khng c kh nng hot ng vi cc gi tin c cha a ch trong phn ti tin. Do , NAT PT thng i km vi c ch Ca khu tng ng dng ALG. C ch ny cho php x l cc gi tin ng vi tng dch v nht nh nh DNS hay FTP, u im: Qun tr tp trung ti thit b NAT PT. C th trin khai nhiu thit b NAT- PT tng hiu nng hot ng. SVTH: V Th Thy Dung_L p 08B3 67

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Nhc im: To ln mt im gy li lon single poin of failure ti thit b NAT PT. Cc trin khai ca NAT- PT: NAT PT c th nghim trn cc h iu hnh mng nh: Linux, Free BSD, Microsoft Windows 2000. Ngoi ra, n cng l mt phn ca h iu hnh Cisco IOSIPv6 bn beta vi hai phin bn da trn IOS v11.3 v IOS v12.0. Cc trin khai ny c cho nhiu loi router khc nhau. Cng ngh bin dch thc cht l mt dng cng ngh NAT, thc hin bin dch a ch v dng thc ca mo u gi tin, cho php thit b ch h tr IPv6 c th ni chuyn vi thit b ch h tr IPv4. Cng ngh ph bin c s dng l NAT-PT. Thit b cung cp dch v NAT-PT s bin dch li mo u v a ch cho php mng IPv6 ni chuyn vi mng IPv4.
LAN IPV6

Cu hnh NAT-PT trn router Cisco 2 LAN ni chuyn c vi nhau

LAN IPV4

Hnh 3.15: Cng ngh bin d h NAT-PT SIIT (Stateless IP/ ICMP Translation Algorithm) l mt chun ca IETF (RFC2765) m t b dch IPv6/ IPv4 khng lu trng thi (Stateless). Tng t c ch NAT PT ngoi tr n khng cp pht ng a ch IPv4 cho cc trm IPv6. Chc nng chuyn i thc hin gia header IPv6 v IPv4. SIIT khng bao gm cc ty chn IPv4 v header m rng trong IPv6. SIIT cng thc hin chuyn i cc thng ip iu khin ICMP gia hai giao thc.

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i vi qu trnh chuyn i IPv4 sang IPv6, mt a ch IPv4 tm thi c gn cho nt mng IPv6. Cc gi tin n thit b SIIT s c chuyn i header v a ch t IPv4 sang cc a ch IPv4- dch (IPv4 translated) v IPv4 nh x (IPv4 mapped). Mt a ch IPv4 dch tng ng vi mt nt mng IPv6 cn a ch IPv4- nh x tng ng mt nt mng IPv4. i vi chiu ngc li, cc a ch ny s c chuyn i ngc li thnh a ch IPv4. Do qu trnh chuyn i khng lu trng thi, c th tn ti nhiu b chuyn i gia hai mng IPv4 v IPv6. Khng c s rng buc mi phin truyn phi i qua mt thit b duy nht nh trong NAT-PT. hin.

3.3 Kt lun h

ng

Trong chng ny cp n cng ngh chuyn i IPv6-IPv4. Trong thi gian u pht trin, kt ni IPv6 cn thc hin trn c s h tng mng li IPv4. Mng Ipv6 v IPv4 s cng song song tn ti trong thi gian di, thm ch l mi mi.

Phn 2: Xy dng v trin khai m hnh th nghim ti cng ty TNHH Vnh Phan Chng 1: Phn tch v thit k h thng cho cng ty TNHH Vnh Phan
1.1 Kho st th t
1.1.1 S m hnh mng thc t ca cng ty Cu trc ta nh gm 3 tng nh sau:

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A CH IPv6

Ti li u tham kho

Tng 1:

Tng 2:

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A CH IPv6

Ti li u tham kho

Tng 3:

1.1.2 Yu cu T chc phn quyn theo tng ngi dng Cho php nhn vin xa cng c th truy nhp vo h thng mng ca cng ty Chia s file trong cng ty H thng Mail, Web ni b, forum trong cng ty t tng la, cp pht quyn cho ngi dng trong cng ty 1.1.3 Phn loi yu cu i vi h thng bn trong i vi h thng bn ngoi

1.2 hn t h v x l yu u
1.2.1 S mng xut 1.2.2 M t M hnh xut s dng my ch Domaincontroller nhm bo v mng ni b mt cch an ton vi internet. Mt khc ta c th kim sot c vic truy cp Internet ca cc my tnh bn trong mng ni b 1.2.3 S i dy mng 1.2.4 Hng gii quyt

1.3 S

phn r h nng mng

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A CH IPv6

Ti li u tham kho

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