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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG -----o0o-----

N
TT NGHIP I HC
ti: C CH CHUYN I T IPv4 SANG IPv6

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Mc lc

MC LC
THUT NG V T VIT TT 1 DANH MC HNH V V BNG BIU..............................................................4 LI NI U 6

Chng 1: TNG QUAN V IPv4 8


1.1. Cu trc a ch IPv4..........................................................................................8 1.1.1. Thnh phn v khun dng ca a ch IPv4.......................................8 1.1.2. nh a ch IPv4..............................................................................9 1.1.3. a ch mng con v mt n mng con..............................................13 1.1.3.1. Phng php phn chia a ch mng con...............................13 1.1.3.2. Mt s a ch c bit...............................................................13 1.2. Khun dng ca gi tin IP................................................................................14 1.3. Gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IP.................................................................17 1.3.1. Cc phn t c bn ca mt h thng nh tuyn............................17 1.3.3. X l gi tin khi ti ch................................................................19 1.3.4. nh tuyn trn mng Internet (IP Routing).......................................20 1.3.3.1. Bng tm ng.........................................................................20 1.3.3.2. Giao thc tm ng (IP Protocol)............................................20 1.3.3.3. S o c s dng trong Internet..........................................21 1.4. Vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6......21 1.4.1. S bng n nhu cu v a ch IPv4 khin thi gian d bo IPv4 cn kit b thu ngn li.............................................................................................22 1.4.2. ng thi ca cc quc gia v cc t chc qun l a ch quc t trong tnh hnh hin ti......................................................................................................24 1.4.3. Chnh sch thc y pht trin IPv6...............................................26 1.4.4. Tnh hnh ti nguyn a ch ti Vit Nam......................................28 1.4.5. Khuyn ngh ca VNNIC trc vn ti nguyn hin ti.............30 1.5. Kt lun......................................................................................................30 2.1. c im ca IPv6........................................................................................31 2.1.1. Kiu nh dng tiu mi............................................................31 HongNgcTon H07VT-TD i

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2.1.2. Khng gian a ch m rng...........................................................31 2.1.3. C s h tng nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu.....32 2.1.4. Cu hnh a ch Stateful v Stateless............................................32 2.1.5. Bo mt.........................................................................................32 2.1.6. H tr tt hn cho QoS.................................................................32 2.1.7. Giao thc mi cho s tng tc Node lng ging..........................33 2.1.8. C kh nng m rng....................................................................33 2.2. S khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6....................................................................33 2.3. nh a ch IPv6.......................................................................................35 2.3.1. Khng gian a ch IPv6...................................................................35 2.3.3. Prefix ca IPv6..............................................................................36 2.3.4. Cc dng a ch IPv6.....................................................................36 2.3.4.1. a ch unicast IPv6...............................................................37 2.3.4.2. a ch Multicast IPv6..................................................................40 2.3.4.3 a ch Node Solicited...........................................................41 2.3.4.4. a ch Anycast IPv6....................................................................42 2.3.5. S tng thch a ch....................................................................42 2.3.6. a ch IPv4 v s tng ng IPv6.................................................44 2.4.2. So snh khun dng IPv4 v IPv6.......................................................46 2.4.3. Cc tiu m rng ca IPv6........................................................................47 2.5. Kt Lun ...................................................................................................48

Chng 3: C CH CHUYN I T IPv4 SANG IPv6...................................49


3.1. Trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn IPv4..............................................................49 3.1.1. Cc vn chung...............................................................................49 3.1.2. Mc ch.............................................................................................49 3.2. Cc c ch chuyn i....................................................................................50 3.2.1. Lp IP song song (Dual IP layer)........................................................52 3.2.2. ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4..................................................................52 3.2.2.1. ng hm t ng(Automatic Tunneling).................................54 HongNgcTon H07VT-TD i

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3.2.2.2. ng hm ci t sn(Configured Tunneling)...........................54 3.2.3. 6to4.....................................................................................................55 3.3. Kt Lun...........................................................................................................56

KT LUN TI LIU THAM KHO

57 58

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Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG V T VIT TT
Vit tt Ch gii ting Anh A
ARP AH Address Resolution Protocol Authentication Header Giao thc phn gii a ch. Tiu xc thc

Ch gii ting Vit

B
BGP BoS Border Gateway Protocol Bottom of Stack Giao thc cng ng bin y ngn xp

C
CoS C Class of Service Customer Lp dch v Khch hng

D
DNS DS DHCP Domain Name System Dual Stack Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol H thng tn min. Hai lp stack song song Giao thc cu hnh a ch ng.

E.
EIGP External Gateway Protocol Giao thc cng ngoi

G
GRE Generic Routinh Encapsulation Gi nh tuyn chung

I
IPv4 IPv6 IGMP Internet Protocol Version 4 Internet Protocol Version 6 Internet Group Management Protocol Phin bn 4 ca giao thc Internet. Phin bn 6 ca giao thc Internet Giao thc Internet cac host kt ni, huy kt ni t cac nhom multicast. Mt cng ngh cung cp bo mt.

IPSec

IP Security

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

Giao thc thng ip iu khin

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ISP Internet Service Provider

Thut ng vit tt
Cung cp dch v Internet

L
LAN Local Area Network Mng ni ht

M
MAC MTU Media Access Control Maximum Transmission Unit iu khin phng tin truyn dn n v truyn ti a.

N
NAT Network Address Translation Cng ngh thay th a ch

O
OSPF Open Shortest Path First Giao thc ng i ngn nht u tin

P
P PAT PDA PPP Provider Port Address Translation Porable Device Assistant Point-to-Point Protocol Nh cung cp Giao thc dch a ch cng Thit b s h tr c nhn Giao thc im-im

Q
QoS Quality of Service Cht lng dch v.

R
RIP RFC Routing IP Protocol Request For Commenst Giao thc nh tuyn IP Khuyn ngh

T
TCP TCP/IP Transission Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/IP Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Giao thc dung cho qua trinh truyn va sa li i vi cac d liu. Thi gian sng

TTL

Time To Live

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VLSM Variable-Length Subnet Maskinh

Thut ng vit tt
Gn mt n cho cc mng con theo chiu di thay i ty bin Mng ring o nh tuyn chuyn tip o

VPN VRF

Virtual Private Network Virtual Routing Forwardinh

U
UDP User Datagram Protocol Giao thc d liu ngi dng

W
WAN WLAN Wide Area Network Wireless Local Area Network Mng din rng Mng v tuyn ni ht

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Danh mc hnh v v bng biu

DANH MC HNH V V BNG BIU


Hnh 1.1: Khun dng tiu a ch IPv4.........................................................................4 Hnh 1.2: M hnh phn cp a ch....................................................................................5 Hnh 1.3: Cu trc cc lp a ch IPv4..............................................................................6 Hnh 1.4. a ch lp A.......................................................................................................7 Hnh 1.5. a ch lp B.......................................................................................................8 Hnh 1.6. a ch lpC........................................................................................................8 Hnh 1.7: Khun dng ca gi tin IPv4.............................................................................10 Hnh 1.8. Cu trc ca b nh tuyn thng thng..........................................................14 Hnh 1.9: s lng a chIPv4 tiu th ton cu nm 2000 tr li y............................19 Hnh 1.10: S lng a ch IPv4 tiu th trong khu vc APNIC t nm 2000 tr li y.....................................................................................................................................19 Hnh 1.11 : S lng a ch IPv4 (theo n v /8) c cp t APNIC ca mt s quc gia v vng lnh th qua cc nm.....................................................................................21 Hnh1.12. S lng a ch IPv4 v t l a ch IP/Ngi s dng Internet ca Vit Nam..................................................................................................................................27 Hnh1.13:S lng dng Internet ca Vit Nam.a ch IPv4 v t l a ch IP/ ngi s .......................................................................................................................................... 27 Hnh 2.1: a ch Unicast ton cu..................................................................................36 Hnh 2.2: M t cu trc ca a ch link-local................................................................37 Hnh 2.3: M t cu trc ca a ch Site-Local..............................................................38 Hnh 2.4: M t cu trc ca a ch Multicast................................................................39 Hnh 2.5: M t cu trc ca a ch Node Solicited.......................................................40 Hnh 2.6 : Khun dng ca gi tin IPv6..........................................................................44 Hnh 2.7: Khun dng gi tin IPv4/ IPv6........................................................................45 Hnh 3.1: Minh ha c ch Dual IP layer 6....................................................................51 Hnh3.2: Minh ha c ch ng hm............................................................................51 Hnh3.3: C ch ng gi thc hin ng hm............................................................52 Hnh3.4: C ch m gi khi thc hin ng hm.........................................................53.. Hnh 3.5: C ch 6 to4....................................................................................................54 Bng.2.1: S khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6.......................................................................33 Bng 2.2: a ch IPv4 v s tng ng.....................................................................43 Bng 2.3: So Snh khun dng gi tin IPv4/ IPv............................................................46 Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 4

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Danh mc hnh v v bng biu

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

LI NI U
Nh chng ta bit a ch IPv6 c trin khai v ph bin rng ri ti cc nc pht trin trn th gii: M, Nht, Hn Quc, i Loan....Ti Vit Nam tham gia lnh vc IPv6 vo nm 2004 v d kin s tr thnh a ch c s dng trong tng lai. a ch IPv6 m rng khng gian a ch IP, mang li mt s tnh nng vt tri v c tnh t ph, nh vic hon chnh giao thc Mobile IP so vi trong IPv4, hay vic pht trin da trn nn tng c sn ca IPv4 khc phc nhc im ca IPv4 v pht trin n cao hn. Di a ch IPv4 c s dng t rt lu v hin nay i vo thi k khan him do s pht trin t ca cc ng dng v cng ngh, l nguyn nhn ln nht m h thng mng trn th gii s chuyn i sang di a ch mi vi khng gian a ch rng ln hn, mt phin bn mi ca giao thc IP c ra i, l a ch IPv6. a ch IPv6 ra i mang li nhiu dch v mi, c tnh kh thi cao, y ha hn trong tng lai. Ti Vit Nam ngy 14/08/2009, phin hp thnh vin Ban cng tc thc y pht trin IPv6 Quc gia t chc ti tr s trung tm Internet Vit Nam H Ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh thng qua h thng truyn hnh hi ngh. Ti phin hp, cc thnh vin trao i, ng gp kin cho cc ni dung ca bn d tho K hoch hnh ng quc gia v IPv6. c bit, ti phin hp, cc thnh vin c nghe phn trnh by ca i din tp on NTT Nht Bn v cc ng dng hin nay trn nn IPv6 v kinh nghim trin khai IPv6 ti Nht. Qua cc thnh vin c th tham khao p dng ti Vit Nam. Ti phin hp ln 1 ca ban cng tc thc y pht trin IPv6 Quc gia ngy 16/04/2009 Th trng thng trc L Nam Thng kt lun: Vit Nam cn thit phi thc hin vic chuyn i sang ngun a ch th h mi IPv6. Vic chuyn i ph hp vi xu th chung ca th gii khng ch do ngun a ch IPv4 ang cn kit nhanh chng m cn do IPv6 mang li nhiu li ch hn v tnh bo mt, cht lng dch v... Nh vy tip cn v tm hiu su sc hn v s chuyn i ca a ch IPv4 sang IPv6 c ngha to ln i vi lnh vc cng ngh thng tin v vin thng em mnh dn chn ti C ch chuyn i IPv4 sang IPv6. Trong n tt nghip cp n mt s vn cn nghin cu: a ch IPv4/IPv6, cu trc, phng php nh a ch, cch thc s dng trn Internet, cch thc v cc vn trin khai IPv6 - IPv4 nh th no. B cc n tt nghip c chia ra lm 3 chng: Chng I: Tng quan v IPv4: Tp trung i su vo cc kha cnh nh cu trc a ch IPv4, khun dng ca gi tin IPv4, gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IPv4, 6

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6. Chng II: Tng quan v IPv6: Tp trung gii thiu c im ca IPv6 t lm r s khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6. Phn tch lm ni bt u im ca IPv6 v khng gian a ch, nh dng tiu . Chng III: Tm hiu v c ch chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6: Gii thiu trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn mng IPv4, cc c ch chuyn i nh l (lp IP song song, ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4, 6to4).

Vic nghin cu, tm hiu v c ch chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 i hi phi c kin thc su rng. Do thi gian thc hin n v trnh cn hn ch nn n khng th trnh khi nhiu thiu st. Em rt mong nhn c kin ng gp ca cc thy c gio v bn c. Em xin chn thnh cm n c gio Ths. Nguyn Th Thu Hng tn tnh hng dn em hon thnh tt n ny. Em cng xin gi li cm n n cc thy c gio trong Khoa Vin thng 1, gia nh v bn b nhng ngi dy d, gip v ng vin em trong sut qu trnh hc tp va qua. H Ni, thng 01 nm 2010 Sinh vin Hong Ngc Ton

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Chng 1: TNG QUAN V IPv4


Chng ny gii thiu v cu trc a ch IPv4, khun dng ca goi tin IP, gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IP, vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6.

1.1. Cu trc a ch IPv4


1.1.1. Thnh phn v khun dng ca a ch IPv4 a ch IP ang c s dng hin ti (IPv4) c 32 bit chia thnh 4 Octet ( mi Octet c 8 bit tng ng 1 byte), cch m u t tri qua phi t bit 1 cho n bit 32. Cc Octet cch bit nhau bng mt du chm (Hnh 1.1). C hai cch biu din a ch IPv4: a ch biu hin dng bt nh phn v a ch biu hin dng thp phn.

Hnh 1.1: Khun dng tiu a ch IPv4 * a ch biu hin dng bit nh phn: xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy. xyxyxyxy x, y = 0 hoc 1. * a ch biu hin dng thp phn: xxx.yyy.zzz.uuu V d: 146.123.110.224 Dng vit y ca a ch IP l 3 con s trong tng Octet. a ch IP thng thy trn thc t c th l 53.143.10.2 nhng dng y l: 053.143.010.002

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

* Bao gm c 3 thnh phn chnh.

Bit

1..32

- Bit nhn dng lp (Class bit), phn bit a ch lp no. - a ch ca mng (Net ID). - a ch ca my ch (Host ID). Ghi ch: Tn l a ch my ch nhng thc t khng ch c my ch m tt c cc trm lm vic, cc cng truy nhp,.... u cn c a ch nhn dng.

1.1.2. nh a ch IPv4
Mt b nh tuyn s dng a ch IP chuyn tip gi tin t mng ngun ti mng ch. Gi tin phi ch ra c a ch mng ngun v mng ch. Khi mt gi c nhn ti b nh tuyn, n s xc nh a ch mng ch v xc nh ng i ca gi tin v chuyn tip gi tin qua cng tng ng. Mi a ch Ip cng gm c 2 phn: nhn dng a ch mng- ch ra mng, v nhn dng a ch host - ch ra host. Mi octet u c th chia thnh nhng nhm a ch mng khc nhau, qu trnh chia a ch c th c thc hin theo m hnh phn cp.

Hnh 1.2: M hnh phn cp a ch Cc a ch c thc hin theo m hnh phn cp bi n cha nhiu mc khc nhau. Mt a ch IP thc hin 2 ch s v a ch mng v a ch host trong cng mt a ch. a ch ny phi l duy nht, bi khi thc hin mt a ch trng lp s dn n nhng vn v nh tuyn. Phn u l a ch mng (hay a ch ca h thng), phn th 2 l a ch host trong mng. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 9

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

a ch IP c chia thnh cc lp, A, B, C, D, E. Hin ti dng ht lp A, B v gn ht lp C, cn lp D v E T chc Internet ang dnh cho mc ch khc khng phn, nn chng ta ch nghin cu 3 lp u.

Hnh 1.3: Cu trc cc lp a ch IPv4 Qua cu trc cc lp a ch IPv4 chng ta c nhn xt sau: - Bit nhn dng l nhng bit u tin: ca lp A l 0, ca lp B l 10, ca lp C l 110. - Lp D c 4 bit u tin nhn dng l 1110, cn lp E c 5 bit u tin nhn dng l 11110. - a ch lp A: a ch mng t v a ch my ch trn tng mng nhiu. - a ch lp B: a ch mng va phi v a ch my ch trn tng mng va phi. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 10

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

- a ch lp C: a ch mng nhiu v a ch my ch trn tng mng t. thc hin nhng mng vi quy m khc nhau, trc ht ta phi hiu c c ch phn lp trong mng, a ch IP c chia thnh nhng nhm c gi l nhng lp. Cc nhm ban u c gi l a ch phn lp y . Mi a ch IP bao gm 32 bit c chia thnh 4 phn, mi phn 8 bit v s th t ca cc bit s dng cho vic xc nh a ch mng v a ch host ty theo lp m n thuc v. Lp A thc hin trong nhng mng ln c kh nng h tr trn 16 triu my. Ch bao gm octet u tin c s dng ch ra a ch mng, 3 octet cn li s dng xc nh a ch ca host trong mng.

Hnh 1.4. a ch lp A Bit u tin ca lp A lun bng 0. s thp nht ca octet u tin c th th hin l 0, v gi tr ln nht l 127. Tuy nhin gi tr 0 v 127 ca octet u tin khng c s dng trong vic nh a ch mng, do tt c cc a ch mng ca lp A s thc hin gi tr t 1 ti 126 ca octet u tin. a ch lp B c thit k h tr nhng nhu cu cho nhng mng ln. a ch lp B s dng 2 trong s 4 octet u tin lm a ch mng, 2 octet cn li c s dng ch ra a ch host.

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Hnh 1.5. a ch lp B Hai bit u tin ca octet u tin ca mt a ch thuc v lp B lun l 10, 6 bit cn li ca octet u tin c th thay i l 0 hoc 1. Do gi tr nh nht ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp B s l 10000000 = 128, gi tr ln nht s l 10111111 = 191. Bt c a ch no c gi tr ca octet u tin nm trong khong t 128 191 u l nhng a ch mng ca lp B. a ch lp C cng c quy lut tng t c thc hin, gi tr 3 bit u tin ca mt a ch lp C lun l 110. Do gi tr nh nht ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp C c th l 11000000 = 192, gi tr ln nht l 11011111 = 223. Nu mt a ch mng c gi tr ca octet u tin ri vo trong khong 191 223 th l mt a ch IP thuc lp C. Lp C thc hin 3 octet l a ch mng cn 1 octet cn li c s dng lm a ch host. N c kh nng h tr 254 a ch host cho mi mng thuc v lp C.

Hnh 1.6. a ch lpC a ch lp D c to ra to kh nng v a ch multicast. Mt a ch IP multicast l mt a ch c kh nng thc hin vic truyn thng tin ti mt nhm cc my trm vi a ch IP unicast. Do , mt my trm khi s dng a ch multicast c kh nng truyn ng thi mt gi tin ti nhiu ngi nhn. 12

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Bn bit u tin ca mt a ch IP ca lp D lun l 1110. Do octet u tin ca mt a ch mng thuc v lp C c gi tr nh nht l: 11100000 = 224 v gi tr ln nht s l 11101111 = 239. a ch lp E thc hin trong phng th nghim phc v mc ch nghin cu. Bn bit u tin ca mt a ch ca lp E l 1111. Do khong gi tr ca octet u tin ca mt a ch lp E s l: 240 255. 1.1.3. a ch mng con v mt n mng con

1.1.3.1. Phng php phn chia a ch mng con


Trc khi nghin cu vn ny chng ta cn phi hiu qua mt s khi nim lin quan ti vic phn a ch cc mng con. 1/ Mt n mc nh: (Default Mask) c nh ngha trc cho tng lp a ch A,B,C. Thc cht l gi tr thp phn cao nht (khi tt c 8 bit u bng 1) trong cc Octet dnh cho a ch mng Net ID. Mt n mc nh: Lp A: Lp B: Lp C: 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

2/ Mt n mng con: (Subnet Mask) Mt n mng con l kt hp ca Mt n mc nh vi gi tr thp phn cao nht ca cc bit ly t cc Octet ca a ch my ch sang phn a ch mng to a ch mng con. Mt n mng con bao gi cng i km vi a ch mng tiu chun cho ngi c bit a ch mng tiu chun ny dng c cho 254 my ch hay chia ra thnh cc mng con. Mt khc n cn gip b nh tuyn trong vic nh tuyn cuc gi. Nguyn tc chung - Ly bt mt s bit ca phn a ch my ch to a ch mng con. - Ly i bao nhiu bit ph thuc vo s mng con cn thit m nh khai thc mng quyt nh s tao ra.

1.1.3.2. Mt s a ch c bit
- a ch mng IP l a ch IP m tt c cc bit thuc phn nh danh my (host ID) = 0. - a ch qung b ti tt c cc my trong mng LAN. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 13

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

V d: 255.255.255.255 - a ch tt c cc my ca mng X.Y.Z xa. V d: X.Y.Z.255 - a ch Loopback c s 127 u 127.X.Y.Z Mc ch th ti ch cc phn mm IP. - a ch 0.0.0.0 dng ch mng ny. a ch 0.0.0.5 dng ch my s 5 mng ny (mng ang ci t). -a ch mng s dng cho mng ring (mng ni b, khng s dng lm a ch internet) + Lp A: 10.0.0.0 + Lp B: 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 + Lp C: 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255

1.2. Khun dng ca gi tin IP


Khun dng ca gi tin IP c th hin c th v chi tit hnh 1.7

Hnh 1.7: Khun dng ca gi tin IPv4 Version IP-V4: Khi gi tin ti b nh tuyn, b nh tuyn s phn tch nu thy phin bn c hn th b nh tuyn s hy b gi tin v thng bo cho trm ngun bit. Header length: di ca gi tin tnh theo n v 32 bit. Type of service: Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 14

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Kiu dch v c s dng trong tiu gi tin IP ch ra quan h u tin cho vic chuyn cc gi tin, thng thng cc gi tin IP c x l theo nguyn tc FIFO, cc bit 0,1,1 trong trng kiu dch v ch ra cc thng tin v tr, thng lng v tin cy. Thng thng 2 trong s 3 thng tin s c t, nhng trng chc nng ny khng buc tt c cc b nh tuyn phi x l

- D (Delay): tr D=0: yu cu truyn tr bnh thng. D=1: yu cu tr thp. - T (Throughput): thng lng T=0: thng lng bnh thng. T=1: thng lng cao. - R (Reliability): tin cy R=0: tin cy bnh thng. R=1: tin cy cao. Total length: di ton b ca gi tin Max 216=64 KB, thng thng ngn hn. ID: s nh danh ca gi tin. Nu 1 gi tin phi phn thnh nhiu mnh truyn i th tt c cc mnh phi c cng nh danh. Flag: 1 bit d tr DF (dont Fragment) DF=1: khng c php phn gi tin thnh mnh tin. DF=0: cho php phn mnh truyn. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 15

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

MF (More Fragment) MF=1: cho bit cn c cc mnh tin tip theo thuc cng mt gi tin. MF=0: y l mnh tin cui cng ca gi tin hoc gi tin khng phn mnh. Offset: Cho bit v tr ca mnh tin trong gi tin, n v tnh l 8 byte. Ti tram thu, 3 trng (5), (6), (7) cho php ghp cc mnh tin thnh gi tin.

V d: Gi tin 3000 byte m B nh tuyn ch chuyn gi tin 1000 byte mt ln th phi phn mnh tin. ID 400 400 400 DF 0 0 0 MF 1 1 0 offset 0 125 250

Ghi ch : Trong trng hp truyn khng phn mnh th khng cn cc thng tin nhng gi tin vn phi cha thm 32 bit ny. Giao thc Internet phin bn 6 (IPv6) s khc phc iu ny. Time to live (TTL): Thi gian sng ca gi tin. Trng ny c 8bit ban u tnh n v l giy, vy thi gian gi tin c php tn ti trn mng l: 28=256 giy > 4 pht Trong thc t trng ny cha s bc nhy chnh l s b nh tuyn m gi tin c php i qua. C mi ln gi tin qua mt b nh tuyn th TTL s tr i 1 v khi bng 0 th gi tin s b hy v thng bo cho trm ngun. y l gii php iu khin tc nghn. Protocol: Cho bit giao thc c s dng tng trn. - Nu tng giao vn l TCP th c m l 6. - Nu tng giao vn l UDP th c m l 17. - Nu l ICMP th c m l 1. Heder checksum: Kim tra li cho u gi tin. Soure Address: a ch ngun. Destination Address: a ch ch.

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Cc a ch ny c dng nh ng trn mng Internet nn cn gi l IP address. a ch di 32 bit c chia thnh 4 byte, mi byte c th hin bng mt s thp phn v cch nhau bi du chm. Option: La chn.

- Record Route: Ghi li a ch ca tt c cc b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua. di ca trng la chn ny do trm ngun quy nh. Nu s b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua qu nhiu th a ch ca cc b nh tuyn sau s khng c ghi vo gi tin. - Time Stamp (nhn thi gian): ghi li thi gian m gi tin i qua b nh tuyn. C 3 cch ghi. . Khi gi tin i qua b nh tuyn, ghi li danh sch thi gian gi tin qua b nh tuyn. . Ghi a ch IP v thi gian tng ng khi gi tin i qua. . Trm ngun s ghi sn mt s a ch cn o thi gian v gi tin ti b nh tuyn c a ch tng ng th s c ghi thi gian vo.

1.3. Gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IP


Gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IP bao gm: Cc phn t c bn ca mt h thng nh tuyn, x l gi tin khi ti ch, nh tuyn g tin trn mng Internet(IP Routing).

1.3.1. Cc phn t c bn ca mt h thng nh tuyn


B nh tuyn l mt thit b lp 3 trong m hnh OSI 7 lp. N c hai chc nng c bn l nh tuyn v chuyn mch gi tin IP t u vo n u ra. Qu trnh nh tuyn l qu trnh tp hp cc thng tin v cu trc topo mng nhm to ra mt bng nh tuyn. Qu trnh chuyn mch gi tin l sao chp mt gi t mt giao din u vo ti mt giao din u ra thch hp da trn thng tin cha trong bng chuyn tip gi. Bt k h thng nh tuyn no u cn 4 phn t c bn thc hin qu trnh nh tuyn v chuyn mch gi tin l: Cc phn mm nh tuyn. B phn x l gi. Mt ma trn chuyn mch. Card ng truyn.

Bn phn t c bn ny cu thnh mt b nh tuyn theo cu trc nh sau:

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Hnh 1.8. Cu trc ca b nh tuyn thng thng. B x l chnh thi hnh phn mm nh tuyn, phn mm nh tuyn ny thc hin cc chc nng nh tuyn v duy tr cc thng tin v cu trc mng Internet thng qua cc giao thc nh tuyn. Ma trn chuyn mch thc hin hot ng chuyn mch gi tin bng cch s dng b x l gi, b x l ny thng l mt ASIC (Application Specific Intergrated Circuit-Mch tch hp c trng cho ng dng) c ti u thc hin nhim v c th vi tc cao. im ny th n ph hp vi b nh tuyn trn ng trc hin nay. Ngoi ra b nh tuyn thng xuyn duy tr mt bng khc gi l bng chuyn gi, bng ny c trong cc b my chuyn tip gi (FE-Forwarding Engine). FE thc hin vic c a ch ch t tiu gi n, thc hin vic tm kim tuyn, tm tin t ph hp di nht (Longest Prefix Matching) v chuyn gi n giao din u ra c xc nh. V c bn th bng chuyn gi bt ngun t bng nh tuyn nhng n t c cp nht hn. Bng nh tuyn c duy tr bi phn mm nh tuyn, phn mm ny thc hin qu trnh x l tng i chm trong khi cp nht bng v khi bng c cp nht, bn sao ca n s c chuyn n b my chuyn gi. Bn sao ny c th l mt tp hp con ca ton b bng nh tuyn v c th c bin i ph hp vi phin bn nh hn. Ma trn chuyn mch l thnh phn ct yu ca mt b my chuyn gi. V bn cht, mt b nh tuyn bao gm phng tin nh tuyn c thc hin trong phn mm v s dng CPU chnh ca b nh tuyn tin hnh hot ng phc tp hn nh thc hin cc giao thc nh tuyn, cc c im k thut lu lng, m bo QoS, bin i tiu gi trc khi truyn i v cc c im da trn cc phn mm khc ca b nh tuyn. Ngoi ra, FE cn tin hnh cc nhim v n gin hn ti tc cao.

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1.3.2. X l gi tin b nh tuyn


Cc gi tin b nh tuyn cn c vo b m ca b nh tuyn v cc thng s phn tiu ca gi IP a ra cc quyt nh ph hp vi gi tin. Kim tra gi tin IP

- Header checksum nu c li th b nh tuyn hy gi tin. - Kim tra 1 s thng s : Version, Header length, Total length, Protocol nu sai hy b gi tin. - Kim tra xem nu TTL=0 th hy gi tin. - Nu b m ca b nh tuyn y khng cha c gi tin th hy gi tin. Chun b truyn :

- Phn tch trng (Type of service) tm ra ng i tng ng. - Xc nh gi tin c phn mnh khng? + Nu phn mnh th thc hin chia gi tin. + Nu khng c phn mnh nhng b nh tuyn li khng c kh nng truyn c gi tin th s hi cc b nh tuyn lng ging v nh b nh tuyn lng ging chuyn gi tin. Nu khng c b nh tuyn lng ging no chuyn c gi tin th b nh tuyn s hy gi tin v thng bo cho trm ngun. Tnh ton li mt s thng s ca gi tin: - TTL - 1 (khi qua 1 b nh tuyn). - in cc thng s cho trng hp phn mnh . - in cc thng s cho trng la chn (Option). - Tnh li Header checksum.

1.3.3. X l gi tin khi ti ch


Kim tra gi tin IP. - Header checksum: Nu c li th my ch hy gi tin. - Kim tra 1 s thng s: Version, Header length, Total length, Protocol nu sai hy b gi tin. - Kim tra xem nu TTL=0 th hy gi tin. - Nu b m ca b nh tuyn y khng cha c gi tin th hy gi tin. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 19

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Chun b - Khng kim tra Type of service v y l trm ch nn khng cn chuyn n trm khc. - Kim tra xem gi tin c phn mnh? Khi nhn c mnh tin u tin ca gi tin phn mnh, trm ch s khi ng mt ng h thi gian, nu ht thi gian quy nh m mnh tin cui cng cha n th trm ch s hy b tt c cc mnh tin nhn. Nu cc mnh tin n ng gi th trm ch s ghp cc mnh tin thnh gi tin gc.

Chuyn gi tin ln tng trn x l tip.

1.3.4. nh tuyn trn mng Internet (IP Routing)


Khi gi tin c chuyn i t ngun ti ch th gi tin c nh tuyn trn mng Internet

1.3.3.1. Bng tm ng
Bng tm ng l bng bao gm cc a ch c th m gi tin s phi i qua n, tm c a ch th gi tin phi thng qua giao thc tm ng(IP Protocol) xc nh qung ng ngn nht gia cc a ch nhm chuyn gi tin ti ch nhanh nht. Di y l cc a ch c th m gi tin phi xc nh trong sut qu trnh c gi i t ngun ti ch.

Bng 1.1. Bng tm ng

1.3.3.2. Giao thc tm ng (IP Protocol)


Chc nng ca giao thc tm ng - Thit lp bng tm ng. - Cp nht bng tm ng. - Tnh ton qung ng i ngn nht chn a ch ca b nh tuyn tip theo nhm chuyn gi tin i nhanh nht. Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 20

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Giao thc tm ng n gin l giao thc da vo topo mng lp bng tm ng bng tay v cp nht bng tay nhm tm ng ngn nht. Giao thc ny ch s dng cho mng n gin. Giao thc tm ng trn Internet, s dng trong mng phc tp. - Cp nht t ng. - T ng tnh ton tm ra b nh tuyn tip theo da trn hin trng ca mng. Tiu chun nh gi giao thc tm ng: + Thch nghi rt nhanh vi thay i ca mng. + Tnh c con ng ti u. + D dng nng cp khi mng pht trin. + Tit kim ti nguyn ca my. + Bng thng tit kim nht.

1.3.3.3. S o c s dng trong Internet


S o c tnh nh sau: - S bc nhy m gi tin i qua. - S bc nhy m gi tin i qua nhng c trng s. - Tng hp t nhiu thng s nh bng thng, tr, ti hin ti, gi thnh.... - Thut ton da trn s o tnh ng i ngn nht gi l DVA (Distance Vector Algorithm). Giao thc RIP s dng thut ton DVA. - Thut ton trng thi lin kt gi l LSA (Link State Algorithm). Giao thc OSPF s dng thut ton LSA.

1.4. Vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6


K t nm 2003, khi tc tiu th a ch IPv4 bt u tng vt do s pht trin ca cc loi hnh dch v v phng thc kt ni mng tiu tn a ch, kh nng cn kit ngun IPv4 ton cu tr thnh ch nng c bn tho nhiu trn cc din n, thng tin v hot ng ca mng Internet. Nhng nm tip theo, vng a ch IPv4 d tr cho hot ng Internet ton cu c qun l bi IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority-t chc qun l a ch cp cao nht) ngy cng vi i nhanh, vic IPv4 s ht tr nn r rng v tt yu. Cui nm 2006, cc t chc qun l ti nguyn a ch quc t chnh thc tha nhn v vic cn kit Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 21

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IPv4 v khng lu na, cc t chc ny s khng cn a ch IPv4 cp v ng lot khuyn ngh cng ng v vic nhanh chng trin khai IPv6 nhm m bo cho s pht trin lin tc ca hot ng Internet. Ti cuc hp thng nin ln th 29 (thng 6/2007) ca ICANN, tin s VintCerf ch tch ICANN tha nhn a ch IPv4 s ht trong vi nm ti v khuyn ngh rng vn mu cht ca Internet ton cu l cng ng cn phi nhn thc c rng vic pht trin ca mng Internet trong tng lai ph thuc vo vic trin khai th h a ch IPv6 1.4.1. S bng n nhu cu v a ch IPv4 khin thi gian d bo IPv4 cn kit b thu ngn li a ch IPv4 c thit k c chiu di 32 bt v c th cung cp 232 (khong 4 t a ch), c qun l bi t chc cp cao nht l IANA. IANA phn b li cho cc t chc qun l cp vng(RIR-Regional Internet Registry) theo cc vng a ch /8 (mt vng /8 bng 1/256 khng gian a ch ton cu v bao gm 16.777.256 a ch) phn phi cho cc t chc trn ton cu. Hin ti c 5 RIR: APNIC ph trch khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng ; ARIN ph trch khu vc Bc M v mt phn Caribe; RIPE NCC ph trch khu vc Chu u, Trung ng; LACNIC ph trch khu vc Chu M Latinh v bin Caribe; AFNIC ph trch khu vc Chu Phi. Trong cc nm gn y (k t nm 2004), trung bnh trong mt nm, ton cu tiu th khong 12 khi /8. Vi tc tiu th ny, cui nm 2007, theo phn tch ca cc t chc qun l ti nguyn quc t, thi im cn kit a ch Ipv4 s ri vo khong thng 03/2012. Song gn y, tc xin cp a ch IPv4 tng ln rt nhanh, tc cp pht a ch IPv4 ca cc t chc qun l a ch cp vng ngy cng tng cao, n gia nm 2008, khong thi gian cn li ca IPv4 c d bo b thu ngn li 5 thng, vo khong thng 11/2011, s ht a ch IPv4 cp pht cho cc hot ng Internet ton cu. Trc tnh hnh ny, Trung tm Thng tin mng Chu Thi Bnh Dng (APNIC) c ng thi tht cht quy trnh thm nh xt duyt cp pht a ch IPv4 ng thi t ng h m ngc khong thi gian cn li ca IPv4. Bn cnh , cc chnh sch phn chia, cp pht cc vng a ch IPv4 cui cng cng c thng qua ti k hp APNIC 26 (thng 8/2008) . Di y l cc s liu phn nh v lng a ch IPv4 hin ti v tc tiu th IPv4 trn ton cu:Tnh n ht thng 9/2008, h thng qun l a ch ton cu ang cn 39 khi /8 (l lng a ch cn li ca IANA ang cp dn cho cc RIR). Mi khi vng a ch ca RIR cn li nh hn /9 (tng ng 0,5 khi /8) th IANA s cp tip Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 22

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a ch, hin ti ti a mi ln cp l 2 khi /8. c bit: theo chnh sch mi c thng qua vo thng 9/2008 bi ton th 05 RIR trn ton cu, khi ngun a ch IPv4 d tr ca IANA t n ngng 05 khi /8, IANA s dng chnh sch cp pht hin ti v chia u 05 khi /8 cho 05 RIR. Ti thi im , mi RIR s nhn c 01 khi /8 v c ton quyn xy dng chnh sch ring ca mnh trong vic cp pht khi /8 .

Hnh 1.9: s lng a ch IPv4 tiu th ton cu nm 2000 tr li y

Hnh 1.10: S lng a ch IPv4 tiu th trong khu vc APNIC t nm 2000 tr li y.[8] D dng nhn thy, trong vi nm tr li y, tc xin cp a ch IPv4 tng ln rt nhanh v Chu Thi Bnh Dng l khu vc c tc tiu th a ch IPv4 ln nht. Trong 9 thng u nm 2008, mc d p dng chnh sch tht cht trong vic thm nh cp pht, lng a ch IPv4 tiu th trong khu vc APNIC vn khng c du hiu chm li: 3.89 khi /8. Cc quc gia gp phn tiu th a ch Ipv4 nhiu nht trong khu vc l Trung Quc, tip n l Nht Bn v Hn Quc. Ch tnh ring Trung Quc, trong 9 thng u nm 2008 c khi lng tiu th a ch IPv4 ngang bng tng s tt c cc quc gia khc trong khu vc (1.89/3.89). Vi nguy c cn kit a ch IPv4, cc nc c xu hng d tr a ch IPv4. Lin tc trong cc nm gn y, Trung Quc, Nht Bn, Hn Quc l cc quc gia xin cp a ch IPv4 nhiu nht t APNIC. Ba quc gia ny hin ang nm trong s 15 nc s hu s lng a ch IP ln nht. Mt s quc gia ng dn nh n gn y lng a ch xin cp t APNIC cng tng cao so vi nhu cu ca cc nm trc .

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Hnh 1.11 : S lng a ch IPv4 (theo n v /8) c cp t APNIC ca mt s quc gia v vng lnh th qua cc nm. [9] 1.4.2. ng thi ca cc quc gia v cc t chc qun l a ch quc t trong tnh hnh hin ti a. ng thi ca cc t chc qun l a ch quc t : Cc t chc qun l a ch IP quc t c nhng ng thi nhm chun b cho vic cn kit ngun a ch IPv4. Bao gm hai dng: -Cc chnh sch nhm phn b vng a ch IPv4 cn li. -Chnh sch khuyn khch thc y v a ch IPv6 IANA: IANA hn ch s lng a ch cp cho cc RIR trong mi ln xin xung cn ti a hai khi /8. Trc y, lng a ch IPv4 mi ln cp theo gii trnh nhu cu Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 24

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ca RIR, c th ti 4 khi /8 trong mt ln xin cp. IANA cng ang thc y cng tc thu hi cc vng a ch c cp pht khng kim sot trong thi im ban u ca Internet, khi cc RIR cha thnh lp. RIR: Cc nm trc y, RIR gi trng thi trung lp v thng tin ti nguyn a ch. u nm 2007, cc RIR chnh thc tha nhn v vic cn kit a ch IPv4 v cnh bo cho cng ng thi im ht a ch IPv4 n rt gn v ngun a ch IPv4 gim xung ti mc vic ng dng trin khai IPv6 l cn thit cho mi ng dng nu mun tip tc pht trin trong tng lai. Nm t chc qun l a ch ton cu thng nht hp tc cng nhau thc y chnh sch v a ch IPv6, tng cng o to cho cng ng v IPv6, t chc cc din n chia s kinh nghim v trin khai a ch IPv6. T chc qun l a ch Bc M (ARIN) chnh thc ra ngh quyt cho khu vc v vic tha nhn IPv6 l ph hp cho mi ng dng cn ti nguyn trong tng lai v thng nht hp tc pht trin a ch IPv6 trong khu vc c s tip ni khng gin on trong vic qun l v s dng ti nguyn a ch. Trong phin hp thng nin ln th 24 (APNIC 24), t chc qun l a ch khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng cng b ngh quyt cho cng ng v vn IPv4, IPv6 hin nay. Trong tha nhn a ch IPv4 s ht trong vng t 2 n 4 nm ti. Cng ng APNIC nhn thc c vic trin khai IPv6 l then cht v quyt tm cng nhau trin khai a ch IPv6 nhm m bo s pht trin thnh cng ca Internet khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng . T chc qun l a ch khu vc Chu Phi AFNIC chnh thc cng b trn bo ch cnh bo v vic cn kit a ch IPv4, yu cu cng ng trin khai IPv6 v tuyn b trin khai cc chin dch nhm thc y s dng a ch IPv6. b. ng thi ca cc quc gia. Vi vai tr t chc qun l a ch quc gia, cc NIR chu trch nhim cao trong vic m bo ti nguyn cho hot ng mng quc gia. . - JPNIC (Nht Bn): Nht Bn l mt trong nhng quc gia c nhu cu tiu th a ch rt ln. Vic cp nht chnh sch v nh hng cho cng ng c thc hin rt tt. Thng 3/2006, JPNIC thc hin mt bn bo co cc khuyn ngh chun b cho tnh trng ht a ch IPv4, trong phn tch v nhu cu ti nguyn ca Nht Bn, khuyn ngh v tnh cn thit ca vic trin khai a ch IPv6. [10] - CNNIC (Trung Quc): Trong nhng nm qua, CNNIC rt tch cc thc hin vai tr qun l a ch di s ch o ca Chnh ph Trung Quc. S lng a ch IPv4 v cng ln CNNIC yu cu APNIC qua cc nm phn nh vic Trung Quc ang tch cc d tr a ch chun b cho thi k cn kit a ch IPv4. . -NIC Mexico: Chnh thc thng bo vi cng ng h s khng c kh nng cung cp a ch IPv4 t 01/01/2011. T thi im , mi a ch cp pht s l IPv6. Thm ch, Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 25

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

thi im kt thc ca a ch IPv4 c th n sm hn. Cc cng ty, t chc c khuyn ngh trin khai ngay a ch IPv6. [11] 1.4.3. Chnh sch thc y pht trin IPv6 K t nm 2006, vi s kt thc cu mng th nghim IPv6 ton cu u tin (6bone), giao thc IPv6 c coi l chnh thc trng thnh, khng cn nm trong thi k th nghim. Tnh trng ht a ch IPv4 khin cho vic pht trin s dng a ch IPv6 tr thnh bt buc i vi cc quc gia, nhm phc v cho s pht trin tip tc ca mng Internet. K hoch ng dng IPv6, a IPv6 vo cc chin lc pht trin v cng ngh thng tin c trin khai trn khp cc quc gia ton cu. Trn khp cc quc gia ton cu, cc U ban thc y IPv6 (IPv6 Task Force) c thnh lp m nhim cng tc thc y IPv6, cng nh hp tc quc t, chia s kinh nghim trin khai. Nhiu d n pht trin mng IPv6 c trin khai nhm mc ch thit lp cc mng IPv6 quc gia. - Nht Bn: Ngay t nm 2001, trong chin lc e-japan, U ban chin lc IT ca quc hi ch o vic ng dng IPv6 s m bo cho vic pht trin lin tc ca hot ng Internet. Nht Bn l quc gia ng dng IPv6 rt tch cc, trong cc mng Chnh ph, cng nh trong hot ng cung cp dch v ca ISP. Hin ti, trong th trng Nht Bn cung cp mt s dch v IPv6, cng nh nhiu dng thit b h tr IPv6. Nht Bn ang thc hin cc cng tc tm kim i tc v pht trin IPv6, nh hi tho v pht trin IPv6 do i s Nht t chc ti Vit Nam thng 06/2006 va qua. Thng 1/2006, U ban chin lc IT ca Nht Bn tip tc cng b Chin lc ci t IT mi - New IT Reform Strategy. Trong nhn mnh vic m bo tng thch vi IPv6 vo thi nm 2008 v h thng e-government cn tng thch vi IPv6 mt cch khng chm tr.Thc hin cc chin lc v cng ngh thng tin, B ni v v Truyn thng Nht (MIC) cng b bn hng dn kch hot IPv6 cho cc h thng chnh ph in t, nu r s cn thit ca IPv6, hng dn v cc tiu chun, thit b h tr IPv6 hin ti. - M: Nm 2003, B quc phng M cng b p dng IPv6 cho mng quc phng. Nm 2005, U ban Ngn sch M chnh thc yu cu n thng 06/2008, ton b vn phng lin bang phi s dng a ch IPv6. Da trn nhng bo co ca cc b phn c trch nhim nh: bo co ca GAO (Government Accountability Office), bo co ca U ban thng tin v truyn thng quc gia (NTIA) phn tch v IPv6 v vic ng dng IPv6 trong mng lin bang, bo co ca US-CERT v kh nng bo mt ca IPv6, U ban Ngn sch M ban hnh k hoch v l trnh bt buc i vi cc vn phng lin bang trin khai IPv6. [12] Hn Quc: Nm 2007, B thng tin v truyn thng Hn Quc chnh thc ra 26

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nhim v cho ngnh cng nghip IT Hn Quc v vic cung cp cc dch v s dng a ch IPv6. Trong d n cung cp dch v IPv6 ca nm 2007, cc doanh nghip (SK Networks, Samsung Electronics, LG Dacom, Freechal) cng vi cc c quan chnh ph s cung cp v s dng cc dch v da trn nn IPv6: VoIP, WCDMA, IPTV, mt s dch v thng tin d bo thm ha, d bo thi titD n ny chi ph 3,85 t Won (trong Chnh ph chi 1,6 t Won). Ngay t nm 2004, trong k hoch v chin lc pht trin cng ngh thng tin n nm 2010, gi l Chin lc IT839 (8 dng dch v, 3 c s h tng, 9 ng c thc hin) ch r th h mng mi vi IPv6 l mt trong s 3 c s h tng c bn trong k hoch pht trin cng ngh thng tin. Hin nay, Hn Quc l mt trong s cc quc gia c mc ng dng a ch IPv6 rng ri nht. B Thng tin v truyn thng Hn Quc a ra mc tiu t nay n nm 2010, Hn Quc phi y mnh s dng a ch IPv6 trong cc mng, c s h tng, d n v IPv6 ang c pht trin. B ny thnh lp mt u ban t vn nhm thc y cc yu cu ng k a ch Ipv6. Mt s phng n c d kin p dng nh: n nm 2010, mc nh cung cp a ch IPv6 cho nhng vn phng cng cng khi yu cu a ch, hoc ch cho ng k tn min vi a ch IPv6 v ch cho php ng k a ch IPv4 khi c gii trnh. - Trung Quc: Trung Quc l mt trong nhng quc gia c nhu cu v a ch IP ln nht ca Chu . Nhm m bo cho s pht trin nng ca cng ngh, chin lc v ti nguyn l mt trong nhng im quan tm hng u ca Chnh ph Trung Quc. Bn cnh vic ln k hoch m bo v ti nguyn a ch IPv4 cho nhu cu pht trin mng trong nhng nm ti, trin khai mng IPv6 l mt trong nhng yu cu bt buc ca Chnh ph Trung Quc khi ph duyt ti chnh thit lp mng nghin cu CNGI quc gia, bt buc 5 nh cung cp dch v hng u ca Trung Quc tham gia thit lp mng. Hin ti, mng thng tin phc v Olympic 2008 c trin khai chy th, theo nh cng b, c nhiu ng dng c cung cp l da trn nn giao thc IPv6 - Thi Lan, Malaysia, Philipin, n , Singapore, Indonesia, i Loan: Tt c quc gia ny u thnh lp cc U ban thc y IPv6 (IPv6 Task Force) thc y ng dng a ch IPv6, thc hin cc d n v IPv6 v thit lp mng IPv6 quc gia. y cng l thnh vin ca y ban thc y IPv6 khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng (Asia Pacific IPv6 Task Force) - n : Chnh ph n coi vic ng dng IPv6 l mt trong nhng hot ng c tnh u tin hng u. Trin khai a ch IPv6 l im lit k th 6 trong k hoch hot ng bao gm 10 im ca B thng tin v truyn thng n , cng b nm 2004. Gn y, B thng tin v truyn thng n tch cc trin khai cc hot ng v IPv6 phi hp quc t nh phi hp vi cng ng Chu u, Hn Quc, Trung Quc, Nht Bn. - Malaysia: Chnh ph Malaysia ph duyt kinh ph cho hot ng thc y IPv6 quc gia v thnh lp Trung tm pht trin IPv6 NAv6 Centre [13].

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

Thc th ny s chu trch nhim ln k hoch, thc y nhn thc cng ng v IPv6 v thc hin yu cu ca Chnh ph l m bo Malaysia l quc gia sn sng vi IPv6 vo nm 2010. L trnh trin khai IPv6 bt u t ISP nhm cung cp mng c s h tng (yu cu ISP trin khai IPv6 vo nm 2007) v cc mng Chnh ph vo nm 2008. NAv6 Centre hin ang hot ng rt tch cc vi nhim v ca mnh. Sp ti, cng vi Singapore, Malaysia t chc ASEAN IPv6 WORKSHOP vi tiu ch cc nc thnh vin Asian trao i kinh nghim, chin lc trin khai Ipv6 v cng nhau xy dng mt phng thc nhm a cc nc Asean tr thnh tng thch vi IPv6. 1.4.4. Tnh hnh ti nguyn a ch ti Vit Nam Trn phng din trin khai IPv6: Ngy 6/5/2008, B trng B thng tin v Truyn thng ban hnh ch th s 03/2008 v vic thc y s dng a ch Internet th h mi IPv6. Ch th ny nh du mt mc quan trng trong lnh vc trin khai IPv6 Vit Nam. S ra i ca ch th 03/2008 kt hp vi cc n lc khng ngng ca VNNIC cng v c quan qun l nh nc gip nng cao r rt nhn thc ca cc ISP v t chc trong nc v vn trin khai IPv6. Tnh n thi im hin ti, 21/36 thnh vin a ch ca VNNIC xin cp pht IPv6 s dng. Tng s vng a ch IPv6 c ti Vit nam l 24 vng (8/32 v 16/48). Vn ti nguyn IPv6 l hon ton sn sng, tuy nhin, xt v kha cnh trin khai IPv6 Vit Nam vn cha c nhiu du hiu kh quan. Doanh nghip ISP cng nh cc t chc mng vn cn ang loay hoay vn th nghim v kt ni. Vit Nam c c nhng sn phn thng mi trn nn Ipv6 chc chn s cn mt nhiu thi gian na. Trn phng din s dng a ch IPv4: Vi vai tr qun l ti nguyn a ch IP ti Vit Nam, trong nhng nm va qua, VNNIC c gng thc y nhu cu s dng ti nguyn a ch trong c nc. Thc t cho thy c s gia tng ng k trong s lng a ch IPv4 c cp pht t VNNIC cho cc hot ng Internet ti Vit Nam. Tuy nhin, s gia tng ny cha tng xng vi tc pht trin dch v Internet v cng ngh thng tin ti Vit Nam. Nguyn nhn chnh l do cc doanh nghip hot ng trong lnh vc Internet cha nhn thc ng n v tm quan trng ca ti nguyn a ch IP trong hot ng pht trin mng li v dch v. Ngay c hin ti, khi a ch IPv4 gn ht, trong khi cc nc c thi r rng v vic xin cp a ch IPv4 tho mn nhu cu pht trin mng li trong nhng nm ti th cc t chc hot ng Internet ti Vit Nam vn cha c nhng ng thi tch cc trong vic nh gi nhu cu ca mng li, mc d VNNIC nhiu ln cnh bo.Trn phng din s dng a ch IPv4, ISP Vit Nam vn tn ti nhng thi quen khng c li nh: - S dng NAT v a ch IP dng ring nhm tit kim a ch IPv4. - Cp a ch IP ng cho khch hng: Trc y, khi dng phng thc kt ni vo Internet ch yu l dialup th vic s dng IP ng tit kim c a ch IP do thi gian truy cp mng ca ngi s dng t. Hin ti, vi nhng phng thc kt ni bng thng rng (DSL), ngi s dng kt ni mng 24/24, vic cp a ch ng khng c tc dng 28 Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

nhiu trong vic tit kim a ch, li gy cn tr cho khch hng trong vic s dng cc dch v Internet. Mt khc, khi khch hng s dng a ch IP ng, vic xc nh ngun gc truy cp Internet rt kh khn. a ch ng thng l ngun lm dng mng, thc hin hnh vi spam , gy kh khn cho vic qun l. Hn ch lng a ch IPv4 cp pht cho khch hng. C th thy qua cc gi dch v k ni bng thng rng ca cc ISP Vit Nam, lng a ch IP cp cho khch hng rt t, gn theo dung lng thu bao, khng tho mn nhu cu s dng khin cho cc t chc phi thc hin dng a ch dng ring v NAT trong mng ca mnh. Vic s dng NAT tn thit b, nhn cng qun l v km hiu qu trong khai thc dch v Internet. Di y l s liu v lng a ch IPv4 ca Vit Nam v t l a ch IP/ngi s dng so vi cc quc gia trong khu vc:

Hnh1.12. S lng a ch IPv4 v t l a ch IP/Ngi s dng Internet ca Vit Nam. So vi cc quc gia khc trong khu vc th s lng a ch IPv4 ca Vit Nam cn thp trong khi dn s li cao. T l trung bnh a ch IPv4 trn ngi s dng Internet thp hn c Phillipin v Thi Lan, trong khi s lng ngi s dng Internet v ch s v t l ngi s dng Internet cao hn. Nu p dng cc ch tiu trong k hoch chin lc vin thng v dn s n nm 2010: T l dn s s dng Internet l 35% (theo s liu d tho Qui hoch pht trin vin thng v Internet Vit Nam n nm 2010 ca Vin chin lc). - Dn s Vit Nam: khong 88 triu ngi (Chin lc dn s Vit Nam 2001-2010) Nu t l a ch IP/ngi s dng Internet c nng ln mc 0.96 nh Trung Quc th n nm 2010, m bo ti nguyn a ch cho hot ng Internet, Vit Nam cn Hong Ngc Ton H07VT-TD 29

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Chng 1: Tng quan v Ipv4

s hu mt lng ti nguyn a ch 1,76 khi /8 (tng ng 115.500 class C a ch). So snh vi s liu hin nay ang s hu: 0.26 khi /8 (tng ng 17.039 class C a ch), chng ta cn c k hoch thc y nhanh lng ti nguyn a ch IPv4 trong thi gian ti . 1.4.5. Khuyn ngh ca VNNIC trc vn ti nguyn hin ti T nm 2004, khi tc tiu th a ch IPv4 ton cu tng vt, VNNIC nhiu ln cnh bo v khuyn ngh cng ng v tnh cn thit ca vic ln k hoch m bo nhu cu a ch trong tng lai Thng 12/2005 gi khuyn ngh ti cc thnh vin a ch ca VNNIC v kh nng cn kit a ch IPv4 v yu cu c nhng k hoch m bo ti nguyn a ch IPv4, ln k hoch pht trin a ch IPv6. Nhm hn ch ti a s tc ng xu ti hot ng pht trin mng li, dch v ca cc thnh vin a ch ni ring, hot ng Internet Vit Nam ni chung, VNNIC yu cu tt c cc thnh vin a ch: + Nhanh chng nghin cu trin khai IPv6 theo ng tinh thn Ch th s 03 /2008/ CT-BTTTT ngy 06 thng 5 nm 2008 ca B trng B Thng tin v Truyn thng v vic thc y s dng a ch Internet th h mi IPv6. + C k hoch ng k, qun l, s dng IPv4 trong giai on cui hiu qu, ph hp 1.5. Kt lun. Trong chng ny, n cp ti cu trc a ch IPv4, vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6. Trong a ch IPv4 c hai chc nng c bn: a ch cc giao din mng (cung cp mt a ch duy nht cho nhng giao din khi tham gia vo mng Internet), h tr cho nh tuyn ( truyn ti thng tin t mng ny sang mng khc). Chng tip theo s trnh by v a ch Internet phin bn 6 IPv6, y l phin bn c thit k nhm khc phc nhng hn ch ca giao thc Internet IP.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

Chng 2: TNG QUAN V IPv6


2.1. c im ca IPv6 Giao thc Internet phin bn 4 (IPv4) tuy ang c s dng rng ri hin nay nhng c mt s nhc im : + a ch Ip c 32 bit, cho ti nay gn cn kit, cn phi c m rng . + Phn u (phn tiu ) ca khun dng gi tin IPv4 c nhng thng tin d tha. + An ninh thng tin cha tht m bo, cn thiu. + Cha h tr tt cho vic truyn thng a phng tin (multimedia). S ra i ca IPv6 s khc phc nhng nhc im trn. - nh dng Tiu mi. - Khng gian a ch rng. - C s h tng nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu. - Cu hnh a ch Stateful v Stateless. - Bo mt. - H tr tt hn cho QoS. - Giao thc mi cho s tng tc node lng ging. - C kh nng m rng. 2.1.1. Kiu nh dng tiu mi - Tiu ca IPv6 c mt kiu nh dng mi c thit k gi cho tiu bn trn mc ti thiu. iu ny t c bng cch chuyn c cc trng hp khng cn thit v cc trng la chn sang phn tiu m rng, phn m rng ny i theo sau phn tiu ca IPv6. Tiu IPv6 c t chc tt, x l hiu qu hn ti cc b nh tuyn trung gian. - Cc tiu IPv4 v IPv6 l khng gn lin. IPv6 khng phi l siu tp ca chc nng m tng thch ngc vi IPv4. Mt host hoc mt b nh tuyn phi dng mt s b sung ca IPv4 v IPv6 nhn ra v x l c 2 kiu nh dng tiu . Tiu IPv6 mi ch rng gp 2 ln IPv4 mc d a ch IPv6 rng gp 4 ln IPv4. 2.1.2. Khng gian a ch m rng

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

- IPv6 c a ch IP di 128 bit. Mc d 128 bit c th biu din hn 3.4x10 38 t hp, khng gian a ch rng ca IPv6 c thit k cho php nhiu mc subneting v chia vng i ch t a ch gc Internet n cc mng ring trong cng 1 t chc. - Mc d ch mt s lng nh a ch hin ti c chia phn cho host, vn cn nhiu a ch cho tng lai. Vi mt s lng a ch ln nh vy th cc k thut tit kim a ch nh NAT l khng cn thit na. 2.1.3. C s h tng nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu - Cc a ch IPv6 ton cu c dng trong phn IPv6 ca Internet c thit k to mt c s h tng nh tuyn c th tm tt, phn cp v hiu qu. C s h tng ny c da trn s trin khai chung nhiu cp ca cc nh cung cp dch v ISP. 2.1.4. Cu hnh a ch Stateful v Stateless - n gin ha cu hnh host, IPv6 h tr c hai kiu cu hnh l stateful, nh l cu hnh a ch trong s c mt ca mt DHCP server v stateless (cu hnh a ch trong khng c mt ca mt DHCP). Vi kiu cu hnh a ch stateless th cc host trn mt lin kt s t ng cu hnh vi a ch IPv6 cho lin kt (c gi l a ch lin kt ni b) v vi cc a ch c phn pht t Prefixes qung co bi cc b nh tuyn ni b. Ngay c khi khng c cc b nh tuyn th cc host trn cng mt lin kt vn c th t ng cu hnh vi cc i ch lin kt ni b v lin lc vi nhau m khng cn cu hnh nhn cng. 2.1.5. Bo mt - Trong hot ng Internet, bo mt ti tng IP c thc hin ph bin bng cng ngh IPSec. IPSec thc hin chc nng xc nh ni gi v m ha ng kt ni, do vy m bo c kt ni bo mt. Cng ngh IPSec h tr c a ch IPv4 v IPv6. Tuy nhin trong IPv6, IPSec c nh ngha nh l mt c tnh bt buc ca a ch IPv6 khi cc th tc bo mt ca IPSec c a vo thnh hai c tnh l hai tiu m rng ca a ch IPv6. l tiu Xc thc, v tiu M ha. 2.1.6. H tr tt hn cho QoS - Cc trng mi trong tiu ca IPv6 nh ngha cch thc m lu lng qun l v nhn dng. S nhn dng lu lng dng mt trng nhn lu lng trong tiu IPv6 cho php cc b nh tuyn nhn dng v cung cp vic qun l c bit cho cc gi thuc cng mt lung, mt seri cc gi gia ngun v ch. Bi v lu lng
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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

c nhn dng trong tiu IPv6, vic h tr QoS c th t c ngay c khi trng ti ca gi c m ha thng qua IPSec. 2.1.7. Giao thc mi cho s tng tc Node lng ging - Giao thc tm kim lng ging cho IPv6 l mt seri ca ICMP cho cc bn tin ca IPv6, chng qun l vic tng tc gia cc node lng ging. Tm kim lng ging thay th cho cc bn tin giao thc ARP da vo vic broadcast, cc bn tin ICMPv4 b nh tuyn tm kim v multicast hiu qu. 2.1.8. C kh nng m rng IPv6 c th d dng c m rng cho cc tnh nng mi bng cch thm vo cc tiu m rng vo sau tiu ca IPv6. Khng ging nh cc la chn ca tiu IPv4 ch c th h tr 40 byte option, kch thc ca tiu m rng ca IPv6 khng ch bi kch thc ca gi IPv6.

2.2. S khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6.


S khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6 c th hin trong bng 2.1

IPv4

IPv6

a ch IPSec Xc nhn lung gi

Dng a ch 32 bit IPSec l ty chn

Dng a ch 128 bit IPSec l bt buc

Khng c xc nhn lung gi Vic xc nhn lung gi cho qun cho vic qun l QoS bi cc l QoS bi cc b nh tuyn c b nh tuyn trong phn tiu dng trong trng nhn lung. Phn mnh c thc Phn mnh ch thc hin bi host hin bi host v b nh gi tuyn. Tiu bao gm c phn Tiu khng bao gm phn checksum checksum Tiu c phn ty chn Tt c d liu ty chn c chuyn sang phn tiu m rng. 33

Phn mnh

Tiu Tiu

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

ARP

ARP dng broadcast ARP ARP Request frames thay th bng Request frames chuyn cc bn tin Neighbor Solicitation mt a ch IPv4 sang a ch multicast MAC IGMP c dng qun IGMP c thay th bi cc bn l cc local subnet group tin Multicast Listener Discovery membership (MLD). ICMP b nh tuyn tm kim c dng xc nh ia ch IPv4 default gateway tt nht v y l mt ty chn ICMP b nh tuyn tm kim c thay bng cc bn tin ICMPv6 b nh tuyn Solicitation v b nh tuyn qung co v y l 1 yu cu.

.IGMP

ICMP

Cu hnh nhn cng Bng ghi

Phi c cu hnh nhn Khng yu cu cu hnh nhn cng cng hoc thng qua DHCP hoc thng qua DHCP

Dng cc bng ghi ti Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn con ti nguyn nguyn trong min DNS tr trong min DNS nh x a nh x a ch IPv4 sang tn ch IPv6 sang tn host trong min host DNS Phn mnh Phi h tr mt kch thc Phi h tr mt kch thc gi l gi l 576 byte (c th c 128 byte (khng phn mnh) phn mnh) Dng cc bng ghi ti Dng cc bng ghi ti nguyn a nguyn a ch host trong ch host trong DNS nh x tn DNS nh x tn host sang host sang IPv6 IPv4 a ch broadcast c dng Khng c a ch broadcast. Thay gi thng tin ti tt c cc vo l a ch link-local scope node trn cng mt subnet all-node multicast

Bng ghi ti nguyn

a ch broadcast

Bng.2.1: S khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

2.3. nh a ch IPv6
2.3.1. Khng gian a ch IPv6 - Kch thc a ch IPv6 l 128 bit, rng gp 4 ln a ch ca IPv4. Khng gian a ch 32 bit cho php 232 hay 4.294.967.296 a ch. Khng gian a ch 128 bit cho php 2128 a ch hay 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456 (3.4x1038) a ch - Vo nhng nm cui thp nin 70 ca th k trc khi m khng gian a ch IPv4 c thit k th ngi ta cha tng tng c rng n s cn kit trong tng lai. Tuy nhin do c nhiu s thay i trong k thut v thc t phn vng khng thy trc c s bng n ca cc host trn Internet v khng gian a ch IPv4 c phn pht ht vo nm 1992, do cn 1 khng gian a ch mi thay th.. - Vi IPv6 tht kh c th tng tng c rng n s c phn pht ht bi v theo c tnh khng gian a ch IPv6 s cung cp cho mi m2 b mt tri t l 655.570.793.348.866.943.898.599 (6.5x1023) a ch. Kch thc tng i ln ca a ch IPv6 c thit k chia nh thnh cc min nh tuyn phn cp phn nh topo ca Internet hin nay. Vic s dng 128 bit cho php nhiu mc phn cp v tnh linh ng trong vic thit k nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp.

2.3.2. C php a ch IPv6.


- a ch IPv6 128 bit c chia thnh 8 khi mi khi 16 bit, mi khi ny c chuyn sang dng s hexa 4 bit v c phn bit vi nhau bng du hai chm. V d : cho 1 a ch IPv6 di dng nh phn nh sau: 00100001110110100000000011010011000000000000000000101111001110110000 001010101010000000001111111111111110001010001001110001011010 a ch ny c chia ra thnh cc khi 16bit nh sau: 0010000111011010 0000000011010011 0000000000000000 0010111100111011 0000001010101010 0000000011111111 1111111000101000 1001110001011010. Mi khi ny c chuyn sang ch s hexa v chia cch nhau bng du hai chm, kt qu l: 21DA:00D3:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A - Vic vit a ch IPv6 c th n gin ha bng cch xa b 0 ng u trong mi khi 16 bit. Tuy nhin mi khi phi c t nht mt s n. Trong v d trn, a ch trn c n gin ha thnh: 21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

Nn cc ch s 0 - Mt s loi a ch cha cc chui di cc s 0. n gin ha trong cch vit, mt chui lin tip cc khi 16 bit c gi tr 0 trong kiu nh dng theo s hexa phn cch nhau bng du : c nn thnh :: v c gi l du hai chm kp. V d: a ch link-local FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 c nn thnh FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2, v a ch multicast FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 nn thnh FF02::2. -Vic nn 0 ch c th c dng nn mt chui cc khi 16 bit lin tip n m thi. Ta khng th nn 0 vi cc s 0 l mt phn ca khi 16 bit. V d nh ta khng th nn a ch FF02:30:0:0:0:0:0:5 thnh FF02:3::5, m ta ch c th nn thnh FF02:30::5. xc nh c bao nhiu con s 0 ng gia :: th ta c cng thc sau: N= (8-n)*16 trong n l s khi bit 16 bit a ch cn li c biu din dng s hexa. - Vic nn 0 ch c dng 1 ln i vi 1 a ch cho trc, nu khng th ta s khng th xc nh c con s khng c gin lc. 2.3.3. Prefix ca IPv6 - Prefix l mt phn ca a ch IPv6, n ch ra cc bit c gi tr c nh hoc l cc bit ng vai tr l ID ca mng. Cc prefix cho nh danh mng con ca IPv6, cc tuyn, cc vng a ch c biu din nh trong k hiu CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) cho IPv4. V d 21DA::/48 cho mt a ch Prefix tuyn v 21DA:D3:0:2F3B::/64 cho 1 prefix mng con. Trong IPv6 ch dng prefix ch khng dng mt n mng con nh IPv4. 2.3.4. Cc dng a ch IPv6 a ch unicast

Mt a ch unicast xc nh mt giao din n trong phm vi ca loi a ch unicast. Vi mt topology nh tuyn unicast thch hp, cc gi c nh a ch unicast c chuyn n mt giao din n.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

a ch multicast Mt a ch multicast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topo nh tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch multicast s c chuyn ti tt c cc giao din m c xc nh bi a ch ny. Mt a ch multicast c dng trong truyn thng mtnhiu, c chuyn n nhiu giao din.

a ch anycast Mt a ch Anycast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topology nh tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch anycast c chuyn n mt giao din n gn nht c xc nh bi a ch anycast ny. Khi nim giao din gn nht c xc nh gn nht trong gii hn khong cch nh tuyn. a ch anycast c dng trong truyn thng 1-1 trong nhiu.

2.3.4.1. a ch unicast IPv6


a ch unicast IPv6 bao gm cc loi sau: a ch unicast ton cu, a ch linklocal, a ch site-local v a ch c bit. a ch Unicast ton cu a ch Unicast ton cu tng ng vi a ch public ca IPv4. N c th nh tuyn ton cu trong Internet. Khng ging nh Internet da trn IPv4 c s nh tuyn trn c dng phng v phn phn cp Internet IPv6 c thit k t nn mng ca n l h tr cho vic nh tuyn v nh a ch phn cp v hiu qu.Cc trng ca a ch Unicast ton cu c m t nh sau: Phn c nh c gn cho gi tr l 001. Prefix nh tuyn ton cu: ch prefix nh tuyn ton cu cho mt site ca mt t chc c th. Ba bit c nh cng vi 45 bit prefix nh tuyn ton cu to thnh mt prefic site 48 bit, prefix ny c cp cho mt site c nhn ca mt t chc. Mt khi c cp cc b nh tuyn trn Internet IPv6 s chuyn lu lng IPv6 ph hp vi prefix 48 bit n cc b nh tuyn thuc site ca t chc. Subnet ID: Subnet ID c dng cho site ca t chc xc nh cc mng con. Kch thc ca trng ny l 16 bit. Site ca t chc c th dng 16 bit ny vi site ca n to 65.536 mng con hoc nhiu mc ca s phn cp nh a ch v mt c s h tng nh tuyn hiu qu.
37

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

Giao din ID: ch giao din trn mt subnet c th ca mt site. Kch thc ca trng ny l 16 bit. Cc trng vi a ch unicast ton cu to ra cu trc 3 cp nh hnh v:

Hnh 2.1: a ch Unicast ton cu Topology cng cng l tp hp ca cc ISP ln hn v nh hn m cung cp truy nhp vo Internet IPv6. Topo ca site l tp hp ca cc mng con trong cng site ca t chc. Ch th giao din ch mt giao din c th trn mt mng con trong cng site ca mt t chc. a ch Unicast dng ni b. C 2 loi : a ch link-local v a ch site-local * a ch Link-Local. Cc a ch link-local c dng bi cc node khi truyn thng vi cc node lng ging trn cng 1 lin kt. V d nh trn mng IPv6 lin kt n khng c b nh tuyn, cc a ch link-local c dng truyn thng gia cc host trn link. Mt a ch link-local cn thit cho cc qu trnh x l tm kim lng ging v lun lun c t ng c cu hnh ngay c khi khng c tt c cc a ch unicast khc.

Hnh 2.2: M t cu trc ca a ch link-local Cc a ch link-local lun lun bt u vi FE80. Vi 64 bit xc nh giao din. Prefix cho a ch link-local lun lun l FE80::/64. Mt b nh tuyn IPv6 chuyn lu lng link-local vt ngoi gii hn lin kt. * a ch Site khu vc (Site-Local). Cc a ch site-local tng ng vi khng gian a ch IPv4 ring (10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0/24 v 192.168.0.0/16). V d cc mng ni b ring m khng c mt
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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

hng, nh tuyn kt ni n Internet IPv6 c th dng cc a ch site-local m khng xung t vi cc a ch Unicast ton cu. Cc a ch site-local khng n c t cc site khc v cc b nh tuyn phi khng c chuyn lu lng sitelocal ra ngoi site. Cc a ch site-local c th c dng thm vo cc a ch unicast ton cu. Mt site l mt mng t chc hoc 1 phn ca mng t chc m c nh ngha v mt a l, nh 1 c quan hay 1 t hp c quan, mt trng hc. Khng ging nh cc a ch link-local, cc a ch site-local khng c t ng cu hnh v c cp pht bi cc qu trnh cu hnh a ch stateful hay stateless. Cu trc ca a ch site-locak nh sau:

Hnh 2.3: M t cu trc ca a ch Site-Local 10 bit u tin lun lun c nh cho cc a ch site-local (FEC0::/10). Sau 10 bit c nh l trng ID Subnet cung cp 54 bit m ta c th to ra mt c s h tng nh tuyn c th tm tt v phn cp trong cng 1 site. Sau trng ID mng con l 64 bit trng ID giao din m ch th mt giao din c th trn mt subnet. a ch IPv6 c bit. * a ch khng ch r. a ch 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 hay :: ch c dng ch s khng c mt ca mt a ch. N tng thch vi a ch khng r trong IPv4 l 0.0.0.0. a ch khng ch r thng c dng nh l mt a ch ngun cho cc gi c gng xc nhn s c mt duy nht ca mt a ch khng ch r. a ch khng ch r khng c cp cho 1 giao din hoc l dng nh 1 a ch ch n. * a ch loopback. a ch loopback 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 hoc ::1 c dng xc nh 1 giao din loopback cho php 1 node c th gi cc gi gi ngc v chnh n. N tng ng vi a ch loopback 127.0.0.1 trong IPv4. Cc gi c nh a ch cho a ch loopback phi khng c gi trn ng lin kt hoc c chuyn tip bi 1 b nh tuyn IPv6.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

2.3.4.2. a ch Multicast IPv6


Trong IPv6 lu lng multicast hot ng ging nh IPv4. Cc node IPv6 c nh v ty c th lng nghe lu lng multicast trn 1 a ch multicast ty . Cc node IPv6 c nh v ty c th lng nghe nhiu a ch multicast ti cng 1 thi im. Cc node c th tham gia hoc ri khi nhm multicast bt c lc no. a ch multicast IPv6 c 8 bit u tin l 1111 1111. Mt a ch IPv6 multicast c th d dng nhn ra v n lun bt u bng FF. Cc a ch multicast khng th c dng nh l cc a ch ngun hoc l cc ch trung gian trong 1 tiu nh tuyn. Pha sau 8 bit u tin a ch multicast bao gm cu trc thm vo xc nh cc c, phm vi v nhm multicast.

Hnh 2.4: M t cu trc ca a ch Multicast Cc trng trong a ch multicast l: C: ch cc c c thit lp trong a ch multicast. Kch thc ca trng ny l 4 bit. Nh RFC 3513 c ch c nh ngha l c T(Transient: tm thi). C T dng bit bc thp ca trng c. Khi c set v 0 c T ch ra rng a ch multicast l mt a ch multicast c cp thng trc, c cp pht bi IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority). Khi c set ln 1, c T ch ra a ch multicast ny l a ch multicast tm thi. Phm vi: ch phm vi ca lin mng IPv6 cho lu lng multicast c d nh. Kch thc ca trng ny l 4 bit. Thm vo thng tin cung cp bi cc giao thc nh tuyn multicast , cc b nh tuyn dng phm vi multicast xc nh ni m lu lng multicast s c chuyn i. Cc gi tr thng thng nht cho trng phm vi l 1 (phm vi giao din cc b), 2 (phm vi lin kt ni b) v 5 (phm vi site ni b). V d lu lng vi a ch multicast l FF02::2 c 1 phm vi lin kt ni b th 1 b nh tuyn IPv6 s khng chuyn lu lng ny ra lin kt ni b. ID nhm: ch nhm multicast v l duy nht i vi mi phm vi. Kch thc ca trng ny l 112 bit. Cc ID nhm c gn thng trc khng ph thuc vo phm vi. Cc ID nhm tm thi ch lin quan n 1 phm vi c th. Cc a ch t FF01:: n FF0F:: l cc a ch lu tr v c bit n nhiu. xc nh tt
40

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

c cc node cho cc phm vi lin kt ni b v giao din ni b, cc a ch sau c nh ngha: FF01::1 (giao din-local scope all-nodes multicast address) FF02::1 (link-local scope all-node multicast address) xc nh tt c cc b nh tuyn cho phm vi giao din ni b v site ni b, cc a ch sau c nh ngha: FF01::2 (giao din-local scope all-b nh tuyns multicast address) FF02::2 (link-local scope all-b nh tuyns multicast address) FF05::2 (site-local scope all-b nh tuyns multicast address) Vi 112 bit cho ID nhm th c th c 2112 ID nhm a ch. Tuy nhin theo cch m cc i ch multicast IPv6 nh x sang cc a ch MAC multicast ca Ethernet nn RFC 3513 khuyn co cp pht ID nhm t 32 bit bc thp ca a ch multicast IPv6 v xt cc bit ID nhm cn li l 0. Bng cch ch s dng 32 bit bc thp mi ID nhm nh x 1 a ch MAC multicast duy nht.

2.3.4.3 a ch Node Solicited


i ch node solicicated lm cho thun tin trong vic query cc node mng trong vic chuyn a ch. Trong IPv4, cc khung ARP Request c gi sang broadcast cp MAC, gi n tt c cc node trong tng on mng, bao gm cc a ch khng chy IPv4. IPv6 dng cc bn tin Neighbor Solicitation thc hin vic chuyn i a ch. Tuy nhin thay v dng a ch multicast tt c cc node phm vi lin kt ni b nh cc ch bn tin Neighbor Solicitation, s gi n tt c cc node IPv6 trn lin kt ni b, a ch multicast solicited node c dng. a ch multicast solicited node bao gm prefix FF02::1:FF00:0/104 v 24 bit sau cng ca i ch IPv6 c chuyn sang. Hnh sau m t iu ta va trnh by.

Hnh 2.5: M t cu trc ca a ch Node Solicited


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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

2.3.4.4. a ch Anycast IPv6


Mt a ch anycast c cp cho nhiu giao din. Cc a ch c nh a ch anycast c chuyn sang giao din gn nht m a ch anycast c cp. d dng cho vic phn pht, c s h tng phi nhn bit c cc giao din c gn a ch anycast v khong cch ca chng trong gii hn ca metric nh tuyn. Hin ti th a ch anycast ch c dng nh cc a ch ch v ch c gn cho cc b nh tuyn. Cc a ch anycast cp khng gian a ch unicast v phm vi ca mt a ch unicast l phm vi ca kiu a ch unicast t a ch anycast c cp. a ch anycast Subnet - Route c nh ngha trc v l cn thit. N c to ra t prefix mng con cho mt giao din cho trc. thit k a ch anycast Subnet-B nh tuyn, cc bit trong prefix subnet c c nh ti cc gi tr thch hp v cc bit cn li c xt v 0. Tt c cc giao din ca b nh tuyn kt ni n n 1 mng con c cp a ch anycast Subnet - Route cho mng con . a ch anycast Subnet- Route c dng cho vic truyn thng vi mt trong nhiu b nh tuyn c ni n mng con xa.

2.3.5. S tng thch a ch


Nhm chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 v s tn ti ca c 2 loi host, cc a ch sau c nh ngha: a ch tng thch IPv4 a ch IPv6, a ch 0:0:0:0:0:0:w.x.y.z hoc ::w.x.y.z c dng bi cc node IPv6/IPv4 m truyn thng dng IPv6. Cc node IPv6/IPv4 l cc node dng c 2 giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. Khi a ch tng thch IPv4 c dng nh 1 ch n IPv6 th lu lng IPv6 s t ng ng gi vi 1 tiu ca IPv4 v gi n ch dng c s h tng IPv4. a ch c nh x sang IPv4 a ch c nh x sang IPv4 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:w.x.y.z hoc ::FFFF:w.x.y.z c dng din t 1 node ch dng IPv4 sang 1 node IPv6. N ch c dng cho din t ni b. a ch c nh x sang IPv4 khng c dng nh l mt a ch ngun hoc ch ca 1 gi IPv6. a ch 6 sang 4.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

a ch 6 sang 4 c dng cho truyn thng gia 2 node chy c IPv4 v IPv6 trn 1 c s h tng nh tuyn IPv6. a ch 6 sang 4 c hnh thnh bng cch kt hp prefix 2002::/16 vi 32 bit ca 1 a ch IPv4 public ca node v hnh thnh nn 1 prefix 48 bit. a ch IPv6 cho 1 Host Mt host IPv4 vi mt b thch ng mng n thng c mt a ch IP n c cp cho b thch ng . Tuy nhin, 1 host IPv6 thng c nhiu a ch IPv6, ngay c vi giao din n. Mt host IPv6 c cp cho cc a ch unicast sau y: - Mt a ch lin kt ni b cho mi giao din. - a ch unicast cho mi giao din (c th l 1 a ch site ni b v 1 hoc nhiu a ch unicast ton cu) - a ch loopback (::1) cho giao din loopback. Cc host IPv6 thng thng l logically multihomed bi v chng c t nht 2 a ch m chng c th nhn cc gi, 1 a ch lin kt ni b cho lu lng lin kt ni b v 1 a ch ton cu hoc site ni b c th nh tuyn c. Thm vo , mi host lng nghe lu lng trn cc a ch multicast sau: - a ch multicast tt c cc node phm vi giao din ni b (FF01::1) - a ch multicast tt c cc node phm vi lin kt ni b (FF02::1) - a ch soliticated cho mi a ch unicast trn mi giao din. - Cc a ch multicast ca cc nhm c tham gia trn mi giao din. a ch IPv6 cho 1 B nh tuyn Mt b nh tuyn IPv6 c cp cc a ch unicast sau y: - Mt a ch lin kt ni b cho mi giao din. - Cc a ch unicast cho mi giao din (c th l 1 a ch site ni b v 1 hoc nhiu a ch unicast ton cu) - 1 a ch anycast subnet b nh tuyn. - Cc a ch anycast thm vo (option). - a ch loopback (::1) cho giao din loopback.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

2.3.6. a ch IPv4 v s tng ng IPv6


a ch IPv4 v s tng ng IPv6 c th hin bng 2.2
IPv4 Address Cc lp a ch Internet a ch multicast IPv4 (224.0.0.0/4) Cc a ch broadcast a ch khng r rng 0.0.0.0 a ch loopback 127.0.0.1 Public IP address IPv6 Address Khng tng xng trong IPv6 a ch multicast IPv6 (FF00::/8) Khng tng xng trong IPv6 a ch khng r rng :: a ch loopback ::1 Global unicast address

a ch IP ring (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 a ch site cc b (FEC0::/10) and 192.168.0.0/16). a ch t ng c cu hnh (169.254.0.0/16) Cch th hin: k hiu du chm thp phn Cch th hin: dng du hai chm c gin phn cch lc cc s 0 v nn cc s 0 lin tip Th hin cc bit mng: dng Mt n mng Th hin cc bit mng: ch dng chiu di con hoc chiu di prefix prefix Chuyn i tn DSN: bng ghi ti nguyn Chuyn i tn DSN: bng ghi ti nguyn a ch host IPv4 a ch host IPv6 Chuyn i ngc DNS Chuyn i ngc DNS a ch lin kt cc b (FF80::/64)

Bng 2.2: a ch IPv4 v s tng ng IPv6

2.4. Khun dng ca gi tin IPv6 2.4.1. Khun dng gi tin IPv6

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

Hnh 2.6 : Khun dng ca gi tin IPv6 Phin bn : 6. Lp vn chuyn : tng t cc kiu dch v ( Type of service) trong IPv4. Nhn lung: dng nh du tt c cc gi tin cng thuc mt lung d liu. VD: cng ting ni, cng video. Trm ngun mun cc B nh tuyn trung gian x l cc thng tin cng lung ging nhau. - Cc gi tin cng lung phi c a ch ngun , a ch ch v s nhn lung ging nhau. - S nhn lung c pht sinh ngu nhin nhng khng c dng li khi thi gian sng ca lung vn cn tn ti trn mng. - Nhn lung phc v cho truyn thng a phng tin. di ti: Cha thng tin hu ch trong gi tin. Tiu tip theo: - Tiu thm vo ph thuc ty chn b sung. N c t gia tiu ca IPv6 vi tiu ca tng trn. - Tiu ny ch c a vo khi cn thit, trnh vic truyn nhng thng tin d tha. - Mt s la chn : + Routing: yu cu gi tin phi i qua ng no.
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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

+ Flagment: Trong trng hp cn phn mnh. + Yu cu c x l trn ng truyn: hop by hop. + Yu cu x l gi tin khi n ch. + Thng tin xc thc trm thu nhn bit thng tin ch thc ca my ngun khng b gi danh, khng b thay i. + M ha ni dung ca gi tin. Gii hn bc nhy : s B nh tuyn m gi tin c php i qua. a ch ngun. a ch ch. - a ch ngun v a ch ch c 128bit.

2.4.2. So snh khun dng IPv4 v IPv6


Hnh 2.7 l khun dng ca gi tin IPv4 v IPv6. Trong khun dng ca gi tin IPv4 v IPv6 bao gm tiu c nhng c im ging v khc nhau, c th hin bng 2.3

IPv4

IPv6

Hnh 2.7: Khun dng gi tin IPv4/ IPv6 Di y l bng so snh khun dng IPv4 v IPv6 c nhng c im ging v khc nhau:
Cc trng thi trong khun dng S khc bit trong khun dng IPv6 IPv4 Phin bn(Version) Cng trng nhng vi cc s phin bn khc nhau.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

di gi tin tnh theo 32 bit(tiu c loi b trong IPv6. IPv6 khng cha trng Length) Tiu Length bi v tiu ca IPv6 lun lun c nh l 40 byte. Mi tiu m rng c kch thc c nh hoc c a ch ca ring n. Kiu dch v(Type of Service) D di ton b gi tin(Total Length) Identification, Fragmentation, Fragment Offset c thay th bng trng Traffic Class c thay th bng trng Payload Length ch kch thc ca trng ti. c loi b trong IPv6. Thng tin phn mnh khng c trong tiu ca IPv6. N c cha trong tiu m rng phn mnh.

Thi gian sng ca gi tin(Time to c thay th bng trng Hop Limit. live) Cho bit giao thc c s dng tng c thay th bng trng Next Header. trn(Protocol) Kim tra li cho u goistin(tiu c loi b trong IPv6. Trong IPv6 vic pht hin Checksum) li cp bit cho c gi IPv6 c thc hin bi lp lin kt. a ch ngun(Source Address) Trng ny ging nhau ch khc l a ch IPv6 c 128 bit. Trng ny ging nhau ch khc l a ch IPv6 c 128 bit. c loi b trong IPv6. IPv4 options c thay th bi IPv6 extension header.

a ch ch(Destination Address)

La chn(Options)

Bng 2.3: So Snh khun dng gi tin IPv4/ IPv6 2.4.3. Cc tiu m rng ca IPv6 Tiu ca IPv4 bao gm tt c cc option. V th, mi b nh tuyn trung gian phi kim tra s tn ca chng v x l chng khi chng hin din. iu ny lm gim hiu sut vn chuyn trong vic vn chuyn cc gi IPv4. Vi IPv6, cc option phn pht v c chuyn sang cc tiu m rng. Tiu m rng duy nht phi c x l ti mi b nh tuyn trung gian l tiu m rng Hop-by-Hop Option. iu ny s tng tc x l tiu v tng kh nng x l chuyn tip.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v IPv6

RFC 2460 nh ngha cc tiu m rng IPv6 sau y phi c h tr bi tt c cc node IPv6: - Hop-by-Hop Option tiu . - Destination Options tiu . - Routing tiu . - Fragment tiu . - Authentication tiu . - Encapsulation Security Trng ti tiu . Trong 1 gi IPv6 thng thng th khng c mt tiu m rng no. Nu vic iu khin c bit c yu cu bi cc b nh tuyn trung gian hoc ch th 1 hoc nhiu tiu m rng c thm vo bi host gi. Mi tiu m rng c phm vi 64 bit. Cc tiu m rng c kch thc thay i cha 1 trng tiu Extension Length v phi dng m khi cn chc chn rng kch thc ca chng l 1 bi s ca 8.

2.5. Kt Lun
Trong chng 2, n gii thiu cc dng a ch, cu trc nh a ch IPv6, qua thy c s khc bit v thay i trong a ch IPv6. y l phin bn c thit k nhm khc phc nhng hn ch ca IPv4 v b sung nhng tnh nng mi cn thit trong hot ng v dch v mng th h sau. Chng tip theo s cp n vic trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn mng s dng IPv4

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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

Chng 3: C CH CHUYN I T IPv4 SANG IPv6


3.1. Trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn IPv4.
3.1.1. Cc vn chung. IPv6 l mt giao thc Internet mi c thit k nhm p ng cc yu cu v pht trin cc dch v mi v m rng khng gian a ch trn mng Internet, ng thi khc phc nhng hn ch khc ca IPv4 hin nay khng h tr tnh m ca giao thc, dch v QoS, cc chc nng bo mt. Tuy nhin hai giao thc IPv4 v IPv6 khng thc s tng thch vi nhau. Mt khc, h thng IPv4 pht trin mnh m v hin nay hnh thnh mt mng Internet ton cu c quy m ht sc rng ln c v kin trc mng v dch v trn mng. Do vy, trong mt tng lai gn khng th chuyn i mng t IPv4 sang IPv6 c. trin khai mng IPv6 hiu qu v thit thc, cc nh thit k a ra gii php l trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn mng IPv4.

3.1.2. Mc ch.
Thch thc m IPv6 phi i mt l kh nng chuyn i trn vn cc gi tin IPv6 t nh dng theo giao thc IPv6 sang IPv4 t c th vn chuyn trn nn h tng l mng IPv4; v hu ht cc thit b kt ni mng Internet hin nay u c thit k cho IPv4. thc hin yu cu ny, qu trnh trin khai IPv6 phi m bo tnh linh ng mt cch ti a, nhng iu ny li mu thun vi quy m rng ln ca mng Internet. Do vy, y cng c th coi l mt im chnh trong qu trnh thit k IPv6, m bo s thnh cng ca mng IPv6. Khng m bo c yu cu trn s khng c s thnh cng ca mng IPv6. V d: Trc y c mt vi giao thc c thit k th thay th TCP/IP, nh XTP nhng khng th thnh cng l do khng c kh nng chy song song (dual stack), hay khng c tnh tng thch ln nhau gia cc h giao thc c v mi. Nhng tnh nng mi ca cc giao thc ny, nu mt mnh n s khng thuyt phc ngi s dng chuyn sang dng. IPv6 cng vy, nu vi cc c tnh u vit ca n so vi IPv4 cng cha thuyt phc ngi dng b mng IPv4 hin nay xy dng mng IPv6, do vy cn phi m bo tnh tng thch trn c s cc chc nng ca IPv4 trong qu trnh chuyn i sang IPv6.
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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

trin khai mng IPv6 c cc phng thc din ra ng thi l xy dng mng IPv6 trn nn h tng l mng IPv4 hin nay, sau thay th dn mng IPv4 hin nay. Mc ch ca cc c ch chuyn i l m bo mt s chc nng chnh nh sau: m bo thc hin cc c tnh u vit ca mng IPv6 so vi mng IPv4 Tn dng h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 trong giai on chuyn tip sang mt mng thun IPv6 Tng cng kh nng nng cp v trin khai. Vic chuyn i i vi cc host/b nh tuyn khng b ph thuc vo nhau. Ti thiu ho s ph thuc trong cc qu trnh nng cp. Mt trong nhng iu kin bt buc nng cp host vi IPv6 l h thng DNS server phi c nng cp u tin bi DNS l dch v h tr vic tm kim a ch phc v cho cc ng dng khc. Cch thc ci t v cu hnh DNS server IPv6 s c trnh by trong phn th nghim. Cc iu kin i vi cc b nh tuyn nh h tr cc giao thc nh tuyn BGP4+, h tr IPv6 cha phi l bt buc. Gn v cp pht cc loi a ch thun tin. Khi cc h thng IPv4 c ci t c gn cc a ch IPv4; mt khc a ch IPv4 l mt tp con ca ca a ch IPv6, do vy c th tip tc s dng vi cc a ch IPv4 sn c. Ch gn cc a ch IPv6 tht s cn thit cho cc kt ni ti 6Bone v tun theo cc k hoch phn b a ch ca t chc . Gi thnh khi im thp. V khng cn chun b cn thit nng cp cc h thng t IPv4 sang IPv6 khi trin khai mt h thng IPv6 mi. C ch ny c thc hin hon ton trn nn IPv4 c. C ch chuyn i ca IPv6 l c th kt hp cc trm IPv6 cng lm vic vi cc trm IPv4 bt k ni no trn Internet cho n khi a ch IPv4 khng cn tn ti, v cho php cc trm IPv6 v IPv4 trong mt khng gian gii hn cng lm vic sau . Cc c ch ny m bo khon u t to ln ca ngi dng trong vic xy dng h thng mng IPv4 ng thi trin khai c mng IPv6.

3.2. Cc c ch chuyn i.
Hin nay s lng cc mng IPv4 l rt ln; hu ht cc dch v v cc giao dch trn mng u da trn h tng mng IPv4; do vy xut hin nhiu c ch chuyn i cho php kt ni cc host IPv6 qua mng IPv4.

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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

Vic xy dng li giao thc ca tng Internet trong m hnh TCP/IP dn n nhiu thay i. Trong vn thay i ln nht ca IPv6 vi IPv4 l vic thay i cu trc a ch. S thay i ny nh hng n cc vn sau: nh hng ti hot ng ca cc giao thc tng trn ( Tng giao vn v tng ng dng) nh hng ti cc phng thc nh tuyn. Mt khc , mt yu cu quan trng trong vic trin khai IPv6 l phi thc hin c mc tiu ban u ra khi thit k giao thc IPv6 l : IPv6 phi lm vic c trong mi trng s dng giao thc IPv4. S c hin tng ch c nhng host dng duy nht IPv6 v ng thi cng tn ti nhng host ch duy nht IPv4. ng thi nhng host thun IPv6 phi giao tip c vi nhng host IPv4 trong khi vn m bo a ch IPv4 l c tnh thng nht ton cu. Do vy, m bo thc hin cc s tng thch gia IPv4 v IPv6, cc nh thit k IPv6 xy dng mt s c ch chuyn i khc nhau. Cc c ch chuyn i ny c nhng c im chung nh sau: m bo cc host/b nh tuyn ci t IPv6 c th lm vic c vi nhau trn nn IPv4. H tr cc kh nng trin khai cc host v b nh tuyn hot ng trn nn IPv6 vi mc tiu thay th dn cc host ang hot ng IPv4. C mt phng thc chuyn i d dng, thc hin c cc cp khc nhau t pha ngi dng cui ti ngi qun tr h thng, cc nh qun l mng v cung cp dch v. Cc c ch ny l mt tp cc giao thc thc hin i vi cc host v cc b nh tuyn, km theo l cc phng thc nh gn a ch v trin khai, thit k lm qu trnh chuyn i Internet sang IPv6 lm vic vi t ri ro nht c th c. Hin nay cc nh thit k IPv6 a ra 3 c ch chuyn i chnh cho php kt ni IPv6 trn nn IPv4 nh sau: Dual Ip layer: c ch ny m bo mt host/b nh tuyn c ci t c IPv4 v IPv6 tng Internet Layer trong kin trc TCP/IP ca n. IPv6 tunnel qua IPv4: C ch ny thc hin ng gi mt gi tin IPv6 theo chun giao thc IPv4 c th mang gi tin trn nn kin trc IPv4. C 2 loi tunneling l ci t sn (Configured) v t ng (Automantic).

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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

6to4: C ch ny hot ng da trn cc host IPv4 sn c cc a ch IPv4 t xy dng mt a ch IPv6 c cu trc c bit; cc host s dng c ch ny khng cn phi thng qua mt ISP c h tr IPv6

3.2.1. Lp IP song song (Dual IP layer).


C ch ny m bo mt host/b nh tuyn c ci t c 2 giao thc IPv4 v IPv6. Vi c ch song song ny, hot ng ca cc host/b nh tuyn hon ton tng thch vi IPv4 v IPv6. Theo c ch ny, IPv6 s cng tn ti vi IPv4 v n s dng c s h tng ca IPv4. S la chn s dng ngn xp (la chn giao thc no trong lp TCP/IP) s da vo thng tin c cung cp bi dch v qua DNS server.

Hnh 3.1: Minh ha c ch Dual IP layer

3.2.2. ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4.


C s h tng mng Internet hot ng trn nn IPv4 hot ng kh n nh v c quy m rng ln. Tn dng kh nng ny, cc nh thit k IPv6 a ra gii php l thc hin c ch tunneling (ng hm) trn nn IPv4.

Hnh3.2: Minh ha c ch ng hm C hai loi c ch Tunneling nh sau: l Automatic v Configured Tunneling. C hai c ch ny khc nhau c bn l vic quyt nh a ch cui ca qu trnh ng hm, cn li v c bn hot ng ca hai c ch ny l ging nhau. + im khi to ng hm (im ng gi tin) to mt tiu IPv4 ng gi v truyn gi tin c ng gi.
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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

+ Node kt thc ca qu trnh ng hm (im m gi) nhn c gi tin ng gi, xa b phn tiu IPv4, sa i mt s trng ca tiu IPv6 v x l phn d liu ny nh mt gi tin IPv6. + Node ng gi cn duy tr cc thng tin v trng thi ca mi qu trnh trong ng hm. V d cc tham s MTU x l cc gi tin IPv6 bt u thc hin ng hm. V s lng cc tin trnh trong ng hm c th tng ln mt s lng kh ln, trong khi cc thng tin ny thng lp li v do c th s dng k thut m v c loi b khi cn thit.

Hnh3.3: C ch ng gi thc hin ng hm

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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

Hnh3.4: C ch m gi khi thc hin ng hm

3.2.2.1. ng hm t ng(Automatic Tunneling)


Vi phng thc ny tunneling ny, a ch ch trong gi tin ng gi IPv4 c xc nh l a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6. Do vy, a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6 c ng gi phi c dng a ch IPv4 tng thch vi IPv6 (IPv4 compability IPv6). i vi nhng gi tin IPv6 m a ch ch l dng a ch khng c dng tng thch IPv4 th s khng th thc hin automatic tunneling. C ch Automatic Tunneling thng c s dng khi cn thc hin nhng kt ni vi cc host hoc vi cc mng IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn, hoc trong nhng tnh hung ngu nhin. Cc thng s lin quan n Automatic Tunneling Kh nng ng dng: i vi cc host. Yu cu giao thc IPv4: Yu cu c cc kt ni IPv4 gia cc site. Yu cu a ch IPv4: ti thiu c mt a ch IPv4 Yu cu giao thc IPv6: khng cn thit. Yu cu a ch IPv6: i ch dng IPv4 compabile. Yu cu i vi host: ci t dual satck IPv4/IPv6. Yu cu i vi route: none.

3.2.2.2. ng hm ci t sn(Configured Tunneling)


Vi phng thc tunneling ny, a ch m gi c quyt nh bi cc thng tin c cu hnh node ng gi. i vi mi tunnel dng ny, cc node ny phi lu a ch ca cc trm cui (cc trm m gi end-point). Khi cc gi IPv6 c chuyn qua tunnel ny, a ch ca cc endpoint c cu hnh sao cho ging vi a ch ch trong phn tiu ca gi tin IPv4 ng gi. Cc thng s yu cu i vi c ch Configured Tunneling nh sau: Kh nng ng dng :site. Yu cu giao thc IPv4: kt ni gia cc site s dng IPv4. a ch IPv4: ti thiu c mt a ch IPv4 trong mt site. Yu cu giao thc IPv6: khng cn thit. Yu cu v a ch IPv6: khng cn thit .
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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

Yu cu host: IPv6 stack hoc IPv4/IPv6 stack. Yu cu i vi b nh tuyn: IPv4/IPv6 b nh tuyn. 3.2.3. 6to4.

Hnh 3.5: C ch 6 to4 Hin nay, trin khai mng IPv6 t chc IGTRANs (Ipng Transition Working Group - mt nhm thuc IETF) a ra mt gii php th ba trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn IPv4 l c ch 6to4. Mt trong nhng hn ch ln nht ca hai c ch trn (c ch dual stack v c ch tunneling) l vi mi khch hng cui (end- user site) kt ni vi mng IPv6 u cn phi la chn mt ISP c h tr dch v IPv6 gii quyt cc vn lin quan n cp pht a ch v tunneling. Mt khc phng php ny cng hn ch c nhng kh khn ca c ch tunneling nh cc hot ng to, qun l, duy tr cc cu hnh tunneling ca phng php tunneling. Yu cu: Mt host phi c a ch IPv4. m bo hot ng chnh xc ca 6to4 trong mt topo mng phc tp, tt c cc host IPv6 phi m bo thut ton sau y l c gi tr: l thut ton lin quan n la chn a ch khi thc hin gi gi tin IPv6. V ta bit rng mt node c th gn nhiu dng a ch IPv6 khc nhau. Do vy, trong dch v tn min DNS c th khai trin nhiu bn ghi tng ng vi cc a ch IPv6 khc nhau ca host . Thut ton la chn a ch m bo trong mt tp cc a ch IPv6 tr v khi host thc hin query DNS server s la chn mt a ch c dng tin t 2002::/16 trong tp cc a ch tr v gi cc gi tin IPv6 trong cc kt ni ca host .

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C ch chuyn i t Ipv4 sang IPv6

3.3. Kt Lun
Trong chng ny, n gii thiu v c ch chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 nh: Trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn IPv4, cc c ch chuyn i nh Dual Ip layer, IPv6 tunnel qua IPv4, 6to4. Trong thi gian u pht trin, kt ni IPv6 cn thc hin trn c s h tng mng li IPv4. Mng Ipv6 v IPv4 s cng song song tn ti trong thi gian di.

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Kt lun

KT LUN
Qua n tt nghip, em nghin cu nhng vn c bn ca cu trc a ch IPv4, a ch IPv6, ngun ti nguyn IPv4 ngy cng cn kit v s cn thit ca a ch IPv6 trong tng lai. ng thi t tp trung nghin cu v c ch chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6. Qua gip em hiu c r hn v cch thc lin kt trn Internet. Vic pht trin thm mt phin bn a ch mi s p ng c nhu cu pht trin cng ngh thng tin hin nay. Qu trnh trin khai phin bn a ch mi trn nn phin bn a ch c sn l khng h n gin, v ng dng hiu qu vo thc t th vn cn phi nghin cu chi tit hn. Sau mt thi gian tm hiu, em hon thnh n vi mt s ni dung sau: Gii thiu tng quan v IPv4: i su vo cc kha cnh nh cu trc a ch IPv4, khun dng ca gi tin IPv4, gii php nh tuyn theo a ch IPv4, vn cn kit ngun ti nguyn IPv4 v c ch trin khai mng IPv6. Gii thiu tng quan v IPv6: Tp trung vo c im ca IPv6 t lm r s khc bit gia IPv4 v IPv6. Phn tch lm ni bt u im ca IPv6 v khng gian a ch, nh dng tiu Tm hiu v c ch chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6: Trin khai mng IPv6 trn nn mng IPv4, cc c ch chuyn i nh l (lp IP song song, ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4, 6to4).

Trong qu trnh lm n tt nghip, mc d c gng nhng do thi gian v trnh c hn nn n kh trnh khi nhng thiu st. V vy em mong nhn c s gp v ch bo ca thy c v cc bn em c th hon thin thm kin thc ca mnh. Mt ln na, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n c gio Th.S Nguyn Th Thu Hng tn tnh ch bo em trong qu trnh hc tp cng nh lm n. Em xin chn thnh cm n! Sinh vin Hong Ngc Ton

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TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Hong Trng Minh- Gio trnh nh Tuyn Trong Mng Vin Thng. 2. Cu trc a ch ca Internet c download ti : http://manguon.com/EBook.aspx?EBookGID=4544 3. Cc vn trin khai mng IPv6 c download ti : http://manguon.com/EBook.aspx?EBookGID=4544 4. Introduction to IP Version 6 - Microsoft Corporation. Published: September 2003 Updated: March 2004 5. Vn cn kit v a ch IPv4 v c ch chin khai mng IPv6 c download ti http://ipv6.vn 6. Nguyn Th H, n tt nghip: Trin khai MPLS VPN trn nn IPv6(6VPE), ca hc vin Cng ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng ,2009 7. Nguyn Tun Anh, ti nghin cu khoa hc: Cc phng thc ng hm IPv6 qua IPv4, ca hc vin Cng ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng ,2008 [8]. S lng a ch IPv4 tiu th trong khu vc APNIC t nm 2000 tr li y c download ti http://www.apnic.net. [9]. S lng a ch IPv4(theo n v 8) c cp t APNIC ca mt s quc gia v vng lnh th qua cc nm c download ti http://www.apnic.net [10]. Cc khuyn ngh chun b cho tnh trng ht a ch IPv4 v tnh cn thieetscuar vic trin khai a ch IPv6 ca Nht Bn c ly ti: http://www.jpnic.net/en/research/IPv4exhaustion_trans-pub.pdf [11]. Khuyn ngh trin khai ngay a ch IPv6 ca NIC Mexico c ly tai: http://www.nic.mx/es/Noticias_2?NEWS=220 [12]. Chnh sch thc y pht trin IPv6 ca M c download ti: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/memoranda/fy2005/m05-22.pdf [13]. Chnh sch thc y pht trin IPv6 ca Malaysia download ti: http://www.nav6.usm.my

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