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Master of Business Administration - Semester 2 MB 0048: Operations Research (4 credits) (Book ID: B1301) ASSIGNMENT- Set 1 4.

What is integer programming Integer programming is a mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a givenmathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships. Linear programming is a specific case of mathematical programming (mathematical optimization). More formally, integer programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints. Its feasible region is aconvex polyhedron, which is a set defined as the intersection of finitely many half spaces, each of which is defined by a linear inequality. Its objective function is a real-valued affine function defined on this polyhedron. A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the polyhedron where this function has the smallest (or largest) value if such point exists. Integer programming can be applied to various fields of study. It is used in business and economics, but can also be utilized for some engineering problems. Industries that use linear programming models include transportation, energy, telecommunications, and manufacturing. It has proved useful in modeling diverse types of problems in planning, routing, scheduling,assignment, and design

5.Explain the different steps involved in simulation methodologies? Simulation is a way to model random events, such that simulated outcomes closely match realworld outcomes. By observing simulated outcomes, researchers gain insight on the real world.Some situations do not lend themselves to precise mathematical treatment. Others may be difficult, time-consuming, or expensive to analyze. In these situations, simulation may approximate real-world results; yet, require less time, effort, and/or money than other approaches. Steps:-

A simulation is useful only if it closely mirrors real-world outcomes. The steps required to produce a useful simulation are presented below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Describe the possible outcomes. Link each outcome to one or more random numbers. Choose a source of random numbers. Choose a random number. Based on the random number, note the "simulated" outcome. Repeat steps 4 and 5 multiple times; preferably, until the outcomes show a stable pattern. Analyze the simulated outcomes and report results.

6. Write down the basic difference between PERT &CPM.? Project management has evolved as a new field with the development of two analytic techniques for planning, scheduling and controlling projects. These are the Critical Path Method (CPM) and the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). PERT and CPM are basically timeoriented methods in the sense that they both lead to the determination of a time schedule. Basic Difference between PERT and CPM Though there are no essential differences between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path. Both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project. PERT Some key points about PERT are as follows: PERT was developed in connection with an R&D work. Therefore, it had to cope with the uncertainties that are associated with R&D activities. In PERT, the total project duration is regarded as a random variable. Therefore, associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterise it. It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of a network, emphasis is given on the important stages of completion of a task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach a particular event or task. PERT is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain. It helps in pinpointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project. CPM CPM was developed in connection with a construction project, which consisted of routine tasks whose resource requirements and duration were known with certainty. Therefore, it is basically deterministic.

CPM is suitable for establishing a trade-off for optimum balancing between schedule time and cost of the project. CPM is used for projects involving activities of repetitive nature.