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Em xin t lng knh trng v bit n su sc ti thy gio PGS.TS Nguyn Kim Giao tn tnh ch bo v gip em hon thnh tt kho lun tt nhip ny. ng thi em cng xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trng i Hc Cng Ngh _i Hc Quc Gia H Ni, nhng ngi b cho em nhng kin thc v to iu kin tt nht cho em trong sut qu trnh hc tp v gip em hon thnh kho lun tt nghip ny. Cui cng ti cng xin gi li cm n cc bn b cng lp nhit tnh gip ti hon thnh kho lun ny. Xin chc cc thy c gio v cc bn sc khe, hnh phc. Em Xin Chn Thnh Cm n!

H ni thng 6 nm 2008 Sinh vin


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Trong nhng nm gn y vi s pht trin mnh m ca internet v cng ngh truyn thng gy ra s qu ti trn cc mng hin c, v vy nhu cu cp thit cn phi c mt cng ngh mng th h mi p ng c nhu cu . Cng ngh MPLS l hng gii quyt cho vn v nhng kh nng u vit ca n. Trong ti ny ca em, em xin gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc ( MPLS ). Trong em xin gii thiu v nhng khi nim c bn v mng MPLS, nhng thnh phn c bn to nn mng MPLS . V cng ngh MPLS l s kt hp ca cng ngh IP v cng ngh ATM nn n k tha nhng u im ca mng IP v mng ATM l kh nng mm do ca mng IP cng vi kh nng chuyn mch tc cao ca cng ngh ATM. Cng ngh mng MPLS cho php kh nng iu khin lu lng v cung cp cht lng dch v (QoS) theo yu cu ca khch hng. Trong lun vn ny em xin nu ra mt s bc cu hnh c bn d trn thit b Cisco cu hnh cho mng MPLS. c bit trong em nu ra mt v d v kt qu thu cm phng mng li chy MPLS s dng phn mm m phng Dynapic.

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LI M U................................................................................................................................vi 1.1. Gii thiu................................................................................................................................vii 1.2. Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS..............................................................vii 1.2.1 S ra i ca MPLS....................................................................................................viii 1.2.2 Qu trnh pht trin v chun ho cng ngh MPLS.....................................................x 1.3. Mt s c im ca cng ngh MPLS.................................................................................xii 1.3.1. Tc v tr..........................................................................................................xii 1.3.2. dung pha................................................................................................................xii 1.3.3. M rng cp mng ...............................................................................................xiii 1.3.4. Tnh n gin ............................................................................................................xiii 1.3.5. Tiu tn ngun ti nguyn ........................................................................................xiii 1.4. Cc ng dng ca MPLS......................................................................................................xiv 1.4.1. Tch hp IP+ATM .....................................................................................................xiv 1.4.2. Dch v mng ring o IP (VPN) ..............................................................................xiv 1.4.3. iu khin lu lng v nh tuyn IP r rng.........................................................xiv Kt lun chng.............................................................................................................................xv 2.1. Mt vi khi nin c bn:......................................................................................................xvi 2.1.1. Nhn (label)................................................................................................................xvi 2.1.2. Ngn xp nhn(Label stack):...................................................................................xviii 2.1.3. Hon i nhn (Label Swapping)..............................................................................xix 2.1.4. B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSR :label switching router):............................xix 2.1.5. Lp chuyn tip tng ng(FEC).........................................................................xix 2.1.6. To nhn ....................................................................................................................xxi 2.1.7. Bng chuyn tip chuyn mch nhn........................................................................xxi 2.1.8. C s thng tin nhn (label information base -LIB).................................................xxi 2.1.9. C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LFIB...................................................................xxii 2.1.10. NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry).......................................................xxiii 2.1.11. ng chuyn mch nhn (label switching path - LSP).......................................xxiv 2.1.12.Gi tin gn nhn......................................................................................................xxiv 2.1.13. n nh v phn phi nhn.....................................................................................xxv 2.1.14. Khng gian nhn(Label spaces)..............................................................................xxv 2.1.15. C cu bo hiu.......................................................................................................xxv 2.2. Chuyn tip gi trong MPLS.............................................................................................xxvi 2.2.1 Hot ng chuyn tip.............................................................................................xxvi 2.2.2 V d v chuyn tip gi..........................................................................................xxvii 2.3. Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS..........................................................................xxviii 2.3.1. B nh tuyn bin nhn (Label Edge router LER)..........................................xxviii 2.3.2. B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (Label Switching Router - LSR)......................xxix 2.3.3. ATM LSR :...............................................................................................................xxix 2.3.4. ATM LSR bin:........................................................................................................xxix 2.4. Cc giao thc c bn ca MPLS.........................................................................................xxix 2.4.1 Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP..............................................................................xxx

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN 2.4.1.1 Pht hin LSR ln cn :.......................................................................................xxx 2.4.1.2 Cc bn tin LDP:...............................................................................................xxxii 2.4.1.3 Cc ch phn phi nhn...............................................................................xxxv 2.4.2 Giao thc phn phi nhn da trn rng buc CR-LDP.......................................xxxvii 2.4.3. giao thc t trc ngun ti nguyn RSVP (Resource reservation protocol).....xxxix 2.4.4. giao thc MPLS BGP..............................................................................................xli 2.5 Hot ng ca MPLS..............................................................................................................xli 2.5.1 Cc hot ng ca MPLS............................................................................................xli 2.5.2 cc ch hot ng ca MPLS ..............................................................................xliii 2.5.2.1 ch hot ng khung .....................................................................................xliii 2.5.2.2 Ch hot ng t bo MPLS..........................................................................xlvi 2.5.2.3 Hot ng ca MPLS khung trong mng ATM-LSR .......................................xlix Kt lun chng................................................................................................................................l 3.1. K thut lu lng...................................................................................................................li 3.1.1. Khi nin k thut lu lng........................................................................................li 3.1.2. Vn hnh nh hng ngun v nh hng lu lng ..............................................li 3.1.3. Ti thiu ho tc nghn.................................................................................................li 3.1.4. Phn cp lu lng v iu khin dch v da trn nhu cu QoS. ............................lii 3.1.5. Hm i lu lng......................................................................................................liii 3.1.6. Cc vn tn ti vi cc hot ng nh tuyn. ....................................................liii 3.1.7. S tim cn n mng chng ln................................................................................liv 3.2. Qun l lu lng trong mng MPLS...................................................................................liv 3.2.1 Cc vn c bn ca qun l lu lng qua MPLS.................................................liv 3.3. nh tuyn da trn rng buc................................................................................................lv 3.3.1. V d miu t nh tuyn rng buc...........................................................................lvi 3.3.2 nh tuyn hin(Explicit routing : ER)......................................................................lvii 3.3.3 V d thit lp LSP vi CR-LDP...............................................................................lviii 3.3.4 Cc bn tin nh tuyn rng buc v trng TLV : ...............................................lviii 3.4. Cht lng dch v:................................................................................................................lix 3.4.1. M hnh dch v tch hp(IntServ).............................................................................lix 3.4.2. M hnh dch v Diffserv.............................................................................................lx 3.4.3. M hnh cht lng dch v MPLS............................................................................lxi 3.5. Pht hin v nh tuyn vng ...............................................................................................lxii Kt lun chng...........................................................................................................................lxii 4.1 Cu lnh v cc bc cu hnh.............................................................................................lxiii 4.1.1 Cu hnh MPLS mc iu khin. .............................................................................lxiii 4.1.2 Cu hnh lu lng MPLS......................................................................................lxviii 4.1.2.1 Cu hnh mt thit b h tr ng ng (tunnels).............................................lxix 4.1.2.2 Cu hnh mt giao din h tr RSVP-base tunnel signaling v IGP Flooding .........................................................................................................................................lxix 4.1.2.3 Cu hnh k thut lu lng ng ng trn MPLS..........................................lxx 4.1.2.4 Cu hnh IS-IS cho k thut lu lng MPLS....................................................lxx 4.1.3 Cu hnh nhng tuyn k thut lu lng.................................................................lxxi 4.1.4.1 nh ngha VPNs:...............................................................................................lxxi 4.1.4.2 Cu hnh nh tuyn PE to PE:..........................................................................lxxii 4.1.4.3 Cu hnh nh tuyn BGP PE to CE:...............................................................lxxiii 4.1.4.4. Cu hnh nh tuyn RIP PE to CE:................................................................lxxiii 4.1.4.5 Cu hnh nh tuyn tnh PE to CE:.................................................................lxxiii 4.1.4.6 Kim tra hot ng ca VPN:..........................................................................lxxiv

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN 4.1.5 Cu hnh ng trc h tr MPLS CoS..................................................................lxxiv 4.1.6 Cu hnh MPLS CoS:...............................................................................................lxxvi 4.1.6.1 Cu hnh ch PVC trong mt Non-MPLS-Enable core:............................lxxvii 4.1.6.2 Cu hnh ch Multi-VC trong MPLS-Enable core:...................................lxxvii 4.1.6.3 Cu hnh Multi-VCs s dng chc nng CoS-Map :......................................lxxvii 4.1.6.4 Cu hnh DWFQ v changing Queue Weight trn mt giao din ra:............lxxviii 4.1.6.5 Kim tra hot ng CoS:..................................................................................lxxix 4.1.7 Cu hnh b iu khin chuyn mch nhn:............................................................lxxix 4.1.7.1 Cu hnh MPLS trn mt cng LSC-controlled BPX:.....................................lxxxi 4.2. Nhng v d v cu hnh MPLS:.......................................................................................lxxxi 4.2.1 V d cho php thc hin MPLS trong mt mng.................................................lxxxii 4.2.2 V d cho php MPLS cho mt vng mng ch t trc...................................lxxxii 4.2.2 V dnla chn nhng ch trc v nhng tuyn................................................lxxxii 4.2.3 V d hin th MPLS LDP vi cc thng tin........................................................lxxxiii 4.2.4 V d hin th thng tin bng chuyn tip MPLS..................................................lxxxiv 4.2.5 V d hin th thng tin v giao din MPLS...........................................................lxxxv 4.2.6 V d hin th thng tin MPLS LDP hng xm....................................................lxxxvi 4.2.7 V d cho php LSP tunnel signaling...................................................................lxxxvii 4.2.8 V d cu hnh mt ng ng LSP.....................................................................lxxxvii 4.2.9 V d Hin th thng tin ng ng LSP............................................................lxxxviii 4.2.10 V d cu hnh mt k thut lu lng ng ng MPLS...............................lxxxviii 4.2.11 V d cu hnh mng ring o MPLS.........................................................................xc 4.2.12 V d cu hnh MPLS trn mt LSC-Controlled BPX port...................................xciii 4.2.13 V d thc hin MPLS CoS......................................................................................xcv 4.3 M phng v thc nhim........................................................................................................civ 4.3.1. Cc bc cu hnh nh sau:........................................................................................cv 4.3.2. Kt qu thu c sau khi tin hnh m phng :........................................................cvi Kt lun chng..........................................................................................................................cxiv KT LUN..................................................................................................................................cxv THUT NG V VIT TT...................................................................................................cxvi Ti liu tham kho.......................................................................................................................cxx

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LI M U Trong nhng nm gn y, vi s pht trin manh m ca cng ngh truyn thng v thng tin, nghnh cng nghip vin thng v ang tm mt phng thc chuyn mch c th kt hp u im ca IP (nh kh nng nh tuyn mm do) v ca ATM (kh nng chuyn mch tc cao) Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching) l kt qa pht trin ca nhiu cng ngh chuyn mch IP, s dng c ch hon i nhn ca ATM tng tc truyn gi tin m khng cn thay i cc giao thc nh tuyn ca IP. MPLS tch chc nng ca b nh tuyn IP (IP router )ra lm hai phn ring bit : chc nng chuyn gi v chc nng iu khin . phn chc nng chuyn gi tin, vi nhim v gi gi tin gia cc b nh tuyn IP, s dng c ch hon i nhn nh ca ATM. Trong MPLS nhn l mt thc th c di c nh v khng ph thuc vo lp mng.K thut hon i nhn thc cht l tm nhn ca mt gi tin trong bng cc nhn xc nh tuyn ca gi v nhn mi ca n. vic ny n gin hn nhiu so vi vic s l gi tin theo kiu thng thng v do vy ci thin c kh nng ca thit b. MPLS c th hot ng c vi nhiu giao thc nh tuyn khc nhau nh OSPF, IS-IS, BGP, ngoi ra n cn c th tng thch tt vi cc mng hin ti nh IP, ATM, Frame Relay Ngoi ra MPLS cung cp kh nng m rng mng ln, cung cp vic qun l cht lng dch v theo yu cu, kh nng iu khin lu lng. l mt la chn l tng cho nghnh cng nghip vin thng p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca khch hng c v cht lng dch v ln s a dng ho v loi hnh trn mt mng duy nht. Vi ngha nh vy mc ch ca vic nghin cu ti bc u cung cp ci nhn tng quan v cng ngh MPLS v tin ti i su nghin cu c th ng dng v trin khai trong thc t. Vi mc tiu nh vy ti gm cc phn nh sau: Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS) Chng 2: Cc thnh phn v hot ng ca MPLS Chng 3: Cc vn k thut c s dng trong mng MPLS
Chng 4 : Cu hnh MPLS trn thit b Cisco v m phng .

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Chng 1
1.1. Gii thiu

Gii thiu v cng ngh MPLS

Vi s pht trin nhn chng ca internet, internet tr nn ph bin v tr thnh cng c hiu qu phc v cho gio dc, thng mi gii tr, thng tin lin lc lc gia cc cng ng cc ng dng mi phc v cho thng tin lin lc cng ngy cng pht trin cng vi la nhu cu v truyn thng phc v cho cc ng dng mi ngy cng cao nh yu cu v ng truyn tc cao, yu cu v cht lng dch vdo ti nguyn h tng ca mng internet hin nay khng th p ng c nhu cu . Do yu cu cp thit cn phi c mt cng ngh mng th h mi p ng c yu cu . Mng MPLS ra i cung cp mt nn tng cng ngh cho qu trnh to ra mng a ngi dung, a dch v, hiu nng cao, tc cao, kh nng m rng mng ln, nhiu chc nng ci tin v p ng c nhiu yu cu cht lng dch v. chuyn mch nhn l yu t quan trng nht trong qu trnh m rng mng internet, n cung cp nhng ng dng quan trng trong x l chuyn tip gi bng cch n gin ho qu trnh x l, hn ch to ra cc bn sao mo u ti mi bc trong ng dn, to ra mt mi trng c th h tr cho iu khin cht lng dch v. pht trin ca MPLS cho php tch hp IP v ATM, h tr hi t dch v c sung cp nhng c hi mi cho iu khin lu lng v mng ring o. hiu nng s l gi c th ci tin bng cch thm nhn c kch thc c nh vo cc gi. iu khin cht lng dch v c th c cung cp d dng hn v c th xy dng cc mng cng cng rt ln.MPLS l k thut mi c mong i s pht trin ph bin trn phm vi rng c cc mng IP ring v cng cng m ng cho vic hi t cc dch v mng, video v thoi. Tm li MPLS s ng vai tr quan trng trong nh tuyn, chuyn mch v chuyn tip gi cho mng th h sau cng nh gii quyt cc vn lien quan ti m rng cp mng c th hot n vi cc mng hin c nh ATM, Frame Relay p ng nhu cu cng tng cao ca ngi s dng.

1.2. Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS.


Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS(MultiProtocol Label Switching) l mt bin php linh hot gii quyt nhng vn gp nhiu kh khn trong mng hin nay nh : tc , quy m, cht lng dch v(QoS), qun tr v k thut lu lng. MPLS th hin mt gii php thng minh p ng nhng i hi dch v v qun l gii thng cho mng IP th h sau - da trn ng trc. MPLS gii quyt nhng vn lin quan n tnh quy m v nh tuyn (da trn QoS v dng cht lng dch v) v c th tn ti trn mng ATM (phng thc truyn khng ng b - Asynchronous Transfer Mode ) v mng Frame Relay ang tn ti. MPLS thc hin mt s chc nng sau:

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Xc nh c cu qun l nhiu mc khc nhau ca cc lung lu lng , nh cc lung gia cc c cu, phn cng khc nhau, thm ch cc lung gia nhng ng dng khc nhau. Duy tr s c lp ca cc giao thc lp 2 v lp 3 Cung cp phng php nh x a ch IP vi cc nhn n gin , c di c nh c s dng bi cc cng ngh chuyn tip gi v chuyn mch gi khc nhau. Giao din vi giao thc nh tuyn hin c nh giao thc t trc ti nguyn (RSVP) v giao thc m rng theo m rng theo phng thc u tin tuyn ng ngn nht (OSPF). H tr IP, ATM v giao thc lp 2 Frame Relay.

1.2.1 S ra i ca MPLS. MPLS l s kt hp mt cch hon ho cc u im ca cng ngh IP v ATM. Cng ngh IP IP (Giao thc internet Internet Protocol) l thnh phn chnh ca kin trc mng internet . IP nh ngha c cu nh s, c cu chuyn tin, c cu nh tuyn v cc chc nng iu khin mc thp (giao thc bn tin iu khin internet - ICMP). Gi IP gm a ch bn nhn , a ch l mt s duy nht trong ton mng v mang y thng tin cn cho vic chuyn gi tin ti ch. C cu nh tuyn c nhin v tnh ton ng i ti cc nt trong mng. do vy, c cu nh tuyn phi c cp nht cc thng tin v hnh mng v n phi c kh nng hot ng trong mi trng mng gm nhiu nt. kt qu tnh ton ca c cu nh tuyn c lu trong cc bng chuyn tin cha thng tin v chng tip theo c th gi gi tin ti hng ch . Da trn cc bng chuyn tin, c cu chuyn tin chuyn mch cc gi IP hng ti ch. Phng thc chuyn tin truyn thng l theo tng chng mt. cch ny mi nt mng phi tnh ton bng chuyn tin mt cch c lp. do vy phng thc ny yu cu kt qu tnh ton ca phn nh tuyn ti tt c cc nt phi nht qun vi nhau. s khng thng nht ca kt qu ny ng ngha vi vic mt gi tin . Kiu chuyn tin theo tng chng hn ch kh nng ca mng. v d vi phng thc ny, nu cc gi tin chuyn ti cng mt a ch m i qua cng mt nt th chng s c quyn qua cng mt tuyn ti im ch. iu ny khin mng khng th thc hin m s chc nng khc nh nh tuyn theo ch, theo loi hnh dch v Tuy nhin, bn cnh , phng thc nh tuyn v chuyn tin ny nng cao tin cy cng nh kh nng m rng ca mng. giao thc nh tuyn m rng cho php mng phn ng li vi s c bng vic thay i tuyn khi b inh tuyn bit c s thay i v hnh mng thng qua vic cp nht thng tin v trng thi kt ni . vi

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cc phng thc nh nh tuyn lien min khng phn cp (classless interdomain routing - CIDR), kch thc ca bng chuyn tin c duy tr mc chp nhn c v vic tnh ton nh tuyn u do cc nt thc hin, mng c th c m rng m khng cn thc hin bt k s thay i no. Tm li, IP l mt giao thc chuyn mnh gi c tin cy v kh nng m rng cao. Nhng vic iu khin lu lng rt kh thc hin do phng thc nh tuyn theo tng chng. ngoi gia,IP khong h tr cht lng dch v. - Cng ngh ATM Cng ngh ATM ( Asychronous Transfer Mode phng thc truyn tin khng ng b ) l mt k thut truyn tin tc cao, ATM nhn thng tin nhiu dng khc nhau nh thoi, s liu, video v ct nhau v ct ra thnh nhiu phn nh gi l t bo. Cc t bo ny sau c truyn qua cc kt ni o goi l VC (virtual connection), v ATM h tr thoi, s liu v video vi cht lng lng dch v trn nhiu cng ngh bng rng khc nhau. N c coi l cng ngh chuyn mch hng u v thu ht c nhiu quan tm. ATM khc vi nh tuyn IP mt s im. n l cng ngh chuyn mch hng kt ni . kt ni t im u ti im cui phi c thit lp trc khi thng tin c gi i . ATM yu cu kt ni phi c thit lp bng nhn cng hoc thit lp mt cch t ng thng qua bo hiu. mt im khc na l ATM khng thc hin nh tuyn ti cc nt trung gian. tuyn kt ni xuyn sut c xc nh trc khi chao i d liu v c gi c nh trong thi gian kt ni , trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni cc tng i ATM trung gian cp cho kt ni mt nhn. vic ny thc hin hai iu : dnh cho kt ni mt s nguyn v xy dng bng chuyn t bo ti mi tng i . Bng chuyn t bo ny c tnh cc b v ch cha thng tin v cc kt ni ang hot ng i qua tng i. iu ny khc vi thng tin v ton mng cha trong bng nh tuyn ca b nh tuyn dng IP. Qu trnh chuyn t bo qua tng i ATM cng tng t nh vic chuyn gi tin qua b nh tuyn. tuy nhin ATM c th chuyn mch nhan hn v nhn gn trn cc t bo c kch thc c nh (nh hn ca IP), kch thc ca bng nh tuyn nh hn nhiu so vi b nh tuyn IP, vic ny c thc hin trn cc thit b phn cng chuyn dng. do vy thng lng ca tng i ATM thng ln hn thng lng ca b nh tuyn IP truyn thng. Ni cch khc , cng ngh ATM l mt cng ngh truyn thng tc cao, m bo thi gian thc v cht lng dch v theo yu cu t trc. - Cng ngh MPLS - s kt hp gia cng ngh IP v ATM u im ni bt ca giao thc truyn tin TCP/IP l kh nng nh tuyn v truyn gi mt cch ht sc mm do linh hot v rng khp ton cu, nhng IP khng

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m bo cht lng dch v, tc truyn tin theo yu cu, trong khi cng ngh ATM c th mng u vit v tc truyn tin cao, m bo thi gian thc v cht lng dch v theo yu cu t trc. s kt hp IP v ATM ca th l gii php k vng cho mng vin thng tng lai-mng th h sau NGN. Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS p ng nhu cu . MPLS kt hp u im ca cng ngh IP v ATM to ra mt gii php linh hot cho vic gii quyt cc vn m cc mng trc phi i mt, l tc , kh nng m rng cp mng, qun l cht lng dch v (QoS) v k thut lu lng. Tht vy cng ngh chuyn mch nhn MPLS l kt qu pht trin ca nhiu cng ngh chuyn mch IP s dng cng ngh hon i nhn nh ca ATM tng tc truyn gi tin m khng cn thay i cc giao thc nh tuyn ca IP. T tng khi a ra MPLs l nh tuyn ti bin chuyn mch ti li. Trong cc mng MPLS cc gi c gn nhn ti bin c mng v chng c nh tuyn xuyn qua mng da trn cc nhn n gin. C th ni MPLS l mt cng ngh chuyn mch IP c nhiu trin vng, vi tnh cht c cu nh tuyn ca mnh, MPLS c kh nng lng cao cht lng dch v cu mng IP truyn thng . bn cnh thng tin lu lng ca mng s c ci thin r rt. 1.2.2 Qu trnh pht trin v chun ho cng ngh MPLS - Tnh hnh trin khai cnng ngh MPLS BIG PIPE nh khai thc dch v IP ca Canada la chn Cisco Systems l nh cung cp thit b cho mng trc IP OC-192 vo thng 10 nm 2001- cc b nh tuyn ca Cisco trong mng trc ny s cho php BIG PIPE cung cp bng thng OC-192. cc b nh tuyn 12410 v 12416 ca cisco s cho php nh cung cp dch v ny trin khai dch v IP th h sau nh MPLS-VPN, IP QoS v voice over IP (VOIP). Juniper Network v Ericsson communication thng bo rng th h internet router trc mi (serie M) c trin khai trong mng trc mi ca TelstraSaturn. TelstraSaturn l cng ty u tin ti Newzealand trin khai mng bng tn ln nht cung cp c IP v thoi. Cc b nh tuyn M160 v M20 c trin khai trong mng trc ti lu lng qua MPLS. y l mng thng mi u tin trin khai y STM16(2.5Gb/s) ti New Zealand Thng 10 Alcatel thng bo k hp ng cung cp thit b bng rng cho Deashe Telecom Group. Cc sn phn ca Acatel bao gm : thit b chuyn mch nh tuyn (RSP) 7670 cho mng chuyn i s liu ATm ca quc ni ti c. thit b ny s cho php Deashe Telecom m rng mng a dch v ca h t 12.8 Gb/s ln 450

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Gb/s tho mn nhu cu trong mng thc. thit b ny c kh nng chuyn mch MPLS trn ATM. NTT America tong bo trin khai dch v Arestar Glbal IP-VPN n tt c cc doanh nghip ti m. dch v Arestar IP-VPN cung cp gii php hon chnh bao gm cng ngh IP-VPN,MPLS. China Telecom la chn Nortel works trong hai hp ng tr gi 12 triu USD lng cp mngTM a dch v ti tnh Jiasngu v Shandong vo thng 10 nm 2001. hai mng ny cho php china telecom cung cp dch v ATM tin tin, duy nht. China telecom c k hot thay th thit b chuyn mch ng trc hin ti bng gii php ca Nortel work . cc thit b bao gm :Passport 15000, Passport 7480 MS. Cc thit b ny cung cp dch v ATM,Frame Relay, chuyn mch v nh tuyn Ip,MPLS River stone Network trin khai mng cho hai nh cung cp chu au l Telenet nh cung cp dch v b v Neosnetwork-nh khai thc ca UK. Nha khai thc ny trin khai mng MPLS u tin ti UK vi router loi RS. Neosnetwork chn RS8600 multiservice v RS3000 metro access router cung cp dch v Ethernet nh mt phn trong mngtruyn s liu ton quc ca U.K. Telenet lu chn Reverstone l nh cung cp cc router mng ung trc IP trong mng truyn s liu v mng cp ca mnh. Telenet s dng reverstone RS 8600 multi-service metro routers. c hai d n ny u c trin khai cui nm 2001. - Qu trnh chun ho MPLS i vi cc cng ngh chuyn mch mi, vic tiu chun ho l mt kha cnh quan trng quyt nh kh nng chim lnh th trng nhanh chng ca cng ngh . Cc tiu chun lien quan n Ip v ATM c xy dng v hon thin trong mt thi gian tng i di. Cc tiu chun v MPLS ch yu c IETF pht trin (Cc tiu chun RFC Request for comment) hin ang c hon thin v thc hin theo mt qu trnh nh sau: - Vo u nm 1997, hin chng MPLS c thng qua. - Vo thng 4 nm 1997, nhm lm vic MPLS tin hnh cuc hp u tin - Vo thng 11 nm 1997, ti liu MPLS c ban hnh - Vo thng 7 nm 1998, ti liu cu trc MPLS c ban hnh - Vo thng 8 v thng 9 nm 1998, 10 ti liu internet b xung c ban hnh, bao gm giao thc phn phi nhn MPLS (MPLS Label Distribution ProtocolMPLS LDP), m ho nh du (Mark Encoding), cc ng dng ATM, . . . MPLS hnh thnh v vn bn. - IETF hon thin cc tiu chun MPLS v a ra cc ti liu RFC trong nm 1999. - Qu trnh chun ho MPLS cn do ITU-T xy dng v pht trin.

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Nh vy, c th thy rng MPLS pht trin nhanh chng v hiu qu. iu ny cng chng minh nhng yu cu cp bch trong cng nghip cho mt cng ngh mi. Hu ht cc tiu chun MPLS hin ti c ban hnh di dng RFC.

1.3. Mt s c im ca cng ngh MPLS


Mc d thc t rng MPLS ban u pht trin vi mc ch gii quyt vic chuyn gi tin, nhng li im chnh ca MPLS trong mi trng mng hin ti li l kht nng iu khin lu lng ca n. mt s u im khc l: 1.3.1. Tc v tr. Cc chuyn mch da trn phn mn truyn thng th qu chm x l cc ti lu lng lng trong internet .ngay c vi k thut c ci tin th vic tra tm bang nhanh vi mt gi d liu no trn b nh tuyn th thng mt nhiu thi gian hn nhiu so vi tc x l ca b nh tuyn .kt qu l mt ti lu lng ,mt cc kt ni ,tnh nng thc thi s b gim trong mnh da trn IP. Chuyn mch nhn khc xa so vi nh tuyn IP ,n cung cp mt gii php hiu qu cho vn ny .l do chuyn mch nhn nhanh hn nhiu l vic gi tr nhn c t trong tiu ca gi n ,gi tr ny c s dng truy cp vo b chuyn tip trong b nh tuyn , c ngha l gi tr ny c s dng lm a ch tham chiu bng (Index the table) .vic tra tm ny ch yeu cu duy nht mt truy cp , khc vi bng nh tuyn thng ,vic truy cp l hangf ngn ln ( do c s d liu trong bng nh tuyn truyn thng l qu ln ). Kt qu mang li khi s chuyn mch nhn l tc chuyn mch , lng thng tin lu chuyn trn mng nhan hn ,do d lm gim tr v thi gian p ng trng vic trao i gia nhng ngi s dng . 1.3.2. dung pha. i vi my tnh, ngoi cc tham s v tc , s p ng, tr cn c mt thnh phn khc . l s bin thin tr ca lu lng ngi s dng do s chuyn tip cc gi tin ti mt vi nt trong mng ti ch ca n. bin thin tr b tch lu khi gi tin i t ngun ti ch . ti mi nt a ch ch ca gi tin c xem xt v so snh vi mt danh sch di cc a ch c kh nng lm a ch ch trong cc bng nh tuyn ca nt . Khi gi tin c truyn qua cc nt ny, n s tch lu c tr ln bin thin tr, ph thuc vo di ca bng c tra v s cc gi tin c s l trong mt n v thi gian .kt qu cui cng ti cc nt nhn c l dung pha, tri pha v nghim trng hn l trc pha.vn ny nh hng xu ti cc gi d liu ting ni .

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i vi chuyn mch nhn, do vic tra tm thng tin bng nh tuyn l t, nn vic tch lu bin thin gim tr l rt nhiu. kt qu l lu lng ngi s dng s c chuyn tip trong mng mt cch nhanh chng, do s dung pha cng t hn so vi nh tuyn IP truyn thng . 1.3.3. M rng cp mng . Tc l mt kha cnh quang trng trong chuyn mch nhn, vic s l lu lng ngi s dng trong mt mng internet l rt cn thit, tuy nhin cc dch v cn cung cp kh nng m rng cp mng, l kh nng m h thng c th m rng quy m v tng s lng thu bao trong mng internet ln hng ngn thu bao mi c cc nt mng (cc b nh tuyn, cc my ch )h tr ng nhp mi ngy. qun l ht cc thu bao nh vy , c bit l cc thu bao s dng cc dch v a phng tin th cng vic ca b dnh tuyn l ht sc nng n. chuyn mch nhn a ra cch gii quyt cho cc mng ln v tng trng mt cch nhanh chng l bng cch cho php mt s lng ln cc a ch IP gn vo mt hoc mt s t nhn.phng php tip cn ny lm gim i rt nhiu kch thc cc a ch v cho php b nh tuyn h tr nhiu ngi s dng hn . 1.3.4. Tnh n gin . Mt kha cnh hp dn khc ca chuyn mch nhn l giao thc chuyn mch ( n bao gm mt tp cc giao thc )v cc chuyn tip da trn gi. c cu iu khin lung c thc hin to mi lin quan gia nhn v lu lng . cc c cu iu khin ny th phc tp nhng khng nh hng ti vic iu khin lu lng ngi s dng . C mt vi phng php khc nhau c p dng thit lp s kt hp nhn (binging) ca lng ngi s dng. khi s kt hp ny c hon tt th cc hot ng chuyn mch nhn c thc hin trong phn mm, trong ASIC , hoc trong b s l c bit . 1.3.5. Tiu tn ngun ti nguyn . C cu iu khin thit lp nhn phi khng l gnh nng cho mng. iu c ngha l chng khng tiu tn ti nguyn. cc mng chuyn mch nhn khng tiu tn nhiu ngun ti nguyn thc hin c cu iu khin thit lp cc ng mch nhn i vi lu lng ngi s dng .
- H tr mm do tt c cc dch v (Hin ti v sp ti ) trn mt mng n. - H tr tt c cc cng c iu khin lu lng mnh m bao gm c nh tuyn lin

tip v chuyn mch bo v.

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dng khi thc hin chuyn mch nhn vi IP cng tt nh vi IPx. Chuyn mch nhn cng c th vn hnh o trn bt k lp giao thc lp lin kt d liu.
- H tr cho tt c cc loi lu lng : mt u im khc ca chuyn mch nhn l n

c th h tr tt c cc loi chuyn tip unicast, loi dch v unicast v cc gi multicast.

1.4. Cc ng dng ca MPLS.


Mng MPLS c nhiu ng dng trong c 3 ng dng chnh v thng thng 2 trong 3 kh nng c s dng ng thi: 1.4.1. Tch hp IP+ATM Do chuyn mch nhn c th thc hin bi cc chuyn mch ATM. s tch hp ny cn phi t nh tuyn IP v phn mm LDP trc tip trn chuyn mch ATM. Do tch hp hon ton IP trn chuyn mch ATM, MPLS cho php chuyn mch ATM h tr ti u cc dch v IP nh IP a hng (Multicast), lp dch v IP, RSVP (Resource Reservation protocol giao thc h tr ti nguyn) v mng ring o. 1.4.2. Dch v mng ring o IP (VPN) VPN thit lp c s h tng cho mng intranet v extranet, l cc mng IP m cc cng ty kinh doanh s thit lp trn c s ton b cu trc kinh doanh ca h. Dch v VPN l dch v mng intranet v Extranet m cc mng c cung cp bi nh cung cp dch v n nhiu t chc khch hng. MPLS kt hp giao thc cng bin (BGP) cho php mt nh cung cp h tr hng nghn VPN ca khch hng. Nh vy, mng MPLS cng vi BGP to ra cch thc cung cp dch v VPN trn c ATM v cc thit b da trn gi tin rt linh hot, d m rng quy m v d qun l. thm ch trn cc mng ca nh cung cp kh nh, kh nng linh hot v d qun l ca dch v MPLS+BGP VPN l u im ch yu.

1.4.3. iu khin lu lng v nh tuyn IP r rng Vn quan trng trong cc mng IP lin tc l thiu kh nng iu khin linh hot cc lung lu lng IP s dng hiu qu di thng ca mng sn c. do vy thiu ht ny lin quan ti kh nng gi cc lung c chn xung cc ng c chn v d nh chn cc ng trung k c m bo cho lp dch v ring. MPLS s

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dng cc ng chuyn mch nhn (LSPs), chnh l mt dng ca lightweight VC m c th c thit lp trn c ATM v thit b da trn gi tin. kh nng iu khin lu lng IP ca MPLS s dng thit lp c bit cc LSP iu khin mt cch linh hot cc lung IP.

Kt lun chng
Trong chng 1 gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh MPLS, MPLS l s kt hp gia cng ngh IP v cng ngh ATM, trong chng ny cng gii thiu s ra i ca MPLS, qu trnh chun ho v tnh hnh trin khai MPLS trn th gii, ti sao MPLS li c k vng nhiu ti vy trong chng ny cng gii thiu mt s c dim ni bt ca MPLS, u im ca MPLS.

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Chng 2

Cc thnh phn v hot ng ca MPLS

2.1. Mt vi khi nin c bn:


2.1.1. Nhn (label) Nhn l mt thc th c di ngn v c nh khng c cu trc bn trong. Nhn khng trc tip m ho thng tin ca mo u lp mng nh a ch lp mng. nhn c gn vo mt gi tin c th s i din cho mt FEC (forwarding Equivalence Classes: nhm chuyn tip tng ng ) m gi tin c n nh . Thng th mt gi c n nh mt FEC (hon ton hoc mt phn ) da trn a ch ch lp mng ca n. tuy nhin nhn khng phi l m ho a ch .nhn trong mng n gin nht xc nh ng i m g c th truyn qua .nhn c mang hay c ng gi trong tiu lp 2 cng vi gi tin. b nh tuyn kim tra gi thng qua ni dung nhn xc nh cc bc chuyn tip k tip. khi gi tin c gn nhn, cc chng ng cn li ca gi tin thng qua mng ng trc da trn chuyn mch nhn. gi tr ca nhn c ngha cc b ngha l chng ch lin quan ti cc bc chuyn tip gia cc LSR. Dng ca nhn ph thuc vo phung thc truyn tin m gi tin c ng gi. i vi dng Frame Relay s dng gi tr nhn dng kt ni cc lin kt d liu DLCI (data link connection identifier), ATM s dng trng nhn dng ng o trong t bo ng nhn dng knh o trong t bo (virtual path identifier/virtual circuit identifier VPI/VCI).sau gi c chuyn tip da trn gi tr ca chng . nh dng chung ca nhn c gii thch trong hnh 1. nhn c th hin r trong tiu cc lp lin kt (VPI/VCI ca ATM trong hnh 2 v DLCI ca Frame Relay trong hnh 3 ) hoc trong lp d liu shim (gia tiu lp lin kt d liu lp 2 v lp mng lp 3 nh hnh 4 )

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MPLS SHIM 32 bit

Nhn 20 bit

EXP.Bits 3 bit

BS 1bit

TTL 8 bit

Hnh 1 : nh dng chung ca nhn MPLS i vi cc phng tin gc khng c cu trc nhn, mt on m (shim) c chn thm vo s dng cho nhn. Khun dng on m 4 byte c cu trc nh hnh 3 phn SHIM MPLS bao gm: - LABEL (20bit):cha gi tr nhn - EXP.bits: CoS(3 bit)- cht lng dch v - BS (1 bit) bie-stack: xc nh nhn cui cng trong ngn xp - TTL (8 bit) time to live :trng nh thi

Gi IP

Tiu IP

D liu

Gn nhn vo Gi tin

Tiu SHIM Tiu IP

D liu

Cc t bo ATM

VPI/VCI

D liu

VPI/VCI

D liu

Hnh 2: Lin kt d liu l ATM


Gi IP Gn nhn vo gi tin Tiu SHIM Tiu IP D liu

Tiu IP

D liu

Cc t bo ATM

DLCI

D liu

DLCI

D liu

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Hnh 3 :Lin kt d liu l Frame Relay i vi cc khung PPP hoc Ethernet, gi tr nhn dng giao thc P- ID(hoc Ether type) c chn vo u khung tng ng thng bo khung l MPLS n hng hay a hng
Tiu PPP trn gi SONET /SDH Tiu PPP Tiu SHIM Tiu lp 3

Nhn

Tiu MAC LAN Label Creation

Tiu MAC

Tiu SHIM

Tiu lp 3

Hnh 4 : Nhn trong shim - gia lp 2 v lp 3 2.1.2. Ngn xp nhn(Label stack): L mt tp c th t cc nhn gn theo gi chyn ti thng tin v nhiu FEC v v cc LSP tng ng m gi i qua. ngn xp nhn cho php MPLS h tr nh tuyn phn cp (mt nhn cho EGP v mt nhn cho IGP)v t chc a LSP trong mt trung k LSP. iu ny to iu kin thun li cho ch hot ng ng hm trong MPLS . Mt gi c th c dn chng nhiu nhn, cc nhn ny c cha trong stack. Stack th c t chc theo nguyn tc LIFO. ti mi hop trong mng s l nhn s l nhn hin hnh trn nh stack. Chnh nhn ny c LSR s dng chuyn tip gi. Nu gi tin cha c nhn th stack rng ( su ca stack bng 0). nu stack c chiu su l d th mc 1s l y ca stack (bt s trong entry nhn t ln 1)v mc d s l nh stack.mt entry nhn c th c t thm vo (push) hoc ly ra (pop ) khi stack.

Hnh 5: Ngn xp nhn

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2.1.3. Hon i nhn (Label Swapping). Hon i nhn l cch dng cc th tc chuyn tip gi. chuyn tip gi c nhn, LSR kim tra trn nh stack v dung nh x ILM (Incoming Label Map) nh x ti mt entry chuyn tip nhn NHLFE ( Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry). S dng thng tin trong NHLFE, LSR xc nh ra ni chuyn tip gi v thc hin mt tc v trn stack nhn. ri n m ho stack nhn mi vo gi v chuyn gi i. Chuyn tip gi cha c nhn cng tng t nhng sy ra ingress LER. LER phi phn tch header lp mng xc nh FEC ri s dng nh x FTN (FEC-to-NHLFE) nh x FEC vo mt NHLFE. 2.1.4. B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSR :label switching router): L thit b nh tuyn hay chuyn mch (router hay switch)s dng trong mng MPLS chuyn cc gi tin bng th tc phn phi nhn .c mt s loi LSR nh sau: LSR bin,ATM -LSR li,ATM-LSR bin 2.1.5. Lp chuyn tip tng ng(FEC)

Hnh 6: Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC l mt thut ng c s dng trong cc hot ng chuyn tip nhn, n dng m t s kt hp cc gi ri rc vi a ch ch, thng l a ch ca ngi nhn cui cng , chng hn nh my chm .vic thc hin ca FEC cng c th l s kt hp mt gi tr FEC vi a ch ch v lp ti lu lng (class of traffic). lp ti lu lng ny thng kt hp vi s cng ch . tt c cc gi trong mt nhm c i s nh nhau qua mng MPLS ngay c khi c s khc bit gia cc gi tin th hin trong mo ca lp mng . khc vi IP thng thng , trong MPLS ,cc gi tin ring bit c gn vo cc FEC ring ngay sau khi chng vo mng.cc FEC da trn yu cu dch v cho vic thit lp cc gi tin hay n gin cho mt tin a ch

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Ti sao FEC c s dng: u tin n cho php mt nhm cc gi tin vo trong cc lp . t nhm ny , gi tr FEC trong mt gi c th c s dng thit lp u tin s l cc gi. cc FEC c u tin cao s c x l trc cc FEC khc. Cc FEC ny c th c s dng h tr hiu qu cht lng dch v QoS, chng hn cc FEC c th kt hp vi u tin cao, lu lng ting ni thi gian thc, lu lng ting ni vi u tin thp S ph hp ca mt FEC vi mt gi c th t c bng cch s dng mt nhn xc nh mt FEC c bit. i vi cc dch v khc nhau c cc FEC khc nhau v cc nhn km theo . i vi ti internet, cc trng nhn dng sau l cc tham s quan trng cho vic thit lp mt FEC. tuy nhin , trong mt vi h thng ch c a ch IP ch c s dng : - a ch IP ngun v ch - S cng ngun v ch - Trng nhn dng giao thc IP (PIN) - im m cc dch v m rng ca IP phin bn 4 (Ipv4 Differentiated services (DS)codepoint) - Nhn lung Ipv6 Thng tin s dng trong quyt nh chuyn tip

Ti tin TCP ,UDP Ti gi d liu IP Layer 2 trailer User traffic M essage (e.g... email ) Header (layer 7) Segment (TCP ,UDP ) Header (layer 4) Datagram (IP) Header (layer 3) Layer 2 Header

Cha cng s

Cha a ch IP v trng nhn dng giao thc ID (PID )

Cha a ch MAC , hoc ATM ,Fram e RelayVCIDs

Hnh 7Thng tin c s dng trong cc quyt nh chuyn tip Cc trng trong cc gi n c s dng lm nn cc quyt nh chuyn tip cc gi c ch ra hnh 7. l do cc trng ny c cc b nh tuyn, chuyn mch hay cu s dng lm cc quyt nh chuyn mch , nhng thng khng s dng FEC .

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Lp 2 s dng cc a ch LAN (da ch MAC), trng nhn dng tuyn o ATM v Frame Relay(VCID) Lp 3 s dng cc a ch IP ch v ngun Lp 4 s dng s cng ngun v ch , trng nhn dng giao thc IP Ch s cng v giao thc IP c s dng trong FEC ra quyt nh chuyn tip, cc trng ny dng xc nh loi ti tin trong gi d liu IP. V d trng PID c th c m ho bi b pht ca gi d liu gc ch rng loi ti tin (payload) l ti OSPF, mt b nh tuyn c th c lp trnh cho vic s l cc ti tin ny khc vi cc loi ti tin khc (v d ti tin TCP hoc UDP). ch s cng trong tiu TCP v UDP s ch ra loi ti tin trong gi tin m giao thc TCP v UDP mang, v d ch s cng ch c th c m ho ch ra ti tin l m thanh ,th in t, truyn file do , cc trng ny l tng i quan trng i vi cc mng cn h tr cc dch v Qos khc nhau i vi loi lu lng khc nhau . i vi nhn MPLS thng dng c ch ra hnh 7. cn vi VCID ca ATM hoc Frame Relay th mt tiu m c chn vo (shim header) c th c s dng trong gi . 2.1.6. To nhn To nhn da trn cc phng php sau: - Topo: nh giao thc nh tuyn thng thng (OSPF v BGP) - Yu cu : iu khin lu lng da trn yu cu - Lu lng :nhn gi tin phn phi v gn nhn 2.1.7. Bng chuyn tip chuyn mch nhn L bng chuyn tip c cha thng tin v nhn vo, nhn ra giao din vo giao din ra v a ch tip theo . 2.1.8. C s thng tin nhn (label information base -LIB) C s thng tin nhn (label information base - LIB) l bng kt ni LSR c cha gi tr nhn FEC c gn vo cng ra cng nh thng tin ng gi d liu truyn tin xc nh phng thc mt gi tin c chuyn tip . V d v hot ng LIB:

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Hnh 8: V d v LIB M1 LIB InLabel X M2 LIB InLabel 20 Outlabel 20 Outlabel 31 Outinterface 2 Outinterface 2 FEC H2 FEC H2

M3 LIB InLabel 31 M4 LIB Inlabel 43

Outlabel 43 Outlabel X

Outinterface 2 Outinterface 3

FEC H2 FEC H2

1. H1 to ra mt gi v gi n ti M1 ( n l Default Gateway) 2.M1 l mt ingress LSR v quyt nh nhn no c gn vo gi. l 20 .sau khi nhn c gn th gi tin c chuyn tip trn giao din tng ng 2 3.M2 nhn mt gi vi nhn 20, chuyn i n bng nhn 31 v chuyn tip gi i qua giao din 2 4.M3 nhn gi vi nhn 31 , chuyn i bng nhn 43 v gi n i qua giao din 2. 5.M4 nhn gi vi nhn 43 nhng n khng yu cu nhn ra. nhn dng M4 l mt egress LSR choc FEC v v vy n g b nhn v gi gi IP qua giao din 2. 2.1.9. C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LFIB Trong mng IP, quyt nh chuyn tip gi c xc lp bng cch thc hin tra ku a ch ch trong bng FIB xc nh hop k tip v giao din ra. Trong mng MPLS, mi LSR duy tr mt bng LFIB ring r v tch bit vi FIB. bng LFIB c hai loi entry l ILM (incoming Label Map) v FTN (FEC to - NHLFE).

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NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry) l Subentry cha cc trng a ch Hop k tip, cc tc v stack nhn, giao din ra v thng tin header lp 2. ILM nh x mt nhn n mt hoc nhiu NHLFE. Nhn trong gi n s dng chn ra mt entry ILM c th nhm xc nh NHLFE. Cn FTN nh x mi FEC vo mt hoc nhiu NHLFE. nh cc entry FTN, gi cha c nhn c chuyn thnh gi c nhn.

Hnh 9: FTN,ILM v NHLFE Nh vy , khi mt gi khng nhn thuc mt FEC i vo min MPLS, ingressLER s s dng mt entry LFIB loi FTN chuyn gi khgn nhn thnh c nhn. Sau . ti cc transit-LSR s dng entry LFIB loi ILM hon i nhn vo bng nhn ra. cui cng, ti Egress-LER s dng mt entry LFIB loi ILM g b nhn n v chuyn gi khng nhn n Router k tip. 2.1.10. NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry) NHLFE l subentry ca ILM hoc FTN, n cha cc thng tin sau: - Hop k (chng tip theo) ca gi Tc v s tin hnh trn stack nhn ca gi nh sau: - Swap :Thay nhn nh ca stack nhn bng mt nhn mi c ch nh. - Pop :Bc mt nhn ra khi stack - Push :chng thm mt nhn vo trong stack nhn.

Hnh 10: V d NHLFE Ngoi ra, NHLFE cng c th cha thng tin sau :

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- ng gi lp datalink s dng khi truyn gi - Cch thc m ho stackb khi truyn gi - Bt k cc thong tin khc cn thit x l gi mt cch chnh xc. 2.1.11. ng chuyn mch nhn (label switching path - LSP)

Hnh 11 : ng chuyn mch nhn LSP L tuyn to ra t u vo n u ra ca mng MPLS dng chuyn tip gi ca mt FEC no s dng c ch hon i nhn. cc ng chuyn mch nhn cha mt chui cc nhn ti tt c cc nt dc theo tuyn t ngun ti ch. LSP c thit lp trc khi truyn d liu hoc trong khi xc nh lung d liu no . cc nhn c phn phi bng vic s dng giao thc phn phi nhn (Label distribution protocol - LDP) hoc giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn (resource Reservation Protocol - RSVP) trn cc giao thc nh tuyn ging nh giao thc cng bin (Border Gateway Protocol BGP) v giao thc nh tuyn m ng ngn nht (Open Shortest Path First OSPF). mi gi d liu c ng gi li v mang cc nhn trong sut thi gian di chuyn t ngun ti ch .chuyn mch d liu tc cao hon ton c th thc hin da theo phng php ny, v cc nhn c di c nh c chn vo phn u ca gi tin hoc t bo v c th s dng bi phn cng chuyn mch nhanh cc gi d liu gia cc lin kt. 2.1.12.Gi tin gn nhn. Mt gi tin dn nhn l mt gi tin m nhn c m ho trong .trong mt s trng hp, nhn nm trong mo u ca gi tin dnh ring cho mc ch dn nhn .trong cc trng hp khc, nhn c t chung trong mo u lp mng v lp lin kt d liu min l y c trng tin c th dng cho mc ch dn nhn. cng ngh m ho c s dng phi ph hp vi c thc th m ho nhn v thc th gii m nhn.

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2.1.13. n nh v phn phi nhn Trong mng MPLS ,quyt nh kt hp mt nhn L c th vi mt FEC F c th no do LSR pha trc thc hin .LSR pha trc sau khi kt hp s thng bo vi LSR pha sau v s kt hp .do vy ,cc nhn c LSR pha trc n nh v kt hp nhn c phn phi theo hng t LSR pha trc ti LSR pha sau . hiu r hn v cch n nh nhn, ta a ra khi nin kng gian nhn Label Space dng ch cch m m trong nhn c n nh vi LSR . 2.1.14. Khng gian nhn(Label spaces). Nhn c s dng bi mt LSR cho FEC- gn nhn c chia ra nh sau: Phng php th nht l per interface . phng php ny cc nhn c gn vi giao din c bit trn mt LSR, chng hn giao din DS3 hoc SONET. Thng thng phng php ny c thc hin trong cc mng ATM v Frame Relay, ni m cc nhn ID tuyn o c gn trn mt giao din. phng php ny c s dng khi c hai mng ng cp c gn trn mt giao din v nhn ch c s dng xc nh lu lng c gi trn mt giao din .nu LSR s dng gi tr giao din theo di cc nhn trn mi giao din th gi tr nhn c th s dng li ti mi giao din .trng nhn dng giao din ny s tr thnh mt nhn ni internal label trong LSR ny cho nhn ngoi - External label|c gi gia cc LSR. Phng php th 2 l per platform y cc nhn n c chuyn chung thng qua tt c cc giao din ti mt nt mc ngha l nt ny (chng hn mt my chm hoc LSR)phi t khng gian nhn thng qua tt c cc giao din . Tuy nhin phng php th nht c s dng thng dng hn. 2.1.15. C cu bo hiu. - Yu cu nhn - s dng c cu ny ,mt LSR yu cu mt nhn t dng xung ln cn nn n c th lin kt n FEC xc nh .c cu ny c th c dng d truyn n cc LSR tip theo cho n LSR li ra. - p ng nhn - p ng mt yu cu nhn , LSR lung xung s gi mt nhn n cc b khi ng c cu nh x nhn.

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x
Li vo (LER) B nh tuyn A

p ng nhn v d nhn 5

Yu cu nhn cho ch C

x
LSR

p ng nhn v d nhn 9

Yu cu nhn cho ch C

x
Li ra (LER) B nh tuyn C

B nh tuyn B

Hnh12: C cu bo hiu

2.2. Chuyn tip gi trong MPLS.


2.2.1 Hot ng chuyn tip FEC l mt tp con cc gi cn c theo mt s thng tin trong header IP c dung bi FIB. Mt FEC c dung da theo lut longest prefix math trn a ch IP ch. V d :cc a ch IP so trng 16 bit u c dng a.b.*.* (Trong * i din cho gi tr hp l bt k) c biu din l a.b/16 cho entry FEC u tin trong bng FIB. FEC cn c th cn c b sung theo cc trng khc trong header IP nh ToS hay Diffserv. FIB s dng FEC xc nh ra giao tip i n hop k cho cc gi IP, cch thc hin ging nh cc router c in.

Hnh 13: Bn trong mt phng chuyn tip MPLS

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Cho cc v d tng hot ng LFIB hnh trn . Phn ILM (incoming label map) ca LFIB thao tc trn mt gi c nhn v nh x mt nhn vo (incoming label) ti mt tp cc entry NHLFE, ILM uc th hin trong hnh bi cc ct IN-IF v IN-LBL, nhng cng c th l mt bng ring r cho mt giao tip. FTN (FEC to- NHLFE)ca FIB nh x ti nhiu NHLFE, chng hn dung trong cn bng ti. 2.2.2 V d v chuyn tip gi. Trong v d ny th hin ng v hot ng chuyn tip c th hin mi nt cho 2 LSP l LSP-1 v LSP-2. LSP-1 bt u t LER E1, ti c mt gi IP n vi a ch ch l a.b.c.d. LER E1 kin tra bng FIB ca n xc nh rng gi ny thuc v FEC a.b.c/24, n gn nhn A ln gi v xut i trn giao din s 2. tip theo, LSR S1 thy c gi gn nhn A n qua giao din s 1, LFIB ca n ch th rng gi s xut ra trn giao din s 4 v s c thay th bng nhn D. gi c nhn i ra trn giao din s 4 trn LSR S1 ni n giao din s 1 trn LSR 4.

Hnh 14 : V d hot ng chuyn tip gi V LSR S4 l hop p ca LSP-1 nn thao tc c ch th trong LFIB ca n l g nhn (pop) v gi gi i trn giao din s 4. Cui cng, ch l LER E4, entry LFIB thao tc trn FEC a.b.c/24 v chuyn pht gi n hop k tip trn giao din s 3. i vi v d LSP-2, cc entry trong FIB l LFIB cng c th hin tng t nh trnh by i vi LSP-1.

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2.3. Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS


M hnh mng MPLS:

Hnh 15: M hnh mng MPLS Min MPLS l mt tp k tip cc nt hot ng nh tuyn v chuyn tip MPLS.min MPLS c th chia thnh li MPLS (MPLS core) v bin MPLS (MPLS Edge) nh hnh 15. Khi mt gi tin IP i qua min MPLS ,n i theo mt tuyn c xc nh ph thuc vo nhm chuyn tip tng ng FEC m n c n nh cho khi i vo min . tuyn ny gi l ng chuyn mch nhn LSP. LSP ch c tnh mt chiu, tc l cn hai LSP cho mt truyn thng song cng. Cc nt c kh nng chy giao thc MPLS v chuyn tip cc gi tin gc IP c gi l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSR Label Switching Router).
-

LSR li vo (ingress LSR) x l lu lng i vo min MPLS LSR chuyn tip (Triansit LSR) x l lu lng bn trong min MPLS ; LSR li ra (Egress LSR) x l lu lng ra khi min MPLS LSR bin (Edge LSR) thng c s dng nh l tn chung cho c LSRli vo v li ra.

2.3.1. B nh tuyn bin nhn (Label Edge router LER). L thit b hot ng ti bin ca mng truy nhp v mng MPLS .LER h tr nhiu cng kt ni t nhng mng khc (nh Frame Relay , ATM v Ethernet ).n tip nhn hay gi i cc thng tin n hay i t cc mng khc ti mng MPLS sau khi thit lp ng chuyn mch nhn .LER c vai tr rt quan trng trong vic gn v tch nhn

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khi lu lng i vo hoc i ra trong mng MPLS .cc LER ny c th l b nh tuyn li vo (ingress Router) hoc b nh tuyn li ra (Egress Router). B nh tuyn bin li vo nhn gi IP ,kim tra li lp 3 v t vo ngn xp nhn trc khi gi gi vo mng MPLS. b nh tuyn bin li ra nhn gi tin c nhn ,loi b nhn ,kim tra li lp 3 v chuyn tip gi IP ti nt tip theo. 2.3.2. B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (Label Switching Router - LSR) LSR l thnh phn quan trng nht ca mng MPLS ,n l b phn nh tuyn tc cao trong mng li MPLS tham gia vo vic thit lp ng chuyn mch nhn LSP s dng cc giao thc bo hiu nhn thch hp v chuyn cc gi d liu trong phm vi mng MPLS da trn cc ng thit lp bng th tc phn phi nhn . LSR c th kt ni vi LER hay cc LSR khc. 2.3.3. ATM LSR : L cc tng i ATM c th thc hin chc nng nh LSR . Cc ATM LSR thc hin chc nng nh tuyn gi IP ,gn nhn trong mng iu khin v chuyn tip s liu theo c ch chuyn mch t bo ATM trong mng s liu. c th s dng giao thc MPLS trong mng iu khin thit lp knh o ATM , chuyn tip t bo n nt ATM LSR tip theo. Do , cc tng i ATM c th lng cp phn mm thc hin chc nng LSR. 2.3.4. ATM LSR bin: - Nhn gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn phn vo t bo ATM v gi cc t bo n nt ATM LSR tip theo. - Nhn cc t bo ATM t ATM LSR cn k ,ti to cc gi t cc t bo ATM v chuyn tip gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn

2.4. Cc giao thc c bn ca MPLS.


Kin trc MPLS khng bt buc mt phng thc bo hiu n no cho phn phi nhn .cc giao thc nh tuyn ang tn ti, nh giao thc cng bin (BGP) c ci tin mang thm thng tin nhn trong ni dung ca giao thc . giao thc dnh sn ti nguyn RSVP cng c m rng h tr chao i nhn . Nhm c trch k thut internet IETF cng xc nh mt giao thc mi c bit n nh giao thc phn phi nhn - LPD lm r hn v bo hiu v qun l khng gian nhn .S m rng ca giao thc LDP c s cng c xc nh h tr nh

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tuyn lin vng (explicit router) da trn cc yu cu v QoS v CoS .nhng m rng ny cng c p dng trong vic xc nh giao thc (CR - LDP) nh tuyn da trn rng buc. -

Cc giao thc h tr chao i nhn nh sau: LDP- ch ra cc ch IP vo trong cc bng. RSVP ,CR-LDP - s dng sho k thut lu lng v dnh trc ti nguyn. Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) - s dng ch ra nhn trng thi a hng Multicast. BGP cc nhn bin bn ngoi

2.4.1 Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP. Giao thc phn phi nhn c nhn nghin ku MPLS ca IETF xy dng v ban hnh c tn l RFC 3036, phin bn mi nht c cng b nm 2001. Giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong qu trnh gn nhn cho cc gi thng tin. Giao thc LDP l giao thc iu khin tch bit c cc LSR s dng chao i v iu phi qu trnh gn nhn FEC. giao thc ny l mt tp hp th tc chao i bn tin cho php cc LSR s dng gi tr nhn thuc FEC nht nh truyn cc gi tin . Mt kt ni TCP c thip lp gia cc LSR ng cp d m bo cc bn tin LDP c truyn theo dng th t. cc bn tin LDP c th xut hin t bt k mt LSR(iu khin ng chuyn mch nhn LSP c lp ) hay t LSR bin li ra (iu khin LSP theo lnh ) v chuyn t LSR pha trc ti LSR pha sau cn k. Vic chao i bn tin LDP c th c khi pht bi s xut hin ca, lung s liu c bit, bn tin lp d ch RSVP hay cp nht thng tin nh tuyn. Khi gp mt LSR chao i bn tin LDP cho mt FEC nht nh th mt ng chuyn mch LSP t u vo ti u ra c thit lp sau khi mi LSR ghp nhn u vo vi u ra tng ng trong LIB ca n . 2.4.1.1 Pht hin LSR ln cn : Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn ca LDP chy trn UDP v thc hin nh sau:

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Hnh16 : Th tc ph hin LSR ln cn 1. mt LSR nh k gi bn tin hello ti cc cng UDP bit trong tt c cc b nh tuyn trong tt c cc mng con ca nhm multicast LSR s bit c tt c cc LSR khc m n c th kt ni trc tip. 3. khi LSR nhn bit c a ch ca LSR khc bng c ch ny th n s thit lp kt ni UDP ti LSR .

2.tt c cc LSR tip nhn bn tin hello ny trn cng UDP. ti mi thi im no ,

4.khi , phin UDP c thit lp gia 2 LSR, phin LDP l phin 2 chiu, tc mi

LSR 2 u kt ni u c th yu cu v gi lin kt nhn. Trong trng hp cc LSR khng kt ni trc tip trong mt mng con th ngi ta s dng c ch b sung sau: LSR nh k gi bn tin hello n cng UDP bit ti a ch IP xc nh c khai bo khi lp cu hnh. u nhn bn tin ny c th tr li bng bn tin hello khc truyn chiu ngc li ti LSR gi v thit lp cc phin LDP c thc hin nh trn . Thng thng trng hp ny thng c p dng khi gi hai LSR c mt ng LSP cho iu khin lu lng v n yu cu phi gi cc gi c nhn qua ng LSP .

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2.4.1.2 Cc bn tin LDP: Cc bn tin LDP c nh ngha theo mt khun dng c lp vi mi trng. Ni dung ca mt vi bn tin c th kt hp vi cc gi d liu n gim thiu qu trnh x l ca CPU. 1 Tiu LDP (header LDP) Mi bn tin LDP cn c gi l dn v d liu giao thc (PDU) bt u vi mt tiu LDP, gm cc trng sau: - Phin bn (version): ch ra s phin bn ca giao thc, hin ti l phin bn s 1. - chiu di PDU : tng chiu di PDU trong cc octet, ngoi tr trng phin bn v chiu di . - LDP ID : y l trng nhn dng khun khng gian nhn ca vic gi LSR ca bn tin ny .4 octet u tin cha a ch IP gn vi LSR,n l trng nhn dng giao thc. 2 octet sau cng xc nh khng gian nhn trong phm vi LSR ny. 0 1-14 version LDP Identifier Hnh 17 Ttiu :LDP 2-M ho gi tr - chiu di - loi (type length value :TLV Encoding). LDP s dng s m ho TLV m ho cc thng tin c mang trong cc bn tin LDP. Trong nh hnh 18 ch ra n bao gm cc trung loi d liu. - Trng loi d liu - Trng chiu di - Trng gi tr 0 1 U F 2-14 type value Hnh 18 M ho gi tr -chiu di - loi 3- Khun dng bn tin LDP: Tt c cc bn tin LDP u c khun dng ging nhau, nh hnh 19 15 16 17-30 lenth 31 15 LDP Identifier 16-30 31 PDU lenth

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0 u

1-14 15 16-30 Message ID Message lenth Message ID Mandatory parameters Optional parameters

31

Hnh 19: Khun dng bn tin LDP - Bt U: bt ny l bt ch ra rng bn tin khng nhn bit c.nu U=1 th bn tin coi nh khong nhn bit c ti b thu v bn tin ny s b loi b. - Loi bn tin: xc nh lai bn tin - Chiu di bn tin : chiu di ca bn tin ID, cc tham s bt buc (mandatory) v cc tham s tu chn. - trng nhn dng bn tin : y l trng nhn dng duy nht n c th c s dng km vi cc bn tin thng bo v bn tin khc. - Cc tham s bt buc - Cc tham s tu chn Cc tham s bt buc v cc tam s tu chn s gii thch sau. v nguyn l mi th xut hin trong bn tin LDP u c th c m ho ging nh TLV. tuy nhin, tu tng trng hp m cc tham s ny c s dng trong gin m ho TLV hay khng ,v nhng ni khng tht s cn thit th s khng s dng v n lng ph khng gian. 4- Khun dng v cc chc nng ca TLV: - FEC :TLV ny mang cc FEC dng trao i gia cc LSR. MPLS v LDP ch s dng a ch cho FEC, khng dng cho cc cng v PID. FEC c th l mt a ch c nh, hoc mt a ch my trm y , n cng c th cha a ch cc mng khc, nh IPX nhng t khi l a ch IP.
-

Address list : danh sch a ch TLV xut hin trong bn tin Address v Address withdraw Hin ti ch c a ch Ipv4 c nh ngha cho trng TLV ny Hop count : TLV ny xut hin trong cc bn tin dng thit lp cc LSP, n tnh ton s chng LSR dc theo mt LSP khi LSP c thit lp.n c th s dng d tm vng lp ( trong trng hp c li trong mng lm gi tin khng ti c ch v lu chuyn vng quanh trn mng ). PATH vector : trng TLV ny cng c s dng d tm vng lp vi vic tnh ton chng TLV trong cc bn tin Label request v Label mapping. N s dng cc bn tin Label request ghi li ng i ca cc LSR. Generic Label : trng TLV cha cc nhn cho vic s dng trn cc lin kt i vi cc gi tr nhn l c lp di nn tng cng ngh lin kt (cc dch v ti tin ) nh l cc lin kt PPP v Ethernet. ATM label: nu ATM c s dng mang thng tin th TLV ny s cha gi tr ATM VPI/VCI.

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Frame Relay Label: nu Frame Relay c s dng mang thng tin th TLV ny s cha gi tr DLCI Frame Relay. - Status: trng TLV ny dng cho mc ch chun on ,chng hn s thnh cng hay hng hc ca s kin.
- Extended status : y l trng m rng ca status bng vic cung cp thm cc byte

m rng cho mc ch chun on .


- Returned PDU : trng ny c th hot ng cng vi trng status TLV,LSR s

dng tham s ns gi phn PDU LDP tr li LSR gi n .gi tr ca TLV ny l tiu PDU v d liu km theo tiu ph hp trong bn tin thng bo.
- Return Message : trng ny cng c th di km vi trng status TLV. LSR s dng

tham s ny gi mt phn bn tin LDP ti LSR gi bn tin .


- Common Hello Parameters : cc LSRs ln cn c th gi cc bn tin hello mt cch

nh k ti cc LSR khc m bo rng chng ang kt ni v ang trong trng thi hot ng. TLV cha ng cc tham s chung qun l hot ng, v d nh cc bn tin hello c gi v c nhn nh th no, v cc bn tin ny c gi i bao nhiu v nhn li bao nhiu trong mt khong thi gian c chn. - IPv6/IPv4 transport address : nu cc a ch IPv6 c s dng th TLV ny s cho php mt a ch IPv6 c s dng khi m mt TCP cho mt phin LSP. nu n khng c s dng, a ch ngun trong tiu IP c s dng. tng ny cng tng t i vi cc a ch IPv4. - Common session Parameters: TLV ny cng cha tham s tho hip c gi i bi LSR trong mi phin LDP. Cc tham s ny bao gm : + Keep Alive Time :ch ra s giy cc i tri qua nhn thnh cng cc PDU t cc LDP ng cp trong mt phin kt ni TCP.b nh thi ny oc thit lp khi mt PDU n. + Label Advertisement Dicrips line ( lut thng bo bn tin ): lung xung( Downstream) l bt buc theo yu cu. + Loop Detection :ch ra rng s d tm vng lp l cho php (enable) hay khng. PATH vector limit : ch ra di ng cc i cho php. + Maximun PDU length : ch ra di cc i ca mt PDU LDP - ATM session Parameters: TLV ny xc nh kh nng qun l ATM ca mt ATMLSR.tu chn bao gm: +Vic hp nht khng c h tr + Hp nht VP c h tr + Hp nht VC c h tr + C hp nht VP v VC c h tr trng ny cung cp thng tin v kh nng nh hng VC, c ngha vic s dng cc VCI theo mt hng hay c hai hng trong mt lin kt, n cng cha ng trng xc nh mt di cc nhn ATM c h tr bi vic gi LSR.

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Frame Relay session Parameters: trng TLV ny cng cha ng cc tham s nh ca ATM session parameters, nhng y TLV l DLCIs. Label Request message ID: gi tr ca tham s ny l trng nhn dng bn tin ca mt bn tin yu cu nhn tng ng. Private : trng TLV v cc bn tin ring ca nh sn xut c s dng thng bo thng tin ring ca nh sn xut gia cc LSR.

5 - Cc bn tin trong LDP Bao gm 11 bn tin LDP: - Bn tin Notification - Bn tin hello - Bn tin Initialization - Bn tin KeepAlive - Bn tin Address - Bn tin Addess withdraw - Bn tin Label Mapping - Bn tin Label Request - Bn tin Label Abort Request - Bn tin Label withdraw - Bn tin Label release 2.4.1.3 Cc ch phn phi nhn Chng ta s bit mt s ch hot ng ca phn phi nhn trong mt vi phn mc pha sau nh : khng yu cu pha trc, iu khin LSP theo lnh hay t lp, duy tr tin tin hay lu ch. cc ch ny c tho thun bi LSR trong qu trnh khi to phin LDP. Khi LSR hot ng ch duy tr lu gi, n s ch gi nhng gi tr nhn FEC m n cn ti thi im hin ti.cc chuyn i khc c gii phng . cn trong ch duy tr tin tin, LSR gi tt c cc chuyn i m n c thng bo ngay c nhng chuyn i khng c s dng ti thi im hin ti.hot ng ca ch ny nh sau: + LSR 1 gi lin kt nhn vo mt FEC n mt LSR khc k tip(LSR2) cho FEC . + LSR 2 nhn thy LSR 1 hin ti khng phi l nt tip theo i vi FEC , n khng th s dng FEC ny cho mc ch chuyn tip ti thi im hin ti nhng n vn lu gi lin kt ny li.

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+ Ti thi im no sau ny c s xut hin thay i nh tuyn v LSR 1 tr thnh nt tip theo ca LSR2 i vi FEC th LSR2 s cp nht thng tin trong bng nh tuyn tng ng v c th chuyn tip cc gi c nhn n LSR1 trn tuyn mi.vic ny c thc hin mt cch t ng m khng cn ti bo hiu LDP hay qu trnh phn b nhn mi. u im ln nht ca ch duy tr tin tin l kh nng phn ng nhanh hn khi c s thay i tuyn. Nhc im ln nht l lng ph b nh v nhn. iu ny c bit quan trng v c nh hng rt ln i vi nhng thit b lu tr bng nh tuyn trong phn cng nh ATM LSR.thng thng ch duy tr lu ch oc s dng cho cc ATM - LSR. V d minh ho vic s dng bn tin Label Request v Label Mapping trong ch cng b nhn theo yu cu v iu khin LSP c lp. Trnh t thi gian trao i cc bn tin LDP gia cc i tc (peer) thit lp mt LSP t router li vo R1 qua R2 ri n router li ra R3 cho mt FEC c frefix a.b/16. R1 khi to tin trnh bng cch yu cu mt nhn cho FEC a.b/16 t hop k ca n l R2. v s dng iu khin c lp nn R2 tr ngay mt nh x nhn v cho R1 trc khi R2 nhn c nh x nhn t pha downstream l R3. c R2 v R3 p ng bng bn tin Label Mapping, kt qu l trong FIB ca R1 v LFIB ca R2, R3 c cc entry gn nhn hnh thnh nn ng chuyn mch nhn LSP.

Hnh 20: V d LDP ch iu khin c lp theo yu cu .

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2.4.2 Giao thc phn phi nhn da trn rng buc CR-LDP. Giao thc phn phi nhn nh tuyn da trn rng buc CR-LDP(constraintbased routing-LDP) c s dng iu khin cng bc LDP. giao thc ny l phn m rng ca LDP cho qu trnh nh tuyn cng bc ca LSP. cng ging nh LDP, n s dng cc phin TCP gia cc LSR ng cp gi cc bn ti phn phi nhn . hiu r hn v nh tuyn cng bc da trn rng buc, ta xt vic nh tuyn i vi mt mng IP truyn thng. mt mng c th c xem l mt tp hp cc h thng t tr AS, trong vic nh tuyn mi AS tun theo giao thc nh tuyn trong min (intradomain). vic nh tuyn gia cc AS tun theo giao thc nh tuyn lin min(interdomain).cc giao thc nh tuyn trong min c th l RIP, OSPF, IS IS cn giao thc nh tuyn lin min ang c s dng l BGP .trong phm vi mt h thng t tr, c ch xc nh tuyn trong cc giao thc nh tuyn trong min thng tun theo thut ton ti u. trong giao thc nh tuyn RIP th c s ti u v nt mng trn ng m gi tin c chuyn t ngun ti ch. c nhiu ng i t ngun ti ch nhng mi ng i li c s nt, di ngn , bng thng kh dng khc nhau, do vy vi RIP th thut ton bellman-ford c s dng xc nh sao cho ng i qua t nt nht. cn trong trng hp OSPF v IS IS th thut ton l tm ng ngn nht.nh qun tr mng ng vi giao thc OSPF(hoc IS-IS)s n nh cho mi knh trong mng mt gi tr tng ng vi di ca knh OSPF(hoc IS-IS)s s dng thut ton tm ng ngn nht Dijkstra la chn ng ngn nht trong s cc ng c th ni ti ch, vi nh ngha di ca ng l tng di cc knh trn ng . i vi nh tuyn cng bc, ta c th xem mt mng nh l mt tp hp cc nt mng v mt tp hp kt ni gia cc nt mng . mi knh s c cc c im ring . kt ni gia 2 nt bt k t phi tho mn mt s yu cu(cc rng buc),v coi cc rng buc ny nh l c im cua cc knh.ch c nt u tin trong cp ng gp vai tr khi to ng kt ni mi bit c im ny.nhin v ca nh tuyn cng bc l tnh ton xc nh ng kt ni t nt ny ti nt kia sao cho tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc c th l mt hoc nhiu trong cc tiu ch v d :s nt t nht, ng i ngn nht, bng thng rng nht tuy nhin, vic ti u ho cc tiu ch khc nhau khng th c p ng mt cch ng thi.mt thut ton ti u theo mt tiu ch ch khng th mt lc p ng nhiu tiu ch, v 2 yu cu c th xung t nhau, chng hn ng i ngn nht v s nt t nht cha hn c bng tn ln nht v ng i ngn nht v s nt t nht s l la chn s mt cho nhiu kt ni cc knh nh vy,nn bng tn kh dng cho cc lin kt nh trn c rng s khng th bng bng tn knh c t kt ni i qua.do vy ,thut ton nh tuyn rng buc cng khng th p ng ti u tt c cc tiu ch .n thc hin ti u theo mt tiu ch no ng thi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc c t ra.khi xc nh c mt ng kt ni th nh tuyn cng bc s thc hin thit lp, duy tr v chuyn trng thi kt ni dc theo cc knh ph hp nht trn ng .

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Ngoi cc iu kin rng buc c t ra i vi knh , cn c cc iu kin c t ra i vi vic qun tr. chng hn nh qun tr mun ngn khng cho mt loi lu lng no i qua mt s knh nht nh trong mng c xc nh bi mt s c im no . Do , thut ton nh tuyn m nh qun tr phi thc hin l tm ra cc knh xc nh m n cho qua lu lng trn, ng thi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc khc na. nh tuyn cng bc cn c th kt hp c hai u kin rng buc l qun l c im knh mt cch ng thi ch khng phi ch tng iu kin ring r .v d tuyn cng bc phi tm ra mt ng va phi c rng bng tn nht nh ,va loi tr mt s knh c c im nht nh . im khc bit gia nh tuyn IP truyn thng v nh tuyn cng bc l : thut ton nh tuyn IP truyn thng ch tm ra mt ng ti u ng vi duy nht mt tiu ch c t ra , trong khi thut ton nh tuyn cng bc va tm ra mt tuyn ti u theo mt tiu ch no ng thi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc nht nh . chnh v iu ny m thut ton nh tuyn cng bc trong mng MPLS c th p ng yu cu dch v v cung cp cc kt ni tin cy cho ngi dng theo yu cu trong khi trong khi mng s dng cc thut ton tm ng khc khng th c c, k c giao thc nh tuyn IP. lm c iu ny c rt nhiu gii php .trong gii php chnh l thut ton nh tuyn cng bc yu cu ng i phi c tnh ton v xc nh t pha ngun. cc ngun khc nhau c cc rng buc khc nhau i vi mt ng trn cng mt ch cc iu kin rng buc ng vi b nh tuyn ca mt ngun c th ch c bit n bi b nh tuyn m thi, khng mt b nh tuyn no khc trn mng c bit v iu kin ny, ngc li trong b nh tuyn IP th ng i c tnh ton v xc nh bi tt c cc b nh tuyn phn tn trong mng. Mt l do khc l kh nng nh tuyn hin(Explicit Routing)(hoc ngun ) v cc ngun khc nhau c h tnh ton xc nh cc ng khc nhau ti cng mt ch. V vy ch da vo thng tin v ch l khng xc nh ng truyn cc gi tin. mt l do na l i vi phng php nh tuyn cng bc th vic tnh ton v xc nh ng phi tnh n cc thng tin v c im tng ng ca tng knh trong mng. i vi phng php IP n gin khng h tr kh nng ny. V d cc giao thc nh tuyn truyn thng da vo trng thi knh (nh OSPF, IS-IS) ch truyn duy nht thng tin bn ri ca tng knh v di ca tng knh, cc giao thc nh tuyn vector khong cch (nh RIP)th ch truyn i cc thng tin a ch nt tip theo v khong cch.

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2.4.3. giao thc t trc ngun ti nguyn RSVP (Resource reservation protocol) RSVP l giao thc bo hiu ng vai tr quan trng trong mng MPLS, c s dng t trc ti nguyn cho mt phin truyn trong mng internet. n cho php cc ng dng thng bo v yu cu QoS vi mng v mng s p ng bng thng bo thnh cng hay tht bi. RSVP c dng cung cp kh nng vn hnh bo v bng vic t trc ngun ti nguyn cn thit ti mi my tham gia vic h tr ngun lu lng (v d nh m thanh hoc hnh nh ). i vi giao thc IP, l giao thc khng kt ni n khng h tr vic thit lp cc ng cho lung lu lng, trong khi RSVP c thit k thit lp cc ng truyn cng nh bo v gii thng trn cc ng truyn. RSVP yu cu cc my nhn lu lng v yu cu cht lng dch v QoS cho lung d liu. cc ng dng ti my trm nhn phi quyt nh cc thuc tnh QoS s c truyn ti RSVP. sau khi phn tch cc yu cu ny, RSVP c s dng gi cc bn tin ti tt c cc nt cn truyn d liu . RSVP thao tc vi c th tc n hng v a hng, vic lin mng thi im hin ti l giao thc a hng. RSVP phi mang cc thng tin sau :
-

thng tin phn loi, nh n m cc lung lu lng vi yu cu QoS c th c th c nhn bit trong mng. thng tin ny bao gm a ch IP pha ngi gi v ngi nhn, s cng UDP.

ch tiu k thut ca lung lu lng v cc yu cu QoS theo khun dng Tspec v Rspec bao gm cc dch v yu cu . RSVP phi mang thng tin trn t my ch ti tt c cc tng i chuyn mch v cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn t b pht ti b thu . v vy tt c cc thnh phn mng phi tham gia vo vic m bo cc yu cu QoS ca ng dng
-

RSVP s dng bn tin chao i ti nguyn t trc qua mng cho lung IP.RSVP l giao thc ring mc IP.n s dng cc gi d liu IP hoc UDP phn bin ca mng thng tin gia cc LSR ng cp .n khng i hi duy tr phin TCP, nhng sau phin ny n phi x l mt mt cc bn tin iu khin. RSVP mang cc loi thng tin trong hai loi bn tin c bn l PATH v RESV xc nh ngun v cc yu cu QoS cho lung. cc yu cu ny ch ra dch v c bo v v d tc cho lung d liu , kch thc cmcc bn tin PATH truyn t b pht ti mt(h tr n hng )hoc nhiu (h tr a hng) b thu cha Tspec v cc thng tin v phn loi cho b pht cung cp.

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Khi b thu nhn c bn tin PATH, n c th gi bn tin RESV tr li cho b pht, bn tin RESV dng xc nhn phin c cha thng tin v s cng dnh ring v Rspec xc nhn mc QoS m b thu yu cu . n cng bao gm mt s thng tin xem xt nhng b pht no c php s dng ti nguyn ang c cp pht. Khi cng dnh ring c thit lp, cc b nh tuyn nm gia b pht v b thu s xc nh cc gi tin thuc cng dnh ring no nh kim tra 5 trng trong phn mo u IP v giao thc truyn ti , l: a ch ngun , s cng ngun , s giao thc (l UDP hay TCP ), a ch ch, s cng ch. tp hp cc gi tin c nhn dng theo cch ny c gi l lung dnh ring . cc thng ti trong lung dnh ring c khng ch m bo khng pht sinh lu lng vt qu so vi thng bo Tspec v c xp vo hm i ph hp theo yu cu v QoS. Mt c im na cn phi nhc n i vi giao thc ny ,RSVP l giao tc trng thi mm. n khc vi cc loi giao thc khc l trng thi s t ng ht hiu lc sau mt thi gian tr trng hp n c ln ti theo nh k , tc l RSVP s lin tc gi cc bn tin PATH v RESV l ti cc cng dnh ring. nu chun khng c gi i trong mt khong thi gian no th cng rnh ring t ng b hu b MPLS h tr RSVP RSVP c s dng trong mng MPLS h tr cht lng dch v QoS v iu khin lu lng .MPLS s dng RSVP cho php cc LSR da vo vic phn loi gi tin theo nhn ch khng phai theo mo u IP nhn bit cc gi tin thuc cc lung ca cng dnh ring .v vy ,cn phi c s kt hp phn phi gia cc lung v cc nhn cho cc lung v cng dnh ring RSVP .ta c th xem mt tp hp cc gi tin to bi cng dnh ring RSVP nh l mot trng hp ring ca FEC. Chng ta nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi l i tng LABEL c mang trong bn tin RSVP RESV .ki mt LSR mun gi bn tin RESV cho mt lung RSVP mi, LSR cp pht mt nhn t trong tp nhn ri, ti mt li vo trong LFIB ca n vi nhn li vo c t cho nhn cp pht V gi bn tin RESV c cha nhn ny . Khi nhn bn tin RESV cha i tng LABEL, mt LSR thit lp LFIB ca n vi nhn ny l nhn li ra . sau n cp pht mt nhn s dng nh l nhn li vo v chn n vo bn tin RESV trc khi n gi i. Khi cc bn tin RESV truyn n LSR ngc , LSP thit lp dc theo tuyn ng . khi cc nhn c cung cp trong cc bn tin RESV , mi LSR c th r dng kt hp cc ti nguyn QoS ph hp vi LSP. vic thit lp cho mt lung dnh ring RSVP l ch c b nh tuyn u tin trong LSP lin quan ti vic xem xt cc gi tin thuc lung dnh ring no . iu ny cho php RSVP c p dng trong mi trng MPLS theo cch m n khng th thc hin c trong mng IP truyn thng . theo quy c th cc cng dnh ring RSVPch c th to cho nhng lung ng dng ring l ,

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tc ln nhng lung ng dng c xc nh nh 5 trng mo u nh cp trn ,tuy nhin cung c th t cu hnh ca b nh tuyn chn cc gi da trn mt s tiu chun ,v d b nh tuyn c th xem xt cc tin t ng vi cng mt ch v t chng vo LSP. v vy thay v c mt LSP cho mi lung ng dng ring, mt LSP c th cung cp QoS cho nhiu lung lu lng . do vy c tnh ny c th p dng cho kh nng cung cp ng ng vi bng thng m bo yu cu cho mt ng thu bao thay v phi s dng nhiu ng thu bao ring c c cng gii thng nh trn. iu ny l c ch cho cng ty ln mun c nhiu kt ni vi cng ty khc m ch s dng mt ng thu bao nhm gim bt s phc tp trong vic qun l cng nh iu khin lu lng , y l mt lu lng ln cn phi gi dc theo cc LSP vi bng thng ti lu lng. h tr mt s cch s dng tng cng ca RSVP, MPLS nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi c th mang trong bn tin PATH l i tng Label Request . bn tin ny c cp trong phn loi bn tin trong LDP. 2.4.4. giao thc MPLS BGP MPLS m rng chc nng cho BGP mang cc nhn trong giao thc cng bin BGP, MPLS-BGP cho php b nh tuyn chy BGP phn phi nhn ti cc b nh tuyn bin khc mt cch trc tip thng qua bn tin cp nht BGP. tip cn ny m bo cho qu trnh phn phi nhn v cc thng tin nh tuyn n nh v gim bt tiu bn tin iu khin x l .

2.5 Hot ng ca MPLS


2.5.1 Cc hot ng ca MPLS gi tin truyn qua mng MPLS phi thc hin cc bc sau: 1.To v phn phi nhn 2.To bng cho mi b nh tuyn 3. To ng chuyn mch nhn 4.Gn nhn da trn tra cu bng 5. Truyn gi tin. Ngun gi cc d liu ca n ti ch .trong mn MPLS, khng phi tt c cc lu lng ngun cn thit truyn qua cng mt ng. da trn cc c tnh lu lng, cc LSP khc nhau c th to cho cc gi tin vi cc yu cu CoS khc nhau.

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Phn phi nhn
LER2

LSR 2

LER1

LSR 1 LSR 3

LER4

Ngun Yu cu nhn

LER3

ch Lung d liu

Hnh 21 -To LSP v chuyn tip gi tin thng qua min MPLS Trong hnh 21, LER1 l li vo v LER4 l li ra. bng 2 m t cc bc hot ng ca MPLS khi gi d liu truyn qua min MPLS Bng 2 : cc hot ng MPLS hot ng Miu t MPLS to v - trc khi d liu bt u truyn , cc b nh tuyn quyt nh to phn phi ra lin kt nhn ti cc FEC c th v to bng. nhn - Trong LDP, cc b nh tuyn lung xung bt u phn phi nhn v gn nhn/FEC - thm vo cc c tnh lin quan n lu lng v dung lng MPLS c iu chnh thng qua LDP. - Giao thc bo hiu nn dng giao thc vn chuyn c th t v m bo tin cy. LDP dng TCP To bng - khi chp nhn cc lin kt nhn mi LSR to ra mc trong bng c s d liu (LIB). - ni dung ca bng s xc nh mi lin h gia nhn v FEC, nh x gia cng vo v bng nhn vo n cng ra v bng nhn ra. - Cc mc c cp nht bt k khi vic gn nhn c iu chnh li. to ng Nh hnh 21 , cc LSP c to ra theo chiu ngc vi cc mc chuyn trong cc LIB mch nhn Gn - b nh tuyn u tin (LER 1 trong hnh 21 )s dng bng LIB nhn /bng tm ng tip theo yu cu nhn cho FEC c th. tra cu - Cc b nh tuyn tip theo s dng bng tm ng i tip

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chuyn tip gi tin

theo. - Khi gi tin n LSR li ra (LER4),nhn c loi b v gi c truyn ti ch. Hnh 21 m t ng i ca gi tin khi n c truyn t ngun ti ch hay t LER1,LSR li vo n LER 4 , LSR li ra . - ln u tin ca yu cu nhn, cc gi tin khng c nhn ti LER1 trong mng IP ,n s tm a ch di nht tm cc bc tip theo. LSR1 l bc tip theo ca LER1. - LER1 s khi pht cc yu cu nhn ti LSR1. yu cu ny s c pht trn ton mng nh hnh 21. LDP s xc nh ng dn o m bo QoS, CoS. - mi b nh tuyn trung gian LSR2 v LSR3 s nhn gi tin gn nhn thay i nhn v truyn i. - Gi tin truyn ti LER4 , loi b nhn v gi ra khi min hot ng ca MPLS v phn pht ti ch. ng truyn gi tin c m t hnh 21.

2.5.2 cc ch hot ng ca MPLS C hai ch hot ng i vi MPLS : - Ch khung (Frame mode) - Ch t bo (cell mode) 2.5.2.1 ch hot ng khung . Ch ny xut hin khi s dng MPLS trong mi trng thit b nh tuyn thun iu khin cc gi IP im - im. Cc gi dn nhn c chuyn tip trn c s khung lp 2. C ch hot ng ca mng MPLS trong ch ny c m t trong hnh 22 di y.

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Bc 2 :kim tra gi lp 3,gn nhn chuyn gi IP n LSR li 1 Bc 3:kim tra nhn,chuyn i nhn, chuyn gi IP n LSR li 3

Bc 1:nhn gi IP ti LSR bin

Bc 4:kim tra nhn chuyn i nhn chuyn gi IP n LSR bin 4

Bc 5:kim tra nhn, xo nhn, chuyn gi IP ti router ngoi tip theo

IP ch 192.1.1.3 LSR bin1 PoP

Gi IP

30

IP 192.1.1.3 LSR bin4 PoP Gi IP Gi IP 28 LSR li 3 37

LSR bin2 PoP

LSR li1

LSR li 2 LSR bin3 PoP LSR bin5 PoP

Hnh 22 - Mng MPLS trong ch hot ng khung Cc hot ng trong mng s liu : Qu trnh chuyn tip gi IP qua mng MPLS c thc hin qua mt s cc bc c bn sau y :
- LSR bin li vo nhn gi IP, phn loi gi vo nhm chuyn tip tng ng FEC

v gn nhn cho gi vi ngn xp nhn tng ng vi FEC xc nh. Trong trng hp nh tuyn mt a ch ch, FEC s tng ng vi mng con ch v vic phn li gi s n gin l vic so snh bng nh tuyn lp 3 truyn thng. LSR li nhn gi tin c nhn v s dng bng chuyn tip nhn thay i nhn li vo ca gi n vi nhn li ra tng ng cng vi FEC( trong trng hp ny l mng con IP). Khi LSR bin li ra ca vng FEC nhn c gi c nhn, n loi b nhn v thc hin chuyn tip gi IP theo bng nh tuyn lp 3 truyn thng.

Mo u vo MPLS Nhn MPLS c chn trc s liu cn gn nhn ch hot ng khung . tc nhn MPLS c chn vo gia mo u lp 2 v ni dung thng tin lp 3 ca khung lp 2, v tr ca nhn MPLS trong khung lp 2 c th hin nh hnh 23 :

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Hnh 23 - V tr nhn MPLS trong khung lp 2 Do nhn MPLS c chn vo v tr nh vy nn b nh tuyn gi thng tin phi c phng tin g thng bo cho b nh tuyn nhn bit rng gi ang c gi i khng phi l gi IP thun m l gi c nhn (gi IP). n gin chc nng ny , mt s dng giao thc mi c nh ngha trong lp 2 nh sau : - trong mi trng LAN cc gi c nhn truyn ti gi lp 3 n hng hay a hng s dng gi tr 8847H v 8848H cho mng Ethernet.cc gi tr ny s dng trc tip trn phng tin Ethernet(bao gm c Fast Ethernet v Gigabit Ethernet) - trn knh im-im s dng giao thc ppp, s dng giao thc mi c gi l MPLSCP (giao thc iu khin MPLS). Cc gi MPLS c nh du bi gi tr 8281H trong trng giao thc PPP. - Cc gi MPLS truyn qua dch chuyn khung DLCI gia mt cp thit b nh tuyn c nh du bi nhn dng giao thc SNAP ca chun dch khung (NLPIN), tip theo mo u SNAP vi gi tr 8847H cho Ethernet nh trong mng LAN. Chuyn mch nhn trong ch khung Ta xem xt qu trnh chuyn i nhn ( nh hnh 22 ) trong mng MPLS sau khi nhn c mt gi IP - sau khi nhn khung PPP lp2 t b nh tuyn bin s 1,LSR lp tc nhn dng gi nhn c l gi c nhn da trn gi tr trng giao thc PPP v thc hin kim tra nhn trong c s d liu chuyn tip nhn .kt qu nhn vo l 30 c thay bng nhn ra 28 tng ng vi vic gi LSR li 3 - ti LSR li 3 ,nhn c kin tra, nhn s 28 c thay bng nhn s 37 v cng ra c xc nh . gi tin c chuen tip ti LSR bin s 4 - ti LSR bin s 4, nhn 37 b loi b v vic kim tra a ch lp 3 c thc hin, gi c chuyn tip n b nh tuyn tip theo ngoi mng MPLS. Qu trnh chuyn i nhn thc hin trong cc LSR li da trn bng nh tuyn nhn .bng nh tuen ny phi c cp nht y m bo mi LSR trong mng MPLS c y thng tin v tt c cc hng chuyn tip. qu trnh ny sy ra trc khi thng tin c tryn trong mng v c gi l qu trnh lin kt nhn(Label binding). Qu trnh lin kt v lan truyn nhn. Khi xut hin mt LSR mi trong mng MPLS hay bt u khi to mng MPLS, cc thnh vin LSR trong mng MPLS phi c lin lc vi nhau trong qu trnh khai bo thng qua bn tin hello. Sau khi bn tin ny c gi, mt phin giao dch gia hai LSR c thc hin . th tc chao i l LDP.

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Sau khi c s d liu nhn LIB c to ra trong LSR, nhn c gn cho mi FEC m LSR nhn bit c . i vi nh tuyn n hng , FEC tng ng vi tin t bng nh tuyn IP . vy nhn c gn trong mi tin t trong bng nh tuyn IP v bng chuyn i cha trong LIB. bng chuyn i nh tuyn ny c cp nht lin tc khi xut hin nhng tuyn trong min mi. Do LSR gn nhn cho mi tin t IP trong bng nh tuyn ca chng ngay sau khi tin t xut hin trong bng nh tuyn v nhn l phng tin c LSR khc s dng khi gi gi tin c nhn ny c gi l gn nhn iu khin c lp vi qu trnh phn phi ngc khng yu cu. vic qung b cc nhn c qung b ngay n tt c cc b nh tuyn thng qua phin LDP. 2.5.2.2 Ch hot ng t bo MPLS trin khai MPLS qua ATM cn phi gii quyt mt s tr ngi sau : hin ti khng tn ti mt c ch no cho vic chao i trc tip cc gi IP gia nt MPLS ln cn qua giao din ATM.tt c cc s liu chao i qua giao din ATM phi thc hin qua knh o ATM . cc tng i ATM khng th thc hin vic kin tra nhn hay a ch lp 3 . kh nng duy nht ca ATM l chuyn i VC u vo sang VC u ra ca giao din ra. thc hin MPLS qua ATM th cn mt s c ch sau : cc gi IP trong mng iu khin khng th chao i trc tip qua giao din ATM.mt knh o VC phi c thit lp gia 2 nt ln cn chao i gi thng tin iu khin. nhn trn cng trong ngn xp nhn phi c s dng cho cc gi tr VPI/VCI cc th tc gn v phn phi nhn phi c sa i m bo cc tng i ATM khng phi kim tra a ch lp3.

Cc khi nim : a. Giao din ATM iu khin chuyn mch nhn (LC-ATM)l giao din ATM trong tng i hoc trong b nh tuyn m gi tr VPI/VCI c gn bng th tc iu khin MPLS(LDP). b. ATM-LSR l tng i ATM s dng giao thc MPLS trong mng iu khin v thc hin chuyn tip MPLS gia cc giao din LC- ATM trong mng s liu bng chuyn mch t bo ATM truyn thng. c. LSR theo khung l LSR chuyn tip ton b cc khung gia cc giao din ca n. nh tuyn truyn thng l LSR kiu ny.

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d. Min ATM-LSR l tp hp cc ATM-LSR kt ni vi nhau qua cc giao din LCATM e. ATM-LSR bin l LSR theo khung c t nht mt giao din LC-ATM. Kt ni trong mng iu khin qua giao din LC-ATM : Cu trc MPLS i hi lin kt thun IP gia cc mng iu khin ca cc LSR ln cn chao i lin kt nhn cng nh cc gi iu khin khc. ch hot ng MPLS khung yu cu ny c p ng mt cch n gin bi thit b nh tuyn c th gi, nhn cc gi IP v cc gi c nhn qua bt k giao din ch khung no d l LAN hay WAN . cn tng i ATM khng c kh nng . cung cp kt ni thun IP gia cc ATM-LSR c hai cch sau : - Thng qua kt ni ngoi bng nh kt ni Ethernet gia cc tng i. - Thng qua knh o qun l trong bng tng t cch m giao thc ATM Forum thc hin nh sau : Knh o iu khin MPLS VC thng thng thc hin gi tr VPI/VCI l 0/32 v bt buc phi thc hin phng php ng gi LLC/SNAP cho cc gi IP theo tiu chun RFC 1483 .khi trin khai MPLS trong tng i ATM(ATM-LSR) phn iu khin trung tm ca tng i ATM phi h tr thm bo hiu MPLS v giao thc thit lp knh VC. Chuyn tip cc gi c nhn qua min ATM-LSR Vic chuyn tip cc gi c nhn qua min ATM-LSR c thc hin trc tip qua cc bc sau : - ATM-LSR bin li vo nhn gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn, thc hin vic kim tra c s d liu chuyn tip FIB hay c s d liu chuyn tip nhn LFIB v tm kim tra gi tr VPI/VCI u ra s dng nh nhn li ra.cc gi c nhn c phn chia thnh cc t bo ATM v gi ti ATM-LSR tip theo. gi tr VPI/VCI c gn vo mo u ca tng t bo . Cc nt ATM-LSR chuyn mch t bo theo gi tr VPI/VCI trong mo u ca t bo theo c ch chuyn mch ATM truyn thng. C ch phn b v phn phi nhn phi m bo vic chuyn i gi tr VPI/VCI trong min v ngoi min l chnh xc ATM-LSR ti li ra ti to li cc gi c nhn t cc t bo, thc hin vic kin tra nhn v chuyn tip t bo n LSR tip theo. vic kim tra nhn da vo gi tr VPI/VCI ca t bo n m khng da vo nhn trn nh ca ngn xp trong mo u nhn MPLS do ATM-LSR gia cc bin ca min ATM-LSR ch thay i gi tr VPI/VCI m khng thay i nhn bn trong cc t bo ATM. Trong cn ch rng nhn nh ca ngn xp c lp gi tr bng 0 bi ATM-LSR bin li vo trc khi gi c nhn c phn chia thnh cc t bo.

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Phn b v phn phi nhn trong min ATM-LSR


Bc 1gi yu cu gi tr nhn X ti nt k cn
Y uc

Bc 3: ATM-LSR li 3 gi yu cu nhn X ti ATMLSR li 4 Buc 2 ATM-LSR li 1 gi yu cu gi tr nhn X ATM -LSR li 3


X tr gi u c

LSR bin 1 PoP

u gi t

r X

u Y

Yu cu gi tr X Bc 4: LSR bin 4 gn gi tr VCI/VPI v gi liTM-LSR li 3

ATM-LSR li 1 Bc 6 : gi tr VPI/ VCI ni vng c gn bi ATM-LSR li 1 cho LSR bin 1

X=1/241

ATM-LSR li 3

Bc 5: LSR li 3 gn gi tr VPI/ VCI ni vng chuyn i VPI /VCI vo sang VPI /VCI ra v gi gi tr VPI/VCI mi n ATM-LSR li 1

ATM-LSR li 2

Hnh 24 phn b nhn trong mng ATM-LSR Vic phn b v phn phi nhn trong ch hot ng ny c th s dng c ch ging nh trong ch hot ng khung . tuy nhin nu trin khai nh vy t s dn ti cc hn ch bi mi nhn c gn qua giao din LC-ATM tng ng vi mt ATM VC. V s lng VC qua giao din ATM l hn ch nn cn gii hn s lng VC phn b qua LC-ATM mc thp nht. m bo c iu ny, cc LSR pha sau s nhn trch nhim yu cu phn b v phn phi nhn qua giao din LC-ATM. LSR pha sau cn nhn gi gi n nt tip theo phi yu cu nhn t LSR pha trc n. Thng thng cc nhn c yu cu da trn ni dung bng nh tuyn m khng da vo lung d liu, iu i hi nhn cho mi ch trong phm vi ca nt k tip qua giao din LC-ATM. LSR pha trc c th n gin phn b nhn v tr li yu cu cho LSR pha sau vi bn tin tr li tng ng. Trong mt s trng hp , LSR pha trc c th phi c kh nng kim tra a ch lp 3 (nu khng cn nhn pha trc yu cu cho ch). i vi tng i ATM , yu cu nh vy s khng c tr li bi ch khi no n c nhn c phn phi cho ch pha trc th n mi tr li yu cu. nu ATM-LSR khng c nhn phi trc p ng yu cu ca LSR pha sau th n s yu cu nhn t LSR pha trc n v ch tr li khi n nhn c nhn t LSR pha trc n. Hp nht VC Hp nht VC tc l gn VC cho cc gi n cng ch . y l mt vn quan trng cn gii quyt i vi tng i ATM trong mng MPLS.

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ti u ho qu trnh dn nhn ATM-LSR, c th s dng li nhn cho cc gi cng ch. khi cc gi xut pht t cc ngun khc nhau (cc LSR khc nhau ), nu s dng chung mt gi tr VC cho ch th s khng c kh nng phn bit gi no thuc lung no v LSR pha trc khng c kh nng ti to dng cc gi t t bo. trnh trng hp ny, ATM-LSR phi yu cu LSR pha trc n phn b nhn mi mi khi LSR pha sau n i hi nhn n bt c ch no ngay c trong trng hp n c nhn phn b cho ch . Qu trnh gi k tip cc t bo ra knh VC nh vy c gi l hp nht knh o VC. chc nng hp nht knh o VC ny gim ti a s lng nhn phn b trong min ATM-LSR. 2.5.2.3 Hot ng ca MPLS khung trong mng ATM-LSR Do vic chuyn i cng ngh tc ng n rt nhiu mt trong mng dang khai thc t nhng vn ghp ni mng, cng nh quan nin v cch thc vn hnh khai thc. Qu trnh chuyn i sang mng MPLS c th thc hin theo nhiu cch : hoc l thc hin mt s giai don nht nh , hoc trin khai ng lot t u. MPLS c hai ch hot ng c bn l ch hot ng khung v ch hot ng t bo nh ni trn . i vi h tng c s nh FR hoc ATM-PVC th rt kh trin khai ch hot ng t bo ca MPLS , thng thng th ch khung s c s dng trong cc mi trng nh vy thc hin kt ni MPLS xuyn sut qua mng. Trong mt s iu kin nht nh nh trong giai on chuyn dch sang mng hon ton IP+ATM(MPLS) hoc chuyn mch ATM chuyn tip khng h tr MPLS th cn thit phi phi s dng ch hot ng khung qua mng ATM-PVC.cu hnh ny ph hp, tuy nhin n cng gp kh khn khi s dng IP qua ATM trong ch chuyn dch ( do s lng ln cc VC )

C/M ATM

VPI 0/36 LSR bin 1

Knh ATM-PVC

VPI N0/37 LSR bin 2

C/M ATM

C/M ATM

Hnh 25 - Kt ni MPLS qua mng ATM-PVC kt ni gia hai LSR c thit lp bng knh PVC xuyn sut . cc phin LDP c thc hin thng qua kt ni PVC ny . qu trnh phn phi nhn c thc hin theo

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kiu phn phi nhn chiu i khng yu cu . vic s dng MPLS qua mng ATMPVC yu cu ng gi bng ALL5-SNAP trnh knh PVC . Vic s dng ch khung qua mng ATM-PVC l rt cn thit trong qu trnh chuyn dch sang mng MPLS.

Kt lun chng
Trong chng ny gii thiu cc thnh phn v hot ng ca MPLS trong nu ra cc khi nim nh l nhn ( Label ), ngn xp ( Stack ), lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC, ng chuyn mch nhn LSP v cc thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS nh b nh tuyn bin nhn, trong chng ny gii thiu v cc giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong MPLS nh LDP, CR-LDP v cc ch hot ng ca MPLS.

Chng 3

Cc vn k thut c s dng trong mng MPLS


l

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Trong chng trc chng ta cp n nhng vn c bn trong mng MPLS nh : cc khi nin, cc thnh phn ca mng MPLS Trong chng ny chng ta xem xt cc vn k thut lin quan cng nh vic chn lu s dng cc giao thc l. - K thut lu lng - Qun l lu lng - nh tuyn da trn rng buc - M hnh cht lng dch v - Pht hin v ngn nga hin tng nh tuyn vng

3.1. K thut lu lng


3.1.1. Khi nin k thut lu lng. K thut lu lng (TE) lm vic lin quan n tnh nng ca mng trong vic h tr khch hng ca mng v nhu cu v cht lng dch v QoS. trng in ca k thut lu lng i vi MPLS l. - o lu lng - iu khin lu lng 3.1.2. Vn hnh nh hng ngun v nh hng lu lng . Vn hnh theo nh hng lu lng h tr cc hot ng cht lng dch v ca ngi s dng. Trong mt lp n , m hnh dch Internet ti s c gng ln nht , mc ch vn hnh theo nh hng lu lng nhm ti thiu ho s mt mt lu lng, ti thiu ho tr, ti a ho thng lng v v tng cng s ph hp mc dch v (SLAs :Service Level Agreements). Vn hnh theo nh hng ngun nhm lm vic vi ngun ti nguyn nh l cc lin kt truyn thng , cc b nh tuyn , cc my ch, cc ngun ti nguyn ny chi phi thc s n cch vn hnh theo nh hng lu lng. vic qun l mt cch hiu qu ngun ti nguyn ny l rt cn thit trong phi k n vic qun l hiu qu bng tn kh dng. 3.1.3. Ti thiu ho tc nghn

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Bt k mt mng no cng phi i mt vi cc vn tc nghn . vic qun l lu lng ca tt c ngi dng ngn tnh trng tc nghn sy ra l mt kha cnh quan trng ca QoS. Tc nghn dn ti tnh trng gim thng lng v tng tr. Do lm gim kh nng cung cp QoS mt cch hiu qu. Hu ht cc mng u c c ch truyn dn i vi ngi s dng, bao gm s tho hip mc lu lng c th c gi ti mng trc khi lung lu lng c iu chnh, v gi l iu khin lung. Diu khin lung l cn thit ngn chn tc nghn trong mt mng. Khi lu lng trong mng tng n mt im ti hn no th tc nghn xut hin, v thng lng s gim xung. Nu ch mi mt vi tc nghn xy ra th cha c vn g phc tp, nhng nu tc nghn ko di trong mt thi gian di th lu lng tng ln t ngt vc qu kh nng di thng cho php ca mng. Do vy, cc mng phi cung cp mt vi c cu iu khin cc nt bn trong mng khi c tc nghn xut hin ng thi cung cp mt c cu iu khin lung trn cc thit b ngi s dng bn ngoi. 3.1.4. Phn cp lu lng v iu khin dch v da trn nhu cu QoS. Tng t trong cc mng ATM, phn cp lu lng v iu khin dch v da trn nhu cu QoS c xem xt. S phn lp lu lng c nh ngha da trn cc thao tc sau. - Vic nh thi gia b pht v b thu ( c hoc khng) - Tc bt (bin i hay c nh) - Phin truyn gia b pht v b thu nh hng kt ni hay khng. - S sp xp cht t ti ngi dng - Cc hot ng iu khin lung - Tnh ton ti ngi dng - Phn tch v hp nht (SAR) gi d liu ngi dng. Phn lp ngi dng : Lp A + tc bt khng i (CBR), nh hng kt ni , da trn TDM, nh thi c yu cu, iu khin lung phi ti thiu, mt vi mt mt c php. Lp B +tc bit bin i (VBR), da trn STDM, nh hng kt ni, nh thi c yu cu, iu khin lung phi ti thiu , mt vi mt mt c php. Lp C + tc bt bin i , da trn STDM, nh hng kt ni , khng yu cu nh thi , c php iu khin lung, khng c php mt d liu.

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Lp D + tc bt bin i , da trn STDM , khng nh hng kt ni , khng yu cu nh thi , cho php iu khin lung , khng c php mt d liu. Thut ng TDM v STDM c ngha l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian v ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian thng k. TDM cung cp d don mc dch v, ngi s dng c cung cp vi mt lung tc bt khng i v khe thi gian mt cch tun hon trn cc knh, thng l 125s. STDM khng phn chia cc khe thi gian mt cch tun hon , ngi s dng c cung cp mt cm(burst) thi gian. 3.1.5. Hm i lu lng Nhiu h thng ngy nay c bit l cc b nh tuyn , h tr mt vi loi hm i. Cc loi hm i thng gp l :
-

FIFO (First In First Out) : hm i vo trc, ra trc truyn cc gi da trn th t m. MPLS s dng phng php ny cho FEC. WFQ (Weighted Fair Quenuing)- Hm i c trng s : di thng kh dng qua hm i ca lu lng c phn chia da trn trng s, khi trng s c a ra th mi phn lp lu lng s c i x theo u tin . phng php ny c s dng khi ti l hn hp ca nhiu phn lp lu lng. WFQ l ph hp qun l lung MPLS. CQ (Custom Queuing) : trong hm i theo yu cu , di thng c phn chia tng lp dch v, n m bo mc dch v cho tt c cc phn lp lu lng. PQ (Priority Queuing)- hm i u tin : tt c cc gi thuc phn lp c u tin cao c x l v truyn trc tt c cc gi c u tin thp hn.

3.1.6. Cc vn tn ti vi cc hot ng nh tuyn. Trong mng internet hin ti, cc b nh tuyn gia cc thc th gi v nhn c thit lp bng cc giao thc nh tuyn nh OSPF hoc BGP. Cc giao thc ny khng c thit k cho vic ti u ho nh tuyn v ngun , v thut ton ca chng l da trn vic tm ng ngn nht hoc s chng t nht. Chng xy dng tuyn da trn cu hnh ch khng da trn di thng ca mng. Ngoi ra chng khng xem xt n phn lp lu lng c thit lp trn cc tyn ny.v vy nhiu mng phi c cc s cn bng ti gia cc ng lin kt v cc nt.

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3.1.7. S tim cn n mng chng ln. gii quyt vn trn, c mt cch gii quyt l s dng m hnh mng chng ln . m hnh ny a ra cc gii php nh IP trn nn ATM hoc IP trn nn Frame Relay. Dng cc tuyn o ATM hoc Frame Relay nh l mt c cu ci thin vic s dng ngun mng. hiu r hn ta xt mng ti tin l ATM. Trong cc mng IP hot ng trn nn ATM ny , cc giao thc nh tuyn vn hot ng v vn hnh nh tuyn qung b, nhng chng khng c s dng quyt nh ng i trong mng. bng vic cu hnh cc tuyn o c nh (PVC) th cc hot ng ca mng c ci thin do cc c in ca mng ATM nh phn trc chng ta xt, ATM c coi l cng ngh nn tng cho cc mng hi t, cc mng da trn MPLS.

3.2. Qun l lu lng trong mng MPLS.


MPLS l cng ngh ng vai tr quan trng trong chin lc cho qun l lu lng bi n c kh nng cung cp a s cc chc nng ca m hnh xp chng theo kiu tch hp vi gi thp hn so vi cc k thut khc hin nay. MPLS cn c kh nng iu khin t ng cc chc nng qun l lu lng. Trung k lu lng MPLS l mt phn ca lung ti lu lng thuc cng mt lp trong mt ng chuyn mch nhn LSP. vic s dng MPLS cho vic qun l lu lng mang li mt s li ch sau. + cc ng chuyn mch nhn hin khng b rng buc vi nguyn tc nh tuyn da trn a ch ch c th c to mt cch n gin bng nhn cng hoc t ng qua cc giao thc iu khin. + LSP c qun l mt cch rt hiu qu + cc trung k lu lng c thit lp v c ghp vo LSP + cc thuc tnh ca trung k lu lng c m t bi b thuc tnh + mt b thuc tnh c lin quan ti ti nguyn bt buc i vi LSP v cc trung k lu lng qua LSP + MPLS h tr tch hp v phn tn lu lng trong khi nh tuyn IP truyn thng ch h tr tch hp lu lng. + d dng tch hp nh tuyn cng bc vo MPLS + MPLS c th thc hin vi gias thnh thp hn ATM vic trin khai tt MPLS c th lm gim ng k mo u so vi cc cng ngh cnh tranh khc. Ngoi ra da trn c s cc ng chuyn mch nhn, hin MPLS cho php kh nng cng trin khai m phng chuyn mch knh trn m hnh mng internet hin nay. 3.2.1 Cc vn c bn ca qun l lu lng qua MPLS C 3 vn lin quan ti qun l lu lng trong MPLS :

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Lm th no chuyn i t gi thng tin sang FEC Lm th no chuyn FEC sang trung k lu lng Lm th no chuyn i cc trung k lu lng sang cu trc hnh hc mng vt l qua cc LSP.

Hot ng c bn ca cc trung k lu lng . Thit lp : to trung k lu lng Kch hot : kch hot trung k lu lng chuyn lu lng Gii kch hot : dng vic chuyn lu lng trn cc knh trung k lu lng Thay i thuc tnh : thay i thuc tnh ca trung k lu lng Ti nh tuyn : thay i tuyn cho trung k lu lng, c thc hin nhn cng hay t dng trn c s giao thc lp di. - Hu b : hu b trung k lu lngv cc ti nguyn c lin quan. Cc ti nguyn c th nhn hoc bng tn kh dng ngoi ra cn c cc hot ng khc nh thit lp kim sot hay nh dng lu lng.
-

Cc thuc tnh k thut lu lng c bn ca trung k lu lng Cc thuc tnh ny c gn cho trung k lu lng m t chnh xc c tnh ti lu lng Cc thuc tnh c th c gn nhn cng hay t ngkhi cc gi c gn vo FEC ti u vo mng MPLS , cc thuc tnh ny c kh nng thay i bi nh qun tr mng.
-

Cc thuc tnh c bn c gn cho trung k lu lng gm : Thuc tnh tham s lu lng Thuc tnh la chn v bo dng ng c bn Thuc tnh u tin Thuc tnh d tr trc Thuc tnh khi phc Thuc tnh kim sot.

3.3. nh tuyn da trn rng buc


Nh trnh by khi qut phn trc, trong mc giao thc c bn trong mng MPLS . trong phn ny chng ta s tm hiu chi tip hn thy r hn cc c tnh k thut ca thut ton nh tuyn ny. nh tuyn da trn rng buc (hay cn gi l nh tuyn QoS) uc thit k thit lp mt tuyn thng qua mng MPLS da trn nhu cu QoS ca ngi dng. Thut ton ny nhm hng ti vic h tr cc ng chuyn mch nhn c nh tuyn da trn rng buc(CR- LSPs) bng vic nh ngha cc c cu v cc trng TLV (loi

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chiu di gi tr) hoc s dng cc giao thc ang tn ti h tr nh tuyn da trn rng buc. CR c th c thit lp nh l mt hot ng u cui, c ngha l t CR-LSR li vo n CR-LSR li ra. tng l cho CR-LSR bin li vo thit lp cc rng buc, cc rng buc ny c tc dng ti tt c cc nt, nhm t trc ngun ti nguyn bng vic dng LDP. iu khin da trn rng buc s tc ng n phn b trung k lu lng v phn b ti nguyn mng. Mi LSR tnh ton mt cch t ng mt tuyn hin cho mi trung k lu lng da trn yu cu ca vic phan b cc trung k, mc ch l rng buc ti nguyn mng v cc chnh sch qun tr mng . Thut ng rng buc nh ni trc y, nhm ch ra cho mi tp hp cc nt trong mng, tn ti mt tp hp cc rng buc tho nm cho mt hay cc ng lin kt gia hai nt mng, nh bng thng ti thiu , ng i ngn nht, s nt t nht, tr truyn t nht, sai pha t nht, bo mt ng truyn cao nht Cc mng ATM v Frame Relay dang s dng cc nh tuyn da trn rng buc. Cng vic hot ng di hnh thc m rng cc hnh thc khi nin cho cc hot ng lp 3, tp trung vo m rng OSPF vd IS IS h tr nh tuyn da trn rng buc.

3.3.1. V d miu t nh tuyn rng buc.

Hnh 26: V d miu t nh tuyn rng buc minh ho hot ng ca nh tuyn rng buc, xt cu trc mng con c kinh in nh trn hnh. Gi s rng nh tuyn rang buc s dng s hop (hop-count) v bng thng kh dng lm metric. Lu lng 600Kbps c nh tuyn trc tin, sau lu lng 500Kbps v 200 Kbps. C 3 loi lu lng ny u hng n cng mt Egress-router. Ta thy rng:

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- V lu lng 600kbps c nh tuyn trc nn n i theo ng ngn nht l R8R2-R3-R4-R5. v bng thng kh dng l nh nhau trn tt c cc chng knh (1Mbps). Nn lu lng 600 Kbps chim 60% bng thng. - Sau , v bng thng kh dng ca ng ngn nht khng cho c 2 lu lng 600 Kbps v 500Kbps. Nn lu lng 500Kbps c nh tuyn theo ng mi qua R6 v R7 mc d nhiu hn mt hop so vi ng c. - vi lu lng 200Kbps tip theo. V vn cn bng thng kh dng trn ng ngn nht nn ng ny c chn chuyn lu lng 200Kbps.

3.3.2 nh tuyn hin(Explicit routing : ER) nh tuyn hin bao gm nh tuyn da trn rng buc . nh tuyn loi ny c thit lp bin ca mng, da trn cc tiu chun v thng tin nh tuyn . nh tuyn hin c thit lp nh s dng cc bn tin LDP. N c m ho trong bn tin yu cu nhn . bn tin ny cha mt danh sch cc nt (mt nhm cc nt ) c thit lp cho tuyn rng buc. sau khi mt CR-LSP c thit lp th tt c cc nt th tt c cc nt trong nhm u c trng LSP i qua. Nu LDP c s dng cho nh tuyn da trn rng buc, th tuyn da trn rng buc ny s c m ho nh l mt dy cc chng ER cha ng trng TLV. mi chng ER c th nhn bit c mt nhn cc nt trong tuyn rng buc , v cc trng TLV cha ng cc tham s lu lng nh tc nh (peak rate), hoc tc bt buc (commited rate). tuyn da trn rng buc l mt ng bao gm tt c cc nhm cc nt c nh ngha theo th t m n xut hin trong TLV . CR-LDP chuyn ti ngun ti nguyn c yu cu bi mt ng trn mi chng ca tuyn. nu mt tuyn vi ngun ti nguyn yu cu khong tho mn (khng tm thy) th cc ng ang tn ti c th c nh tuyn li n nh li cc ngun ti nguyn cho ng mi. tng ny gi l quyn u tin ng truyn (path preemption) . quyn u tin thit lp CR-LSP mi v s phn b quyn u tin gia CRLSP ang tn ti c s dng xc nh u tin . cc gi tr cho vic thit lp gia CR-LSP l trong khong 0 n 7. gi tr 0 c ngha l u tin cao nht, ng truyn mang gi tr ny quan trng nht, cn mang gi tr 7 l t quan trng nht.

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3.3.3 V d thit lp LSP vi CR-LDP.

Hnh27 : Thit lp LSP vi CR-LDP Xt v d trn hnh gi s LSR A mun thit lp mt con ng hin l B-C-D. thc hin vic ny . LSR A xy dn mt i tng ER cha tun t 3 nt l LSR B, LSR C, LSR D. Mi nt c i din bng mt a ch IP prefix. LSR A sau xy dng mt bn tin Label Request c cha i tng ER mi to. khi bn tin c to xong, LSR A s xem xt nt tru tng u tin trong i tng ER l LSR B, tm kt ni n LSR B v gi bn tin Label Request trn kt ni . Khi LSR B nhn bn tin Label Request, LSR B nhn thy n l nt u tin ca i tng ER, LSR B su tm kim nt k tip l LSR C v tm kt ni n LSR C, su LSR B thay i i tng ER v gi bn tin Label Request n LSR C, lc ny i tng ER cng ch gm LSR C v LSR D. vic iu khin bn tin ny ti LSR C cng tng t nh LSR B. Khi bn tin ti LSR D, LSR D nhn thy n l nt cui cng trong i tng ER, v vy , LSR Dto mt bn tin Label Mapping v gi n n LSR C, bn tin ny bao gm i tng nhn. Khi nhn bn tin ny . LSR C dung nhn cha trong bn tin cp nht LFIB. Sau , LSR C gi bn tin Label Mapping n LSR B, bn tin ny cng cha nhn m LSR C qung b. vic iu khin bn tin Label Mapping LSR B cng tng t nh LSR C. Cui cng, LSR A nhn c bn tin v LSP c thit lp theo con ng nh tuyn hin. 3.3.4 Cc bn tin nh tuyn rng buc v trng TLV : 1.Bn yu cu nhn : 2.Bn tin nh x nhn. 3.Bn tin thng bo : 4.Trng TLV tuyn hin(ER-TLV). 5.Trng TLV chng nh tuyn hin (Erplicit route hop TLV). 6.Trng tham s lu lng TLV 7. u tin TLV. 8. Trng LSPID 9. Trng resource class TLV.

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10.Route pinning TLV 11. CR-LSP FEC TLV

3.4. Cht lng dch v:


Cht lng dch v QoS l mt trong nhng yu t thc y s pht trin ca MPLS . hu ht cc cng vic thc hin trong mng MPLS QoS u tp chung vo vic h tr cc thuc tnh IP QoS trong mng .MPLS c th gip nh cung cp ua ra cc dch v IP QoS hiu qu hn. Cng ging nh i vi IP ,MPLS cng cung cp hai m hnh QoS. Dch v tch hp intserv v dch v Diffserv.hin nay cc dch v trn mng internet thng s dng dch v Best Effort(n lc ti a). Cc gi thng tin ny c chuyn i theo kiu n trc c phc v trc m khng quan tm n c tnh lu lng ca dch v . iu ny kh khn trong vic h tr cc dch v i hi tr thp (nh cc dch v yu cu thi gian thc ). Do vy vic nghin ku mt m hnh mi (Intserv v Diffserv) thay th m hnh c cn c nhiu hn ch nh ni trn l rt cn thit. 3.4.1. M hnh dch v tch hp(IntServ) Dch v ny ra i nhm p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng ca cc dch v yu cu cao v thi gian thc v bng thng. cc nguyn nhn dn ti s ra i ca dch v ny l: - Dch v Best Effort khng cn kh nng p ng c ng thi nhiu ng dng khc nhau vi lung lu lng khc nhau. - Cc ng dng a phng tin ngy cng xut hin nhiu , mng IP phi khng ch c kh nng h tr cc dch v n m cn phi h tr cc ng dng a dch v vi nhiu lung lu lng khc nhau. - Ti u ho hiu sut s dng mng v ti nguyn mng. ti nguyn mng s c d tr cho lu lng c u tin cao hn , phn cn li s dnh cho s liu dng Best Effort Trong m hnh IntServ c mt s thnh phn sau: + Giao thc thit lp : thit lp cho cc my ch v b nh tuyn d ch ng ti nguyn trong mng s l cc yu cu ca cc lung lu lng ring. RSVP l mt trong nhng giao thc . + c tnh lung : xc nh cht lng dch v QoS s cung cp cho lung ring bit, y chnh l bng tn ti thiu m mng bt buc phi cung cp m bo QoS cho lung yu cu. + iu khin lu lng : trong cc thit b (my ch, b nh tuyn, chuyn mch) c thnh phn iu khin v qun l ti nguyn mng h tr QoS theo yu cu.

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Cc mc cht lng dch v c cung cp bi IntServ bao gm: + Dch v m bo QoS v bng tn dnh ring, tr c gii hn , khng b tht thot gi tin trong min, cc ng dng cung cp thuc loi ny l hi ngh truyn hnh , khm bnh t xa v cc ng dng lin quan n nghnh ti chnh. + Dch v kim sot ti : khng m bo v bng tn hay tr nhng khng gim cht lng mt cch ng k khi ti mng tng ln . dch v loi ny ph hp vi cc ng dng khng yu cu cao v tr cng nh thi gian thc nh truyn m thanh v hnh nh cht lng trung bnh. 3.4.2. M hnh dch v Diffserv M hnh intServ tuy gii quyt c rt nhiu vn dung quan n QoS nhng trong mng IP trn thc t khng m bo c QoS xuyn sut. dch v Diffserv ra i nhm gii quyt vn tn ti . Diffserv s dng nh du gi v xp dung theo loi h tr cc dch v u tin qua mng IP. Nguyn tc c bn ca DiffServ nh sau: + nh ngha s lng nh cc lp dch v hay mc u tin . Cc lp dch v ny dung quan n cc c tnh lu lng nh bng tn nh nht /hay ln nht, kch thc Burst, thi gian ko di Burst + xp loi v nh du cc gi ring bit ti bin ca mng vo cc lp dch v + cc thit b nh tuyn, chuyn mch trong mng li s phc v cc gi theo ni dung cc bt c nh du trong tiu gi. Cc u im ca DiffServ so vi IntServ: - khng cn bo hiu cho tng lung - dch v u tin c th p dng cho mt s lung ring bit cng mt lp dch v. iu ny cho php nh cung cp dch v c th d dng cung cp mt s lng nh cc mc dch v khc nhau cho khch dng c nhu cu. - khng yu cu thay i ti cc my ch hay cc ng dng h tr dch v u tin, v cng vic ny thc hin bi cc thit b bin . - h tr tt dch v VPN M hnh DiffServ ti bin v li ca mng.

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Phn loi Multi - byte

Gin st

nh du gi

Qun l hm i v phn phi

B nh tuyn bin Phn loi DS byte Qun l hm i v phn phi

B nh tuyn bin

Hnh 28 M hnh DiffServ ti bin v li ca mng. m hnh Diffserv bao gm mt s thnh phn sau: -

DS-Byte : byte xc nh DiffServ l thnh phn TOS ca IPV4 v trng loi lu lng IPV6 . cc bt trong byte ny thng bo gi tin nhn c thuc loi no. Cc thit b bin (cc b nh tuyn bin): t ti li vo hay li ra ca mng cung cp DiffServ. Cc thit b bn trong ca mng DiffServ Gim st : cc cng c v nh qun tr mng gim st v o kim m bo SAL gia mng v ngi dng.

3.4.3. M hnh cht lng dch v MPLS. Tng t nh DiffServ , MPLS cng h tr cht lng dch v trn c s phn loi cc lung lu lng theo cc tiu ch nh tr ,bng tn u tin ti bin mng, lu lng lu lng ngi dng nhn dng bng vic phn tch phn tiu gi tin v chuyn cc lung lu lng trong LSP ring vi thuc tnh CoS hoc QoS ca n. MPLS c th h tr cc dch v khng nh trc qua LSP bng vic s dng mt trong cc k thut sau:
-

Trng CoS hin c th c truyn i trong nhn gn lin vi tng gi. Bn cnh vic chuyn cc nhn ti tng nt LSR, mi gi c th c chuyn sang knh ra da trn thuc tnh CoS. Phn tiu m (shim header) MPLS c cha trng CoS. Trong trng hp nhn khng cha trng CoS hin th gi tr CoS c th lin quan ngm nh vi mt LSP c th. iu i hi LDP hoc RSVP gn gi tr CoS khng nh danh cho LSP cc gi c s l ph hp. QoS c th c cung cp bi mt LSP c thit lp trn c s bo hiu ATM.

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3.5. Pht hin v nh tuyn vng


Kh nng pht hin v ngn nga nh tuyn vng l mt kh nng rt quan trng ca MPLS . chuyn tip vng trong mng IP xy ra khi mt b nh tuyn chuyn tip gi tin khng n c ti ch do thng tin trong b nh tuyn b sai. hin tng ny c th sy ra khi s dng giao thc nh tuyn ng hoc do cu hnh ca b nh tuyn b li . i vi MPLS , vic pht hin v ngn nga hin tng chuyn tip vng trong 2 ch hot ng khung v hot ng t bo l khc nhau. Vi ch hot ng khung cng ging nh trong mng IP thun , chuyn tip vng c pht hin nh vo kin tra trng TTL trong cc gi IP n. ti mi b nh tuyn gi tr ca trng TTL ny s gim i mt n v v nu n bng khng th gi s khng c chuyn tip na v chuyn tip vng s dng li. Vi ch hot ng t bo, tc l trin khai MPLS qua tng i ATM v cc b nh tuyn s dng giao din LC-ATM, c ch s dng chuyn tip v ngn nga vng khc vi ch khung. V khng tn ti trng TTL trong phn tiu ca t bo ATM, ta phi s dng cp pht v phn phi nhn. nu trong bn tin yu cu nhn c cha b m nt mng TLV th khi ATM-LSR truyn bn tin yu cu nhn n cng s cha trng ny nhng b m nt mng cng s tng ln mt n v. n ngc vi c ch s dng TTL ,v TTL gim i mt khi qua mt thit b nh tuyn. khi ATM-LSR nhn c mt bn tin chuyn i nhn, nu bn tin ny c cha b m nt mng TLV th b m ny cng c tng thm mt n v khi bn tin chuyn i nhn c truyn ti nt tip theo. Khi ATM-LSR pht hin thy b m nt mng TLV t n gi tr ln nht cho php (thng 254 i vi thit b cisco) th coi nh bn tin c chuyn tip vng. Nh trn ta thy, c s hn ch ca vic s dng b m nt mng trong vic pht hin chuyn tip vng l thi gian pht hin chuyn tip vng c th ln v gi tr b nm phi t ti 254 th chuyn tip vng mi c pht hin.

Kt lun chng

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Trong chng ny gii thiu cc vn k thut c s dng trong mng MPLS nh k thut lu lng, vn qun l lu lng trong mng MPLS gii quyt cc vn v nh trnh c tc nghn, cung cp cht lng dch v theo yu cu. Trong chng ny cng cp ti vn v nh tuyn trong mng MPLS, trong mng MPLS cc gi tin c nh tuyn nh th no tm ng i. Ngoi ra trong chng ny cng nu ra vn v qung l cht lng dch v theo cc m hnh M hnh dch v tch hp (IntServ)

Cu hnh MPLS trn thit b cisco v m phng

Chng 4
Trong chng ny miu t lm th no cu hnh mng (MPLS) v m t m phng vic cu hnh mng li MPLS c bn. hon tt cu hnh th cn tham kho thm cu lnh MPLS trong cisco IOS switching services command Reference. Trong chng ny bao gm : - cu hnh MPLS mc iu khin(MPLS levels of control) - cu hnh lu lng MPLS (MPLS traffic Engineering) - cu hnh lu lng ng (MPLS traffic Engineering Paths) - cu hnh mng ring o qua MPLS(MPLS virtual private networks) - cu hnh mng ng trc h tr Cos(MPLS CoS backbone support) - cu hnh MPLS CoS - cu hnh iu khin chuyn mch nhn(Label switching controller) - mt s cu hnh v d

4.1 Cu lnh v cc bc cu hnh.


4.1.1 Cu hnh MPLS mc iu khin. Trong phn ny chng ta 3 cch cu hnh MPLS trn dng router 7200/7500 di y l cc bc thc hin v cc lnh tng ng c s dng:

V d 1 V d 2

Mc iu khin cho php thc hin MPLS trong mng nh tuyn gi nhn ti mt

Miu t bc ny th cn thit cho m rng MPLS qua mng, L k thut MPLS c th

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mng V d 3

gii hn nh l cc gi ti ch mt mng ch gii hn nhn phn phi y l k thut mc cao trn mng MLPS cho vic phn phi cc nhn ti mng

Hnh29 l mng MPLS vi cc router ch lm vic vi cc giao din Ethernet. Trong phn ny th ta thc hin cu hnh MPLS theo s hnh 29

R1 e0/1 e0/2 e0/1 e0/4 e0/2 e0/1 R3 e0/2 e0/2 e0/3 e0/2

R4 e0/2 e0/1 e0/4 e0/2 R5 R6 e0/2 e0/2 e0/3

R7 e0/1 Mng A

e0/2 R8

e0/1

Mng B

R2

Hnh 29 V d 1.Cho php thc hin MPLS trong mt mng Trong trng hp u tin ,chng ta mun m rng chuyn mch nhn qua mt mng ca cc router nhng khng mun ngn chn nhng ch trc ca chuyn mch nhn .di y l miu t cc bc v cc cu lnh c s dng. mun thc hin m rng MPLS trong mt mng th.thc hin cc bc v cc cu lnh c thc hin trn router nh sau: lnh Bc 1 mc ch Cho php MPLS gia R1 ti R1: v R2 Router# configuration terminal Trong yu cu cu hnh Router(config)# ip cef distributed phn tn VIP MPLS.ta Router(config)#tag-switching advertise- phi cu hnh phn b tags chuyn mch CEF. V Router(config)# interface e0/1 thc hin cu lnh ip cef Router(config-if)# tag-switching ip distributed trn tt c Router(config-if)# exit cc router ti R3 : Router# configuration terminal

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Router(config)# ip cef distributed Router(config)#tag-switching advertisetags Router(config)# interface e0/1 Router(config-if)# tag-switching ip Bc 2 ti R3: Router(config)# interface e0/2 Router(config-if)# tag-switching ip Router(config-if)# exit ti R4: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# ip cef distributed Router(config)#tag-switching advertisetags Router(config)# interface e0/2 Router(config-if)# tag-switching ip Router(config-if)# exit Cho php MPLS gia R3 V R4

Sau khi thc hin cc bc, R1 s gn nhn cc gi c chuyn tip qua giao din e1/0 vi trm k tip l R3. mng thc hin MPLS bn phi thc hin cc bc trn trn tt c cc router khc trong mng cho ti khi tt c cc router trong mng u cho php MPLS V d 2: nh tuyn cc gi c nhn ti mt mng nht nh. Trong trng hp th 2 ny th chng ta mun cho php MPLS cho mt tp hp mng nht nh .chng ta c th th MPLS cho mt mng ln hn.nhng trong v d ny th ta ch thc hin trn mt mng vi mt s lng nh cc ch l cc chuyn mch nhn. Cc bc thc hin v cc cu lnh thc hin nh sau: Bc 1 Cu lnh mc ch Router(config)# access-list 1 gii hn nhn c phn phi bng cch s permit A dng access list. (s dng cc gi tr c th thay th cho permit A .v d Access-list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255) Router(config)# tag-switching ch nh cho router qung b mng duy advertise-tags for 1 nht cho cc chuyn mch nhn gn k. v bt k nhn ti mng ch khc th

Bc 2

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router c th phn tn trc khi thc hin n.

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V d 3: Gii hn phn b nhn trn mt mng MPLS Trong v d th 3 ny th th hin s ton quyn iu khin nh l kh nng sn sang quyt nh mng ch truc v tuyn thc hin MPLS. cu hnh b nh tuyn gi c a ch ti mng A l nhn, tt c cc gi khc th khng nhn v ch nhng tuyn R1-R3, R3-R4, R4-R6, v R6-R7 mang a ch nhn ti A. v d nh l mt tuyn bnh thng cho mt gi tin ti a ch R1 ti mng A hoc mng B th R1,R3,R5,R6,R7. mt gi c a ch ti A th phi c nhn th phi c nhn theo cc tuyn R1-R3 v R6-R7, v khng c nhn trn cc tuyn R3-R5 v R5-6, mt gi c nhn ti B th cng c tuyn ging nh trn nh khng c nhn trn tt c cc tuyn. Gi s rng ti s bt u ca tuyn th cc gi ti mng A th c nhn cn tt c cc gi khac th khng c nhn. S dng lnh tag-switching adver-tags v access list gii hn nhn phn phi, c bit bn cn phi cu hnh trn cc routers R5 v R8 khng phn phi nhn ti cc routers khc. iu chc chn rng khng c router no gi cc gi c nhn ti bt k ci no trong 3 router trn. Bn cng cn phi cu hnh trn cc router R1,R3,R4,R6v R7 phn phi cc nhn ch ti mng A v phn phi ti ch router k cn cn thit, l R3 th phn phi nhn ca n cho mng A duy nht ti R1, R4 ch ti R3 v do th gi hn nhn phn phi trn mng MPLS , s dng cu lnh cu hnh trn cc routers nh di: Bc 1 Bc 2 lnh mc ch Router(config)# no tag-switching advertise- Cu hnh R2 khng tags phn phi nhn Router(config)# no tag-switching advertise- cu hnh R5 khng tags phn phi nhn Router(config)# no tag-switching advertise- cu hnh R8 khng tags phn phi nhn Router(config)# access-list 2 permit R1 Router(config)# no tag-switching advertisetags for 1 Router(config)#tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 Router(config)# exit cu hnh trn R3 bi vic nh ngha mt access list v ch dn router phn phi nhn ti nhng mng c cho php bi access list 1 v ti router cho php bi access list 2. Cu lnh access list

Bc 3 Bc 4

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Bc 5

Bc 6

2 permit R1 Cho php R1 v cm tt c cc router cn li. (nhp a ch mng c th v netmask vo permit R1 .v d access list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255 ) Router(config)#access-list 1 permit A cu hnh R3. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit R1 (nhp a ch mng Router(config)#tag-switching advertise-tags thc v netmask vo for 1 to 2 ni cho php R1. v Router(config)# exit d :access list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255) Router(config)#access-list 1 permit A cu hnh R4. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit R3 (nhp a ch mng Router(config)#tag-switching advertise-tags thc v netmask vo for 1 to 2 ni cho php R1. v Router(config)# exit d :access list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255) Router(config)#access-list 1 permit A Router(config)#access-list 2 permit R4 Router(config)#tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 Router(config)# exit cu hnh R6. (nhp a ch mng thc v netmask vo ni cho php R1. v d :access list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255) Router(config)#access-list 1 permit A cu hnh R7. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit R6 (nhp a ch mng Router(config)# tag-switching advertise-tags thc v netmask vo for 1 to 2 ni cho php R1. v Router(config)# exit d :access list 1 permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255)

Bc 7

Bc 8

4.1.2 Cu hnh lu lng MPLS Thc hin cc tc v sau y trc khi cho php k thut lu lng MPLS:

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Cu hnh MPLS tunnels Cho php Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) Cho php IS-IS

Thc hin cc tc v trong nhng mc sau cu hnh k thut lu lng MPLS - Cu hnh thit b h tr tunnels - Cu hnh mt giao din h tr RSVP-based tunnel signaling v IGP Flooding - Cu hnh mt lu lng ng ng MPLS(MPLS traffic Engineering tunnel) - Cu hnh IS-IS cho k thut lu lng MPLS. 4.1.2.1 Cu hnh mt thit b h tr ng ng (tunnels) cu hnh mt thit b h tr ng ng s dng cu lnh cu hnh theo cc bc di y. Cu lnh Bc 1 Bc 2 Router(config)# ip cef Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels mc ch Cho php hot ng chun CEF Cho php c tnh k thut ng ng trn mt thit b

- tra cu v ni dung ca cc lnh trn thit b cisco th c th tra cu thm trong the Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide v Cisco IOS Switching Services Command Reference. 4.1.2.2 Cu hnh mt giao din h tr RSVP-base tunnel signaling v IGP Flooding cu hnh mt giao din h tr RSVP-based tunnel signaling v IGP Flooding, s dng cc cu lnh sau trn giao din cu hnh. Ch : bn cn phi cho php c tnh ng ng v ch r lng bng thng d tr RSVP nu bn c mt giao din h tr k thut lu lng MPLS.

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Bc 1 Bc 2

Cu lnh Router(config-if)# tunnels

mc ch mpls traffic-eng Cho php c tnh k thut ng ng trn mt giao din Router(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth Cho php RSVP cho IP bandwidth trn mt giao din v lng bng thng d tr

4.1.2.3 Cu hnh k thut lu lng ng ng trn MPLS. cu hnh mt k thut ng ng trn MPLS , s dng cu lnh nh sau trn giao din cu hnh. ng ng ny c hai la chn ci t ng dn, mt ng dn hin c u tin hn v v mt ng dn sao lu ng. Bc 1 Bc 2 Bc 3 Bc 4 Bc 5 Bc 6 Cu lnh Router(config)# interface tunnel1 mc ch cu hnh mt loi giao din v vo giao din cu hnh Router(config-if)# tunnel destination chn a ch ch nht A.B.C.D nh cho mt ng ng Router(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls thit lp la chn ng traffic-eng gi ca ng ng ti k thut lu lng MPLS Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng cu hnh bng thng cho bandwidth bandwidth k thut lu lng ng ng MPLS Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng cu hnh tn IP ca tuyn path-option 1 explicit name test hn Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng cu hnh mt tuyn sao path-option 2 dynamic lu tnh ton ng t c s ca m hnh k thut lu lng

4.1.2.4 Cu hnh IS-IS cho k thut lu lng MPLS cu hnh IS-IS cho k thut lu lng MPLS s dng cu lnh cho cu hnh k thut lu lng IS-IS trong giao din cu hnh. C th tham kho thm trong Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Configuration Guide.

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Bc 1 Bc 2 Bc 3

Cu lnh Router(config)# router isis Router(config-router)#mpls traffic-eng level 1 Router(config-router)#mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback0

Bc 4

mc ch cho php nh tuyn IS-IS bt k thut lu lng MPLS cho IS-IS mc 1 Gn ID cho router thc hin k thut lu lng bng a ch ca giao din lookback0 Router(config-router)# metric-style wide cu hnh mt router to ra v chp nhn ch kiu TLVs mi

4.1.3 Cu hnh nhng tuyn k thut lu lng. cu hnh mt k thut lu lng ng ng c th s dng mt IGP. s dng cu lnh theo hng dn. Bc 1 Bc 2 Cu lnh Router(config-if)# interface tunnel1 Router(config-router)# traffic-eng autoroute announce tunnel mc ch cu hnh kiu giao din v vo la chn cu hnh mpls to ra mt IGP s dng ng ng ca n tng cng tnh SPF

4.1.4 Cu hnh mng ring o MPLS (mpls vpn) Thc hin cc tc v theo mc sau cu hnh v kin tra VPNs - nh ngha VPN - Cu hnh nh tuyn BGP - Cu hnh nh tuyn PE to PE - Cu hnh inh tuyn BGP PE to CE - Cu hnh nh tuyn RIP PE to CE - Cu hnh nh tuyn Static Route PE to CE - Kim tra hot ng VPN 4.1.4.1 nh ngha VPNs: nh ngha inh tuynVPN c th hin, s dng cu lnh di y trn router cu hnh

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Bc 1

Cu lnh Router(config)# ip vrf vrf-name

Bc 2 Bc 3

Router(config-vrf)# rd route-distinguisher Router(config-vrf)# route-target {import | export | both} route-target-ext-community Router(config-vrf)# import map routemap Router(config-vrf)# export map routemap Router(config-if)# ip vrf forwarding vrfname

Bc 4 Bc 5 Bc 6

mc ch Vo cu hnh VRF v nh ngha nh tuyn VPN bng cch gn mt tn VRF To bng nh tuyn v chuyn tip To mt danh sch vo v/hoc raca tuyn lin lc ch cho VRF nht nh Gn s tuyn vo nht nh v VRF Gn s tuyn ra nht nh v VRF Gn mt mt VRF vi mt giao din hoc mt phn giao din

4.1.4.2 Cu hnh nh tuyn BGP: cu hnh nh tuyn BGP trong mt mng cung cp, s dng cu lnh cu hnh router trn router PE Cu lnh mc ch Bc 1 Router(config)# router bgp autonomous- cu hnh nh tuyn BGP system x l vi s h t tr ti router BGP khc Bc 2 Router(config-router)# neighbor {ip- Xc nh mt a ch IP address | k cn hoc l BGP tng peer-group-name} remote-as number ng vi mt nhm xc nh n ti vng t tr Bc 3 Router(config-router)# neighbor ip- Kch hot qung b h a address activate ch IPV4 4.1.4.2 Cu hnh nh tuyn PE to PE: cu hnh nh tuyn PE to PE trong mt mng cung cp, s dng cc lnh nh sau trn router PE

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Cu lnh mc ch Router(config-router)# address-family nh ngha cc thng s vpnv4 [unicast | IBGP cho chao i multicast] VPNv4 NLRI Router(config-router-af)# neighbor nh ngha mt phin address remote-as IBGP chao i VPNv4 as-number NLR. Router(config-router-af)# neighbor Kch hot qung b h a address activate ch IPv4

4.1.4.3 Cu hnh nh tuyn BGP PE to CE: cu hnh nh tuyn BGP PE to CE , s dng cu lnh trn router cu hnh PE router. Cu lnh Mc ch Router(config-router)# address-family nh ngha cc thng s ipv4 [unicast] BGP cho nh tuyn PE to vrf vrf-nam CE Router(config-router-af)# neighbor nh ngha mt phin gia address remote-as router PE v CE as-number Router(config-router-af)# neighbor Kch hot qung b h a address activate ch IPv4

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4.1.4.4. Cu hnh nh tuyn RIP PE to CE: cu hnh nh tuyn RIP PE to CE , s dng cu lnh cu hnh trn router PE nh sau. Cu lnh Mc ch Bc 1 Router(config)# router rip Kch hot RIP Bc 2 Router(config-router-af)# address- nh ngha cc thng s family ipv4 RIP cho nh tuyn PE to [unicast] vrf vrf-name CE Bc 3 Router(config-router-af)# network prefix Kch hot RIP trn lin kt PE to CE 4.1.4.5 Cu hnh nh tuyn tnh PE to CE:

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cu hnh nh tuyn tnh PE to CE s dng cu lnh nh sau trn router PE. Cu lnh Router(config)# ip route vrf vrf-name Router(config-router)# ipv4 [unicast] vrf vrf-name Router(config-router-af)# static Router(config-router-af)# static connected Mc ch nh ngha cc thng s ca tuyn tnh cho mi phin PE to Ce address-family nh ngha cc thng s tuyn tnh cho mi phin nh tuyn BGP PE to CE redistribute qung b tuyn VRF tnh vo trong bng VRF BGP redistribute qung b mng kt ni trc tip vo trong bng VRF BGP

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4.1.4.6 Kim tra hot ng ca VPN: kim tra hot ng ca VPN bng cch hin th thng tin nh tuyn trn router PE, s dng cu lnh show theo danh mc di y: Cu lnh Router# show ip vrf Router# show ip vrf [{brief | detail | interfaces}] vrf-name Router# show ip route vrf vrf-name Router# show ip protocols vrf vrfname Router# show ip cef vrf vrf-name Router# show ip interface interfacenumber Router# show ip bgp vpnv4 all [tags] Router# show tag-switching forwarding vrf vrf-name [prefix mask/length][detail] Mc ch hin th thit lp nh ngha VRFs v giao din hin th thng tin v nh ngha VRFs kt hp cc giao din hin th bng nh tuyn IP cho mt VRF hin th thng tin v giao thc nh tuyn cho mt VRF hin th bng chuyn tip CEF lien h vi mt VRF hin th bng VRF lien quan ti mt giao din hin th nhng thng tin khai bo trc v tt c BGP VPN-IPv4 hin th chuyn tip nhn a ti nhng tuyn VRF c qung b tng ng bi chnh router .

4.1.5 Cu hnh ng trc h tr MPLS CoS

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C mt vi cch khc nhau h tr CoS qua mt ng trc MPLS.ci lu chn ny th ph thuc vo hoc l li l LSRs hay l ATM LSRs.trong mi trng hp tuy nhin CoS c xy dng l cc khi ging nhau nh CAR,WRED, v WFQ. Ba cu hnh c m t bn di: - LSRs s dng ti li ca mng ng trc - ATM LSRs s dng ti li ca mng ng trc - chuyn mch ATM khng c c tnh MPLS LSRs: LSRs ti li ca mng ng trc MPLS thng l dng router 7200 v 7500 chy phn mm MPLS. Gi c s l nh sau: 1- gi IP i vo bin ca mng MPLS 2- LSRs bin th ko theo CAR phn loi gi IP v c th thit lp IP u tin, hoc l gi IP c th nhn vi mc ca chng c t trc 3- Cho mi gi th router thc hin tm kin trn a ch IP quyt nh chng LSR tip theo. 4- Nhn thch ng c t trn gi vi nhng bt IP c u tin c sao chp vo trong mi nhn v MPLS header 5- Gi c gn nhn th sau c chuyn ti giao din ra thch hp x l. 6- nhng gi l khc nhau bi lp.ci ny c thc hin theo xc xut dt(WRED hoc l theo bng thng v tr(WFQ), trong mi trng hp, LSRs bt buc nh ngha khc nhau bi tip tc s dng dch v WRED hoc WFQ trn mi chng 7ATM LSRs: ATM LSRs ti li th thc hin kiu a nhn mch o (LVC).trong nhiu kiu LVC mt nhn c gn cho mt lp dch v v cho mt ch. s hot ng ca LSR bin th ging nh l m t trc cho trng hp LSR, tr u ra l mt giao din ATM. WRED c s dng nh ngha lp dch v v quyt nh chnh sch loi b trong trng hp tc nghn. Trong nhiu kiu LVC ,mc d lp c s WFQ c s dng nh ngha mt lng ca bng thng sn sng cho mi lp dch v.gi th c ghi trong danh mc bi lp trong qu trnh tc nghn. ATM LSRs tham gia trong cc lp khc nhau vi WFQ v vic loi b thng minh cc nhn khi c tc nghn sy ra. k thut cho vic ch ng loi b nng th loi trc(WEPD) ATM Switches: Khi mng li s dng chuyn mch ATM v bin ca mng s dng MPLS, LSRs bin th kt ni thng qua mt mng li tp hp ATM PVCs(CBR, VBR, hoc UBR) bn trn chuyn mch li ATM. LSRs bin th ko theo WFQ trn mt VC c s cung cp c s khc nhau trn tr ca MPLS CoS kt hp ln trn ATM forum PVC. tu WRED c th s dng trn mi VC c bn qun l u tin loi b gia cc lp khi sy ra nghn trn LSRs bin.

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bng i y l danh sch h tr c tnh MPLS CoS tren gi giao din:

Bng i y l danh sch h tr c tnh MPLS CoS trn giao din ATM:

Bng i y l danh sch h tr c tnh MPLS CoS trn chuyn mch ATM:

4.1.6 Cu hnh MPLS CoS: Thc hin theo cc phn di y thc hin cu hnh c tnh MPLS CoS: - Cu hnh ch PVC trong Non-MPLS-Enable core - Cu hnh ch Multi-VC trong Non-MPLS-Enable core - Cu hnh Multi-VCs s dng chc nng CoS-Map - Cu hnh DWFQ v Changing Queue Weight trn mt giao din ra

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kim tra hot ng CoS.

4.1.6.1 Cu hnh ch PVC trong mt Non-MPLS-Enable core: thc hin cu hnh PVC trong mt Non-MPLS-Enable core thc hin cc cu lnh theo cc bc di. Cu lnh Mc ch Bc 1 Router(config)# interface type number cu hnh point-to-point point-to-point subinterface Router(config-subif)# ip unnumbered Gn Bc 2 a ch IPcho Loopback0 subinterface Router(config-subif)# pvc 4/40 Bc 3 to mt PVC trn subinterface Router(config-subif)# pvc 4/40 Bc 4 Kch hot (D) WRED trn interface Router(config-if-atm-vc)#encapsulation Bc 5 thit lp kiu ng gi cho aal5snap PVC Router(config-subif)# exit Bc 6 Thot khi ch PVC v vo trong ch subinterface Bc 7 Router(config-subif)# tag-switching ip Cho php MPLS IP trn point to point interface 4.1.6.2 Cu hnh ch Multi-VC trong MPLS-Enable core: cu hnh ch Multi-VC trong mt MPLS-enable core, s dng cc cu lnh nh sau trong ch cu hnh router. Ch : mc nh cho ch Multi-VC to ra 4 VCs cho mi MPLS ch Cu lnh Bc 1 Bc 2 Bc 3 Bc 4 Mc ch Router(config)# interface type number cu hnh mt ATM tag-switching MPLS subinterface Router(config-subif)# ip unnumbered Gn a ch IP cho Loopback0 subinterface Router(config-subif)# tag-switching Cho php ch ATM atm multi-vc multi-VC trn subinterface Router(config-subif)# tag-switching ip Cho php MPLS trn ATM subinterface

4.1.6.3 Cu hnh Multi-VCs s dng chc nng CoS-Map :

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Nu khng la chn cu hnh mc nh cho nhn VCs, bn c th cu hnh mt vi nhn VCs bng cch s dng chc nng CoS map, s dng chc nng CoS map, s dng theo cc cu lnh trong ch cu hnh ca router: Cu lnh Bc 1 Router(config)# tag-switching cosmap cos-map number Bc 2 Router(config-tag-cos-map)# class 1 premium Mc ch to mt CoS map

Vo cos-map submode and maps premium v standard classes ti nhn VCs. Ci CoS-map gn lu lng class 1 chia s nhn VC nh l lu lng class 2 s m bn c th gn cho CoS map c khong 0 ti 3 mc nh l - class 0 l sn c - class 1 l chun - class 2 l tng thm - class 3 l iu khin Bc 3 Router(config-tag-cos-map)# exit Thot khi MPLS CoS map submode Bc 4 Router(config)# access-list access- to mt Access list. list-number permit destination hot ng ca access list trn lu lng i ti mt a ch ch nht nh Bc 5 Router(config)# tag-switching cu hnh router s dng CoS map prefix-map prefix-map access-list nht nh khi mt MPLS ch trc access-list cos-map cos-map ph hp vi Access list nht nh 4.1.6.4 Cu hnh DWFQ v changing Queue Weight trn mt giao din ra: cu hnh DWFQ v Changing Queue Weight trn mt giao din ra s dng theo cu lnh cu hnh trong ch cu hnh giao din sau mt giao din nht nh. Bc 1 Bc 2 Bc 3 Cu lnh Router(config)# interface type number Router(config-if)# fair-queue tos Mc ch ch r s v loi giao din cu hnh mt giao din s dng fair queueing Router(config)# fair-queue tos class Thay i class weight trn weight giao din nht nh

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4.1.6.5 Kim tra hot ng CoS: kim tra hot ng ca MPLS CoS s dng cc cu lnh nh sau trong ch cu hnh: Cu lnh Mc ch Bc Router# show tag-switching hin th chi tit thong tin v giao din 1 interfaces interfaces chuyn mch nhn Bc 2 Bc 3 Router# show tag-switching cos- hin th CoS map s dng gn VCs map Router# show tag-switching prefix-map hin th map dt trc gn mt CoS map vi mng cho trc

4.1.7 Cu hnh b iu khin chuyn mch nhn: Trn b iu khin chuyn mch nhn (LSC)cng TC-ATM trn iu khin chuyn mch l i din nh l mt kiu giao din IOS mi gi l nhn ATM m rng(XmplsATM). Giao din XmplsATM lien quan ti nhng giao din vt l c bit trn iu khin chuyn mch thng qua giao din extended-port cu lnh cu hnh. Hnh 30 minh ho mt cu hnh trong mt LSC iu khin 3 cng trn mt BPX-6.1,6.2, v 12.2 .tng ng vi giao din XmplsATM c to ra trn LSC v lin quan ti cu lnh cu hnh cng ATM tng ng s dng giao din Extended-port .ch rng b sung thm mt cng trn BPX(12.1)hot ng nh l cng iu khin chuyn mch v mt giao din ATM (ATM1/0) trn LSC hot ng nh l iu khin chnh Hnh 30 c th nhn thy cc kiu cu hnh LSC d LSC v BPX cng chc nng nh l ATM-LSR

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Figure 30 Typical LSC/BPX Configuration

LSC l thit b nhn bin: LSC c th hot ng ng thi nh l mt b iu khin cho mt chuyn mch ATM v nh l mt thit b nhn bin lu lng c th chuyn tip gia mt giao din ca router v mt giao din TC-ATM trn iu khin chuyn mch th cng tt nh gia hai giao din TC-ATM trn iu khin chuyn mch. LSC c th thc hin vic i hi v loi b nhn v c th phc v nh l u hay ui ca mt ng ng (LSP) chuyn mch nhn, tuy nhin khi thc hin th n nh mt thit b nhn bin, LSC b gii hn bi kh nng iu khin ca n lin kt vi chuyn mch nh sau. -

tng thng lng gia tt c cc giao din khc ca router v giao din ca switch th b gii hn bi bng thng ca iu khin lien kt (n l OC-3, 155Mb/s) v tr nhn cho LSC-terminal VCs l gii hn bi s ca VCs h tr trn iu khin lin kt.

H tr cho giao thc ATM forum: LSc c th kt ni ti mng chy giao thc ATM forum trong khi thuc hin ng thi c chc nng LSC. Tuy nhin vic kt ni ti mng ATM-forum phi thng qua giao din ATM tch bit, th khng thong qua cng iu khin chnh .

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4.1.7.1 Cu hnh MPLS trn mt cng LSC-controlled BPX: cu hnh MPLS trn cng ca BPX th bt u iu khin bi LSC, s dng cc bc cu hnh nh di. gi s rng BPX c c kt ni ti LSC thng qua ATM1/0,mc ch l cu hnh MPLS trn khe 6, cng 1 ca BPX Bc 1 Cu lnh Router(config)#interface atm1/0 Router(config-if)# tag-control-protocol vsi Router(config-if)#interface XTagATM61 Router(config-if)# extended-port atm1/0 bpx 6.1 Router(config-if)# ip address 192.103.210.5 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#tag-switching ip Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# ip cef switch Mc ch Cho php giao thc VSI trn giao din iu khin(ATM1/0) to mt nhn m rng ATM(XmplsATM) giao din o v chi buc n ti cng 6.1 cu hnh MPLs trn giao din nhn ATM m rng

Bc 2

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Bc 4

Cho php chuyn mch CEF

4.2. Nhng v d v cu hnh MPLS:


Trong phn ny trong qu trnh thc hin em c s dng phn mm m phng cu hnh l phn mm DYNAPICS y l phn mm m phng c s dng h iu hnh (IOS) ca router, Switch ATM, Switch tht thc hin. Trong phn ny th cung cp mt s cu hnh mu . n bao gm cc mc di y: - Cho php gia tng MPLS trong mt mng v d. - Cho php MPLS cho mt tp hp mng ch t trc. - La chn nhng ch trc v nhng tuyn - Hin th MPLS LDP vi cc thng tin. - Hin th thng tin bng chuyn tip MPLS - Hin th thng tin v giao din - Hin th thong tin v MPLS LDP hng xm - Cho php LSP tunnel signaling - cu hnh mt ng ng LSP - hin th thng tin v ng ng LSP

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Cu hnh mt k thut lu lng ng ng Cu hnh mng ring o MPLS Cu hnh MPLS trn mt cng LSC-Controlled BPX Thc hin MPLS CoS

4.2.1 V d cho php thc hin MPLS trong mt mng. Trong th d ny th th hin l cu hnh MPLS th no cu hnh MPLS tng thng lng ca mng cc routers. u tin bn phi cho php MPLS gia mt i router(trong trng hp ny gia R1 v R3 trong hnh 29 ) v tip theo thc hin trn tt c cc Router con li cho ti khi ton mng l chuyn mch nhn. Cc bc nh sau: router-1# configuration terminal router-1(config)# ip cef distributed router-1(config)# tag-switching ip router-1(config)# interface e0/1 router-1(config-if)# tag-switching ip router-1(config-if)# exit router-1(config)# router-3# configuration terminal router-3(config)# ip cef distributed router-3(config)# tag-switching ip router-3(config)# interface e0/1 router-3(config-if)# tag-switching ip router-3(config-if)# exit router-3(config)# 4.2.2 V d cho php MPLS cho mt vng mng ch t trc. Trong v d ny th th hin nhng cu lnh bn cn thc hin trn mi router thc hin cho php MPLS cho ch mt vng mng ch t trc(xem hnh 29) Router(config)# access-list-1 permit A Router(config)# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 4.2.2 V dnla chn nhng ch trc v nhng tuyn. Theo v d ny th th hin cc cu lnh bn cn thc hin cu hnh cc router la chn ch trc v nhng tuyn cho MPLs no c cho php.khi cu hnh trn R2,R5 v R8 phn phi khng nhn cho router khc v chc chn rng khng router no gi cho chng gi nhn. bn cng cn cu hnh trn router R1,R3,R4,R6 v R7 phn

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phi nhn ch cho mng A v ch p dng router hnh xm.cu hnh ny th chc chn rng R3 phn phi nhn cho mng A ch ti R1, R4 ch ti R3, R6 ch ti R4, R7 ch ti R6(xem hnh 29). router-2(config)# no tag-switching advertise-tags router-5(config)# no tag-switching advertise-tags router-8(config)# no tag-switching advertise-tags router-1(config)# access-list permit R1 router-1(config)# no tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 router-1(config)# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 router-1(config)# exit router-3# access-list 1 permit A router-3# access-list 2 permit R1 router-3# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 router-3# exit router-4# access-list 1 permit A router-4# access-list 2 permit R3 router-4# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 router-4# exit router-6# access-list 1 permit A router-6# access-list 2 permit R4 router-6# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 router-6# exit router-7# access-list 1 permit A router-7# access-list 2 permit R6 router-7# tag-switching advertise-tags for 1 to 2 router-7# exit 4.2.3 V d hin th MPLS LDP vi cc thng tin. Trong v d ny th s dng lnh show tag-switching tdp bindings hin th ni dng ca Label Information Base(LIB).s hin th ny c th thy ton b c s d liu hoc c th gii hn vng ca ton phn, gi tr nhn vo ra hoc khong

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4.2.4 V d hin th thng tin bng chuyn tip MPLS. Trong v d ny th th s dng lnh tag-switching forwarding-table hin th ni dung ca Label Forward Information Base (LFIB). LFIB l danh sch cc nhn. Thng tin v cc giao din ra, ng ng vi u vo ,s byte nhn vi nhn ti . mt yu cu c th thy y LFIB hoc gi hn mt phn no ca ton phn.mt yu cu c th ngn chn ti vic la chn trong bt k nhng cch di y - Mt li vo mt nhn nhn c - Nhng li vo vi giao din ra - nhng li vo vi trm k tip

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mt li vo vi mt ch mt li vo vi ng hn c nt nh l trm trung gian

4.2.5 V d hin th thng tin v giao din MPLS. Trong v d ny th ta s dng cu lnh show tag-switching interfaces hin th thng tin v nhng giao din yu cu hoc l v tt c nhng giao din MPLS. Trn mi thng tin v giao din bao gm tn giao din v IP MPLS v s hot ng.

Hoc l khi s dng show tag-switching interface detail

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4.2.6 V d hin th thng tin MPLS LDP hng xm. Ta s dng cu lnh show tag-switching tdp neighbors hin th trng thi phin Lalbel Distribution Protocol (LDP) . thng tin v nhn hng xm c th l thng tin v tt c LDP hng xm c th gii hn s hng xm vi a ch IP nht nh, hoc nhn dng LDP, hoc LDP hng xm trn mt giao din nht nh.

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4.2.7 V d cho php LSP tunnel signaling. Trong v d ny th ta cu hnh h tr cho Label-Switched Path (LSP ) tunnel signaling dc theo mt tuyn v trn mi giao din qua bi mt hoc nhiu ng ng:

4.2.8 V d cu hnh mt ng ng LSP. Trong v d ny minh ho lm nh th no thit lp ng gi ca ng ng ti MPLS v nh th no nh ngha trm trong tuyn cho LSP. Theo cc bc th cu hnh 2 trm ng ng trm 0 th bt u t b nh tuyn u cui, i vi trm 1 v 2, th n nh mt a ch IP nht nh ca giao din vo ca ng ng .s giao din ca ng ng th nh hn 65535.

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rt ngn ng dn trc y , xo b trm bng cch s dng lnh nh sau.

4.2.9 V d Hin th thng tin ng ng LSP. Trong v d ny s dng cu lnh show tag-switching tsp tunnels thng tin v cu hnh v trng thi nhng ng ng c chn. hin th

4.2.10 V d cu hnh mt k thut lu lng ng ng MPLS. Trong v d ny th chng ta cu hnh mt ng ng ng v lm th no thm mt dng ng th 2 vo cng mt ch vi mt tuyn hin .ch rng v d ny a ch IP ra l point-to-point .trc khi cu hnh k thut lu lng ng ng MPLS cn phi thc hin tng th ,IS-IS,lnh trn giao din router.

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V d ny bao gm lnh cu hnh mt tuyn ng t R1 ti R5.

Kin tra trng ca ng ng v lu lng ca tuyn qua ng ng bng cu lnh sau.

To ra tuyn hin bng cu lnh sau.

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Thm mt ng ng th hai vi cng ch vi mt tuyn hin , s dng cu lnh sau.

Kim tra trng thi ca ng ng v lu lng ca tuyn qua ng ng , bng cu lnh.

4.2.11 V d cu hnh mng ring o MPLS. Trong v d ny cung cp mt file cu hnh mu t PE router.

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4.2.12 V d cu hnh MPLS trn mt LSC-Controlled BPX port. Trong v d ny m hnh mng bao gm ATM-LSRs trong mt mng MPLS (xem hnh 31).theo mc nh th cung cp cu hnh cho hai LSCs(cisco 7200 router),hai BPX service nodes, v hai LSRs bin (cisco 7500 routers).

Hnh 31: ATM-LSR

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4.2.13 V d thc hin MPLS CoS. Hnh 32 l m hnh mng mu thc hin c tnh MPLS CoS. Theo mc th bao gm cc bc cu hnh trn router R1 ti R6 v trn chuyn mch 1 v 2 bao gm trong hnh.

Hnh 32 - Cu hnh Cisco Express Forwarding Cc bc cu hnh cho php Cisco Express Forwarding(CEF). CEF switching l mt iu cn trc cho c tnh MPLS v phi chy trn tt c router trong mng.

- Chy IP trn router 2: Ch router 2 khng phi thnh phn mng MPLS

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- Chy IP trn router 1: Ch router 1 khng phi thnh phn mng MPLS.

- Chy MPLS trn router 4: Router 4 l mt router nhn bin.CEF v dc tnh MPLS phi c cho php trn router ny. Committed Access Rate (CAR) cng cu hnh trn router 4 trn giao din POS3/0/0(xem theo cc mc cu hnh CAR ).

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- Cu hnh CAR. Dng 3 v 4 ca cu hnh mu bao gm CAR rate polocies. ng 3 thit lp committed information rate (CIR) ti 155,000,000 bits v normal burst/maximum burst size ti 200,000/800,000 bytes .hot ng ph hp thit lp IP c t trc v truyn gi theo tc gii hn .vt hn hot ng thit lp IP mc u tin trc v truyn gi khi gi vt tc gi hn.

- Chy MPLS trn router 3. Router 3 chy MPLS .CEF v c tnh MPLS phi c cho php trn router ny .router 3bao gn cc giao din c cu hnh cho WRED,Multi-VC,per VC WRED,WFQ, v CAR, theo mc ny bao gm mu cu hnh.

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- Cu hnh point-to-point WRED. Lnh cu hnh WRED trn giao din ATM . trong v d ny cu lnh thc hin ti mt cng p ng PA-A1.

- Cu hnh mt giao din cho Multi-VC Mode. Lnh cu hnh giao din ATM1/1/0 cho ch multi-VC.trong v d ny lnh ti cng p ng PA-A1.

- Cu hnh WRED v Multi-VC trn mt giao din cng p ng PA-A3 . Lnh cu hnh mt giao din cng p ng PA-A3 c hi khc so vi lnh cu hnh trn PA-A1. Trn mt PA-A3 ,(D)WRED th ch h tr per-VC, khng trn giao din cu hnh mt PA-A3 .thc hin theo cu lnh sau.

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- Cu hnh trn VC WRED. Lnh cu hnh trn VC WRED trn mt PA-A3 port adapter. Ch PA-A1 port adapter khng h tr k thut per-VC WRED drop.

- Cu hnh WRED v WFQ. Dng 5 v 6 ca mu cu hnh bao gm lnh cu hnh cho WRED v WFQ trn giao din Hssi2/1/0.

- Cu hnh CAR.

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Dng 3 v 4 ca cu hnh mu bao gm CAR rate policies , dng 3 thit lp CIR ti 155,000,000 bits v normal burst/maximum burst size ti 200,000/800,000 bytes. s hot ng theo ng thit lp a ch IP u tin v truyn gi theo ng tc gii hn. s hot ng vt ra ngoi thit lp IP u tin v truyn gi khi gi vt ra ngoi tc gii hn.

- Chy MPLS trn router 5. Router 5 th chy c tnh MPLS .CEF v c tnh MPLS phi c cho php trn router ny. Router 5 c cu hnh to ra mt phn giao din ATM trong ch multi-VC v to ra mt PVC trn mt phn giao din point-to-point. Trong phn ny bao gm cc cu hnh mu.

- V d cu hnh giao din ATM. Lnh to ra mt giao din ATM.

- V d cu hnh mt phn giao din ATM MPLS trong ch Multi-VC. Lnh to ra mt giao din nh MPLS trong ch multi-VC

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- Cu hnh mt PVC trn mt phn giao din point-to-point. Lnh to ra mt PVC trn mt phn giao din point-to-point(giao din ATM1/0/0.2).

C- hy MPLS trn router 6. Router 6 chy c tnh MPLS .CEF v c tnh MPLS phi c cho php trn router ny.

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- Cu hnh ATM Switch 2 Switch 2 th c cu hnh cho MPLS v to ra mt ATM Forum PVC.

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- Cu hnh ATM Switch 1. Switch 1 th c cu hnh to ra mt ATM Forum PVC.

Cu hnh nhn VC v mt ATM Forum PVC. Dng 3 cu cu hnh mu bao gm lnh cu hnh cho mt ATM Forum PVC.

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4.3 M phng v thc nhim.


Xy dng m hnh mng li MPLS s dng phn mm dynapic M hnh nh hnh v:
LSR 2 Nng Lo 0 10.10.10.2 S1/0
10 .1 0. 10 .4

S2/0
0 . 4/3 1 .1 10.

Lo 0 10.10.10.1

10 .1 .1 .0 /3 0

Mng IP
LER1

S1/0
10 .1. 1 .1 2/ 3 0

S1/0 S2/0 10.1.1.8/30 Mng MPLS

01 Lo S1/0

0. 3 0 .1 0.1

Lo

Lo 0 10.10.10.5

S1/0 S3/0 10.1.1


0 .16/3

Mng IP
LER 2

S3/0 LSR 1 H Ni

S2/0

LSR 3 TP HCM

Hnh 33 Trong m hnh gm : Trong m hnh trn m phng mng ng trc ca Vit Nam gm 3 router li t ti H Ni, Nng, TP.HCM s dng MPLS v 2 router bin dng chuyn tip t mng IP (Hoc l cc mng khc ) vo mng MPLS Trong mng li c LSR1, LSR 2, LSR 3 + LSR 1 l b nh tuyn li h ni + LSR 2 L b nh tuyn li Nng + LSR 3 L b nh tuyn TP.HCM Mng bin gm: LER 1, LER2 c s dng kt ni mng ngoi vo mng li MPLS. Trong m hnh trn IP c s dng l gii 10.0.0.0. Trong phn ny ta s dng cu hnh MPLS c bn trn nn OSPF

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4.3.1. Cc bc cu hnh nh sau: Lnh Bc 1 Router(config)#ip cef Mc ch Cho php thc hin CEF , CEF l mt thnh phn quan trng trong chuyn mch nhn v chu trch nhim sp xp v ci t nhn trong MPLS Cu hnh giao thc nh tuyn OSPF Cho php giao thc phn phi nhn l LDP hay TDP Gn LDP router ID. LDP s dng a ch IP ln nht trn interface lookback nh l mt LDP router ID Cho php IPv4 MPLS hay chuyn tip nhn trn giao tip

Bc 2 Router(config)#router ospf process-id


Router(config-router)#network ipaddress wild-card mask area area-id mpls label protocol {ldp | tdp} {interface | ip-address} [force]

Bc 3 Router(config)#mpls ldp router-id

Bc 4 Router(config-if)#mpls ip /tag-switching
IP

Trong qu trnh m phng em xy dng cc router bng cch s dng h iu hnh (IOS) ca router dng 7200 c tch hp tnh nng MPLS chy trn phn mn m phng phn cng Dynapic v em c s dng router bin kt ni quan my tnh kim tra s kt ni gia mng IP v mng MPLS v kt qu thu c khi kin tra c biu din di y: Kim tra hot ng : Trng xmit/recv th hin giao tip dng truyn v nhn cc gi LDP discovery hello Mt s nhn c bit: Untagged: Gi MPLS n c chuyn thnh gi IP v chuyn tip ti ch. N c dung trong thc thi MPLS VPN Nhn Implicit-null hay POP: Nhn ny c gn khi nhn trn (top label) ca gi MPLS n b bc ra v gi MPLS hay IP c chuyn tip ti trm k xui dng. Nhn ny c dung trong MPLS cho nhng trm k cui. Nhn Explicit :c gn gi gi tr P cho nhn trn (top label ) ca gi n Nhn trn c hon i vi gi tr 0 v chuyn tip mt gi MPLS ti trm k xui dng. Nhn ny c s dng khi thc hin QoS vi MPLS.

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Nhn Aggregate: vi nhn ny , khi gi MPLS n n b bc tt c nhn trong chng nhn tr thnh mt gi IP v thc hin tra ku trong FIB xc nh giao tip ng ra cho n. Cc lnh kim tra hot ng: show ip route: kim tra bng nh tuyn show mpls forwardingtable: dng kim tra bng chuyn tip MPLS show mpls forwardingtable detail: dng kim tra bng chuyn tip MPLS chi tit show mpls ldp bindings: kim tra s gn nhn ti cc ch 4.3.2. Kt qu thu c sau khi tin hnh m phng : Di y l kt qu thu c ti cc router H Ni, nng V bin R4 Ti Router HANI: HANOI#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks C 10.1.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial2/0 C 10.1.1.12/30 is directly connected, Serial3/0 O 10.10.10.3/32 [110/65] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:03, Serial1/0 C 10.1.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0 C 10.10.10.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0 O 10.10.10.4/32 [110/65] via 10.1.1.14, 00:00:03, Serial3/0 O 10.1.1.4/30 [110/128] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:03, Serial1/0 O 10.1.1.16/30 [110/65] via 10.1.1.14, 00:00:03, Serial3/0 HANOI# HANOI#show mpls forwarding-table Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Untagged 10.10.10.4/32 0 Se3/0 point2point 17 Untagged 10.1.1.4/30 0 Se2/0 point2point 18 Untagged 10.10.10.2/32 48 Se2/0 point2point 19 Pop tag 10.10.10.3/32 0 Se1/0 point2point 20 Untagged 10.1.1.16/30 0 Se3/0 point2point

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HANOI# HANOI#show mpls forwarding-table detail Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.10.10.4/32 0 Se3/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.4/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-destination load-sharing, slots: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 Untagged 10.10.10.2/32 658 Se2/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=0/0, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 19 Pop tag 10.10.10.3/32 512 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 20 Pop tag 10.1.1.16/30 0 Se3/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing HANOI# HANOI#show tag-switching tdp bindings tib entry: 10.1.1.0/30, rev 17 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: tib entry: 10.1.1.4/30, rev 12 local binding: tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.8/30, rev 24 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 16

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remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.12/30, rev 6 local binding: t remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 17 tib entry: 10.1.1.16/30, rev 21 local binding: tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 21 tib entry: 10.10.10.1/32, rev 8 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 18 tib entry: 10.10.10.2/32, rev 14 local binding: tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.10.10.3/32, rev 19 local binding: tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 20 tib entry: 10.10.10.4/32, rev 10 local binding: tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.3:0, tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.4:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 19 HANOI# Ti Router Nng: DANANG#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set

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10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 9 subnets, 2 masks O 10.1.1.8/30 [110/128] via 10.1.1.1, 00:01:47, Serial1/0 [110/128] via 10.1.1.6, 00:01:47, Serial2/0 O 10.1.1.12/30 [110/128] via 10.1.1.1, 00:01:47, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.2/32 [110/65] via 10.1.1.6, 00:01:47, Serial2/0 C 10.10.10.3/32 is directly connected, Loopback0 C 10.1.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.1/32 [110/65] via 10.1.1.1, 00:01:47, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.4/32 [110/129] via 10.1.1.1, 00:01:47, Serial1/0 C 10.1.1.4/30 is directly connected, Serial2/0 O 10.1.1.16/30 [110/129] via 10.1.1.1, 00:01:47, Serial1/0 DANANG# DANANG#show mpls forwarding-table Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se2/0 point2point 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.12/30 0 Se1/0 point2point 18 Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 Se1/0 point2point 19 Pop tag 10.10.10.2/32 0 Se2/0 point2point 20 16 10.10.10.4/32 0 Se1/0 point2point 21 20 10.1.1.16/30 0 Se1/0 point2point DANANG# DANANG#show mpls forwarding-table detail Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-destination load-sharing, slots: 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se2/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-destination load-sharing, slots: 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.12/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 18 Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847

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No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 19 Pop tag 10.10.10.2/32 0 Se2/0 point2point Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 20 16 10.10.10.4/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{16} 0F008847 00010000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 21 20 10.1.1.16/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{20} 0F008847 00014000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing DANANG# DANANG#show tag-switching tdp bindings tib entry: 10.1.1.0/30, rev 23 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.4/30, rev 28 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 17 tib entry: 10.1.1.8/30, rev 8 local binding: tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.12/30, rev 10 local binding: tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.16/30, rev 18 local binding: tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 20 tib entry: 10.10.10.1/32, rev 12 local binding: tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 18

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remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.10.10.2/32, rev 14 local binding: tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 18 tib entry: 10.10.10.3/32, rev 6 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 19 tib entry: 10.10.10.4/32, rev 16 local binding: tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.2:0, tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 16 DANANG# Ti Router bin R4: R4#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 9 subnets, 2 masks O 10.1.1.8/30 [110/128] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 C 10.1.1.12/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.2/32 [110/129] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.3/32 [110/129] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 O 10.1.1.0/30 [110/128] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 O 10.10.10.1/32 [110/65] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 O 10.1.1.4/30 [110/192] via 10.1.1.13, 00:04:53, Serial1/0 C 10.10.10.4/32 is directly connected, Loopback0 C 10.1.1.16/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet2/0 R4# R4#show mpls forwarding-table Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.0/30 0 Se1/0 point2point 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point

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18 19 20 21 R4#

Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 17 10.1.1.4/30 0 18 10.10.10.2/32 0 19 10.10.10.3/32 0

Se1/0 point2point Se1/0 point2point Se1/0 point2point Se1/0 point2point

R4#show mpls forwarding-table Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing N tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.0/30 0 Se1/0 point2point 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point 18 Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 Se1/0 point2point 19 17 10.1.1.4/30 0 Se1/0 point2point 20 18 10.10.10.2/32 0 Se1/0 point2point 21 19 10.10.10.3/32 0 Se1/0 point2point R4#show mpls forwarding-table detail Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.0/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sh 18 Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 19 17 10.1.1.4/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{17} 0F008847 00011000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 20 18 10.10.10.2/32 0 Se1/0 point2point Local Outgoing Prefix B tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{18} 0F008847 00012000 No output feature configured

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Per-packet load-sharing 21 19 10.10.10.3/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{19} 0F008847 00013000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing R4#show mpls forwarding-table detail Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface 16 Pop tag 10.1.1.0/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 17 Pop tag 10.1.1.8/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 18 Pop tag 10.10.10.1/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/4, MRU=1504, Tag Stack{} 0F008847 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 19 17 10.1.1.4/30 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{17} 0F008847 00011000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 20 18 10.10.10.2/32 0 Se1/0 point2point Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes tag Outgoing Next Hop tag tag or VC or Tunnel Id switched interface MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{18} 0F008847 00012000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing 21 19 10.10.10.3/32 0 Se1/0 point2point MAC/Encaps=4/8, MRU=1500, Tag Stack{19} 0F008847 00013000 No output feature configured Per-packet load-sharing R4# tib entry: 10.1.1.0/30, rev 8 local binding: tag: 16 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null

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tib entry: 10.1.1.4/ local binding: tag: 19 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 17 tib entry: 10.1.1.8/30, rev 10 local binding: tag: 17 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.12/30, rev 19 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.1.1.16/30, rev 23 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 20 tib entry: 10.10.10.1/32, rev 12 local binding: tag: 18 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: imp-null tib entry: 10.10.10.2/32, rev 16 local binding: tag: 20 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 18 tib entry: 10.10.10.3/32, rev 21 local binding: tag: 21 remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 19 tib entry: 10.10.10.4/32, rev 4 local binding: tag: imp-null remote binding: tsr: 10.10.10.1:0, tag: 16 R4#

Kt lun chng
Trong chng ny gii thiu v cu hnh MPLS trn thit b Cisco nh router 7200/7500, ATM switch trong gii thiu v cu hnh MPLS mc iu khin, cu hnh VPN trn nn MPLS, cu hnh cht lng dch v trn MPLS. Trong chng ny cng nu ra cc v d v cc cu hnh trn. c bit trong chng ny cng xin nu ra mt thc nghim Trn phn mm gi lp Dynapic v d m phng xy dng mng li MPLS trn nn OSPF gm 3 router 7200.

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KT LUN
Trc s pht trin mnh m ca cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng cng vi s bng n nh v bo ca internet, internet xm nhp vo mi lnh vc trong i sng x hi cng vi n l s pht trin ca cc phng tin truyn thng v nhu cu ngy cng tng cao ca ngi s dng vi su hng pht trin mng hi t cung cp cc dch v vi bng thng ln v cht lng dch v theo nhu cu ca ngi s dng (QoS ). khin cho nhu cu pht trin h tng mng p ng nhu cu l cp thit. MPLS l cng ngh c th p th p ng c nhu cu vi kh nng nh chuyn mch gi tc cao, kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v theo yu cu ca ngi s dng, kh nng iu khin lu lng, ri c th hot ng trn nn ca tt c cc mng hin ti nh mng IP, mng ATM, mng Frame Relay V vy cng ngh MPLS c nhiu nc trn th gii tin hnh trin khai, Vit Nam cng ngh MPLS cng c Tng cng ty Bu Chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT ) tin hnh trin khai cho mng th h sau (NGN) ca mnh. V vy trong lun vn ny em xin Trnh by tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc ( MPLS ), trong em xin nu ra nhng khi nin c bn v cng ngh (MPLS), nhng thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS, s hot ng ca mng MPLS, trong lun vn cng gii thiu v cc cu lnh v cc bc cu hnh cho mng MPLS trn thit b Cisco nh l cu hnh c bn mng MPLS, cu hnh QoS, VPN trn nn MPLS. c bit trong em cng nu ra v d v kt qu em tin hnh m phng mng li chy MPLS trn nn OSPF s dng phn mm m phng Dynapic. MPLS l mt ti rt hay v rng ln ngoi nhng vn cp trong lun vn cn rt nhiu vn khc na nh VPN trn nn MPLS, MPLS trn nn mn Frame Relay v trong khun kh mt ti tt nghip em chi xin nu ra mt s phn c bn ca cng ngh MPLS. Tuy nhin do thi gian khng cho php cng vi trnh c hn, trong thi gian lm ti em cng c gng ht sc tm hiu nghim cu v cng ngh MPLS phc v cho ti ca mnh nhng v cng ngh MPLS l mt cng ngh mi vit nam v n l mt vn ln v vy ti liu v MPLS cng rt nhiu c ti liu chnh xc c ti liu cha chnh xc. v vy lun vn ny cng khng th trnh khi sai xt v hn ch, em mong c kin ng gp ca cc thy c gio. Em xin chn thnh cm n!

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THUT NG V VIT TT
ALL5 ABR ADM AF ARIS ARP AS ASIC ASTN ATM BBRAS BCF BGP BL BT BTT CAR C/R CBR CBS CDR CE CEF CIR CLP CPE CoS CR CR CSPF CSR CQ DLCI DVMRP DWDM ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Lp tng thch ATM 5 Available Bit Rate tc bt kh dng Add-Drop Multiplexer B ghp xen knh ATM Forum Din n ATM Aggregate Route-Base IP Chuyn mch ATM theo Switching Phng php tng hp tuyn Address Resolution protocol Giao thc phn gii a ch Autonomoust System H t tr(t qun) Application Specific Integrated Mch tch hp cc ng dng Circuit c bit Autonomous Switched Mng truyn ti chuyn mch Transpost Network t ng Asynchronous Transfer Mode Phng thc truyn dn khng ng ng b Broad Band Remote My ch truy nhp t xa bng thng Access server rng Bear Control Function Khi chc nng iu khin ti tin border Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn cng bin burst Limit Gii hn cm burst Tolerance Dung sai cm Bidirectional Traffic Trunk trung k lu lng hai hng Committed Access Rate Command Response p ng yu cu constant Bit Rate Tc bt khng i Committed Burst Size Kch thc cm cho php Committed Data Rate Tc d liu cho php Custumer Edge Thit b nh tuyn bin pha Khch hng Cisco express forwarding Committed Information Rate Cell Loss Priority u tin mt mt t bo Customer Premise Equipment Thit b pha khch hng Cost Of Service Gi thnh dch v Cell Router B nh tuyn t bo Committed Rate Tc cho php contrained Shortest Path First Giao thc nh tuyn tm ng ngn nht Cell Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch t bo Custom Queuing Hng i khch hng Data Link Connection Nhn dng kt ni lp lin kt d liu Identifier Distance Vector Multicast Giao thc nh tuyn a hng theo Routing Protocol vc t khong cch Density-Ware Division Ghp knh phn chia theo mt Multiplexing bc sng

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN EBS ECR EGP ER ETSI FA FEC FIFO FIB FMP FR FTN GMPLS GFC GR HDLC HEC ICMP ICR IGP IN IPOA IPOS IPX ISDN IS-IS LAN LB LCN LC-ATM nh LDP LER LFIB LIB Excess Burst Size Kch thc cm vt gii hn Egress Cell Router B nh tuyn t bo li ra Edge Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn cng bin Explicit Routing nh tuyn hin European telecommunication Standard institute Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u Forwarding Adjacence Chuyn tip cn k forwarding Equivalence Nhm chuyn tip tng ng Class First-in,First-Out Vo trc ,ra trc Forwarding Information C s thng tin chuyn tip Base Flow Management Giao thc qun l lung Protocol Frame Relay Chuyn tip khung FEC-to-NHLFE Sp xp FEC vo NHLFE Generalized Multiprotocol Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng Label Switching qut Generic Flow control iu khin lung chung Guaranteed Rate Tc bo v Hight-Level Data Linhk iu khin lin kt d liu mc Control cao Header Error Control Internet Control Message Protocol Ingress Cell Router Interior Gateway Protoccol Intelligent IP over ATM Ip over SONET IP eXchange Integrateed Service Digital Network Intermediate SystemIntermediate System Local Area Network Local Binning Logic Chanel Number Label Controlled ATM Interface Label Distribution Protocol Label Edge Router Label Forwarding Information base Label Information Base iu khin li tiu Giao thc iu khin bn tin internet B nh tuyn t bo li ra Giao thc nh tuyn cng trong min Network Mng thng minh IP trn nn ATM IP trn nn SONET Giao thc IPX Mng s lin kt a dch v tch hp Giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS Mng cc b S lin kt cc b S knh logic Giao din ATM c iu khin nhn Giao thc phn phi nhn B nh tuyn nhn bin C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn C s thng tin nhn

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN LIS LMP LPF LSP LSR LVC MAC Logical IP Subnet Link Management Protocol Logic Port Function Label Switched Path Label Switching Router Label Virtual Circuit Media Access Controler Mng con IP logic Giao thc qun l knh Chc nng cng logic Tuyn chuyn mch nhn B nh tuyn chuyn mch Nhn Thit b iu khin truy nhp mc phng tin truyn thng B nh tuyn nhiu Gigabyte Cng chuyn i phng tin Thit b iu khin MG C s d liu thng tin qun l Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS trn nn ATM Mng th h sau Phng thc gi gi tin gn nhn chng tip theo Giao thc phn gii a ch chng tip theo B nhn dng giao thc lp mng Giao din mng Khi chc nng giao din dch v mng Giao thc nh tuyn m ng ngn nht u tin n v d liu giao thc thit b nh tuyn pha nh Cung cp Trng nhn dng giao thc Giao din nt nt ring Giao thc im im Hng i c u tin Thnh phn iu khin b nh tuyn vt l Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng Trng nhn dng ti tin Knh o c nh Cht lng dch v Cc ti liu chun IP Do IETF ra Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn S t trc Giao thc dnh trc ti Nguyn (h tr QOS)

MGR MultiGigabyte Router MG Media Gateway MGC Media Gateway Controler MIB Management Information Base MPLS MultiProtocol Label Switching MPOA MPLS over ATM NGN Next Generation Network NHLFE Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry NHRP Next Hop Resolution Protocol NLPID Network Layer Protocol Identifer NNI Network-Network Interface NSIF Network Service Interface Function OSPF Open Shortest Path First PDU PE PIN PNNI PPP PQ PRCC PSTN PTI PVC QOS RFC RIP RESV RSVP Protocol Data Unit Provider Edge protocol ID Private Node to Note Interface Point to Point Protocol Priority Queuing Physical Router Controler Compoment Public Switch Telephone Network Payload Type Identifer Permanent Virtual Circuit Quality Of Service Request For Comment Routing Information Protocol Reservation Resource Reservation Protocol

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN SAR Segmentation And Reassembly SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SGF Signallig Gateway Function SLA Service Level Agreement SNAP Service Node Aceess Point SNI Signalling Network Interface SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol SONET Synchronous Optical Network SP SPF Service Provider Shortest Path First Phn mng v hp nht gi tin H thng phn cp ng b Khi chc nng cng bo hiu Tho thun mc dch v im truy cp mc dch v Giao din mng bo hiu Giao thc qun l mng n Mng truyn dn quang ng b Nh cung cp dch v phng thc nh tuyn ng ngn nht Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian thng k Knh o chuyn mch Giao thc iu khin truyn ti Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Giao thc phn phi th Thit b u cui C s thng tin chuyn tip Nhn C s thng tin th Cng trung k Gi tr chiu di (s nt) Loi dch v Thi gian sng Giao thc d liu ngi s dng giao din mng ngi dung Tc bt bin i Knh o Knh kt ni o Trng nhn dng knh o Dch v mng o Trng nhn dng ng o Mng ring o Trng nhn dng mng ring o B nh tuyn o Khi iu khin chuyn mch o Khi chc nng iu khin chuyn mch o Khi chc nng chuyn mch o Ghp knh phn chia theo

STDM Statistical Time Division Multiplexing SVC Switched Virtual Circuit TCP Transport Control Protocol TDM Time Division Multiplexing TDP TE TFIB TIB TGW TLV TOS TTL UDP Tag Distribution Protocol Terminal Equipment Tag Forwardimg Information base Tag Information Base Trunking Gateay Type-Lenth-Value Type Of Service Time To Live User Data Protocol

UNI User Network Interface VBR Variable Bit Rate VC Virtual Circuit VCC Virtual Channel Connection VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier VCID Virtual Circuit ID VNS Virtual Network Service VPI Virtual Path Identifier VPN Virtual Private Network VPNIDVirtual Private Network Identifier VR Virtual Router VSC Virtual Switch Controler VSCF VSF WDM Virtual Switch Controler Function Virtual Switch Function Wave Division Multiplexing

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Nguyn Ngc Thnh Trng i Hc Cng Ngh_HQGHN bc sng Hm i theo trng s

WFQ Weighted Factor Queue WEPD Weighted Early Packet Discard

Ti liu tham kho [1] Cng ngh chuyn chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS, tng cng ty bu chnh vin thng vit nam Trung tm thong tin bu in [2] William Starlling, High-Speed Network: TCP/IP and ATM design Principles, Prenti Hall, 1998. [3] IP and ATM : Current Evolution for integrated Service , IC-techreport-199802, 1998. [4] http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6557/products_ios_technology_home.html rg/html.charters/mpls-charter.html [5] http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/mpls/topic05.html [6] http://www.iec.org/ [7] http://www.netcraftsmen.net/welcher/papers/mplsintro.html [8] http://www.vnpro.vn [9] http:// www.cisco.com

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