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Joshua Jimison Mrs. Chapman English III AP- 4A 11 April 2012 Robotics in Surgery

Surgeons are perhaps some of the most intelligent, coordinated, and patient people in the world. They must know the human anatomy inside and out and they must maneuver their hands and instruments inside an individual's body with precision. An operation can be as short as twenty-four minutes to as long as twenty-four hours. By the time surgeons have concluded an excruciatingly long operation, they are mentally exhausted and want to relax for a little while, but they can't. When they look at their schedule they spot that there is yet another surgery that needs to be completed, and then the cycle starts all over again. Surgical robots provide a solution to surgeons' problems. Surgical robots assist surgeons during an operation, and make the operation less of a burden on the surgeon. With surgical robots aiding surgeons in surgery, the surgeons can place a larger percentage of their intellect on producing a better outcome for the patient. The stimulus for developing surgical robots comes from the desire to overcome the limitations of the surgeon and the current technologies that are being used in surgical operations today.

Robots are being used to "manufacture microprocessors used in computers, explore the deep sea, and work in hazardous environments" (Lanfranco); however, they have been slow to enter the field of medicine. Many people are skeptical about using

robots in surgeries because they fear that the droid may malfunction and just slice the patient in half involuntarily while others are more complacent with the surgery being conducted with a surgeon's hands and nothing else. Yes, it is possible for these robots to malfunction, and that is a risk that surgeons are willing to take. If no one took risks, the field of medicine would progress absolutely nowhere, and people would not be provided with the kind of healthcare that is available today. The attribute that the majority of individuals overlook is that all robots are prone for error. A construction crane is a robot that is used almost every day around buildings. This robot could easily malfunction and possibly damage a building severely injuring the people inside. The only reason why people become paranoid at the thought of robots in surgery is because they will be inside a human being's body. Despite the potential to malfunction, surgical robots will open the door for innovations in the field of medicine.

The use of robotics in surgery has many advantages. Two of these advantages are an increase in dexterity and of proper hand-eye coordination. Not all surgeries are easily completed. Sometimes surgeons must twist and turn their hands in awkward, arduous positions to reach a certain area inside the body. Robots that have increased mobility improve the surgeon's ability to manipulate instruments by a great margin which, in turn, allows the tissues to be manipulated as well. These systems can also scale movements so that the surgeons movements are transformed into smaller, precise movements. A computer filters out any tremors in the surgeons handmaking more precise cuts than if the tools were held by hand (Coledan). These advantages not only benefit the surgeon, but the patient as well. Since the surgeon will be able to make

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smaller incisions with the help of the robot, the patient's "hospital stays are shorter, if necessary at all...convalescence is significantly reduced...and [the patient has a] better postoperative immune function"(Desai).

These systems afford a remarkable visual enhancement. Without these robots, surgeons would operate by "moving [their] instruments while watching a twodimensional video monitor.... [They would have to] move the instrument in the opposite direction from the desired target on the monitor to interact with the sight of interest"(Castellanos). Surgical robots have evolved from the conventional laparoscopic camera view. These systems contain dual cameras that provide the surgeon with a three-dimensional view with perception and depth. The surgeon is able to directly control a stable visual field along with increased magnification and maneuverability. The surgeon will have a tremendous view of the inside of the patient and will be able to place their focus on the much more intense parts of the surgery. The camera, plus the increased dexterity and proper hand-eye coordination, equals "a better quality outcome for more complex procedures" (Alabi).

The use of robotics in surgery is even being incorporated onto the battlefield. There is a special kind of surgical droid that is used in a battlefield scenario. One of the best things about this robot is that surgeons "could actually carry it onto a gurney at a triage station" (Salkever).It costs a lot less than a typical surgical robot. Although, it cannot be used for major operations, but minor operations will suffice until the injured patient is able to be admitted into a hospital.

Even though robotics brings so much innovation to the field of medicine, they will not replace a surgeon, a doctor, or even a nurse. Robots are present to assist surgeons, not steal their occupation. There is no danger of surgical robots putting surgeons out of business. The robots can't work without the surgeons. There is no doubt that the use of surgical robots will become an important aspect of healthcare, but the extent of their use is still evolving

Works Cited Alabi, Maxine. Face-to-face interview. 2 Apr. 2012

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Coledan, Stefano, Brad Dunn, Scott Gourley, and Richard Schrader. "Robot Is A Real Cut-Up." Science Reference Center. EBSCO, June 98. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://http://web.ebscohost.com/scirc/detail?sid=dd0cdce8-38c2-48cd-9a94-8d4 458f1618a%40sessionmgr110&vid=5&hid=123&bdata=JnNpdGU9c2NpcmMtbGl 2ZQ%3d%3d#db=sch&AN=576365>.

Lanfranco, Anthony R., Andres E. Castellanos, Jaydev P. Desai, and William C. Meyers. "Robotic Surgery: A Current Perspective." Annals of Surgery. Pub Med Central, Jan. 2004. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article s/PMC1356187/>.

Salkever, Alex. "Doc In A Box." Science Reference Center. EBSCO, Mar. 2009. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://http://web.ebscohost.com/scirc/detail?sid=dd0cdce8-38c248cd-9a94-8d4458f1618a %40sessionmgr110&vid=5&hid=123&bdata=JnNpdGU9c2NpcmMtbGl2ZQ%3d %3d#db=sch&AN=37222292>.