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Tema 3.

Convoluciones continuas y discretas


Ejemplos de clculo grfico

Ingeniera de Telecomunicacin
Universidad de Valladolid

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

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Contenidos

Convoluciones discretas
Definicin y Propiedades
Ejemplos

Convoluciones continuas
Definicin y Propiedades
Ejemplos

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

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Convolucin discreta. Definicin y propiedades

Definicin
y [n] = x[n] h[n] =

x[k ]h[n k ]

Propiedades
Elemento neutro: x[n] [n] = x[n]

Conmutativa: x[n] h[n] = h[n] x[n]

Asociativa:
x[n] (h1 [n] h2 [n]) = (x[n] h1 [n]) h2 [n] = (x[n] h2 [n]) h1 [n] = x[n] h1 [n] h2 [n]
Distributiva: x[n] (h1 [n] + h2 [n]) = x[n] h1 [n] + x[n] h2 [n]

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 1
x[n] =

1
[n]
2

y [n] = x[n] h[n] =

+ 2[n 1]

h[n] = u[n] u[n 3]

X
k =

x[k ]h[n k ]

x[k]
h[k]

2
1

1
2

2 1

k
0

2 1

h[n k]

k
n2
y[n]
5
2

n < 0, y[n] = 0
n = 0, y[0] =

n
n1

n = 1, y[1] =
n = 2, y[2] =

n = 3, y[3] =
1
2

2 1

n
0

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

x[k]h[0 k] = x[0]h[0] =

1
2

k=

x[k]h[1 k] = x[0]h[1] + x[1]h[0] =

5
2

k=

x[k]h[2 k] = x[0]h[2] + x[1]h[1] =

5
2

x[k]h[3 k] = x[1]h[2] = 2

k=

P
k=

n > 3, y[n] = 0

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 2
y [n] =x[n] h[n] =

x[k ]h[n k ]

k =

x[n] = u[n],
h[n] = n u[n],

6= ,

0 < , < 1.

u[k ]

nk

u[n k ] =

k =

u[n k ].

nk

h[k]
k

k =0

x[k]

2 1

k
1

h[n k]
(nk)
k

n
n < 0, y[n] = 0

y[n]

n 0, y[n] =
y[n] =

n
P

k nk =

k=0

n+1 n+1

n+1 n+1
u[n]

n
2 1

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 3
(
x[n] =

1,
0,

(
n , 0 n 6
h[n] =
0,
resto

0n4
,
resto

y [n] = x[n] h[n] =

X
k =

x[k ]h[n k ]

x[k]
h[k]
k

1
k
2 1

k
1

h[n k]
(nk)

n < 0, y[n] = 0
n
P
n+1
nk = 1
0 n 4, y[n] =
1
(
k=0
4
P
n4
n>4
n+1
nk = 1
4 < n 6, y[n] =

n60
k=0
(
4
P
n4
n6>0
7
nk = 1
6 < n 10, y[n] =

n64
k=n6

k
n6

n
y[n]

n 6 > 4 n > 10, y[n] = 0


n
2 1

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 4

y [n] = x[n] h[n] =

x[n] = 2n u[n]

k =

h[n] = u[n]

x[k ]h[n k ]

h[k]

x[k]
1

5 4 3 2 1

h[n k]

2 1

k
n

0
y[n]
2

n < 0, y[n] =

1
1
16

1
8

1
4

1
2

5 4 3 2 1

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

n 0, y[n] =

n
P
k=
0
P

2k = 2n+1
2k = 2

k=

n
0

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 5
(
1, 0 n 5
,
0, resto

x[n] =

(
h[n] =

x[k]

h[k]

k
0

n
P

k=2

8 n 10, y[n] =

1=n1

7
P

k=n5

1 = 13 n

11 n 12, y[n] = 3
13 n 16, y[n] =
17 n 21, y[n] =
n 22, y[n] = 0

k
2

11

16

x[n k]

n < 2, y[n] = 0
2 n 7, y[n] =

2 n 7, 11 n 16
resto

1,
0,

n
P

k=11
16
P

1
n5

k
0

n
y[n]

6
5

1 = n 10

k=n5

1 = 22 n

5
4

5
4

3 3 3 3

1
n

0 1 2

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

6
5

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10

13

16

22

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Convolucin discreta. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 6
x[k]

h[k]

2
1

k
2 1

k
2

x[n k]

x[k + n]
2
1

1
1

k
n

y[n]
3
2
1

0
2 1

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin continua. Definicin y propiedades

Definicin
y (t) = x(t) h(t) =

x( )h(t )d

Propiedades
Elemento neutro: x(t) (t) = x(t)

Conmutativa: x(t) h(t) = h(t) x(t)


Asociativa:

x(t) [h1 (t) h2 (t)] = [x(t) h1 (t)] h2 (t) = [x(t) h2 (t)] h1 (t)
Distributiva: x(t) [h1 (t) + h2 (t)] = x(t) h1 (t) + x(t) h2 (t)

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin continua. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 1
eat u(t),

a>0

x(t) =
h(t) = u(t)

y (t) = x(t) h(t) =

x( )

x( )h(t )d

h( )

1
ea

h(t )

t
t < 0, y(t) = 0
Rt
t 0, y(t) = 0 ea d =

y(t)
1/a
t

y(t) =

1eat
a

1 eat
u(t), t
a

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

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Convolucin continua. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 2
(
x(t) =

1,
0,

0<t <T
,
resto

(
h(t) =

x( )

t, 0 < t < T
0, resto

2T

h( )

t 0, y(t) = 0
(
Rt
2
t>0

0 < t T, y(t) = 0 d = t2
tT 0
(
R
t T > 0,
t

T < t 2T, y(t) = tT d = tT 21 T 2


t 2T
(
R 2T
t > 2T,
2T < t 3T, y(t) = tT d = tT 21 t2 + 32 T 2

t T 2T

2T

x(t )

tT

t
y(t)

3T 2 /2

t T > 3T t > 3T, y(t) = 0


y(t) =
+

t2

u(t) 12 (t T )2 u(t T ) + 2T 2 12 t2 u(t 2T )+

2
3 2
t

tT

T
u(t

3T
)
2
2

`21

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

Sistemas Lineales

T 2 /2
t
0

2T

3T

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Convolucin continua. Ejemplos


Ejemplo 3
y (t) = x(t) h(t) =

e2t u(t)

x(t) =
h(t) = u(t 3)

x( )

x( )h(t )d

h( )

e2

h(t )

t3

0
t 3 < 0 t < 3, y(t) =

y(t)

t 3 0 t 3, y(t) =

1/2
t
0

M.. Martn Fernndez (ETSI Telecom.)

R t3
R
0

e2 d = 12 e2(t3)
e2 d =

1
2

i
1
1h
y(t) = e2(t3) +
1 e2(t3) u(t 3)
2
2

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