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Mail User Agent(MUA) MUA l chng trnh qun l th u cui cho php ngi dng c th c son tho v gi mail.

MUA c th ly th t mail server v x l(s dng giao thc POP)hoc chuyn th cho mt MUA khc thng qua MTA(s dng giao thc SMTP). MUA c th x l trc tip th ngay trn mail server (s dng giao thc IMAP). Chc nng chnh ca MUA l cung cp giao din cho ngi dng tng tc vi th,gm c: Son tho, gi th. Hin th th gm c cc tp tin nh km. Gi tr (Relay) hay chuyn tip th (Create New). nh km cc tp tin vo cc th gi i (Text, HTML, MIME). Thay i cc tham s (v d nh server c s dng,kiu hin th th,kiu m ha th). Thao tc trn cc th mc th a phng v xa. Cung cp s a ch th(danh b a ch). Lc th. Mail Transfer Agent(MTA) Khi cc th c gi n t MUA, MTA c nhim v nhn din ngi gi v ngi nhn t thng tin ng gi trong phn header v in cc thng tin cn thit vo header.Sau MTA s chuyn th cho MDA chuyn n hp th ngay ti MTA,hoc chuyn cho Remote MTA.

Vic chuyn giao cc th c cc MTA quyt nh da trn a ch ngi nhn. Nu n trng vi hp th do MTA (Local-MTA) qun l th th c chuyn cho MDA chuyn vo hp th. Nu a ch th b li, th c th c chuyn li ngi gi. Nu khng b li nhng khng phi l th ca MTA, tn min c s dng xc nh xem Remote MTA no s nhn th theo cc bn ghi MX trn h thng tn min. Khi cc MX xc nh c Remote MTA qun l tn min th khng c ngha l ngi nhn thuc Remote MTA m Remote MTA c th n gin ch trung chuyn (th) cho mt MTA khc,c th nh tuyn th cho a ch khc nh vai tr ca mt dch v domain o (domain gateway) hoc ngi nhn khng tn ti v Remote MTA s gi li cho MUA mt li cnh bo(warning).

Microsoft Exchange Server l mt MTA dng giao thc SMTP ng vai tr l mt SMTP Server lm nhim v phn phi th t vng ny sang vng khc. Mail Delivery Agent(MDA) L mt chng trnh c MTA s dng chuyn th vo hp th ca ngi dng.Ngoi ra MDA cn c kh nng lc th, nh hng thMTA c th tch hp mt hay nhiu MDA. Mt s khi nim Mailbox Mailbox l mt tp tin lu tr tt c cc mail ca ngi dng.Trn h thng Unix hoc Windows.Khi ta thm mt ti khon ngi dng vo h thng ng thi s to ra mt mailbox cho ngi dng .Thng thng tn ca mailbox trng vi tn ng nhp ca ngi dng.Khi c mail gi n cho ngi dng, chng trnh x l mail ca server cc b s phn phi mail

ny vo mailbox tng ng. Khi ngi dng ng nhp vo h thng v s dng mail client nhn mail (hoc telnet trc tip vo mail server nhn) POP Server s vo th mc cha mailbox ly mail t mailbox chuyn cho ngi dng. Thng thng, sau khi client nhn mail, cc mail trong mailbox s b xa.Tuy nhin,ngi dng cng c th yu cu gi li mail trn mailbox. Mail Queue (Hng i mail) Cc mail gi i c th c chuyn i ngay khi gi hoc cng c th c chuyn vo hng i.C nhiu nguyn nhn khin mt mail b gi li trong hng i: Khi mail c th tm thi cha chuyn i c hoc c mt s a ch trong danh sch ngi nhn cha th chuyn n c vo thi im hin ti. Mt s ty chn cu hnh yu cu lu tr mail vo hng i. Khi s lng tin trnh phn phi b tc nghn vt qu gii hn quy nh. Alias Mail Mt s phc tp thng gp trong qu trnh phn phi th l: Phn phi cho cng mt ngi qua nhiu a ch khc nhau. Phn phi n nhiu ngi nhng qua cng mt a ch. Kt ni th vi mt tp tin lu tr hoc dng cho cc mc ch khc nhau. Lc th thng qua cc chng trnh hay cc script. gii quyt cc vn trn ta phi s dng alias, alias l s thay th mt a ch ngi nhn bng mt hay nhiu a ch khc, a ch dng thay th c th l mt ngi nhn, mt danh sch ngi nhn, mt chng trnh, mt tp tin hay l s kt hp ca nhng loi ny. Mi quan h gia Mail v DNS Server Dch v DNS v Mail l hai dch v c mi quan h mt thit vi nhau.Dch v Mail da vo dch v DNS chuyn mail t mng bn trong ra bn ngoi v ngc li.Khi chuyn mail, Mail Server nh DNS tm MX record xc nh my ch no cn chuyn mai n. [color=indigo][u]C php record MX: [Domain_name] IN MX [priority] [Mail_Host] Thng qua vic khai bo trn cho tao bit tng ng vi domain name c nh x trc tip vo Mail Host ch nh my ch nhn v x l mail cho tn min. V d: abc.com IN MX 0 mailserver.abc.com.