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TRNG I HC IN LC KHOA IN T VIN THNG --------

BI TIU LUN
Mn Tng Quan V Viba

H NI-2011

TRNG I HC IN LC KHOA IN T VIN THNG --------

BI TIU LUN
Mn Tng Quan V Viba
Nhm1: Nguyn Vn Lun Nguyn Duy Bo

ti : Tm hiu v thit b viba s DM2G-1000

H NI-2011

Mc Lc
PhnI - Tng qut v thit b vi ba s DM2G 1000. ...................... .5 I.1 Gii thiuchung .......................................................................... ..... 5 I.1.1 c im thit b ........................................................................... 5 I.1.2 Kt cu thit b .............................................................................. 5 I.1.3 Cu hnh h thng ..........................................................................6 I.1.4 Cc ch tiu k thut ...................................................................... 7 I.2 Chc nng cc khi .......................................................................... 8 I.2.1 Khi pht (Tx) ............................................................................... 9 I.2.2 Khi thu (Rx) ...............................................................................12 I.2.3 Khi bng tn c s B/U U/B .....................................................16 I.2.4 Khi knh nghip v s DSC 2.....................................................19 I.2.5 Khi hin th DSPL ......................................................................22

I.2.6 Gim st v iu khin .................................................................22 Phn II- Phn tch phn my pht thit b DM2G 1000 .................... 24 II.1 Khi dao ng ni (OSC) ............................................................... 26 II.1.1 S nguyn l khi dao ng ni (OSC) ................................. 26 II.1.2 Tng qut s nguyn l ca khi .......................................... 26 II.1.3 Phn tch mch trn s ........................................................... 26 II.1.4 Nguyn l hot ng .................................................................. 29 II.2 Khi MOD CONT ........................................................................ 29 II.2.1S nguyn l cu khi ............................................................. 31 II.2.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch .......................................... 33 II.3.1 S nguyn l khi iu ch .................................................. .33 II.3.2 Tng quan s nguyn l khi ................................................ 33

II.3.3 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch .......................................... 35 II.4 Khi khuych i cng sut siu cao tn ..................................... 36 II.4.1 Tng quan s nguyn l khi HPA ........................................36 II.4.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch .......................................... 39

Phn I

Gii Thiu Chung

I.1.1. c im thit b

DM2G - 1000 l thit b vi ba s c dung lng l 16 Mbit/s (gm 8 lung 2Mbit/s), t hp cc khi chc nng cn thit, bao gm c phn Radio v Modem trong mt khung gi my n. Tt c cc khi chc nng c chia ra trn mt s mch in nh, gn nh vi tch hp linh kin cao. DM2G - 1000 d ng gi, vn chuyn, lp rp v d dng cho vic kim tra li tuyn. Thit b bao gm nhng chc nng chnh nh sau: -Ngun cung cp -Thu pht v tuyn -iu ch v gii iu ch -Knh nghip v -Phn nhnh RF -Panel hin th cc ch tiu k thut c bn -Kim tra v gim st -iu khin v gim st t xa I.1.2 Kt cu thit b

Tt c cc mch chc nng v khi mng phn nhnh (BR NTWK) gm cc khi: ngun, pht, thu, iu khin, gim st, knh nghip v... nm gn trong mt thng kim loi. Mt trc thng c th c tho ri quan st. Khi mng phn nhnh (BR NTWK) c gn vo khong khng gian pha di cc khi mch (y thng). *Danh mc cc khi chc nng + Khi pht (TX) + Khi x l pht (TDP) + Khi dao ng (OSC) + Khi iu ch (MOD) + Khi khuych i cao tn (HPA) + Khi thu (RX) + Khi nhn v gii iu ch IF (IF DEM)

+ Khi chuyn i tn hiu thu (R CONV) + Khi bng tn c s (B-U/U-B) + Khi gim st logic (SVLG1) + Khi knh nghip v (DSC2) + Khi ngun (PS) + Khi hin th (DSPL) + Khi chuyn mch (TSW) + Khi chuyn mch thu (RSW) + Khi mch phn nhnh (BR NTWK) I.1.3 Cu hnh h thng . DM2G - 1000 c th phc v linh hot cho cc tuyn vi ba c nh ni chung v cc trm vi ba di ng ni ring. Trong phm vi c nh, DM2G - 1000 c th to thng mt trm u cui, mt trm chuyn tip hoc mt trm trung gian c xen r. Chng ta biu din mt tuyn vi hai trm u cui dng thit thit b DM2G -1000 theo cu hnh 1+0 nh hnh v sau (ch minh ho mt chiu).

S ng dng DM2G - 1000 cho mt tuyn cu hnh 1+0

+ Thit b khng c d phng 1+0. + Cu hnh 1+1: Thit b d phng nng (s tng t nh trn nhng c hai khi pht v hai khi thu i km cc chuyn mch pht v cc chuyn mch thu). + Cu hnh n+1: C rt nhiu my hot ng nhng ch c mt my d phng cho c n my. I.1.4 Cc ch tiu k thut

a- c tnh v tuyn. Thit b DM2G - 1000 hot ng trn mt di tn t 2000 n 2100 v 2200 n 2300 (MHz) Trong bng tn cho, tn s c chia thnh 5,6 cp cc cp ny thng i vi nhau. DM2G - 1000 vi tn s trung bnh 2GHz c chia thnh 5 cp sau y: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2038 2052 2066 2080 2094 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2213,5 2227,5 2241,5 2255,5 2269,5

n v: MHz. Nh vy bc nhy lin tip gi hai tn s l 14 MHz, khong cch gia tn s thu v tn s pht l 175 MHz. Cc tn s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, gi l tn s thp. Cc tn s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, gi l tn s cao. b- c tnh c kh v iu kin hot ng. -Kch thc vt l: + Rng : 448mm + Cao : 325mm + Su : 450mm

-Khi lng: 30 kg -iu kin v ngun: in p mt chiu cung cp (DC) l -24V hoc -48V (-19V n -60V). -iu kin v mi trng: + Nhit xung quanh: 0 n 45oC + m tng i: Ti 95% + cao t my: c 4000 m so vi mc nc bin (thng li dng a hnh i, ni, vng cao). I.2 Chc nng cc khi

S khi tng qut my DM2G 1000 Tng quan s gm c: + Khi pht: 2 khi trong c cu d phng nng TX No1 v TX No2 + Khi thu: Cng gm hai khi RX No1 v RX No2 + Khi bng tn c s: B-U/U-B + Khi knh nghip v s: DSC2 + Khi logic gim st: SVLG1 + Khi hin th: DSPL1 (Display 1) I.2.1 Khi pht (TX).

V TX No1 ging ht TX No2 nn ta trnh by vi 1 trong 2 thit b:

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S khi pht Khi pht gm 4 khi chc nng sau: + Khi x l d liu pht (TDP) + Khi dao ng (OSC) + Khi iu ch (MOD) + Khi khuych i cng sut siu cao tn (HPA) a- Khi x l d liu pht (TDP). Tn hiu t bng tn c s mun pht i phi c x l ti TDP: Nhim v ca khi TDP - Chuyn i t ni tip ra song song - Chuyn i tc d liu: (2 lung) 8,448 Mbit/s x 2 9,01764 Mbit/s x 2 - Ghp knh d liu ca: + Bit d liu chnh (ti t B-U/U-B) + Bit d liu nghip v s (t DSC2) + Bit ng b khung + Bit kim tra chn l + Bit iu khin chn

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+ Bit nhn dnh ng - Trn (Scrambling) - M ho vi sai - Gi tn hiu cnh bo. Cc thng s k thut: - D liu chnh vo: 8,448 Mbit/s x 2 t B-U/U-B tng thch vi mc NRZ TTL (m khng tr v 0 vi mc ngun +5V) - Tn hiu ng h vo: 8,448 Mbit/s x 2 (t B-U/U-B). - Tn hiu nghip v vo: 140,9kb/s x 2 t DSC2. - D liu ng h DSC vo: 140,9kb/s t DSC2. - D liu chnh ra: 9,01764 Mbit/s x 2 ti b iu ch Cnh bo: - Cnh bo vo: B IN LOOS 1,2: Cnh bo c bo t B-U/U-B khi tn hiu lng cc b mt. Mc cnh bo l TTL (mc H 5V) - Cnh bo ra: + SIG IN: Xut hin cnh bo khi tn hiu chnh hoc tn hiu DSC vo b mt. Mc tn hiu l TTL. + TPWR (cnh bo cng sut pht): Xut hin cnh bo khi mc cng sut pht nh hn cng sut danh nh 3dB. Mc cnh bo l TTL (mc H). b- Khi dao ng. OSC: To tn hiu RF, c s dng cho h iu ch trc tip tn hiu RF. N to dao ng ni, ttn s dao ng ni TX chnh l tn s pht (v y khng iu ch tn s m iu ch 4 - QAM). Tn s dao ng ni c to bi khi dao ng iu khin in p (VCO) di s cng bc ca mch vng kho pha PLL (Phase-Lock-Loop). Cc thng s k thut:

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- Di tn: 2000 MHz n 2150 MHz v 2150 MHz n 2300 MHz. - n nh tn s: 10 ppm. - Mc ra RF: - 5dbm 1dbm. - Mc ra hin th (MON): - 15 dbm. Hot ng ca mch: - Tn s dao ng ni ca VCO c iu khin bng vng lp kho pha. - Tn s PPL quy chiu l 8MHz, tn s so snh l 250 MHz v bc gin on l 500 KHz. - u ra VCO c khuych i v lc tr loi hi bc cao, sau a n cng RF OUT. c- Khi iu ch (Modulation). Khi ny iu ch hai lung tn hiu 9,01764 Mbit/s n b TDP. Tn hiu ngoi sai (dao nh ni) c ly t b dao ng OSC, n iu ch sng mang trc tip. Phng thc iu ch y l iu bin cu phng (4-QAM, 4 mc l 00,01 10,11). Cc thng s k thut: - Di tn: 2000 MHz n 2150 MHz v 2150 MHz n 2300 MHz. - Mc tn hiu vo: -5dbm 1dbm. - Tn hiu ra iu ch: -5dbm 3dbm - Li pha: Nh hn 50 - Tn hiu c iu ch: 800 mVpp Hot ng ca mch: - Tn hiu ra RF (-5dbm) sau b TDP c khuych i v chia lm hai phn bng nhau bng mch phn chia sai ng a vo thc hin iu ch. Tn hiu ny c tn s ng bng tn s sng mang ca my pht ra.

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- Hai lung d liu (S1 v S2) 9,01764 Mbit/s ly ra sau b x l d liu pht (TDP) c gi ti b iu ch MOD (vi phng thc 4-QAM) iu ch sng mang pht. Tn hiu ra t b ny l tn hiu siu cao tn c iu ch. - Sau tn hiu trn c a vo b khuych i HPA x l,. c- Khi khuych i cng sut siu cao tn (HPA). Tn hiu u vo ca HPA l tn hiu ra sau khi MOD, c mc l (-5dbm), b HPA khuych i n ln n (+33dbm) pht i. Cc thng s k thut: - Di tn s: 2000 MHz n 2150 MHz v 2150 MHz n 2300 MHz - Mc tn hiu vo: -5dbm (tn hiu c iu ch). - Mc cng sut ra: + 33dbm Hot ng ca mch: HPA bao gm mt b khuych i RF, VATT (b suy hao bin i), b phn chia v b khuych i siu cao tn. Tn hiu trn u ra ca b HPA c a ti b BR NTWK (mng phn nhnh - Branching network) Nh vy khi pht TX gm 4 chc nng chnh v nhiu chc nng con nh k trn cng vi nguyn l hot ng cng nh cc thng s k thut ca chng. Vi s quan st thc t chng ta thy rng khi ny rt gn nh d tho ri v n l thit b s c cu to bng cng ngh vi in t (vi cc mng mch IC c tch hp cao - LSI). Mt khc cng sut pht ca my l nh (33dBm), v cc anten thu pht t cao, suy hao do mi trng truyn dn khng trung nh.

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Cc mc in mt chiu DC cung cp l thp (-5V n +10V), s rt tit kim, an ton, cng sut tiu th ton h thng l 110W (nh). I.2.2 Khi thu(RX). Gm RX No1 ging ht RX No2. Ta ch cn xt 1 my thu RX No1:

S tng qut khi thu1 (RX No1)

S khi chi tit ca RX No1

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a- Chc nng c bn ca khi. + Chuyn i tn hiu thu 2GHz v dao ng ng b thnh mt tn hiu trung tn IF 70 MHz. + To dng ph ca tn hiu IF. + iu chnh mc tn hiu ra IF bng b iu lng AGC. + Gii iu ch tn hiu 4-QAM: Loi b sng mang trung tn, thu li lung tn hiu. + Phn chia lung tn hiu, tch ra d liu chnh, d liu DSC, xung ng h, bit kim tra chn l, bit thng tin v chn. b- Cc thng s k thut. + Tn s thu: 2000 n 2150 MHz v 2150 MHz n 2300 MHz + Mc tn hiu thu: -42 dbm n -90dbm/50 + Tp m: 4dB l in hnh + n nh tn s ni: 10 ppm b- Cc cnh bo. + PLL (tn cnh bo): Bo hiu rng mch PLL ca dao ng ni b mt n nh. + LEVEL (mc): Khi mc ra ca trung tn nh hn (-15dBm) ti R CONV + BER (t l li): Khi BER c pht hin bi vic kim tra chn l qu mt trong nhng gi tr t trc. Mt trong nhng BER di y c th t trc: 10-4, 105,106,107... + FRAME (khung): Xut hin khi ng b khung cho lung d liu chnh b mt. c- Cc khi chc nng con.

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RX No1 gm 7 khi (xem s ): LNA, MIX,VCO SYN, IFA, DEM, VCO, RDP. * Khi LNA (khi khuych i cao tn v hn ch tp m thp): Khuych i tn hiu thu RF (2GHz) v tn hiu ny b suy hao trn ng truyn nn cn rt nh (mc d truyn dn s suy hao nh hn nhiu so vi truyn dn analog). * Khi VCO SYN (khi t hp dao ng): B to dao ng phc v cho vic trn tn khi MIX. B dao ng ny c s dng cng vi mch vng kho pha (PLL). d- Khi MIX (b trn tn). Thc hin trn tn i tn, chuyn i t tn s cao (siu cao tn 2GHz) xung tn s thp (trung tn IF 70 MHz). Gi ft l tn s thu ( 2GHz) F l tn s dao ng ni Th tn s trung tn fIF sau b trn c tnh: Fif = fthu - fd Bit fIF = 70 MHz ta c th tnh ton c c fd n nh tn s dao ng ni yu cu 10-5. f- B IFA (IF amplifier - khuych i trung tn). Tn hiu trung tn va c to ra sau b i tn s c khuych i ti y c bin ln a vo b x l ti b IF DEM. ng thi ti y (IFA), tn hiu trung tn cng c lc hn ch tp m ca n. Ngoi ra b IFA cn lm nhim v: + iu chnh h s khuych i (AGC) + Lc dng ph tn hiu trung tn + Cnh bo ra khi tn hiu IF c s c. * B VCO (B dao ng iu khin in p)

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To dao ng ni phc v cho vic gii iu ch 4QAM loi b sng mang trung tn IF, thu li lung tn hiu ban u c pht. * B DEM (gii iu ch) B ny c chc nng: Kt hp vi b to dao ng ni (VCO) thc hin gii iu ch, pha pht tin hnh iu ch theo phng thc 4-QAM, cho nn pha thu y s l gii iu ch 4-QAM. * B RDP (b x l tn hiu thu) C cc nhim v sau: + Khi phc tn hiu gi i t tn hiu b trn + Tch xung ng h (khi phc bit timing) + Tch bit ng b khung + Tch bit kim tra chn l + Tch bit DSC ri a n b knh nghip v + Tch bit iu khin chn + Tch bit nhn dng ng + Gii trn + Gii m vi sai Khi thu c hai b thu s1 v s 2 lun cng lm vic ng thi (khc vi pha pht), tn hiu a vo x l trong tng i s l tn hiu thu tt nht trong 2 my 1,2. Vy mc d mi trng truyn dn vi ba c nhiu tp m, xuyn m nh hng nhng cht lng tn hiu vn m bo trn mi lnh vc. I.2.3 Khi bng tn c s (B-U/U-B). Khi ny gm hai phn chnh: - Khi B-U (lng cc sang n cc) pha pht - Khi U-B (n cc sang lng cc) pha thu a- Khi B-U (phn pht).

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Nhn cc lung d liu t tng i s, gii m HDB3 v cung cp hai lung n cc vo 2 khi TX (khi pht).

sang n cc

S y khi chuyn lng cc

* Chc nng: + Chuyn i lng cc sang n cc (B-U CONV) + Gii m HDB-3 (HDB-3 decode) + Ghp 8 knh 2Mbit/s thnh 1 knh 16 Mbit/s (MUX) + Cn bng suy hao cp + Khi phc xung ng h (clock) + Pht hin tn hiu cnh bo (AIS). * Cc thng s k thut: Vo Ra 8 lung 2,048 Mbit/s 2 lung 8,448 Mbit/s (NRZ) * Cnh bo: B IN LOOS (mt tn hiu vo): Cnh bo khi mt hay nhiu tn hiu lng cc ti khi ny b mt (mc H - 5V ca TTL) c a ti phn gim st (SV).

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+ AIS REC (ghi nhn cnh bo): Khi mt hay nhiu tn hiu u vo lng cc ti khi ny l AIS, mc H ca TTL c a ti phn gim st (5V). * Nguyn l hot ng: 8 lung d liu HDB-3 2,048 Mbit/s c a vo b cn bng cp theo khuyn ngh G.703 ca CCITT. u ra cn bng c chuyn i U-B v gii m HDB-3 thnh n cc NRZ (khng tr v khng). Cc tn hiu n cc c ghp bi 12 MUX t 8 lung 2,048 Mbt/s thnh 2 lung 8,448 Mbit/s. Khi ghp tn hiu n cc c phn lm 2 cho TX No1 v TX No2 khi tn hiu vo HDB-3 b mt, cnh bo c gi ti khi SVLGC1. Khi tn hiu vo l AIS, AIS REC c gi ti khi SVLGC1.

b Khi U-B (phn thu). * Nguyn l hot ng: Cc tn hiu n cc a ra 2 lung 9,01764 Mbit/s t RSW ly t thu 1 v thu 2, iu khin bi 8 xung ng h. U-SW trongRSW t ng iu khin chuyn mch gia lung d liu No1 v No2 bng cc lnh chuyn mch t khi logic gim st hc bng vn hnh nhn cng qua vic gt chuyn mch SW mt trc card. D liu c chn s c chuyn t song song ra ni tip. D liu c phn chia bi 2 khi DEMUX (tch knh) t lung s liu s 2 thnh 4 lung d liu th nht.

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Lung d liu 2,048 Mbit/s c m ho HDB-3, chuyn i U-B v c a ra. Khi mt tn hiu li ra HDB-3 cnh bo B OUT FL (li u ra nh phn) c gi ti khi logic gim st (SV LGC1). Khi tn hiu li ra l AIS, th AIS SND (gi tn hiu cnh bo) c a ti khi SV LGC1. AIS cng c gi ti khi c my thu 1 v 2 c cnh bo u ra (RX ALM). Khi B-U/U-B c gi l khi bng tn c s v tn hiu y l tn hiu thuc knh c bn 2Mbit/s (ly t tng i s), cha c iu ch v x l pht, cng nh n c tr li nguyn bn t sau khi thu. Chc nng chnh ca khi ny l chuyn n cc thnh lng cc (v ngc li), ghp knh (v tch knh) v tn hiu u vo (hoc ra) l di dng m ng, tn hiu ghp, chn x l vi tn hiu nghip v li l di dng m ,nh phn n cc (nn phi bin i). Ti u vo ta khng th dng m nh phn n cc c m phi dng m ng lng cc v m nh phn n cc b tiu hao rt nhiu trn ng truyn dn. C rt nhiu dng m ng nh AMI, CMI, B3ZS, HDB-3... M ng trong vi ba thng dng Ami hoc HDB-3 (trong cp quang th thng dng B8ZS), trong HDB-3 c dng nhiu hn v n trit tiu gn nh hon ton thnh phn mt chiu do m bo c cht lng cng nh s n gin ca ng truyn. Khi bng tn c s cng rt gn nh, d tho ri vi s ng dng cng ngh vi in t.

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S khi U-B

I.2.4

Khi knh nghip v s (DSC2).

a- Cc thng s k thut. * Knh tn hiu tn s m thanh (VF): + Di tn s vo/ra: 0,3 - 3,4 KHz + Mc tn hiu vo ra danh nh:

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Vo : (-14 n -4 dbm) Ra : (-4 n +7 dbm) + Tng tr vo/ra: 600 cn bng * Knh nghip v: + Di tn s vo: 0,3 n 3,4 KHz + Mc tn hiu vo, ra danh nh: Vo : -4 dbm Ra : -4 dbm + Tng tr vo/ra: 600 cn bng b- Hot ng ca khi mch. * Khi ghp knh, phn knh: Cc chc nng ghp knh chnh l: + Ghp 4 ng d liu 64 Kbit/s (2 ng thm) + Chuyn i 1 lung d liu ni tip thnh 2 lung s liu 140,9Kbit/s. + Ghp bit ng b khung Cc chc nng phn knh chnh l: + Kt hp 2 lung d liu 140,9 Kbit/s thnh mt lung d liu. +Phn knh lung d liu c 4 lung d liu 64 Kbit/s + ng b khung. Mt trong hai tn hiu u ra (tn hiu ra phn knh s 1 hoc tn hiu ra phn knh s 2) c chn bi mch iu khin tn hiu u ra DEMUX. No1 v No2 c cho cng mc u tin. Khi li ca No1 v No2 do mt ng b khung hay li xung nhp phn knh 192 KHz, mch iu khin tn hiu ra DEMUX chn phn DEMUX tt nht. * Khi giao din s hay m ho PCM:

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Mt trong cc mch in ph giao din s v m ho PCM la chn c t trn mch in chnh DSC2. + Khi giao din dng truyn cc ng s liu 64 Kbit/s. + Khi m ho PCM dng pht tn hiu tng t. B m ho PCM chuyn mt tn hiu tn s m thanh sang ng s liu 64 Kbit/s v b gii m PCM chuyn ng s liu 64 Kbit/s sang tn hiu tn s m thanh. * Khi mng phn nhnh: Mng phn nhnh ny c 5 cng vo ra cho cc tn hiu m tn, 1 tn hiu vo c chia lm 4 hng. * Khi m ho, gii m PCM (PCM CODEC): Khi m ho PCM chuyn tn hiu tng t sang tn hiu s (analog sang digital). c. Khi ni tip tn hiu s (DIG CON). Khi ny c 4 cng vo/ra truyn tn hiu gim st v tn hiu iu khin t xa. Mt trong 4 s liu vo c gi ti 3 cng u ra khc theo th t.
d. Khi in thoi nghip v.

Khi ny c cung cp mt in thoi nghip v hot ng vi chc nng la chn cuc gi. Cc chc nng chnh l: + La chn cuc gi + Gi ti mi trm + C th gn 2 s c lp vi trm + Gi thoi Ngoi lung d liu chnh (thoi, s liu) vi mc ch o th, kim tra bo dng, ngi ta a

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khi DSC2 vo. N s gip cho ngi vn hnh gim st c ton b thit b, ng truyn. I.2.5 Khi hin th (DSPL). Khi ny c cc chc nng sau: - in thoi nghip v - Hin th chung COMMON - Hin th gim st SUPERVISORY - Hin th cnh bo v i trng thi STATUS - B o ch tiu trn my my MONITOR - iu khin chuyn mch RSW. I.2.6 Gim st v iu khin. TEL

ALM /

TSW,

S kt ni tuyn vi ba

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Trm lp li iu khin v gim st t xa cc trm u cui v trm lp c kt ni nh hnh v trn. + Gim st: Mi lin lc gia cc thit b v tuyn c tin hnh bng phng php quay vng, thit b v tuyn ch gi tn hiu gi ti thit b v tuyn khc. Cc thit b c gi tr v, tin tc gim st bao gm cnh bo, trng thi thit b v d liu biu th li. iu ny dc thc hin tun t tng thit b v tuyn ti mi thi im cho tt c cc thit b v tuyn trong h thng. D liu thit b v tuyn cho ti tm trm v tuyn c lu gi trong b nh ca khi gim st v la chn d liu thit b bng nt EQPNo trn mt hin th. + iu khin t xa: Thit b v tuyn c quyn hi p v c th thc hin vic iu khin t xa chuyn mch d phng v cc iu khin t ngoi khc. Thit b v tuyn ny gi cc lch iu khin t xa ti cc thit b v tuyn c chn.

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+ Quyn hi p: Mt thit b v tuyn c quyn hi p bng vic n nt MASTER (my ch) trn mt my phn hin th. Khi trm c quyn hi, n LED ti nt MASTER sng xanh. Khi ngun nui c bt thit b v tuyn no hot ng trc s c quyn hi p, sau mi thit b c cng mc u tin chn quyn hi p. a- Th tc gim st. DM2G-1000 c th hin th ti DM2G-1000 khc chn la thit b v tuyn: + Chn la thit b v tuyn bng vic n nt EQP (Equitment: Thit b) trn b gim st ca mt hin th. + Trn mt hin th hin ra cc cnh bo thit b, cc trng thi v d liu li c la chn a ra. b- Th tc iu khin t xa. Phn ny gii thch cc th tc vn hnh iu khin t xa ca thit b vi ba DM2G-1000. Ch c thit b c quyn hi p v iu khin ti 7 thit b v tuyn khc. Chn mc iu khin:n nt s 1 trn T SW chuyn mch pht ca mn hin th chuyn h thng pht ti trm s 1. n nt s 2 trn TSW ca mn hin th (DSPL) chuyn h thng pht ti trm s 2. n nt AUTO trn TSW ca DSPL t TSW ti ch chuyn t ng. n nt s 2 trn RSW ca mt hin th chuyn h thng thu ti s 2. n nt EXE v ON ng thi trn TSW/RSW hin thu, pht cng ch s.

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iu khin v gim st t xa l mt chc nng quan trng cp cao ca thit b vi ba s DM2G1000, mt chc nng m t loi my vi ba khc ang tn ti trn th trng Vit nam c c. N thun li cho vic thu thp thng tin nhanh bo dng, x l s c nu c xy ra trong cc mng li vi ba khu vc.

PhnII- Phn tch phn my pht thit b DM 2G - 1000


Chng ta nghin cu v thit b vi ba s DM 2G-1000 vi cc s khi chc nng, trong phn ny chng ta i nghin cu k hn v s nguyn l mch khi pht (TX). Khi pht (TX) gm 4 khi chc nng c bn: TDP, OSC, MOD v HPA Khi MOD CONT l mt b phn quan trng ca khi MOD, n lm nhim v bin i, iu chnh hai dng tn hiu vo S1, S2 trc khi a vo iu ch. Trong khun kh c hn ca bn n chng ta s nghin cu 5 khi sau: TDP, OSC, MOD CONT, MOD v HPA. - Cc k hiu trn hnh 4.1 th hin cc ngha sau: - SP PLL: B so pha trong c cu mch to dao ng OSC c vng lp kho pha. + B sai ng, phn ng, bin p. + 1/N: B chia tn vi h s chia N. + VCO 1: B to dao ng iu khin bng in p. + B khuch i. + T: B suy gim. + R: Ca ra ca b khuch i cng sut. + LOF MON: im o v hin th tn hiu tn s dao ng ni.

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+ RF MON: im o v hin th tn hiu cao tn. + RF OUT: u ra cao tn a ti Anten. + PLL ALM: Cnh bo khi PLL mt xung ng b. + ALC CONT: iu khim thay i mc vo HPA t ng. + TLVL DET: Pht hin mc cng sut pht ra t HPA. Tm tt nguyn l hot ng ca cc khi ny: ALC MNL (iu chnh bng tay mc t iu lng): Khi ALC t OFF bng nhn cng (MANUAL), mc cnh bo TTL (mc H) a ra n SV LGC 1. CW ON (pht sng mang): Khi CW ON c t, mc cnh bo TTL H c a ti SV LGC 1. T PWR TVL MON (Kim tra mc cng sut pht): (0 +5)V TX in p hin th bng in p. ID (S ng ng): C th c chn t 1 8, qu trnh thit lp c thc hin trn BWB (Tm u dy). Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch: Hai lung d liu chnh 8,448 Mb/s v xung ng h t B-U ca U-B c a ti LSI. D liu chnh vo t B-U/U-B c bin i tc t 8,448 Mb/s n 9,01764 Mb/s sau hp li vi d liu DSC. Sau khi trn, cc bit chn thm nh Bit ng b khung, Bit nhn dng lung ID v Bit kim tra chn l c hp li. Hai lung d liu c a ti b MOD. Khi B IN LOSS c bo t khi B-U/U-B, b pht tn hiu TDP ca LSI (DP) pht tn hiu cnh bo (AIS). AIS cng c x l nh d liu bnh thng. Hai lung d liu DSC IN b mt, cnh bo SIG IN xut hin v SIG IN LED sng

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trn Panel ca TX. TDP c trng cho mch giao din ALM (cnh bo), MON v iu khin ALC. Mc cng sut pht ra c hin th bng b pht hin mc cng sut ra TX ca HPA (B khuch i cng sut siu cao tn). in p ra DC ca b pht hin (TLVL DET) c s dng cho ALC v TLVL MON. gi n nh cng sut pht RF, ALC iu khin b suy hao bin i (VATT) trong HPA theo cch ngc vi in p ra ca TLVL DET. Tn hiu ra TLVL DET c gi ti SV LGC 1 iu khin cng sut pht ra. B TDP nhn mt cnh bo PLL khi PLL ca OSC c s c lp kho pha. TDP chuyn cnh bo ti SV LGC 1. CW CONT (ni sng mang) c iu khin bi SW2. Khi n SW2 ch vn hnh ca TX c t l CW ON v sng mang khng iu ch t TX. in p nui c cung cp t PS (+10 V v +5V) c cp ti HPA qua chuyn mch ngun nui ca TDP. B chuyn mch ny c t l ON khi xc nh rng hot ng ca PLL v OSC l bnh thng. Khi mt cnh bo PLL c pht hin, chuyn mch t ng t OFF v ct ngun nui ti HPA. II.1 Khi dao ng ni (OSC) II.1.1 S nguyn l khi dao ng ni (OSC). II.1.2 Tng qut s nguyn l ca khi. B to dao ng iu khin bng in p VCO1 (Voltage Contronlled Osalater 1). + Mch pha: IC6 ca mch in lin quan. + Mch chia tn IC5, IC2.

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+ Mch khuch i tn hiu dao ng a ra: IC3, TR2 v cc mch in lin quan. Phn ngun nui cung cp IC7, IC8 v cc t lc. II.1.3 Phn tch mch trn s . a- B to dao ng iu khin bng in p (VCO1) u vo VCONT tip nhn mt in p iu khin Ud t IC6 sau khi c IC7 1/2 khuych i. u vo 5V tip nhn, in p mt chiu t b phn cp ngun cho VCO1 lm vic. Mt u GND ni t. u ra RF OUT cho tn hiu ra tn s bng 2GHz thng qua cc mch lc, suy gim ri tch ra lm 2 ng, 1 ng l mch chia tn a v so pha ti IC6, 1 ng l khuych i tn hiu dao ng ni a n u ra CN1. Cc in tr R11, R12, R13, R16, R17,R18 ng vai tr l tc dng suy gim s cng nhiu v ngc li. b- Mch so pha. Nhiu ti liu cho rng PLL bao gm c cc khi VCO tch sng pha chia tn lc thng thp v khuch i, nhng trong s ny IC6 ch ng vai tr mch tch, so pha v lc thp. Trc ht chng ta ni v chuyn mch t SW1 n SW4. Nhim v ca chng l t tn s pht. Trong mi SW1 c 4 chuyn mch nh l c cu chuyn mch bng cc Triger trong h nh phn.

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OSC 1 l b to dao ng tn s nh bng thch anh, tn s ny khong 8 MHz v rt chun. Tn hiu to ra t b ny c dng lm tn hiu u vo cho mch vng kho pha, tn s hoc pha a v so snh t b VCO1 c kho vo tn s hoc pha ca tn hiu ny. IC6 nhn tn hiu mt chiu cung cp ngun nui mc +5V sau khi c lc nhiu ln v a tn hiu cnh bo mt xung ng b PLL ra chn s 2 ca CD1. ng thi IC6 nhn tn hiu t u ra b VCO1, c khuch i, chia tn lm tn hiu nh i so pha vi tn hiu vo t b OSC1. c tn hiu iu chnh Ud t l vi hiu pha = v - r (v l ca tn hiu OSC1, r l ca tn hiu vo IC6 t mch chia tn), th ta phi dng mt b tch sng pha (trong IC6) u ra b tch sng pha l tn hiu iu chnh c a n b to dao ng khng ch bng in p VCO1. V U1 = KUv. Ur. Nn trong tn hiu ra b tch sng pha c cc thnh phn tn s. (v - r) hoc (v + r). Tn s tng b loi b nh b lc thng thp trong IC6 v u vo IC7, cn tn s hiu c khuch i ln nh IC7 v c dng lm tn hiu iu khin tn s dao ng ni ca VCO1. Tn s VCO 1 c thay i sao cho (v - r) 0: ngha l fr = fv hoc fr = Nfv vi N l h s chia ca b chia tn. Cc t C41, C43, C44, C45 lm chc nng t lc ngun +5V. (R41, R43, C51), (R42, R44, C52) l tr khng vo ca IC7 nhng ng thi cng lm chc nng mch

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lc thng thp ch cho thng tin hiu c tn s hiu (Cov - Cor). R34 cp thin p cho TR1 lm vic. R46, R54 l tr khng vo v R27, C56 l tr khng ra, R45, C53 nm trong mch vng hi tip ca b khuch i. c- Mch chia tn. IC5, IC2 v cc mch lin quan. Mch chia tn l cn thit bi v n i tn s fr ca b VCO1 (rt ln) xung tn s fr nh (fr + fr/N) c th so snh vi tn s vo t b OSC1. Trc khi c chia tn IC5, tn hiu t u ra b VCO1 c khuych i ln ln nh IC2. C63, C34 l t lc ngun cung cp cho IC5 v IC2 lm vic. C19, C25, C31, C35 ngn cch mt chiu gia cc tng. R29 lm nhim v n nh tr khng ra v tr khng vo cho IC2 v IC5. Cc linh kin cn li lm nhim v ti lc xoay chiu cho cc IC lin quan. d- Mch khuych i tn hiu dao ng (IC3, TR2). Tn hiu t u ra b VCO1 sau khi qua cc b suy gim nh, lc, c a n khuych i s b ti IC3, li qua cc b suy gim ri c khuch i ti TR2. Tn hiu u ra TR2 ln qua b suy gim nh ri a ra ngoi qua jc cm CN1. R61, R62, R63 lm thnh b suy gim. (R51, R52, R53), (R21, R22, R23) cng l cc b suy gim u ra ca hai tng khuych i. C11, C12 l cc t ni tng. C28, C64 l cc t lc ngun mt chiu cung cp cho RV1, R56, R55, R54

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l cc in tr trn ng cp in phn p cho TR2. R58 v C6 dng n nh tr khng vo cho TR2, R59 v C9. it D2 v R57 trong c cu bo v qu p cc linh kin cn li l ti cho cc phn t khuych i. e- Phn ngun cung cp. IC7, IC8 v cc t lc. IC7 l IC dng n nh in p ngun cung cp kiu tham s. IC8 l IC dng n nh in p ngun cung cp kiu b. L1, C6, C62 to thnh mt mt lc thng thp hnh . C69, C65, C66 l cc t lc ngun c in p mt chiu bng phng cung cp cho cc phn t tch cc cho mch lm vic. II.1.4 Nguyn l hot ng.

VCO1 to ra tn s dao ng 2GHz, tn hiu c tn s ny c chia ra thng qua cc mch lc, suy gim ri phn thnh hai nhnh: + Nhnh 1 qua cc b khuch i ra ngoi. + Nhnh 2 qua mch chia tn a v so pha ti IC6 vi tn hiu vo. Tn hiu vo y l tn hiu to bi khi dao ng nh OSC1. OSC1 thng c kt cu bng thch anh to ra mt tn hiu dao ng c tn s nh v tn s gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra, ngha l PLL lm cho tn s Cor ca tn hiu so snh bm theo tn s Cov ca tn hiu vo, tn s ca tn hiu so snh t l vi tn

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s ca tn hiu ra t b VCO1 theo mt t l no do b chia tn:

c tn hiu iu chnh Ud t l vi hiu pha - r th ta phi dng b tch sng pha. u ra b tch sng pha l tn hiu hiu chnh Ud c a n b to dao ng khng ch bng in p. Nhng tn hiu ra t b tch sng pha bao gm hai tn s COv - COr v Cov + Cor, nn ngi ta phi dng b lc thng thp loi b tn s tng, tn s hiu c cho qua v khuch i ln, v c dng lm tn hiu iu khin tn s dao ng ca VCO1 chc nng ny do IC6 v IC7 (1/2) m nhn. Cc chuyn mch SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4 c gn lin vi IC6 iu chnh tn s dao ng ni pht ra. Tn s to ra ny di 2GHz, nhng c chia lm nhiu cp khc nhau bng 2GHz. Cc chuyn mch ny s quyt nh cp tn s no s c dng thu v pht. T s ta thy nu khng c tn hiu vo OSC 1 khng lm vic th tn hiu hiu chnh a vo VCO1 l Ud = 0, mch VCO1 dao ng ti tn s dao ng ring CD1 ca n. Lc ny s c cnh bo PLL mt xung ng h a ra chn s 3 ca CD1 (hnh v). Khi c tn hiu vo, b tch sng pha IC6 s so pha vi tn s ca tn hiu vo vi tn hiu so snh.. a ra vi tn hiu iu khin Ud qua lc thng thp v khuch i iu khin tn s dao ng ni ca VCO1.

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Tn hiu t u ra b VCO1 sau khi iu khin kho pha s c a ra qua cc tng khuch i IC3, TR2 cho ln a ra jc CN1 ni vo khi MOD tin hnh iu ch. Ngun mt chiu +10V t chn s 2 ca CD1 c lc rt k bi cc t C61, C62 cun cm L1 v c n nh bi cc IC7 v IC8. Qua cc phn mch ny ngun +10V b suy gim cn +5V, in p mt chiu ny c lc tip ri a n nui cho cc phn mch khc. Nu tn s tn hiu vo v tn hiu so snh lch nhau qu nhiu lm cho tn s tng v tn s hiu u nm ngoi khu vc thng ca b lc th khng c tn hiu iu khin VCO. VCO s dao ng ti tn s dao ng ring v v r ri vo khu vc thng ca b lc th VCO bt u nhn tn hiu iu khin, thay i tn s dao ng ni ca n, PLL bt u lm vic, ta ni PLL l di tn s m c th thit lp ch ng b, Di bt ca PLL ph thuc vo di thng ca b lc. Di gi ca PLL l di tn s m PLL c th gi c ch ng b khi thay i tn s tn hiu vo. Di gi khng ph thuc vo di thng ca b lc m ph thuc vo bin in p iu khin v kh nng bin i tn s ca VCO. II.2 Khi MOD CONT II.2.1. S nguyn l ca khi (MOD CONT). B MOD CONT lm chc nng bin i mc lung tn hiu vo ly t khi x l d liu pht TDP trc khi a vo iu ch ti MOD. Hnh v 1.4

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a- Tng quan s nguyn l khi. Hai ng bin i tn hiu dn n cc u ra S1 OUT v S2 OUT. Hai ng cp ngun +10V v -10V. b- Phn tch tng ng tn hiu. + ng bin i tn hiu dn n S1 OUT ng ny lm nhim v khuych i, lc thng thp v khuych i c iu chnh IC1 l mt phn t khuych i s b tn hiu trc khi a vo lc thp. TR1 v TR2 l 2 Tranzitor lm chc nng khuych i c iu chnh (iu chnh phn p v iu chnh mc ra). TR1 l Tranzitor ngc (NPN) mc lp Emiter c tr khng ra nh thun tin cho vic phi hp tr khng vi tng sau, khuch i dng in ri a n u vo TR2. TR2 l Tranzitor loi PNP cng c mc lp Emiter khuych i dng in tn hiu vi s iu chnh phn p BNDCRT (Bin tr in t) tn hiu ra S1 OUT c ly t chn E ca TR2 vi s iu chnh mc ra bi RY1. R5, R2, R4 l cc in tr suy gim. R8, R6 dng n nh tr khng cho phn mch pha sau. L1, C1, C20, C3, C22, L2 l cc phn t trong c cu mch lc thng thp. in cm chn cc tn s cao v t in ngn mch chng xung t. L8 dng cha tn hiu cao tn (hi bc cao). R20//L8 n nh tr khng, R9 dng nh thin cho chn E ca TR1. R12 dng nh thin cho chn E ca TR2. R10 l mt phn ti ca TR1 v cng l in tr ghp gia hai tng khuych i.

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RV1 l bin tr dng iu chnh mc ra S1-OUT cho hp l. R11 dng cp thin p cho chn B ca TR2, RV2, RV3, RV4 dng iu chnh mc nh thin cp cho TR2. C5 l t trit tiu tn hiu cao tn phn x. C6 l t phi hp tr khng v cho TR2 v lc tn s cao. + ng bin i tn hiu in dn n S2 OUT: ng ny lm chc nng nh ng 1 nu trn, hon ton tng t c phn mch in v nhim v ca tng linh kin. IC1-2 ging nh IC1-1. TR3 v cu to v hot ng ging nh TR1. TR4 ging TR2. R1, R3, R7 l cc in tr suy gim. R18, R13 dng n nh tr khng cho cc phn mch pha sau n. L3, C2, C21, C4, C23, L4, C10 l cc linh kin nm trong c cu mch lc thng thp. L7 Ging L8 ng mch trn. R19//L7 dng n nh tr khng cho L7. R15 dng trong c cu nh thin cho chn E ca TR3. R17 nh thin cho chn E ca TR4. R14 l mt phn ti ca TR3 v cng l in tr ghp gi hai tng khuch i TR3 v TR4. RV5 l bin tr iu chnh mc ra S2 OUT mc cn thit. R16 dng cp thin p cho chn B ca TR4. RV6, RV7, RV8 dng iu chnh mc nh thin cp cho TR4. C12 chc nng ging nh C6, C11 ging nh C5. + ng cp ngun tn hiu +10V: Gm IC2, IC1 - in cm v cc t lc. IC2 lm nhim v n nh in p ngun theo kiu b v tham s. IC1-P n nh in p ngun cung cp theo kiu tham s. Cun cm L5 chn cao tn.

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C13, C14, C15, C16, C17 l cc t lc ngun. Do st p trn cc phn t linh kin k trn m in p cung cp cho chn C cc Tranzitor TR1, TR2 ch cn +5V. Q13, Q14, Q15 ly in p t ngun ra cung cp cho cc phn mch khc. * ng cp ngun in p -10V C nhim v lc v n nh in p mt chiu -10V v c suy gim cung cp nh thin cho chn E, chn B ca Tranzitor TR2, TR1. C18, C19 l cc t lc ngun. LG l cun cm chn cao tn. R22, R23, R24 l cc in tr suy gim. D2 l it zener phn cc ngc dng n nh in p kiu tham s. in p sau khi c lc v n inh c a ti cc bin tr t BNDCNT1SWDCNT16 iu chnh mc phn p nh thin cho chn B ca TR2 v TR4. II.2.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch. Mi lung tn hiu v S1, S2 c cho qua cc in tr suy gim ri dn n mi IC khuych i h s nh, sau tn hiu khuych i c lc thp bi cc t in v in cm 2 tng khuych i Tranzitor tip tc khuych i tn hiu mi ng ny vi s iu chnh nh thin cho cc Tranzitor khuych i v iu chnh mc ra. Vic cp ngun cho cc Tranzitor c thc hin bi hai ngun ring r (+10V v 10V). Cc ngun ny c lc rt cn thn bi nhiu t lc ngun v c n nh bi cc IC hoc Diot zener. Ngoi vic cung cp in p cho cc phn t tch cc trong s ny hot ng, n cn cung cp ngun cho cc phn mch khc u ra Q13, Q14, Q15.

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II.3 Khi iu ch (MOD) II.3.1 S nguyn l khi iu ch (MOD). II.3.2 Tng quan s nguyn l khi MOD. HYB1 phn tn hiu ra hai ng ring r: + ng 1 a n hin th tn hiu dao ng ni cha iu ch LOF MON. + ng 2 a n iu ch ti D1 c tn hiu ra RF OUT. Xt tng ng tn hiu: ng tn hiu a n tn hiu hin th ti LOF MON: T b sai ng HYB1, tn hiu b suy gim mt phn ri c khuch i ln nh IC1. Tn hiu ra t sau IC1 li b suy gim mt phn trc khi a n u ra hin th. C1 ngn cch mt chiu gia khi MOD v cc khi bn ngoi. C2, C32, C3: L cc t ni tng v ngn cch mt chiu. C15, C13, C12: L cc t lc ngun v chng in dung tn s cao cho mch. R1, R2, R3 lm thnh mt b gim tnh. R4, R5: Ni mt chn ca b sai ng HYB1 xung t. (R6, R7, R8) v (R9, R10, R11) lm thnh cc b suy gim tnh. + ng tn hiu a n iu ch: Ta c th chia ng tn hiu ny thnh ba phn mch: - Phn mch khuych i trc khi iu ch: Gm cc Tranzitor TR1, TR2 v cc linh kin c lin quan. Phn iu ch vi hai ng tn hiu cao tn v hai ng tn hiu vo S1, S2: Khi D1. - Phn mch khuych i sau iu ch: Gm cc Tranzitor TR3 v TR4 v cc linh kin c lin quan.

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- Phn mch khuych i RF trc khi a vo iu ch: TR1 l mt Tranzitor loi P c mc E chung lm nhim v khuych i s b tn hiu siu cao tn ly t b to dao ng sau khi a qua b HYB1. C4, C5: L cc t ni tng, C16 l t lc ngun. C8, C9: L cc t phi hp tr khng vo v ra cho TR1. C14 l t lc ngun. C6, C7 l cc t ni tng. TR2 cng ging nh TR1 v cu to cch u ni. R17, R16, R15 l cc in tr phn p cung cp nh thin cho chn E v chn C ca Tranzitor ca TR2. C10, C11: C chc nng nh cc t C8, C9. Tn hiu ti u ra ca TR2 b suy gim mt phn ri c tch lm hai a vo iu ch. R18, R19, R20: Lm thnh mt b suy gim tnh. R21, R22 l cc in tr ni t ca b phn ng dch pha (90o). (R23, R24, R25) v (R18, R19, R20) cng lm thnh cc b suy gim tnh. C17, C18 l cc t ni tng. - Phn mch khuych i sau khi iu ch: TR3 l Tranzitor ngc mc E chung lm chc nng khuych i. R31, R32, R33 lm thnh b suy gim tnh. R36, R35, R34: L cc in tr cung cp nh thin cho TR3 hot ng. C21, C22 l cc t ni tng, C30 l t lc ngun cung cp. C25, C26: C chc nng ging nh C10, C11. TR4 ging nh TR3 lm chc nng khuch i tn hiu t u ra ca TR3, do n phi lm vic ch dng p lc. Kt cu mch in ca h hon ton tng t. C23, C24, C31 l cc t ni tng. C29 l t lc. C27, C28 c chc nng ging nh C10, C11. R39, R38, R37 l cc in tr phn p nh thin cho TR4, (R40, R41, R42) lm thnh b suy gim tnh.

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- Phn iu ch: Phng thc iu ch c dng y l 4-QAM (iu ch theo kiu iu bin cu phng). Hai lung tn hiu vo S1, S2 di dng m NRZ sau khi c x l pht ti TDP, qua cc b lc thng thp hnh G c a n cu phng ti D1 cng vi hai lung tn hiu siu cao tn nhn c t OSC sau khuch i D1, hai dng tn hiu ny c trn li iu ch theo kiu i tn trn. (R29, C19) v (R30, C20) l cc b lc thng thp hnh G i vi hai lung tn hiu S1 v S2. II.3.3 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch.

Tn hiu siu cao tn do b OSC to ra c a vo b MOD nh jc cm S1, sau b suy gim mt phn trc khi n b sai ng HYB1. Ti y n c phn thnh hai ng ring r: + ng 1: c khuch i trc khi a vo iu ch ti D1. + ng 2: V phng thc iu ch y l iu bin cu phng 4-QAM nn cn mt b di pha phn ng tn hiu t u ra TR2 thnh hai ng c pha vung gc a vo iu ch cng hai ng tn hiu S1 v S2 mc tn hiu iu ch u ra l D1 l kh nh nn cn phi c khuch i ln cho ln trc khi a n u ra RF OUT. Chc nng khuych i ny do hai Tranzitor TR3, TR4 m nhn. Mc tn hiu ti RF OUT khong -5dBm, mun pht i n phi c khuych i ln n khong +33dBm nh b khuych i cng sut siu cao tn HPA. Ngun in cung cp cho khi MOD l cc mc +10V v -10V.

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II.4 Khi khuch i cng sut siu cao tn (HPA). II.4.1 Tng quan s nguyn l khi HPA. Nm b sai ng HYB1HYB5: Lm nhim v phn mt ng tn hiu ra lm hai ng hoc gp hai ng lm mt, tuy nhin vn c b sai ng ch n thun bin mt ng ny sang mt ng khc nh b HYB1 (bin p). Ba tng khuych i n dng 1 Tranzitor trng loi JFET gm TR1, TR2, TR5. Hai tng khuych i i vi 2 Tranzitor trng cng loi JFET gm (TR3, TR4) v (TR6, TR7). tin cho vic phn tch chi tit vo mch in ta phn tch mch in trn thnh 5 phn c bn sau y: Phn mch khuch i n th 1: Bao gm b sai ng HYB1, Tranzitor TR1 v cc mch c lin quan. Phn mch khuch i n th 2: Bao gm Tranzitor TR2 v cc mch c lin quan Phn khuch i i th 1: Bao gm b sai ng HYB2, cc Tranzitor TR3, TR4. Phn mch khuch i n th 3: Bao gm b sai ng HYB3 v TR5. Phn mch khuch i i th 2: bao gm 2 b sai ng HYb4 v HYB5, 2 Tranziot trng TR6, TR7 phn ca ra ca mch v cc linh kin c lin quan. a. Phn tch s nguyn l ca tng mch. +Phn khuch i n th 1 (tng 1): B sai ng HYB1 ch n thun bin mt ng tn hiu vo thnh mt ng tn hiu ra v phi

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hp, tc l n ng vai tr nh mt bin p thng thng. Cc iot D2, D1 ni chn bin p xung t. R41, R42, R43 lm thnh b suy gim tnh, R34 l in tr suy gim mt phn in p ra iu chnh. C1 ngn cch mt chiu gia tn hiu vo v b HYB1, C71: L t lc ly in p mt chiu bng phng ALC CONT, C34, C15, C16 l cc t chng k sinh tn s cao trong mch. Tng khuych i TR1 lm nhin v khuych i s b tn hiu vo, y ta dng cc Tranzitor trng cho khuych i vi mc ch phi hp tr khng tt cho cc tng. TR1 c mc theo s cc ngun chung, c phn cc theo kiu mch c nh dng phn t tch cc TR11. S phn cc ny m bo rng thin p cung cp cho TR1 lm vic lun lun khng i. V TR1 c cc ngun ni t, in p cung cp cho cc D ca n c ly t cc E ca TR11 v cho cc G ly t cc C tng ng. C2, C3 l cc t ni tng. C72, C73 l cc t ngun. C51 l t xoay chiu. C17, C18, C201, C202 l cc t chng in dung k sinh tn s cao trong mch. D4, D5 cc it zener dng n nh in p ngun cung cp. R75, R79, R71, R91, R51, R52, R63 l cc in tr phn p cho TR1. R1 l in tr cp ngun cho TR1. (R2, C52) chng in dung k sinh tn s thp. + Phn mch khuych i n th 2 (tng 2): Tng khuych i TR2 lm nhim v khuych i tn hiu ra sau tng khuych i TR1. Tng t TR1, TR2 cng l cc Tranzitor trng JFET loi N c mc theo s S chung, c phn cc theo kiu mch c nh dng phn t tch cc TR12. S phn cc kiu ny cng s m bo thin p cung cp cho TR2

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lun l khng i. Nguyn tc n nh ca TR2 lun l khng i, s mc mch ca n hon ton nh TR11 n nh cho TR1. C4 l t ni tng, ngn cch TR2 v b sai ng HYB1. C74, C75 l cc t lc ngun. C53 l t lc xoay chiu. C19, C20 l cc t lc chng k sinh tn s thp. D4, D5 l cc it zener lm chc nng n nh. R76, R80, R92, R54, R56, R64 l cc in tr phn p cho TR12. R3 l in tr cp ngun cho TR2. R94 l in tr suy gim trn ng cp ngun mt chiu n cc G ca TR2. (R4, C54) lm chc nng chng k sinh in dung k sinh tn s thp. + Phn mch khuch i i th 1 (tng 3): B sai ng HYB2 lm nhim v bin i t mt ng tn hiu ra thnh 2 ng tip t khuych i trong c cu khuych i i. y ta dng khuych i i bi v ta cn mt cng sut ln, song cng sut chu ng ca Tranzitor trng dng trong mch l hn ch, nn dng hai ng khuych i sau cng li bi b sai ng c mt cng sut ln gp i. R36, R37 l cc in tr ni t ca b sai ng. Hai ng khuych i ny hon ton nh nhau c v s kt cu, chc nng v c thm ch c gi tr cc linh kin. * ng 1: TR3 cng l mt Tranzitor trng ging nh TR2 v TR1, lm chc nng khuch i, c nh thin theo kiu tch cc bi TR13. Nguyn tc nh thin n nh in p cung cp ny hon ton tng t nh TR1 nh thin cho TR1 v TR2 nh thin cho TR2. Tc dng ca cc linh kin: C5, C7 l cc t ni tng ngn cch mt chiu. C21, C32, C221, C222, C225 l cc t chng in dung k

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sinh tn s cao trong mch. C76, C78 l cc t lc ngun. C55 l t lc xoay chiu. R77, R81, R93, R73, R57, R58, R59, R65 l cc in tr phn p nh thin cho TR3. R5 l in tr trn ng cp ngun cho TR3 c tc dng suy gim mt phn in p ngun cung cp. D6, D7 l cc diot zener lm chc nng n nh. (R7, R57) lm chc nng chng in k sinh tn s thp trong mch. * ng 2: TR4 hon ton tng t nh TR3 v TR14 ging nh TR13 nhnh 1. Tc dng ca cc linh kin: C6, C8 l cc t ni tng. C22, C24, C231, C232, C235 l cc t in chng k sinh tn s cao. C56 l t lc xoay chiu. + (R8, C58) lm chc nng chng k sinh tn s thp. + Phn mch khuych i n th 3 (tng 4): Phn mch ny gm TR5 v cc linh kin c lin quan TR5 l JFET loi N mc S chung trong cc S c ni t, 2 cc G, D c cp in t hai ng ring r. Chc nng chnh ca TR5 ch l khuch i tn hiu siu cao tn t u ra ca b cng cng sut HYB3 ri a n u vo b sai ng HYB4 xung t. Hai ng khuych i ny ging ht nhau v s nguyn l v kt cu. * ng 1: c ph trch bi TR6, chc nng chnh ca n l khuych i c mt cng sut ln hn. C11, C13 l cc t ngn cch mt chiu gia TR6 vi u vo v u ra. C27, C29, C251, C255, C256 l cc t hn ch in k sinh tn s cao. C82, C84 l cc t lc ngun. R11, R102 l cc in tr cp ngun cho TR6 lm vic. R22 l in tr n nh tr khng vo cho TR6. (R13, R63) lm nhim v chng in dung k sinh tn s thp.

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* ng 2: Do TR7 ph trch c chc nng ging ht TR6 nu trn. D10, D11 l cc diot zener dng n nh in p mt chiu ngun cung cp. C83, C85 l cc t lc ngun, C12, C14 l cc t ni tng. C28, C30, C261, C265, C266 l cc t hn ch in dung k sinh tn s cao. R103, R23 l cc in tr cp ngun cho TR7 lm vic. R23 dng n nh tr khng vo cho TR7. (R14, R64) dng chng in dung k sinh tn s thp. HYB5 lm nhim v cng cng sut t 2 ng trn mt ng a n ca ra. Ti ca ra c mt ng tn hiu siu cao tn ti y chnh lu, lc v a ra chn s 1 ca CD1 di dng in p mt chiu, y l tn hiu pht ra mc cng sut pht. R50 tng t nh R40. R15, R16 l cc in tr ni t ca mch ca ra. R45, R44, R46 l cc in tr suy gim mc cng sut pht v n nh tr khng ca ng mch ny. R31, R32: Suy gim tn hiu mt chiu sau lc. D3 l it chnh lu. C31, C32, C33: L cc t lc sau chnh lu. RF MON: Ca ra ly tn hiu o v hin th. RF OUT: Ca ra ly tn hiu sau khuch i a ra Anten. II.4.2 Nguyn l hot ng ca ton mch.

Tn hiu siu cao tn RF IN (t b MOD) vo qua l cm J1, qua b suy gim tnh c ghp qua mt ng khc a n hai tng khuych i n. Tn hiu u vo v u ra b HYB1 c a n chn s 2 ca CD1 iu chnh mc vo mt cch t ng. Qua 2 tng khuych i n TR1 v TR2 tn hiu c phn lm hai ng nh b

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sai ng HYB2, mi ng c khuych i ring r nh TR3 hoc TR4. Sau cng cng sut c khuych i mi ng nh HYB3 c mt cng sut ln gp i. Cng sut ny tip tc c TR5 khuych i, sau tn hiu t u ra ca TR5 li c tip tc khuych i nh ln trc ri HYB5 thc hin chc nng cng cng sut t hai ng li c mt cng sut siu cao tn ln thng qua mch ca ra v phn nhnh ti RF OUT v RF MON. Mc cng sut ra RF OUT c xc nh nh mch TLVL DET. Ngi ta cng trch mt phn tn hiu ra chnh lu lc thnh in p mt chiu, thng qua cc in tr suy gim a n chn 1 ca CD1 xem xt mc cng sut pht ra.

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