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MC LC
THUT NG VIT TT.............................................................................................2 CHNG 1...................................................................................................................9 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH ADSL.....................................................................9 1.1 Khi nim v ADSL v m hnh tham chiu...........................................................9 1.2 Lch s pht trin ADSL........................................................................................11 1.3 ng dng ca ADSL.............................................................................................12 1.4 C ch hot ng vi ADSL .................................................................................12 1.5 u im ca ADSL so vi PSTN & ISDN............................................................13 1.6 Cu trc mng s dng cng ngh ADSL..............................................................14

1.6.1 Cc thnh phn ca ADSL v pha khch hng..................................15 1.6.2 Cc thnh phn ADSL t pha nh cung cp dch v ........................18 1.6.3 B ghp knh truy cp DSLAM ..........................................................20 1.6.4 Thnh phn qun l h thng ADSL...................................................22
1.7 Cc giao thc truyn thng....................................................................................22 1.8 Mi tng quan gia in thoi v ADSL ...................................................27 CHNG 2.................................................................................................................28 QUY TRNH O TH V LP T THU BAO ADSL.......................................28 2.1 Cc php o nh gi cht lng mng cp ng trc khi trin khai ADSL.......28 2.2 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s.........................................................30

2.2.1 o th trc hp ng........................................................................31 2.2.2 o th trc lp t............................................................................31 2.2.3. o th khi lp t..............................................................................32 2.2.4 o th xc nhn sau khi lp t.........................................................32
2.3 Quy trnh o th v lp t ADSL.........................................................................32

- Khc phc s c.........................................................................................37


CHNG 3 KT LUN.........................................................................................38 TI LIU THAM KHO............................................................................................40

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DANH MC HNH V

THUT NG VIT TT
Tn vit tt ADSL AM AMI ANSI AWGN ATM ATU ATU-C ATU-R Tn y Assymetrical Digital Subscriber Line. Amplitude Modulation Alternate Mark Inversion American National Standards Institute Additive White Gauss Noise Asynchronous Transfer Mode ADSL Terminating Unit ATU - Central office ATU Remote ngha ng dy thu bao s bt i xng. iu ch bin M o du lun phin Vin tiu chun quc gia M Nhiu tp m Gauss trng cng Phng thc truyn dn khng ng b. Khi kt cui ADSL Kt cui ADSL pha tng i Kt cui ADSL u xa (pha khch hng)
2

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AU Bit/s BER BRA BRAS BRI CAP CO CPE DLC DSL DSLAM DCS DMT DWDM DWMT E1 EC ETSI

Access Unit Bit per second Bit Error Rate Basic Rate Access Broadband Access Multiplexxer Basic Rate Interface Carrierless Aplitude Phase modulation Central Offices Customers Premises Equipment Digital Loop Carrier Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer Digital Cross-connect System Discrete Multitone Density WaveDivision Multiplexing Discrete Wavelet Multitone

B truy nhp Bit trn giy T l li bit S truy cp tc c s Server truy nhp bng rng Giao din tc c s iu ch bin pha khng s dng sng mang Trung tm chuyn mch hoc tng i ni ht Thit b v pha thu bao Truyn dn s trn mch vng thu bao. ng dy thu bao s Ghp knh truy nhp ng dy thu bao s

FCC

FDD FDM

H thng ni cho s iu ch a m tn ri rc Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng mt cao iu ch da tn sng ri rc ng truyn tc 2,048 Mbit/s theo tiu chun chu u Echo Canceller Thit b kh ting vng European Telecommunications Vin tiu chun vin thng Standard Institute chu u U ban vin thng lin bang M trc thuc chnh ph a Federal Communications ra cc quy nh cho ngnh Commision cng nghip vin thng, v tuyn v truyn hnh. Phng thc truyn dn song Frequency Division Duplexed cng phn chia theo tn s Frequency Division Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s Multiplexing

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FEC FEXT FSAN FSK FSN HDSL HDTV HFC HPF HPPI HTU-C HTU-R IEEE IP IDSL ISDN ISI ISP ITU IVOD LAN LMDS LPF LTU MDF MDSL

Forward Error Correction Far End Crosstalk Full Service Access Network Frequency Shift Keying Full Service Network High Data Rate DSL High Definition Television Hybrid Fiber-Coax High Pass Filter High Performance Parallel Interface High-bit-rate Terminal unit Central office High-bit-rate Terminal unit Remote Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Protocol IDSN DSL Intergrated Services Digital Network InterSymbol Interference Internet Service Provider Interntional Telecommunications Union Interactive Video On Demand Local Area Network Local Multipoint Distribution System Low Pass Filter Line Terminal Unit Main Distribution Frame Multirate Digital Subscriber Line

Sa li trc Xuyn m u xa Mng truy nhp y dch v Kho pha theo tn s Mng truyn thng cung cp c dch v bng rng ln bng hp Cing ngh ng dy thu bao s tc cao Truyn hnh phn gii cao Mng lai cp ng trc B lc thng cao Giao din song song hiu nng cao n v u cui tc bit cao n v u cui tc bit cao thuc thu bao xa Hip hi k s in v in t Giao thc Internet Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s tc 128 kbit/s Mng s a dch v tch hp Nhiu giao thoa gia cc k t Nh cung cp dch v Internet T chc vin thng quc t Dch v video theo yu cu tng tc Mng cc b H thng phn b a dim ni ht B lc thng thp Khi kt cui ng dy Gi phi dy chnh ng dy thu bao s a tc
4

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MMDS MPEG MODEM MUX NEXT NIC NID NRZ NSP NT NTU NVOD ONU PAM PBX PON POTS PPP PRA PRI PSD PSTN QAM QoS QPSK RADSL RJ45 RF RFI RT SDSL SNR SYN

Multichanel Multipoint Distribution System Motion Picture Experts Group Modulation/Demodulation Multiplexer Near End Crosstalk Network Interface Card Network Interface Device Non Return Zeror Network Service Provider Network Termination Network Termination Unit Near Video On Demand Optical Network Unit Pulse Amplitude Modulatedtion Private Branch Exchange Pasive Optical Network Plain Old Telephone Service Point-to-Point Protocol Primary Rate Access Primary Rate Interface Power Spectral Density Public Switch Telephone Network Quarature Amplitude Modullation Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Rate Adaptive DSL

H thng phn phi a im a knh Nhm chuyn gia hnh nh ng iu ch/gii iu ch B ghp knh Xuyn m u gn Card giao din mng Thit b giao din mng M ng truyn NRZ Nh cung cp dch v mng Kt cui mng Khi kt cui mng Dch v video gn theo thu cu n v mng quang iu ch bin xung Tng i c quan Mng quang th ng Dch v thoi thng thng Giao thc im im Truy cp tc s cp Giao din tc s cp Mt ph cng sut Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng iu ch bin cu phng Cht lng dch v Kho dch pha cu phng ng thu bao s tc thch ng Modul kt ni 8 dy tiu chun Tn s v tuyn Nhiu tn s v tuyn Thit b u cui xa ng thu bao s n Tn hiu trn t l tp m K hiu ng b

Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Interference Remote Terminal Single pair DSL Signal to Noise Ratio Synchronization Symbol

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TCM TDD TDM UTP VC VCI VPI VDSL VoD VoDSL VTU-O VTU-R WLL xDSL

Trellis Code Modulation Time Division Duplexed Time Division Multiplexing Unshielded Twisted Pair Virtual Channel Virtual Channel Identification Virtual Path Identifier Very High Data Rate DSL Video on Demand Voice overDSL VDSL Transmission Unit at the ONU VDSL Transmission Unit at the Remote site Wireless Local Loop x Digital Subscriber Loop

iu ch m ho li Phng thc truyn dn song cng phn chia theo thi gian Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian i dy xon khng bc kim Knh o Nhn dng knh o Nhn dng ng o ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao. Video theo yu cu Dch v thoi qua DSL n v truyn dn VDSL ti ONU n v truyn dn VDSL t xa Mch vng v tuyn ni ht H cng ngh ng dy thu bao s

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M U
Ngy nay xu hng pht trin hi t mng PSTN, mng s liu v cc mng khc ang tn ti c lp Vit Nam thnh mng NGN l mt tt yu. Tuy nhin l trnh nng cp mng phi tri qua nhiu giai on do c nhiu yu t khc nhau tc ng. Xt v gc mng truy nhp, hin nay cp ng vn l mi trng truyn dn chnh trong mng truy nhp, chim ti khong 94%. Mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng c nhiu nhc im hn ch kh nng cung cp khng ch cc dch v mi, nht l cc dch v bng rng, m ngay c i vi cc dch v truyn thng nh thoi. Mt khc s thay i ca c cu dch v l yu t then cht nh hng n s pht trin ca mng truy nhp. Khch hng yu cu khng ch l cc dch v thoi/fax truyn thng, m c cc dch v s tch hp, thm ch c truyn hnh k thut s phn gii cao. Mng truy nhp truyn thng r rng cha sn sng p ng cc nhu cu dch v ny. Trong khi vic cp quang ho hon ton mng vin thng cha thc hin c v gi thnh cc thit b quang vn cn cao th vic tn dng c s h tng rt ln ny l rt cn thit v c li. Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s (xDSL) l mt gii php hp l trong giai on hin nay. Trn th gii nhiu nc p dng cng ngh ny v thu c thnh cng ng k. Vit Nam cng ngh xDSL m ph bin l ADSL cng c trin khai trong nhng nm gn y v thu c nhng thnh cng nht nh v mt kinh t cng nh gii php mng p ng c nhu cu ca khch hng. Ngi s dng Internet ti Vit Nam ngy cng c nhiu nhu cu khai thc Internet mc cao hn nh gi in thoi Internet, khai thc mng o dng ring VPN, t chc hi tho trc tuyn, xem video theo yu cu (VOD), nghe nhc, chi game trc tuyn... ADSL chnh l phng tin gip h thc hin cc nhu cu ny vi chi ph thp. ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ng thu bao k thut s khng i xng) l mt cng ngh mi cung cp kt ni ti cc thu bao qua ng cp in thoi vi tc cao cho php ngi s

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dng kt ni Internet 24/24 m khng nh hng n vic s dng in thoi v fax. Tc download t 2-8 Mbps, tc upload ti a 640 Kbps. S thu bao ng k dch v ADSL trong thi gian qua tng rt nhanh trong c nc. Thng k ca B Bu chnh Vin thng cho thy nm nh cung cp dch v Intemet ADSL ln gm VDC, FPT, Viettel, Netnam v Saigon Postel (SPT) hin nay mi ch p ng c khong 80% nhu cu s dng ADSL. Th trng Internet bng rng Vit Nam cn rt nhiu tim nng v ang ngy cng thu ht ng o ngi s dng. Tuy nhin, do cc doanh nghip cha d tnh c ht nhu cu ca khch hng nn tc u t cha p ng c dn n tnh trng st Internet, nht l dch v ADSL. Hin nay VNPT nng dung lng ng truyn ln 10 Gbps. ng thi ny s chm ngi cho cuc ua nng cp m rng mng ca cc nh cung cp khc. Sau mt thi gian nghin cu, c s hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio Ths.Nguyn nh Long v c thc tp ti Trung Tm Vin thng Thanh Oai Cng ty in thoi 3 H Ni. Em nghin cu tng quan v dch v ADSL v quy trnh khai thc, lp t thu bao ADSL. Tuy nhin v thi gian v kin thc cn nhiu hn ch nn bn bo co ny chc chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, em rt mong nhn c s gp gip ca cc thy c gio trong Khoa Vin thng v cc bn bn bo co thc tp ca em c hon thin tt hn. Ni dung bn bo co thc tp tt nghip gm 3 chng: - Chng 1: Tng quan v cng ngh ADSL - Chng 2: Quy trnh o th v lp t thu bao. - Chng 3: Kt lun H ni, ngy 22 thng 05 nm 2010 Sinh vin thc hin

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CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH ADSL


1.1 Khi nim v ADSL v m hnh tham chiu Hiu mt cch n gin nht, ADSL l s thay th vi tc cao cho thit b Modem hoc ISDN gip truy nhp Internet vi tc cao v nhanh hn. ADSL l cng ngh thng tin bng rng mi cho php truy nhp tc rt cao ti Internet v mng thng tin s liu bng cch s dng ng dy in thoi sn c ti nh. ADSL vt tri cc Modem in thoi thng thng mi kha cnh. Cc biu sau ch ra cc tc cao nht c th t c gia cc dch v cung cp

Hnh 1. 1 So snh tc truy cp Internet gia ADSL vi ISDN v Modem thoi thng thng ADSL l vit tt ca Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - l ng thu bao s khng i xng, l k thut truyn c s dng trn ng dy t Modem ca thu bao ti Nh cung cp dch v. Asymmetric: Tc truyn khng ging nhau hai chiu. Tc ca chiu xung (t mng ti thu bao) c th nhanh gp hn 10 ln so vi tc ca chiu ln (t thu bao ti mng). iu ny ph hp mt cch tuyt vi cho vic khai thc dch v Internet khi m ch cn nhn chut (tng ng vi lu lng nh thng tin m thu bao gi i) l c th nhn c mt lu lng ln d liu ti v t Internet. Digital: Cc Modem ADSL hot ng mc bit (0 & 1) v dng chuyn thng tin s ho gia cc thit b s nh cc my tnh PC. Chnh kha cnh ny th ADSL khng c g khc vi cc Modem thng thng.

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Subscriber Line: ADSL t n ch hot ng trn ng dy thu bao bnh thng ni ti tng i ni ht. ng dy thu bao ny vn c th c tip tc s dng cho cc cuc gi i hoc nghe in thoi cng mt thi im thng qua thit b gi l "Splitters" c chc nng tch thoi v d liu trn ng dy.
V-C

NT

T-R

T-S

SM

Mng bng rng

P H Y

ATU-C

ATU-R

P H Y

Mng trong nh thu bao SM

U-C 2

U-R 2

HPF U-C 1 U-R 1

HPF

Mng bng hp

PSTN LPF mch vng LPF

POTS

in thoi hoc modem m tn

B tch C

B tch R

Giao din ng tn hiu

Hnh 1. 2 M hnh tham chiu ADSL - ATU-C: Khi truyn dn ADSL pha tng i - ATU-R: Khi truyn dn ADSL pha thu bao - POTS : Cc dch v thoi n thun. - PSTN : Mng chuyn mch thoi cng cng - Mng bng rng l h thng chuyn mch vi tc trn 1,5/2,0 Mbps (tc ca lung T1/E1). - Mng bng hp l h thng chuyn mch vi tc di 1,5/2,0 Mbps. (Tng i PSTN - 64 kbit/s) - Mng phn b d liu trong nh thu bao l h thng kt ni ATU-R ti cc modul dch v. C th l im-im hoc im - a im. - SM: Modul dch v thch ng u cui
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- Splitter : B chia bao gm b lc thng cao HPF v thng thp LPF lm nhim v phn tch thoi v s liu. - U-C 1 l giao din gia mch vng v b chia pha tng i bao gm c bng thoi - U-R 1: Giao din gia mch vng b chia pha khch hng khng c bng thoi - U-C 2: Giao din gia b chia v ATU-C khng c bng thoi POTS - U-R 2: Giao din gia b chia v ATU-R - V-C: Giao din gia ATU-C v mng bng rng - T-S: Giao din gia mng trong nh thu bao v my ch khch hng. Mt ATU-R c th c nhiu loi giao din T-S khc nhau (v d T1/E1 v mt giao din Ethernet). - T-R: Giao din ADSL gia ATU-R v mng trong nh thu bao. Mng trong nh thu bao c th l mt mng cc b chng hn nh mng LAN hoc c th khng phi l nh th trong trng hp mt kt ni trc tip gia mt modem v mt PC hoc mt card modem cm trong ADSL v bus my tnh. 1.2 Lch s pht trin ADSL Khi nim ban u ca ADSL xut hin t nm 1989, t J.W.Lechleider v nhng ngi khc thuc Bellcore. S pht trin ADSL bt u trng i hc Stanford v phng th nghim AT&T Bell Lab nm 1990. Mu ADSL u tin xut hin vo nm 1992 phng th nghim Bellcore, sn phm ADSL u tin c th nghim vo nm 1995. Vo thng 10 nm 1998, ITU thng qua b tiu chun ADSL c bn. Khuyn ngh G922.1 chi tit ADSL full-rate. Ban u ADSL c nghin cu tc 1,5 Mbit/s thu v 16 kbit/s pht cho ng dng MPEG-1 quay s video (VDT). Mt s thnh vin trong nghnh cng nghip ny gi y l ADSL1. Sau , ADSL2 c a ra cho php 2 dng MPEG-1 ng thi c truyn tc cao hn 3 Mbit/s thu v 16 kbit/s pht . Vo nm 1993, s quan tm hng v ADSL3 vi 6 Mbit/s thu v t nht 64 kbit/s pht h tr video MPEG2. Tiu chun ADSL ANSI T1.413 phin bn 1 pht trin vt ra khi khi nim ADSL3. Thut ng ADSL1, ADSL2, v ADSL3 t c s dng sau khi tiu chun ANSI T1.413 thng qua. Tip theo dng dy thu bao s tc iu chnh (RADSL) l thut ng p dng cho h thng ADSL c kh nng xc nh dung lng truyn ca mi mch vng mt cch t ng v sau hot ng tc cao nht ph

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hp vi mch vng . Tiu chun ANSI T1.413 cung cp kh nng hot ng tc iu chnh. iu chnh tc thc hin khi thit lp ng dy, vi gii hn cht lng tn hiu thch hp m bo rng tc ng dy thit lp c th duy tr trong nhng thay i danh nh trn c tnh truyn ca ng dy. Do RADSL s t ng cung cp tc bit ln hn trn mch vng c c tnh truyn dn tt hn (suy hao t hn, nhiu t hn). RADSL h tr tc thu ti a trong phm vi t 7 n 10 Mbit/s v tc pht ti a trong phm vi t 512 n 900 kbit/s. Trn nhng mch vng di (5,5 km hoc ln hn). RADSL c th hot ng tc thu thp nht khong 512 kbit/s v 128 kbit/s pht. RADSL mn khi nim tc iu chnh t modem trong bng thoi. RADSL c li ch ca mt phin bn thit b c th m bo tc truyn dn cao nht c th cho mi mch vng v cng cho php hot ng trn nhng mch vng di tc thp hn. 1.3 ng dng ca ADSL ADSL xc lp cch thc d liu c truyn gia thu bao (nh ring hoc cng s) v thit b DSLAM bu in trn chnh ng dy in thoi bnh thng. Chng ta vn thng gi cc ng dy ny l local loop. Thc cht ca ng dng ADSL khng phi vic truyn d liu i/n tng i in thoi ni ht m l to ra kh nng truy nhp Internet vi tc cao. Nh vy, vn nm vic xc lp kt ni d liu ti Nh cung cp dch v Internet. Mc d chng ta cho rng ADSL c s dng truyn d liu bng cc giao thc Internet, nhng trn thc t vic thc hin iu nh th no li khng phi l c trng k thut ca ADSL. Hin nay, phn ln ngi ta ng dng ADSL cho truy nhp Internet tc cao v s dng cc dch v trn Internet mt cch nhanh hn. 1.4 C ch hot ng vi ADSL ADSL tm cch khai thc phn bng thng tng t cn cha c s dng trn ng dy ni t thu bao ti tng i ni ht. ng dy ny c thit k chuyn ti di ph tn s (frequency spectrum) chim bi cuc thoi bnh thng. Tuy nhin, n cng c th chuyn ti cc tn s cao hn di ph tng i hn ch dnh cho thoi. l di ph m ADSL s dng.

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Hnh 1. 3 Phn b ph tn trn ng dy in thoi Thoi c bn s dng di tn s t 300Hz ti 3400Hz. By gi chng ta s xem xt, thoi v d liu ADSL chia s cng mt ng dy thu bao ra sao. Trn thc t, cc Splitter c s dng m bo d liu v thoi khng xm phm ln nhau trn ng truyn. Cc tn s m mch vng c th chuyn ti, hay ni cch khc l khi lng d liu c th chuyn ti s ph thuc vo cc nhn t sau: - Khong cch t tng i ni ht. - Kiu v dy ng dy. - Kiu v s lng cc mi ni trn ng dy. - Mt cc ng dy chuyn ti ADSL, ISDN v cc tn hiu phi thoi khc. - Mt cc ng dy chuyn ti tn hiu radio. 1.5 u im ca ADSL so vi PSTN & ISDN + PSTN v ISDN l cc cng ngh quay s (Dial-up). + ADSL l "lin tc/always-on" kt ni trc tip. + PSTN v ISDN cho php chng ta s dng Fax, d liu, thoi, d liu ti Internet, d liu ti cc thit b khc. + ADSL ch chuyn ti d liu ti Internet. + PSTN v ISDN cho php chng ta tu chn ISP no m ta mun kt ni. + ADSL kt ni chng ta ti mt ISP nh trc. + ISDN chy tc c s 64kbps hoc 128kbps. + ADSL c th ti d liu v vi tc ti 8Mbps. + PSTN ngt truy nhp ti Internet khi chng ta thc hin cuc gi. + ADSL cho php va s dng Internet trong khi vn c th thc hin cuc gi ng thi. + Kt ni Internet qua ng PSTN v ISDN bng phng thc quay s c tnh cc ni ht. + ADSL khng tnh cc ni ht.

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Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

+ Mc d Modem ADSL lun ch kt ni thng trc, nhng vn c th cn phi thc hin lnh kt ni Internet trn my PC. + Cc dch v nh Fax v thoi c th c thc hin cng trn kt ni d liu ADSL ti Internet. + Trn thc t, tc Download tiu biu i vi dch v ADSL gia nh thng t ti (up to) 400kbps + Dng bao nhiu, tr by nhiu. Cu trc cc theo lu lng s dng (Hoc theo thi gian s dng). + Khng hn ch s ngi s dng khi chia s kt ni Internet trong mng 1.6 Cu trc mng s dng cng ngh ADSL

Hnh 1. 4 Cu trc ca h thng ADSL Kin trc dch v end-to-end ADSL tiu biu c m t trong hnh sau.

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Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

Hnh 1. 5 Kin trc mng ADSL chun N bao gm customer premises equipment (CPE) v cc thit b h tr ADSL ti point of presence (POP). Network access providers (NAPs) qun l mng li Layer 2 trong khi network service providers (NSPs) qun l mng li Layer 3. Cc vai tr ny c phn chia qun l ti cc incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC), competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC) v cc nh cung cp dch v Internet Tier 1 and Tier 2 Internet Service Provider (ISP). Trong tng lai p lc th trng s bt buc nh ngha li mi quan h hin ti ca cc nh cung cp dch v ADSL, c th lc mt s nh cung cp NAP c th pht trin thm cc kh nng Layer 3 hoc c kh nng m rng cung cp cc dch v qua mng li. CPE c th l cc PC hoc Workstation, Remote ADSL Terminating Units (ATU-R) hoc Router. V d nh mt khch hng Nh ring c th s dng mt PC n vi mt ADSL modem tch hp gn trn PCI card, hoc mt PC vi mt giao tip Ethernet hay giao tip Universal Serial Bus (USB) kt ni n mt ADSL modem (ATU-R) bn ngoi. Ngc li i vi cc khch hng l cc cng ty thng mi thng kt ni nhiu PC t cc user u cui vo mt router vi ADSL modem tch hp hoc mt router v mt ATU-R bn ngoi. Ti ADSL POP, NAP trin khai mt hoc nhiu thit b DSLAM kt ni cp ng local loop gia POP v CPE. Khi c cu trc theo kiu m rng Subtending, cc DSLAM c th kt ni mt xch vi nhau ti u ho ng ATM uplink. Cc DSLAM kt ni trc tip hoc gin tip qua mng WAN n mt thit b tp hp truy cp LAC (Local Access Concentrator), thit b ny lm nhim v cung cp ATM grooming, PPP tunneling v Layer 3 termination kt ni khch hng n cc Local Centent hoc Cached Content. Service selection gateway (SSG) c th c t ti LAC v th khch hng c th t la chn ni n (Destination) theo yu cu. T LAC/SSG cc dch v s c m rng qua ATM core n NSP hoc IP network core. 1.6.1 Cc thnh phn ca ADSL v pha khch hng Bao gm: + Thit b u cui DSL (DSL CPE).

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Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

+ PC/LAN. + CPE Spliter. + Mch vng thu bao - Thit b u cui khch hng bao gm mt lot cc thit b, card giao tip thc hin chc nng chuyn i d liu ngi s dng thnh dng tn hiu xDSL v ngc li. DSL CPE tiu biu l PC NIC, DSL modem, DSL bridge, Router. Hin ti nhng sn phm ny ang c nhiu hng gii thiu v cho hng vi nhiu chng loi ph hp vi tng loi khch hng l c nhn, t chc c nhu cu khc nhau. 3com:HomeConnect 3647, 4130. Alcatel: Speedtouch Home Ambit:T60M104/07. Jetstream IAD-801. Cisco 677, 678..v.v. Lucent: DSL ACAP, DSL DMT.v..v. Cisco: 802/804, 1417 ADSL Router, 1600, 1700.v.v. - CPE-Spliter: Ti thit b u cui ngi s dng v ti CO, kt ni ADSL s dng hai b splitter khc nhau nhm m bo mt phn tch thng tin ca dch v thoi truyn thng v dch v ADSL. B thit b CPE Splitter ny cn oc gi l Remote POTS splitter phi hp vi POTS splitter t ti DSLAM nhm phn tch tn hiu tn s. CPE Splitter cn phi h tr 03 giao tip RJ-11 : Mt dnh cho kt ni LocalLoop, mt cho kt ni ti DSL CPE v mt dnh cho kt ni ti my in thoi.

Trong phn ny s ln lt m t chc nng ca tng thnh phn ca ADSL, bt u t Modem ADSL ti Nh cung cp dch v Internet. Chng ta cng xem xt pha ISP lc ra nhng thnh phn c bn m h s dng cung cp dch v ADSL. 1. Modem ADSL Modem ADSL c th l thit b ng c lp hoc l or PC-card (Line Card to be inserted in DSLAM at Central Office). N cung cp truy nhp d liu tc cao cho khch hng qua ATU-R. Modem c cp ngun t b bin i DC hoc AC bn ngoi (tr PC-card c cp ngun t PC, USB modem c cp ngun t USB port)

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

Cc giao din khch hng thng thng: 10/100BaseT Ethernet ATM-F 25 Mbit/s V.35 USB (Universal Serial Bus) (Power drawn from USB bus) Modem ADSL kt ni vo ng dy in thoi (cn gi l local loop) v ng dy ny ni ti thit b tng i ni ht. Modem ADSL s dng kt hp mt lot cc k thut x l tn hiu tin tin nhm t c tc bng thng cn thit trn ng dy in thoi thng thng vi khong cch ti vi km gia thu bao v tng i ni ht. Modem ADSL hot ng bng cch vn hnh cng lc nhiu Modem, trong mi Modem s dng phn bng thng ring c th.

Hnh 1. 6 M phng vic s dng bng thng ca Modem ADSL S trn y ch m phng mt cch tng i, nhng qua ta c th nhn thy ADSL s dng rt nhiu Modem ring l hot ng song song khai thc bng thng ti a v cung cp mt tc rt cao. Mi ng k sc en trn th hin mt Modem v chng hot ng ti cc tn s hon ton khc nhau. Trn thc t c th ti 255 Modem hot ng trn mt ng ADSL. im c bit ch ADSL s dng di tn s t 26kHz ti 1.1MHz trong 10MHz ca bng thng thoi. Tt c 255 Modems ny c vn hnh ch trn mt con chp n. Lng d liu m mi Modem c th truyn ti ph thuc vo cc c im ca ng dy ti tn s m Modem chim. Mt s Modem c th khng lm vic mt cht no v s gy nhiu t ngun tn hiu bn ngoi chng hn nh bi mt ng dy (local loop) khc hoc ngun pht v tuyn no . Cc Modem tn s cao hn thng thng li truyn ti c t d liu hn bi l do tn s cng cao th s suy hao cng ln, c bit l trn mt khong cch di. Modem ADSL trn thc t gm 2 loi c bn: - Modem ADSL thng minh bn thn n tch hp sn cc giao thc truyn thng cn thit (Nh thit b Modem ADSL Router hoc Modem c s dng kt ni qua cng Card Ethernet 10/100Mb) nn ch vic la chn v khai bo VPI/VCI cho Modem.

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- Modem ADSL th ng th phi hot ng da trn h iu hnh ca my tnh cung cp cc giao thc cn thit. Cc loi Modem ny bt buc phi ci t phn mm iu khin Modem v thit lp cc giao thc PPP, VPI/VCI. Vic cu hnh nh vy phc tp v i hi thi gian nhiu hn. Ch c Windows 98SE, Windows ME v Windows 2000/XP l c ci sn c ch thc thi ATM, v th ngi ta t s dng cc Modem th ng trn thc t. Mc d cc Modem thng minh c h tr cc giao thc cn thit nhng chng vn c th c dng cho cc h iu hnh ni trn. Cc Modem th ng c th ni vi PC thng qua giao din USB, hoc c th c sn xut di dng PCI Card cm thng trn bng mch ch ca PC. Vic khai thc giao thc ATM khng c ngha l cn phi c Card mng ATM cho PC - ch l c ch h tr bng phn mm trong h iu hnh.

Hnh 1. 7 Kt ni Modem ADSL 2. Mch vng / Local Loop 'Local loop' l thut ng dng ch cc ng dy in thoi bnh thng ni t v tr ngi s dng ti cng ty in thoi. Nguyn nhn xut hin thut ng local loop - l ngi nghe (in thoi) c kt ni vo hai ng dy m nu nhn t tng i in thoi th chng to ra mt mch vng local loop. 1.6.2 Cc thnh phn ADSL t pha nh cung cp dch v

Hnh 1. 8 Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng ADSL


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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

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Phm vi Nh cung cp dch v gm c cc thnh phn quan trng: B tp hp truy cp Aggregator DSLAM - DSL Access Multiplexer. BRAS - BRoadband Access Server. POTS spliter hay CO Spliter. ISP - Internet Service Provider. 1. B tp hp truy cp Aggregator B tp hp truy cp l thit b c nhim v tp trung cc kt ni v trung tm theo phng thc gim thiu kt ni logic. Aggregator tp trung cc kt ni logic (cc PVC) n t cc DSLAM ri tng hp li thnh mt hoc mt vi PVC truyn ti qua mng trc ti kt cui th hai ca cc kt ni logic (ISP, headquarter, offices.v.v). Nu khng s dng Aggregator th vi nxPVC n t n thit b u cui s chim nxPVC trn mng trc. Thng qua Aggregator, nh cung cp dch v s cung cp cho khch hng cc dch v DSL nh truy cp internet tc cao, kt ni mng ring o, Video on Demand, Video Broadcast, e-learning,..vv. - H tr a dng cc loi giao tip LAN/WAN thun li cho vic kt ni vi cc Router, DSLAM: Ethernet/ Fast/ GigaEthernet, Serial, HSSI, ISDN, T3/E3, OC3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, ...vv. - Kh nng x l cao tng xng vi vai tr l b tp trung, chp nhn c hng ngn kt ni ti t pha khch hng. - H tr ATM, MPLS, IP, QoS, CoS, L2TP - H tr kh nng xp chng, phn nhnh cho php trin khai linh hot cu hnh mng khi cn thit. - Kh nng tng thch vi cc dng sn phm ca cc hng khc. Vai tr ca Aggregator l tp hp tt c cc kt ni o logic vo trong mt im logic, iu ny cng ng ngha vi Aggregator tp hp tt cc cc phin PPP vo mt im sau mi dn ln UP-link ti mng trc. V cn bn mi thu bao c mt phin PPP tuy nhin s lng kt ni PPP l khng gii hn trn mi kt ni DSL. Vi c tnh ny cho php khch hng khc nhau trong cng mt vn phng chia s cng mt ng xDSL i ra ngoi mng Internet. Cc phin PPP c xc thc (Authentification) sau c kt thc ti Aggregator. Thit b Aggregator c th l mt thit b nh tuyn a chc nng, hoc l mt thit b mng chuyn c thit k cho vic tp hp cc bng rng. Aggregator c th thc hin vic xc thc Authentification, Cp php (Authorization) hay tnh ton (Accounting) bi mt RADIUS server t
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trn mng ca nh cung cp dch v. Sau khi c xc thc, Aggregator s thit lp mt lin ni (route) t nh khch hng n nh cung cp dch v Internet. Cc thit b Aggregator c th c t bn cnh thit b DSLAM ngay ti cc POP cung cp dch v hoc c th c t ta khu vc trung tm vng v kt ni n cc DSLAM mc di thng qua giao tip WAN. Cc thit b Aggregator s kt hp vi h thng RADIUS t ti Trung tm iu hnh cho php qun l AAA cho cc khch hng DSL nh phng php truy cp Internet bnh thng. 1.6.3 B ghp knh truy cp DSLAM DSLAM l b ghp knh c chc nng trc tip cung cp cng kt ni ti khch hng. y l thit b tp trung cc ng thu bao ring l y ln mc trn v ngc li. Mt thit b DSLAM c th tp hp nhiu kt ni thu bao ADSL - c th nhiu ti hng trm thu bao - v t li trn mt kt ni cp quang. Si cp quang ny thng c ni ti thit b gi l BRAS - Broadband Access Server, nhng n cng c th khng ni trc tip ti BRAS v BRAS c th c t ti bt c u.

Hnh 1. 9 M hnh kt ni cc thnh phn ADSL c bn DSLAM l thit b t pha tng i, l im cui ca kt ni ADSL. N cha v s cc Modem ADSL b tr v mt pha hng ti cc mch vng v pha kia l kt ni cp quang. B ghp knh truy cp phi t c mt s yu cu sau: - H tr MPLS, IP routing QoS cho php trin khai nhiu loi ng dng qua xDSL - H tr nhiu chun DSL: ADSL, SDSL, IDSL, RADSL, VDSL.v.. - Kh nng tng tng thch vi nhiu loi thit b u cui khch hng DSL CPE ca nhiu hng sn xut m ra cho khch hng nhiu kh nng la chn thit b u cui. - H tr a dng cc loi giao tip up-link bng rng DS3/E3, OC3/STM1, ..vv.

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- Cc giao din mng thng thng: ATM/STM-1, 34 Mbit/s E3, n x 2

Mbit/s (E1) v Ethernet 10/100BaseT. - Kh nng ng dng cc k thut phn nhnh, xp chng...vv cho php trin khai linh hot khi thay i cu trc mng. - Cu hnh nhiu khe cm c th la chn. C cc khe cm cho cc card ATU-C v b chia (POTS/ISDN), khe cho card qun l, c 1-2 khe cho cp ngun. V ADSL kt ni trc tip n Local Loop, ngoi ra v khong cch gii hn ca cc Loop trong cng ngh DSL do cc DSLAM thng c t ti cc CO. DSLMA l thit b khng chu li Single-Point-of-Failure cho mt s khch hng ln trc thuc khu vc. DSLAM cng thng c t ti cc khu vc CO khng c ngi qun l k thut do hu ht cc nh sn xut thit b ny phi ch to ra cc sn phm c kh nng chu li rt cao nhm gim thiu cc s c v mng. Cc tiu chun sau cn c h tr : - ANSI T1.413 Issue2 (ADSL over POTS). - ITU G.992.1 Annex A. - ITU G.992.2(Glite). - ITU G.994.1(G.hs). 3. Thit b BRAS Broadband Access Server (BRAS) l thit b t gia DSLAM v POP ca ISP. Mt thit b BRAS c th phc v cho nhiu DSLAM. Cc giao thc truyn thng c ng gi truyn d liu thng qua kt ni ADSL, v vy mc ch ca BRAS l m gi hon tr li cc giao thc trc khi i vo Internet. N cng m bo cho kt ni ca chng ta ti ISP c chnh xc ging nh khi chng ta s dng Modem quay s hoc ISDN. ADSL khng ch r cc giao thc c s dng to thnh kt ni ti Internet. Phng php m PC v Modem s dng bt buc phi ging nh BRAS s dng cho kt ni thc hin c. 4. CO Splitter (POTS splitter) phn chia di tn ca thoi truyn thng v ADSL v c t trong DSLAM hoc bn ngoi i km vi DSLAM trong qu trnh cung cp dch v. Thit b ny cung cp: Lc thng cao gia ng dy cp ng v nt in thoi Lc ra tn hiu POT/ISDN tn s thp Chn cc impulse noise t in thoi hoc cng tc trong modem ADSL do chung, nhp chung, nhc my v thay i tr khng
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Lc thng thp gia cp ng v nt ADSL Lc tn hiu tn s cao Chn cc tn hiu modem ADSL i vo my in thoi lm gim cht lng ng dy (v d: handset, fax, voiceband, modem etc.) Tch cc hoc th ng 1.6.4 Thnh phn qun l h thng ADSL Thng tin qun l c truyn qua knh overhead trong khung ADSL Da trn SNMP Bao gm: Qun l xy dng cu hnh, cht lng, li, bo an 2 kiu qun l Ti ch Tp trung Qun l ti ch qua giao din V.24 Qun l 1 DSLAM Thng s dng 1 PC xch tay Qun l trung, qua mt bng iu khin chuyn dng qun l t xa nhiu h thng 1.7 Cc giao thc truyn thng Di y s trnh by v nhng giao thc truyn thng c s dng trn kt ni ADSL. Khi kt ni vo Internet, chng ta s dng cc giao thc chy tng vn chuyn TCP/IP (chng hn nh HTTP - giao thc c s dng bi cc Web Browser). Qu trnh ny l ging nhau vi cc kiu truy nhp quay s qua PSTN, ISDN v ADSL. Khi quay s PSTN/ISDN truy nhp vo Internet, chng ta s dng giao thc gi l PPP vn chuyn d liu TCP/IP v kim tra cng nh xc thc tn v mt khu ngi truy nhp. Trong ADSL, PPP cng thng c s dng kim tra tn v mt khu truy nhp, v ATM th lun c s dng mc thp nht. Kt ni in hnh nh di y :

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Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

Hnh 1. 10 Cc giao thc in hnh c s dng khi mt PC kt ni Internet s dng cng ngh ADSL Vai tr ca ATM ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode - c s dng nh l cng c chuyn ti cho ADSL mc thp. L do v l cch thun tin v mm do i vi cc cng ty thoi mun ko di khong cch kt ni t DSLAM ti BRAS gip h c th t BRAS bt c u trn mng. C hai tham s cn phi thit lp cu hnh mt cch chnh xc trn Modem ADSL m bo kt ni thnh cng ti mc ATM vi DSLAM: VPI - the Virtual Path Identifier nhn dng ng o. VCI - the Virtual Channel Identifier nhn dng knh o. Vai tr ca PPP PPP l giao thc dng vn chuyn lu lng Internet ti ISP dc theo cc kt ni Modem v ISDN. PPP kt hp cht ch cc yu t xc thc - kim tra tn/mt khu - v l l do chnh m ngi ta dng PPP vi ADSL. Mc d BRAS thc thi giao thc PPP v tin hnh vic xc thc, nhng thc ra vic c thc hin bng cch truy nhp vo cc c s d liu khch hng t ti ISP. Bng cch , ISP bit c rng cc kt ni do BRAS nh tuyn ti - c xc thc thng qua giao dch vi c s d liu ring ca ISP. Thng thng ADSL s dng hai giao thc chnh l : PPPoE - PPP over Ethernet Protocol. PPPoA - Point to Point Protocol over ATM.

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Ngoi ra c 2 giao thc khc na l RFC 1483 (Bridged) v RFC 1483 (Routed). 1. PPP over ATM (PPPoA) c dng trong cc thit b: Internal ADSL Modem, USB modem hoc ADSL router Cc u im: + S dng bng tn hiu qu nht (t thng tin mo u s dng trong vic ng khung) + Gn nh l gii php c chi ph thp nht + Cc nh sn xut PC c th ci t phn cng v phn mm c lin quan trc khi bn hng + C kh nng cung cp a ch IP ng + PPP cung cp tnh nng bo an (PAP/CHAP) Nhc im: Phn mm hoc phn cng ca PC phi c chc nng SAR Mt i tng s dng trn mt kt ni ADSL Cu hnh i tng s dng VPI/VCI cho ADSL PVC S dng User ID v Password cho NSP
ISP
ATM VC ATM/DSL Internal

CO

CPE

IP Router

DSLAM

TCP IP PPP
AAL5 ATM Sonet/SDH ATM xDSL

TCP IP PPP
AAL5 ATM

Hnh 1. 11 PPPoA (RFC 2364) 2.

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PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) PPPoE yu cu hu ht cc giao thc ng khung: + PPP trn PC bo an kt ni t PC n b nh tuyn ca ISP + PPPoE kt ni t PC n modem + RFC 1483 kt ni t modem n b nh tuyn ca ISP u im: + PPPoE c th ghp nhiu phin PPP trn mt ATM PVC + H tr nhiu ngi s dng chung mt kt ni ADSL + PPP cung cp tnh nng bo an (PAP/CHAP) + S dng mn hnh dial-up quen thuc + Ngi s dng c th la chn dch v (La chn dch v mt cch ng) Nhc im: + S dng bng tn ADSL khng hiu qu + PC cn phi c ci t giao thc PPPoE (cha c chun ho) + PPPoE yu cu ci t b sung phn mm iu khin ln PC + PPPoE khng m bo c QoS ( thi im hin ti) + PPPoE khng h tr cuc gi n Cu hnh thit b pha khch hng +PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet +VPI/VCI cho ADSL PVC trn ADSL modem
ISP
ATM VC IP Router DSL Modem

CO

CPE

TCP IP PPP 1483


AAL5 ATM Sonet/SDH ATM

DSLAM

TCP IP PPP

1483
AAL5 ATM xDSL PPPoE Ethernet PPPoE Ethernet 10Base -T

Hnh 1. 12 PPPoE (RFC 2516)

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3. LLC Bridge
ISP
ATM VC DSL Modem

CO

CPE

IP Router

DSLAM

TCP IP 1483
AAL5 ATM Sonet/SDH ATM xDSL

TCP Enet Bridging 1483


AAL5 ATM 10Base-T Ethernet Ethernet

IP

Hnh 1. 13 RFC 1483 (Bridged)

S dng trong modem ADSL ngoi vi giao thc ng khung RFC 1483. Hin nay c trin khai trong cc sn phm ca SBC v Pac Bell s dng cho cc i tng c nhn v doanh nghip. u im: RFC1483 c th ghp nhiu phin trn mt ATM PVC Nhc im: ADSL Modem phi nh dng li khung Ethernet Thng c s dng vi Static IP Cu hnh thit b pha ngi s dng CO CPE ISP PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet Phi khai bo VPI/VCIVC DSL PVC ca ADSL modem ATM cho 4. LLC Route IP Router
TCP IP 1483
AAL5 DSLAM DSL Modem

TCP IP Routing Encap.


AAL5 ATM xDSL ATM 10Base -T Ethernet Ethernet

IP

Vi Th Hu - C07VT2 ATM
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Hnh 1. 14 RFC 1483 (Routed) S dng trong: b nh tuyn ADSL cm ngoi. Ch ny c s dng trong cc Modem ADSL cm ngoi ng vi RFC 1483. N hin ang c s dng trong cc sn phm ca SBC v Pac Bell. u im: RFC1483 c th ghp nhiu phin trn mt ATM PVC Nhc im: Modem ADSL phi nh dng li khung Ethernet Thng s dng phng thc a ch IP Static Cu hnh thit b pha CPE PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet VPI/VCI cho DSL PVC ca ADSL modem 1.8 Mi tng quan gia in thoi v ADSL ADSL cho php cng lc va truy nhp Internet tc cao li va c th thc hin cuc gi cng trn ng dy . Thit b chuyn dng Splitters c s dng tch ring cc tn s cao dng cho ADSL v cc tn s thp dng cho thoi. Nh vy, ngi ta thng t cc Splitters ti mi u ca ng dy - pha thu bao v pha DSLAM. Ti pha thu bao, cc tn s thp c chuyn n my in thoi cn cc tn s cao i n modem ADSL. Ti cc tng i, cc tn s thp c chuyn sang mng thoi PSTN cn cc tn s cao i n ISP.

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CHNG 2 QUY TRNH O TH V LP T THU BAO ADSL


2.1 Cc php o nh gi cht lng mng cp ng trc khi trin khai ADSL * in tr (php o OHM) Gi tr in tr gia cc dy tip-ring, tip-t v ring-t phi ln hn 5M . Nu in tr gia cc dy tip-ring nh hn 5M th i dy b ngn mch. xc nh v tr ngn mch c th thc hin php o in tr mch vng i dy hoc thc hin php o TDR. * in dung (php o CAP) Php o tip theo cn thc hin l php o in dung i dy. Php o ny m bo rng i dy b h mch hay ngn mch. Nu gi tr in dung i dy ln hn 2mF th i dy b ngn mch. Thc hin php o in tr

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kim tra. Sau thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr ngn mnh ca i dy. Php o in dung (CAP) c th cung cp di ca i dy (tnh t u o n u h mch) khi chng ta s dng cng thc quy i l 51nF=1km. Nu gi tr di thu c l ngn hoc di hn di danh nh th i dy b t dy. Khi di ca i dy ch 3 km v c mt nhnh cu di 1 km th gi tr in dung s tng ng in dung ca i dy 4 km v gi tr in dung o c bng tng in dung ca i dy v nhnh cu. Do php o in dung cho php pht hin cc nhnh cu. * in p mt chiu (php o DCV). Khi o in p mt chiu ti mt u ca mt i dy v h mch u kia ca i dy m thu c cc gi tr in p gia cc dy tip-ring l -48 VDC, ring-t l +48 VDC v tip-t l 0 VDC th c th kt lun l dy ring b Tip xc vi mt dy no . Tip theo thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr Tip xc ny. in p mt chiu phi nh hn 10 V * in p xoay chiu (php o ACV) Php o ny kim tra xem i dy c chu nh hng ca ngun in p no khng. Cc gi tr xoay chiu phi nh hn 5 VAC. * in tr mch vng Php o ny kim tra in tr mch vng ca i dy (ni dy tip v dy ring ti u xa). in tr mch vng cung cp dch v ADSL khng c ln hn 1300 W. Php o in tr cng c s dng xc nh di i dy. * Pht hin cun cm. Mc ch l pht hin cun cm mc trn i dy (bn cht l cc b lc thng thp). Chng lm tng phm vi phc v dch v thoi nhng li hn ch nghim trng n dch v DSL. Do phi pht hin loi b cc cun cm trc khi trin khai dch v DSL hay cc dch v s dng tn s cao. Cng c pht hin cun cm cho php pht hin c cun cm c mc trn i dy hay khng v nu c th s lng cun cm l bao nhiu. Khi pht hin c cun cm mc trn i dy th thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr cun cm v loi b tng cun cm. * Pht hin nhnh cu (Bridge tap) Nhnh cu l mt on cp bt k khng nm trn tuyn kt ni trc Tip gia tng i v thu bao. Cc nhnh cu thng c lp t cung cp dch v thoi tng t cho cc thu bao b sung theem nhng chng li gy ra phn x tn hiu v lm gim cht lng dch v DSL. Nhnh cu cng gn modem

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

DSL bao nhiu th N gy tc hi cng nhiu. Php o TDR l cng c tt nht pht hin nhnh cu. * Php o phn x min thi gian (Php o TDR Time Domain Reflectometer ) Php o TDR hot ng theo phng php pht mt xung ln trn i dy v sau cc tn hiu phn x tr li. Cc tn hiu phn x xut hin do cc thay i tr khng ca i dy m tr khng ca i dy b thay i li do i dy c nhnh cu, cun cm, b h mch, ngn mch hay b ch i. u im chnh ca php o TDR l kh nng pht hin v tr li chnh xc. Trong khi cng c pht hin cun cm ch pht hin c cun cm mc trn i dy th php o TDR li cho php xc nh v tr cun cm mt cch chnh xc. * Kim tra kh nng tng thch ph tn s Cc dch v c cung cp trn cc i dy gn k c th gy ra xuyn m cho i dy cn kim tra. Do phi kim tra kh nng tng thch ph tn s ca i dy cn kim tra. V dch v DSL s dng di tn s rng (V d : Dch v ADSL s dng di tn s 140 n 1100 kHz) nn n chu nh hng ca cc ngun nhiu bn ngoi, tu thuc vo ln, can nhiu c th hn ch tc bit t c hoc ngn cn hon ton vic cung cp dch v DSL. Cng c kim tra kh nng tng thch ph tn s cho php nhn dng cc ngun nhiu. Cc mu ph tn s ca cc dch v gy ra nhiu cho php nhn dng c ngun dch v gy nhiu. Thng qua cc php o trn, chng ta c th tm ra cc li ngn mch, h mch, Tip xc trn mng cp ng, loi b cc cun cm, nhnh cu, x chng nhiu i vi cc ngun nhiu gn k v pht hin ngun in p l tc ng ln i dy. 2.2 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s S pht trin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s ph thuc vo cht lng v thit k mng cp ni ht. Vic nh gi ban u mch vng thu bao l rt cn thit xc nh xem mch vng thu bao c kh nng p ng tc truyn dn thu bao s hay khng. Trong nhiu trng hp, mng cp c thit k t hng chc nm trc cho dch v in thoi n thun, do n s to ra mt s bt li c th cn tr hay thm ch khng thc hin c DSL. Chng hn, cng ngh DSL s khng thc hin c vi ng dy thu bao c cun ti hoc cc nhnh r v di ng dy. Trc khi c th cung cp

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

dch v DSL cn phi o th xc nh ng dy c th dung np cng ngh DSL c khng. S pht trin nhanh trng ca cc phin bn dch v DSL i hi mnh m kh nng o kim t ng x l s ln ng dy cn o. ti u ho dch v v li ch ca nh cung cp dch v, vic nh gi cht lng ng dy thu bao cho vic cung cp dch v DSL phi tri qua cc giai on sau: 2.2.1 o th trc hp ng o th trc hp ng c th c cc tng i thc hin trc khi a dch v DSL n khch hng. tng ti a doanh thu, i ng tip th c th nh hng khch hng qua cht lng ng dy thu bao c o kim trc. Vic o th trc hp ng thng bao gm: nghin cu v tr a l, nghin cu h s cp, o th cp kim loi. * Nghin cu v tr a l Nghin cu v tr a l bao gm mt bn v mt cy thc. Cng vic ny nhm tm kim cc khch hng nm trong tm 4,5 km k t tng i. * Nghin cu h s cp Nghin cu h s cp bao gm vic xem xt h s cp vi cc vng thu bao c di di 4,5 km m khng c cun ti hay cc nhn t bt li khc cho truyn dn tn hiu DSL. Nu h s cp cho thy ng dy thu bao l tt th t l 80 n 90 phn trm cc trng hp cung cp dch v DSL thnh cng.

* o th cp kim loi o th cp trc hp ng bao gm vic s dng cc thit b o xc nh cc c tnh ca vng thu bao c th. C hai phng php thc hin l o mt u ti tng i v o hai u ti tng i v v tr thu bao. o th cp kim loi ch nhm mc ch xem th vng thu bao c th truyn dn c tn hiu DSL hay khng ch khng thc hin bt c mt sa cha no trn vng thu bao. 2.2.2 o th trc lp t Sau khi khch hng c qung co dch v cc CLEC cn phi thc hin o th trc lp t. Cc CLEC thng khng c ng dy thu bao ti khch hng cho ti khi c cc ILEC cung cp. Vic o th trc lp t c th c thc hin sau khi ILEC chuyn ng dy thu bao cho CLEC. Nu vng thu bao khng p ng yu cu ti thiu cho tn hiu DSL th CLEC
Vi Th Hu - C07VT2 31

Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

phi loi b ng dy bng cch xin thm mt ng dy khc hay thng bo cho khch hng l khng th thc hin cung cp dch v c. C th o th mt u hay hai u, o th mt u cho php o th t cc thit b t tng i, o th hai u cn thc hin thm v tr thu bao. 2.2.3. o th khi lp t Mt vi kiu DSL cho php khch hng t lp t modem v cc b lc tn hiu trn ng dy. Khi khch hng mun t lp t cc thit b nh vy th c th thnh cng hay tht bi. Khi khng t lp t c th khch hng gi c khc phc v nh vy ng dy thu bao phi c o th khi lp t. 2.2.4 o th xc nhn sau khi lp t Sau khi khch hng c c dch v DSL th c nhiu yu t nh hng n dch v v d nh: Thi tit ma lm gim tc s liu hay thm ch ngn cn dch v S c trn ng dy cp kim loi nh hng ti dch v Trong mi trng tn ti c ILEC v CLEC th c kh nng ILEC i ng dy thu bao m khng bo trc Nhiu cm ng lm cho tc truyn s liu trn ng dy thu bao gim xung H s ca ng dy thu bao ang o th rt cn thit cung cp cc php o ng n cho ng dy thu bao. Vic ghi li h s lc tin hnh lp t l cn thit sau ny thc hin o kim c th so snh. Do vy ngay sau khi lp t thnh cng phi thc hin bc o th sau lp t. Vic o th c th thc hin bng ba phng php: o th hai u, o th mt u v o th qua thit b cung cp dch v nh DSLAM chng hn. 2.3 Quy trnh o th v lp t ADSL Khi vic o th c thc hin th kt qu c truyn cho chng trnh my tnh xc nh tc chiu ln v chiu xung cho dch v ADSL. Chng trnh my tnh c kh nng cung cp cc hot ng sau: Thc hin d bo cho cc dch v DSL khc nhau nh ADSL, G-lite, modem 1 Meg,... Thc hin nghin cu d liu cho thng tin cp To ra cc m hnh vng thu bao bao gm c thay i c dy X l cc mi trng bt ng bin
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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

X l cc phin bn DSL khc nhau Cung cp cc quy trnh m hnh ho nh ci thin cht lng ng truyn dn da trn vic g b nhnh r Chng trnh my tnh phi c kh nng x l cc mi trng khng ng nht khi c nhiu nh cung cp dch v DSL khc nhau v nhiu kiu mng cng tn ti. d bo chnh xc, cn phi tnh ton n vic s dng knh ca mi nh cung cp v c tnh mt ph nng lng. Nu mt nh cung cp thit b DSL khng tun th hng dn ANSI T1.413 cho mt phin bn DSL no th chng trnh phi khuyn khch hng thay i ph hp vi thit b ca nh cung cp . - nh gi cht lng ng dy bc ny trung tm iu hnh mng phi thc hin mt lot cc php o th nh gi kh nng m bo x l tt dch v ADSL ca ng dy trc khi gi nhn vin ti tn nh thu bao. y phi thc hin cc php o th mt u. - Tin hnh o th ti NIC Bc 1: Kim tra ti hp u dy Thc hin kim tra ti hp u dy xc nh xem i dy xon c cung cp c ng hay khng. Khi tm c i dy cung cp dch v th phi dng cc dng c o th v d cun ti xc nhn l ng dy khng c cun ti v cn bng. Ti thi im ny phi dng my o thc hin kim tra cc thng s c bn ca ng dy. Dng mt butt set kim tra s hin din ca m hiu mi quay s. Bc 2: ng b vi DSLAM v xc nh tc d liu hp u dy
CO

NID

ADSL POST

ADSL splitter

Mng thoi d liu

Hnh 2.1 V tr ca NID v b tch dch v ADSL/POST CPE NID (Network Interface Device) l ranh gii ca mng v CPE. NIC i khi cn c gi l NIU hay NT (Network Terminal). Trong ADSL c hai loi NID: Wet wire NID v Dry wire NID. Trong Wet wire NID l NID tch cc dng trong mi trng cha c cnh tranh, c trin khai ti cc nc Bc
N I Wet DSL D Vi Th Hu - C07VT2 ATU-R
Non-DSL Interface 10Base-T, CEBus, Cc ng dng

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

M; cn Dry wire NID l NID th ng dng trong mi trng c cnh tranh, khng cung cp ngun trn ng dy DSL. Vi Dry wire NID khch hng t do mua sm ATU-R vi gi c cnh tranh.

Hnh 2.2 Hnh Wet wire DSL


Dry DSL

N I D

Cc gi ca CPE

ATU-R

Cc ng dng

AC power

Hnh 2.3 Dry wire DSL Kt thc ng dy dch v bng mt dng c o th ADSL, bt ngun v c gng thit lp ng b vi DSLAM. Nu thit lp c ng b th dng c o th s hin th d liu ti a theo chiu ln v chiu xung. Khi DSLAM hot ng ng n v ng dy sn sng cho dch v s DSL. Nu dng c o th ADSL cho kt qu thit lp ng b vi b DSLAM tht bi th gi h tr v tr t DSLAM xc nhn li l b DSLAM c thit lp ng n. Nu b DSLAM hot ng ng n m tc d liu theo cc chiu xung hay chiu ln cao hn hoc thp hn tc d liu cn thit th phi lin h li h tr v tr t DSLAM xc nhn mt ln na s hot ng ng n ca b DSLAM. Kim tra mt ln na cc tham s c bn ca ng dy ri thc hin u dy cho NID. Bc 3: Lp t b tch dch v ADSL/POST cho G.DMT t hp NID pha ti sn khch hng v lp t b tch dch v ADSL/POST mt v tr thun tin . Ci jumper port Network ri ni ng dy cho dch v thoi cng thoi v kt ni i dy cho dch v ADSL cng s liu. Bc 4: Kim tra cc thng s c bn, gim st v cht lng thoi NID phi thc hin mt ln na vic o th cc thng s c bn. Cc php o th phi c thc hin chc chn rng ng dy s c s dng h tr dch v d liu tc cao ADSL. Cui cng, dch v thoi c xem

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

li mt ln na bng cch ni ng dy vi butt set qua cng thoi, chuyn sang ch ni chuyn v nghe m mi quay s. Bc 5: ng b vi DSLAM v xc nhn tc bit NID Vi ADSL G.DMT: Kt ni cng s liu trn b tch dch v POTS bng my o th ADSL, m ngung my o v kim tra mt ln na s ng b vi DSLAMv tc bit cn thit theo cc chiu upstream v downstream. Vi ADSL G.Lite: Trc tin, kim tra m hiu mi quay s bng butt set ti NID. G butt set ra khi ng dy, ni my o th ADSL vo ng dy, m ngung my o v kim tra mt ln na s ng b vi DSLAM v tc bit cn thit theo cc chiu upstream v downstream.Nu khch hng khng yu cu dch v in thoi trn jack in thoi ny th ni dy nhy cng mt idy gn cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch v thoi v ADSL trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu cha c. Phi chc rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht (port 1) v i dy dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng th 2 (port 2). Tiu chun quy nh ng ra ca b moden phi ni vo dy th 2. Nu khch hng khng yu cu dch v thoi trn jack thoi ny th ni dy nhy cng mt i dy gn cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch v thoi v ADSL trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu cha c Phi chc rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht (port 1) v i dy dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng th 2 (port 2). Tiu chun quy nh ng ra ca b modem phi ni vo dy th 2.

- Lp t ti nh thu bao nu c Xc nh ch khch hng cn ni my tnh c nhn vi ADSL. Tm v tr gn jack in thoi nht trong phng v xem th ng dy c dng c hay khng. Trng hp G.DMT Nu khch hng khng yu cu dch v thoi trn jack thoi ny th ni dy nhy cng mt i dy gn cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch v thoi v ADSL trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu cha c. Phi chc rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht (port 1) v i dy dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng

Vi Th Hu - C07VT2

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

th 2 (port 2). Tiu chun quy nh ng ra ca b modem phi ni vo dy th 2. Trng hp G.Lite Vi cu hnh ny c dch v ADSL v dch v thoi u c ni vo ng dy in thoi. Nu cn thit ni li jack tng thch vi u ra ca modem ADSL hay dng mt on dy tha chuyn i dy. - Lp t modem ADSL Hin nay, c ba loi cu hnh modem ADSL thng dng. Ba loi ny gm bao gm hai loi lp ri (External) vi giao tip vi my tnh c nhn l Ethernet hay USB v mt loi lp bn trong my tnh c nhn (Internal) vi giao tip chun PCI. Nu PCE l modenlp bn trong my tnh c nhn th k thut vin cn phi c mt vi k nng, kinh nghim v hiu bit v my tnh c nhn hon tt lp t. Lu rng, mt vi loi dy trong nh (v d nh dy phng IW) khng cho php kt ni vi hn mt dch v v phi thay bng dy xon i CAT3. Modem ADSL loi ri, giao tip Ethernet Nu CPE s dng moden loi ri (External) c giao tip Ethernet th trn my tnh c nhn phi c card giao tip mng Ethernet (Internal hoc Onboard) th mi c th hon tt vic lp t c. Nu khng c th phi ngh khch hng trang b thm card giao tip mng Ethernet (NIC:Network Interface Card) cho my tnh c nhn. Khi my tnh c nhn c kh nng giao tip c mng Ethernet th kim tra u ni Ethernet trn my tnh c nhn phi tng thch. Lu rng trong lc cc u ni RJ-45 l ph bin th cng c mt s giao tip Ethernet c c dng u ni khc. Trong trng hp th phi s dng b chuyn i u ni. Khi chuyn giao xong s tng thch u ni hy lp dy ni gia modem ADSL v cng d liu trn jack gn tng ri ci t b iu khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn. Modem ADSL loi ri, giao tip USB Nu CPE l modem ADSL dng ri c giao tip USB th my tnh c nhn phi c sn cng USB v sn sng hot ng. Ni cp USB gia modem ADSL v my tnh c nhn, ni dy gia modem ADSL v cng d liu trn jack gn tng ri ci t b iu khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn. Modem ADSL loi lp trong my tnh c nhn vi giao tip PCI Nu CPE l dng modem ADSL Internal vi giao tip PCI th phi xem my tnh c nhn c cn trng khe cm PCI no khng. Lp t card modem

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

ADSL vo khe PCI cn trng trong my tnh c nhn, ni dy gia modem v cng d liu trn jack gn tng ri ci t b iu khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn. - Bc cui cng: o th hai u ADSL Bt ngun my tnh cc nhn v c modem ADSL (nu l modem ri). Cu hnh li my tnh c nhn theo cc c tnh cn thit do nh cung cp dch v Internet quy nh. Modem ADSL ri c mt n LED bo sync bo modem ADSL thit lp kt ni vi DSLAM (vi cc modem ADSL thng dngth Led sync s chp chp khi mi bt ngun in v chuyn sang sng xanh lin tc bo ng b mng vi DSLAM). Vi cc modem lp trong my tnh c nhn th phn mm iu khin lun c mt biu tng dng thanh trng thi dng theo di tnh hnh trng thi kt ni ca modem. Khi a ch IP c cu hnh ng th kim tra kt ni bng cch chy mt trnh duyt Internet. Vo lc , khi my tnh c nhn download v trang web home page ngha l kt ni thnh cng im ni im vi nh cung cp dch v Internet. Sau khi thc hin song vic lp t v kim tra dch v ADSL im ni im, k thut vin phi kim tra dch v in thoi trong nh khch hng. Nn nh rng dch v ADSL phi khng b nh hng bi dch v thoi. - Khc phc s c Thu thp thng tin Cc s c pht sinh trong qu trnh hay sau khi lp t dch v ADSL, do k thut vin phi xc nh c sai hng trn CPE hay phn i dy. Khi s c c bo co th cn phi m t tht chi tit v ghi li trc khi khc phc. Cc sai hng nghim trng ti my mc ca khch hng Sau khi thu thp c cc thng tin v s c, th phi bt u thc hin khc phc s c t nh khch hng. Nu Modem ADSL vn hot ng tt vi b DSLAM th hy kim tra tnh trng hot ng ca my tnh cc nhn. Khch hng c th thay i a ch IP, mt li thng gp khi khch hng ci mt ng dng lin quan ti kt mng v s dng cc gi tr ci t mc nh ca chng trnh ci t . Nu vn cha gii quyt c th gi n nh iu hnh ADSL v kim tra xem gn y mng c mi hu b dch v ADSL ca thu bao ny hay khng hay thc hin cu hnh mng ging nh bn nh ln cn. Nu loi tr c nghi vn t my tnh c nhn th g b modem ra khi jack gn tng, dng my o th ADSL v thc hin gi lp modem. Nu my

Vi Th Hu - C07VT2

37

Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

o th ADSL ng b c vi DSLAM th modem ADSL ca khch hng b hng. Ni vi mt modem ADSL khc v c gng thit lp li kt ni. Nu vic gn my o th vo ng dy vn khng thit lp c ng b vi DSLAM (khi c ni cng v tr vi modem ADSL ca khch hng) th c gng cch ly s c gia jack gn tng v NID. Nu my o ADSL ng b c vi DSLAM khi kt ni ti v tr NID th nguyn nhn l vic i dy trong nh. Xc nh mc sai hng bng my o th v chy dy mi nu cn thit. Cc sai hng nghim trng ng dy cp ng Nu cc vn ti my khch hng u b loi tr m my o ADSL vn khng ng b c vi DSLAM NID th vn c l nm trn ng dy ca mng cp ni ht. Thc hin php o th gi lp modem ADSL ti im ln mng k tip trong mch vng thu bao (c th l hp u dy,...). C tip tc tin dn v pha MDF trn vng thu bao cho ti khi thit lp c thnh cng kt ni th ngay ti thc hin kim tra k li chiu xung ca vng thu bao v ti, r nhnh, in tr hay dung khng khng cn bng ca i dy. Khi tt c u khng thnh cng th phi cp ng dy khc cho khch hng v nh kim tra li, ng dy mi ny phi c nh gi cht lng trc l tt v khng c cun ti r nhnh. Thc hin li cc bc kim tra c bn cho mt ng dy mi. Sau chy th modem gi lp vi my o th ADSL pha khch hng m bo ng dy mi c cung cp tt cho dch v. Thc hin POST km trn ng dy ADSL Nu dch v thoi khng s dng c nhng dch v ADSL vn dng c th kim tra m hiu mi quay s ca dch v thoi bng mt my o th ADSL cm tay v butt set c an ton cho d liu im ln ng dy k tip trn ng dy thu bao. Gim dn vng c s c v tm ch t dy. Nu dy h mch th dch v ADSL c th vn hot ng tt v n khng ging nh dch v POST, cn ngun in mt chiu -48V t tng i, cc b DSLAM v modem ADSL c ngun in ring. S dng TDR tm ngn xc nh v tr h mch v sa li. CHNG 3 KT LUN Trong bo co ny em trnh by tng quan v cng ngh ADSL bao gm khi nim ADSL, m hnh tham chiu, lch s pht trin, ng dng ca

Vi Th Hu - C07VT2

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

ADSL, cc thnh phn c bn ca mng ADSL, mt s vn c bn v k thut ADSL, o kim ADSL, lp t thu bao ADSL, x l thu bao ADSL b s c. Qua cho ta thy rng ADSL chnh l mt gii php cng ngh hu hiu nhm cung cp cc dch v bng rng m vn tn dng c mng truy nhp cp ng sn c hin nay Vit Nam. Do cng ngh ny em li hiu qu kinh t cao cho vin thng Vit nam giai on hin nay. Vit Nam hin ang s dng ch yu l cng ngh ADSL th h th nht, ADSL 2 v ADSL 2+. Trong tng lai, khi nhu cu dch v tng vi yu cu tc cao hn na th nh cung cp dch v c th trin khai cc cng ngh c th h tr cc dch v bng thng rng hn. Mt trong s cc cng ngh h tr bng rng l cng ngh ADSL2++. Cng ngh ADSL2++ l mt phin bn pht trin tip theo ca cng ngh ADSL2+, ADSL2++ hot ng trong di tn t 0 ti 3.7Mhz t c tc truyn d liu hng ln ti 1.2Mbps v tc truyn d liu hng xung ti 46Mbps./.

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip

Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. K thut v mng cung cp dch v ADSL -Bin son: Nguyn Qu S v Nguyn Vit Cng - Hc vin CN BCVT 2. Ti liu tp hun v mng truy nhp ADSL - Trung tm Bi dng nghip v Bu chnh - vin thng H Ni - Thng 8/2009 3. Bi ging Khai thc v kinh doanh dch v MegaVNN- Thc s Nguyn Vit Hng- Hc vin CNBCVT 4. Bi ging Nhng vn k thut trong ADSL- Thc s Nguyn Vit HngHc vin CNBCVT 5. n tt nghip i hc nm 2006 "Kinh nghim trin khai ADSL v ADSL 2+ ti Qung Ninh"- SV inh Tin Hng- Khoa in t vin thng. 6. n tt nghip i hc, ti" Nghin cu cng ngh ADSL v ng dng vo mng Vit nam" - SV Phan Anh Tun Lp D99VT. 7. Mt s trang Web : www.vnpt.com.vn, www.vtn.com.vn, www.pcwebopedia.com, www.dantri.com.vn, www.pcworld.com.vn, www.echip.com.vn, www.vdc.com.vn www.vnn.vn www.vietlink.net www.thanhnien.com http://www.ptit.edu.vn/ http://www.vienthong.vnn.vn/VT1/web/index.asp

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