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B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.

s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 1

MC LC
MC LC ........................................................................................................................... 1
Danh mc hnh v ............................................................................................................... 4
LI NI U ..................................................................................................................... 7
CHNG I : TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM ............ 8
1.1. Gii thiu chung .................................................................................................... 8
1.2. S khi tng qut ............................................................................................. 8
1.3 Phn loi h thng WDM ..................................................................................... 9
1.4 Cc phn t c bn trong h thng WDM ....................................................... 10
1.4.1 B pht quang ................................................................................................ 10
1.4.2 B thu quang .................................................................................................. 12
1.4.3 Si quang ........................................................................................................... 13
1.4.4. B tch / ghp bc song: ( OMUX/ODEMUX) ............................................. 14
1.4.5. B xen / r bc sng: ( OADM) ...................................................................... 15
1.4.6. B ni cho quang: (OXC) ............................................................................ 17
1.4.7. B khuch i quang: (OA - Optical Amplifier): ......................................... 18
1.4.8. B chuyn i bc song ............................................................................... 19
1.5. Cc tham s c bn ca gp knh quang theo bc sng ............................... 20
1.5.1 Suy hao xen ......................................................................................................... 20
1.5.2. Xuyn knh .................................................................................................... 20
1.5.3. rng knh .................................................................................................. 22
1.5.4. nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn .......................................................... 23
1.6. Cu trc mng truyn ti quang ......................................................................... 24
1.6.1. Cu trc mng Ring ........................................................................................... 24
1.6.2. Cu trc mng Mesh .......................................................................................... 24
1.6.3. Cu trc mng hnh sao ..................................................................................... 25
1.6.4. Cu trc mng Mesh v Ring hai lp ................................................................ 26
1.7 u nhc im ca h thng WDM ................................................................. 27
1.8 B khuch i quang EDFA .............................................................................. 27
1.8.1 Cc cu trc EDFA ............................................................................................. 27
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 2

1.8.2 L thuyt khuch i trong EDFA...................................................................... 29
1.8.3 Yu cu i vi ngun bm................................................................................ 31
1.8.4 Ph khuch i ................................................................................................... 33
1.8.5. Cc tnh cht ca EDFA .................................................................................... 34
1.8.6. Nhiu trong b khuch i ................................................................................. 36
1.8.7 u khuyt im ca EDFA ................................................................................ 38
CHNG II M PHNG TUYN THNG TIN QUANG WDM BNG PHN
MM OPTISYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 39
2.1. Tng quan v phn mm Optisystem ................................................................... 39
2.1.1. Li ch ................................................................................................................ 39
2.1.2. ng dng ........................................................................................................... 40
2.2. c im v chc nng .......................................................................................... 40
2.2.1. Cu to th vin (Component Library) .............................................................. 40
2.2.2. Tch hp vi cc cng c phn mm Optiwave ................................................ 41
2.2.3. Cc cng c hin th .......................................................................................... 42
2.3. Tm tt hng dn s dng phn mm optisystem ........................................... 42
2.3.1. Yu cu chung ................................................................................................... 42
2.3.2 Hng dn s dng phn mm optisystem ...................................................... 45
2.3.3 To mt d n mi .............................................................................................. 50
2.3.4. Hin th v thay i tham s ca cc phn t trong d n................................. 52
2.3.5. Chy m phng .................................................................................................. 58
2.4. M hnh m phng ................................................................................................. 66
2.4.1 Yu cu thit k ................................................................................................... 66
2.4.2 M phng theo phng n thit k ..................................................................... 68
2.4.2.1 Tuyn pht quang: chn ca s truyn 1550nm EDFA bng C ............... 68
2.4.2.2 Tuyn truyn dn quang ............................................................................... 71
2.4.4.3 Tuyn thu ca h thng WDM ...................................................................... 74
2.4.3 Kt qu m phng theo yu cu thit k ............................................................ 75
2.4.4. Kt qu m phng thay i cc tham s t BER=10
-12
.............................. 79
Ti Liu Tham Kho .......................................................................................... 83

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 3

THUT NG V T VIT TT
GVD Group velocity dispersion Nhm h s tn sc
OADM Optical add/drop multiplexer B xen rt quang
BER Bit error rate Tc li bit
OTN Optical transport network Mng truyn ti quang
DCF Dispersion sompensating fiber Si b tn sc
DEMUX Demultipplexer B tch knh
SNR Signal to noise ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu
EDFA Erbium doped fiber amplifier
Khuch i quang si quang trn
Erbium
FWM Four wave mixing Hiu ng trn bn sng
LASER
Light amplication by stimulated
emission of radiation
Khuch i nh sng nh bc x
kch thch
MUX Multiplexer B ghp knh
NF Noise figure Nn nhiu
SBS Stimulated brillouin scattering Tn x do kch thch Brillouin
CATV Cable television Cp tivi
OLT Optical line terminal B u cui ng quang
OSC Optical supervisory channel Knh gim st ng quang
EDF Erbium doped fiber
Si quang pha ion t him
Erbium
OXC Optical cross connector B kt ni cho quang
PMD Polarisation mode dispersion H s tn sc phn cc mode
APS Automatic protection switching Chuyn mch bo v t ng
PON Pass optical network Mng quang th ng
WDM Wavelength devision Multiplexing Ghp knh theo bc sng
SMF Single mode fiber Si n mode
TDM Time division multiplexing
B ghp knh phn chia theo thi
gian
SPM Self phase modulation Hiu ng t iu ch dch pha

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 4

Danh mc hnh v
Hnh 1.1: S chc nng h thng WDM ............................................................ 6
Hnh 1.2: H thng ghp bc sng n hng v song hng ...................................... 6
Hnh 1.3 : S b iu ch ngoi ................................................................................... 8
Hnh 1.4 : S khi bn thu ............................................................................................ 9
Hnh 1.5 : Cu trc tng qut si quang ........................................................................... 10
Hnh 1.6. S khi b ghp/ tch knh bc sng ......................................................... 11
Hnh 1.7 Cu trc song song ............................................................................................. 12
Hnh 1.8 : Cu trc song song theo bng .......................................................................... 12
Hnh 1.9 : Cu trc ni tip ............................................................................................... 13
Hnh 1.10 : Cu trc xen rt theo bng sng .................................................................... 13
Hnh 1.11 : S kt ni OXC .......................................................................................... 14
Hnh 1.12 : Khuch i quang OLA .................................................................................. 15
Hnh 1.13: Xuyn knh b gii ghp .............................................................................. 18
Hnh 1.14: Xuyn knh b ghp hn hp ....................................................................... 18
Hnh 1.15 : Cu trc mng Ring ....................................................................................... 21
Hnh 1.16 : Cu trc mng Mesh ...................................................................................... 21
Hnh 1.17 : Cu trc mng hnh sao n .......................................................................... 22
Hnh 1.18: Cu trc mng hnh sao kp ........................................................................... 22
Hnh 1.19 : Cu trc mng hnh Ring hai lp ................................................................... 23
Hnh 1.20: Cu trc tng qut ca mt b khuch i EDFA .......................................... 24

Hnh 1.21: Mt ct ngang ca mt loi si quang pha ion Erbium ................................. 25
Hnh 1.22: Gin phn b nng lng ca ion Er3+ trong si silica .......................... 26

Hnh 1.23 Ph hp th ...................................................................................................... 27
Hnh 1.24: Qu trnh khuch i tn hiu ......................................................................... 28
Hnh 1.25: Cu hnh b khuch i EDFA c bm kp [11]. ...................................... 30


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 5

Hnh 1.26 Cu hnh ca mt b khuch bng L ................................................................ 31
Hnh 1.27: th biu din cng sut ra bo ho. .......................................................... 33

Hnh 1.28 (a) H s nhiu FN v (b) li ca EDFA ................................................... 34
Hnh 2.1: Thnh phn trnh din ....................................................................................... 42
Hnh 2.2: Th vin cc phn t ......................................................................................... 42
Hnh 2.3: Giao din th vin ............................................................................................. 44
Hnh 2.4. Giao din ngi s dng ................................................................................... 44
Hnh 2.5: Project Browser ................................................................................................. 45
Hnh 2.6: Description ........................................................................................................ 45
Hnh 2.7: Status bar ........................................................................................................... 46
Hnh 2.8: Menu bar ........................................................................................................... 46
Hnh 2.9: Pan window ....................................................................................................... 46
Hnh 2.10: Tool bars ......................................................................................................... 47
Hnh2.11. Ca s Project layout ....................................................................................... 47
Hnh 2.12. t phn t vo Main layout ........................................................................... 48
Hnh 2.13: Kch hot kt ni t ng ................................................................................ 48
Hnh 2.14:Hy b ch kt ni t ng ......................................................................... 48
Hnh 2.15 :mn hnh Parameters ..................................................................................... 49
Hnh 2.16 :Chn trng thay i tc bt ...................................................................... 50
Hnh 2.17 : Nhp tc bt mun thay i ...................................................................... 51
Hnh2.18 : Thit lp ca s thi gian thc ....................................................................... 52
Hnh 2.19 : Thay i cng sut pht quang ...................................................................... 53
Hnh 2.20: Giao din mn hnh chy m phng ........................................................... 55
Hnh 2.21 : Chy chng trnh ........................................................................................ 56
Hnh 2.22: o t s BER ca knh .................................................................................... 57
Hnh 2.23 : Kt qu m phng ......................................................................................... 58
Hnh 2.24: Thit lp tham s quyt ................................................................................... 59
Hnh 2.25: Chuyn i s ln qut. ................................................................................. 60
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 6

Hnh 2.26: Hp thoi chuyn sang ch qut cho tham s ........................................... 61
Hnh 2.27: Chn ch ca tham s ............................................................................... 61
Hnh 2.28:. Cc bc hin th kt qu m phng qut tham s ................................... 63
Hnh 2.29: Thit lp tham s ton cc .............................................................................. 65
Hnh 2.30: Ngun Laser pht CW Laser ........................................................................... 66
Hnh 2.31: B to xung RZ ................................................................................................ 66
Hnh 2.32. B to chui bt ............................................................................................... 66
Hnh 2.33: B iu ch Mach-Zehnder ............................................................................. 67
Hnh 2.34: B ghp knh MUX 41. ............................................................................... 67
Hnh 2.35: Tuyn pht quang ............................................................................................ 68
Hnh 2.36. Tuyn truyn dn quang .................................................................................. 68
Hnh 2.37. B lp .............................................................................................................. 69
Hnh 2.38. Thng s si b tn sc DCF .......................................................................... 70
Hnh 2.39. Tuyn thu WDM ............................................................................................... 71
Hnh 2.40. Thit b o BER ............................................................................................... 71
Hnh 2.41. Tuyn WDM thit k theo yu cu .................................................................. 72
Hnh 2.42. Quang ph tn hiu pht .................................................................................. 73
Hnh 2.43. Quang ph tn hiu u thu knh th 3. ..................................................... 73
Hnh 2.44. Tng cng sut pht ........................................................................................ 74
Hnh 2.45. Cng sut thu ca knh 4. ......................................................................... 74
Hnh 2.46. Hin th mt quang ......................................................................................... 75
Hnh 2.47. BER ca knh th nht l 10
-13 ...........................................................................................................
75
Hnh 2.48. Thay i cng sut Laser pht ........................................................................ 76
Hnh 2.49. H s suy hao si quang thay i .................................................................... 76
Hnh 2.50. BER ca knh th nht t 10
-12 ........................................................................................................
77
Hnh 2.51. BER t 10
-12
khi thay i mt s tham s ...................................................... 77


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 7

LI NI U
Vi s pht trin v cng mnh m ca cng ngh thng tin ni chung v k
thut vin thng ni ring. Nhu cu dch v vin thng pht trin rt nhanh to ra p
lc ngy cng cao i vi tng dung lng thng tin. Cng vi s pht trin ca k
thut chuyn mch, k thut truyn dn cng khng ngng t c nhng thnh tu
to ln, c bit l k thut truyn dn trn mi trng cp si quang. Tng lai cp si
quang c s dng rng ri trn mng vin thng v c coi nh l mt mi trng
truyn dn l tng m khng c mt mi trng truyn dn no c th thay th c.
Cc h thng thng tin quang vi u im bng thng rng, c ly xa, khng nh
hng ca nhiu v kh nng bo mt cao ,ph hp vi cc tuyn thng tin xuyn lc
a ng trc v c tim nng to ln trong vic thc hin cc chc nng ca mng
ni ht vi cc cu trc linh hot v p ng mi loi hnh dch v hin ti v tng
lai. Ta c th thy mng thng tin quang hin nay vn cn mt s hn ch v cht
lng truyn dn do bng thng cn hp, khong cch truyn dn ngn, v th yu cu
t ra l phi tng cht lng cng nh c ly ng truyn cho ch thng tin quang
hin nay. Gii php c a ra y l cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng WDM,
n cho php ghp nhiu bc sng trn cng mt si quang do c th tng dung
lng ng truyn m khng cn tng thm si quang.
Vi bi ton: xy dng phng n thit k h thng thng tin quang WDM c
s dng khuch i quang EDFA. Nhm em xin trnh by tng quan v h thng
thng tin quang WDM c s dng khuch i EDFA , xy dng m hnh m phng h
thng thng tin quang WDM theo phng n thit k.
Chng em xin c gi li cm n chn thnh ti thy gio Th.s Cao Hng
Sn, hng dn, gip nhm em trong thi gian qua.
Mc d c gng rt nhiu, nhng do trnh cn hn ch nn s khng trnh
khi nhng thiu xt. Rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp ca thy, cc bn
bi tp ca chng em c hon thin hn.
Chng Em xin chn thnh cm n!


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 8

CHNG I : TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN QUANG WDM
1.1. Gii thiu chung
Ghp knh theo bc sng WDM (Wavelength Devision Multiplexing) l cng
ngh trong mt si quang ng thi truyn dn nhiu bc sng tn hiu quang.
u pht, nhiu tn hiu quang c bc sng khc nhau c t hp li (ghp
knh) truyn i trn mt si quang. u thu, tn hiu t hp c phn gii
ra (tch knh), khi phc li tn hiu gc ri a vo cc u cui khc nhau.
1.2. S khi tng qut
Pht tn hiu: Trong h thng WDM, ngun pht quang c dng l laser.
Hin ti c mt s loi ngun pht nh: Laser iu chnh c bc sng
(Tunable Laser), Laser a bc sng (Multiwavelength Laser)... Yu cu i vi
ngun pht laser l phi c rng ph hp, bc sng pht ra n nh, mc cng
sut pht nh, bc sng trung tm, rng ph, rng chirp phi nm trong
gii hn cho php.
Ghp/tch tn hiu: Ghp tn hiu WDM l s kt hp mt s ngun sng khc
nhau thnh mt lung tn hiu nh sng tng hp truyn dn qua si quang.
Tch tn hiu WDM l s phn chia lung nh sng tng hp thnh cc tn hiu
nh sng ring r ti mi cng u ra b tch. Hin ti c cc b tch/ghp tn
hiu WDM nh: b lc mng mng in mi, cch t Bragg si, cch t nhiu x,
linh kin quang t hp AWG, b lc Fabry-Perot... Khi xt n cc b tch/ghp
WDM, ta phi xt cc tham s nh: khong cch gia cc knh, rng bng tn
ca cc knh bc sng, bc sng trung tm ca knh, mc xuyn m gia cc
knh, tnh ng u ca knh, suy hao xen, suy hao phn x Bragg, xuyn m u
gn u xa...
Truyn dn tn hiu: Qu trnh truyn dn tn hiu trong si quang chu s nh
hng ca nhiu yu t: suy hao si quang, tn sc, cc hiu ng phi tuyn, vn
lin quan n khuch i tn hiu ... Mi vn k trn u ph thuc rt nhiu vo
yu t si quang (loi si quang, cht lng si...).
Khuch i tn hiu: H thng WDM hin ti ch yu s dng b khuch i
quang si EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier). Tuy nhin b khuch i
Raman hin nay cng c s dng trn thc t. C ba ch khuch i:
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 9

khuch i cng sut, khuch i ng v tin khuch i. Khi dng b khuch
i EDFA cho h thng WDM phi m bo cc yu cu sau:
- li khuch i ng u i vi tt c cc knh bc sng (mc chnh
lch khng qu 1 dB).
- S thay i s lng knh bc sng lm vic khng c gy nh hng
n mc cng sut u ra ca cc knh.
- C kh nng pht hin s chnh lch mc cng sut u vo iu chnh
li cc h s khuch i nhm m bo c tuyn khuch i l bng phng
i vi tt c cc knh.
Thu tn hiu: Thu tn hiu trong cc h thng WDM cng s dng cc b tch
sng quang nh trong h thng thng tin quang thng thng: PIN, APD.

Hnh 1.1: S chc nng h thng WDM
1.3 Phn loi h thng WDM

Hnh 1.2: H thng ghp bc sng n hng v song hng
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 10

H thng WDM v c bn chia lm hai loi: h thng n hng v song hng nh
minh ho trn hnh 1.2. H thng n hng ch truyn theo mt chiu trn si quang. Do
vy, truyn thng tin gia hai im cn hai si quang. H thng WDM song hng,
ngc li, truyn hai chiu trn mt si quang nn ch cn 1 si quang c th trao i
thng tin gia 2 im.
C hai h thng u c nhng u nhc im ring. Gi s rng cng ngh hin ti
ch cho php truyn N bc sng trn mt si quang, so snh hai h thng ta thy:
- Xt v dung lng, h thng n hng c kh nng cung cp dung lng cao gp
i so vi h thng song hng. Ngc li, s si quang cn dng gp i so vi h
thng song hng.
- Khi s c t cp xy ra, h thng song hng khng cn n c ch chuyn mch
bo v t ng APS (Automatic Protection-Switching) v c hai u ca lin kt u c
kh nng nhn bit s c mt cch tc thi.
- ng v kha cnh thit k mng, h thng song hng kh thit k hn v cn phi
xt thm cc yu t nh: vn xuyn nhiu do c nhiu bc sng hn trn mt si
quang, m bo nh tuyn v phn b bc sng sao cho hai chiu trn si quang
khng dng chung mt bc sng.
- Cc b khuch i trong h thng song hng thng c cu trc phc tp hn trong
h thng n hng. Tuy nhin, do s bc sng khuch i trong h thng song
hng gim theo mi chiu nn h thng song hng, cc b khuych i s cho
cng sut quang ng ra ln hn so vi h thng n hng.
1.4 Cc phn t c bn trong h thng WDM
1.4.1 B pht quang
Cc ngun quang c bn s dng trong h thng thng tin cp si quang c th l
Diode Laser (LD) hoc Diode pht quang (LED).
Laser Light Amplication by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Khuch i
nh sng nh bc x kch thch.Hot ng ca Laser da trn hai hin tng chnh l :
Hin tng bc x kch thch v hin tng cng hng ca sng nh sng khi lan truyn
trong Laser.
Tn hiu quang pht ra t LD hoc LED c cc tham s bin i tng ng vi
bin i ca tn hiu in vo. Tn hiu in vo c th pht dng s hoc tng t.
Thit b pht quang s thc hin bin i tn hiu in vo thnh tn hiu quang tng ng
bng cch bin i dng vo qua cc ngun pht quang. Bc sng nh sng ca ngun
pht quang ph thuc ch yu vo vt liu ch to phn t pht. V d GaalAs pht ra bc
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 11

x vng bc sng 800 nm n 900 nm, InGaAsP pht ra bc x vng 1100 nm n
1600 nm.
S dng b iu bin ngoi gim chirp, tc iu bin cao v to cc nh
dng tn hiu quang khc nhau (NRZ, RZ, CS-RZ, DPSK ) v m bo tn hiu quang
c rng ph hp ti bc sng chnh xc theo tiu chun.
- M hnh iu ch ngoi


Hnh 1.3 : S b iu ch ngoi
- Yu cu vi ngun quang:
- chnh xc ca bc sng pht: y l yu cu kin quyt cho mt h thng
WDM hot ng tt. Ni chung, bc sng u ra lun b dao ng do cc yu t khc
nhau nh nhit , dng nh thin, gi ho linh kin... Ngoi ra, trnh xuyn
nhiu cng nh to iu kin cho pha thu d dng tch ng bc sng th nht thit
n nh tn s pha pht phi tht cao.
- rng ng ph hp: rng ng ph c nh ngha l rng ph ca
ngun quang tnh cho bc ct 3 dB. c th tng nhiu knh trn mt di tn cho
trc, cng vi yu cu khong cch cc knh nh cho nn rng ng ph cng hp
cng tt, nu khng, xuyn nhiu knh ln cn xy ra khin li bt tng cao, h thng
khng m bo cht lng. Mun t c iu ny th ngun pht laser phi l ngun
n mode (nh cc loi laser hi tip phn b, laser hai khoang cng hng, laser phn
hi phn b).
- Dng ngng thp: iu ny lm gim bt vn lng ph cng sut trong vic
kch thch laser cng nh gim bt c cng sut nn khng mang tin v trnh cho my
thu chu nh hng ca nhiu nn (pht sinh do c cng sut nn ln).
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 12

- Kh nng iu chnh c bc sng: tn dng ton b bng tn si quang,
ngun quang phi c th pht trn c di 100 nm. Hn na, vi h thng la knh ng
cng cn kh nng c th iu chnh c bc sng.
- Tnh tuyn tnh: i vi truyn thng quang, s khng tuyn tnh ca ngun quang
s dn vic pht sinh cc sng hi cao hn, to ra cc xuyn nhiu gia cc knh.
- Nhiu thp: C rt nhiu loi nhiu laser bao gm: nhiu cnh tranh mode, nhiu
pha,... Nhiu thp rt quan trng t c mc BER thp trong truyn thng s, m
bo cht lng dch v tt.
1.4.2 B thu quang
Phn thu quang gm cc b tch sng quang, knh tuyn tnh v knh phc hi. N
tip nhn tn hiu quang, tch ly tn hiu thu c t pha pht, bin i thnh tn hiu
in theo yu cu c th. Trong phn ny thng s dng cc photodiode PIN hoc APD.
Yu cu quan trng nht i vi b thu quang l cng sut quang phi nh nht ( nhy
quang) c th thu c mt tc truyn dn s no ng vi t l li bt (BER) cho
php.
B thu quang trong h thng WDM



Hnh 1.4 : S khi bn thu






B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 13



1.4.3 Si quang
Cu to si quang
ng dng hin tng phn x ton phn, si quang c ch to c bn gm c hai lp:
- Lp trong cng c dng hnh tr trn, c ng knh d = 2a, lm bng thy tinh c
chit sut n1, c gi l li (core) si.
- Lp th hai cng c dng hnh tr bao quanh li nn c gi l lp bc
(cladding), c ng knh D = 2b, lm bng thy tinh hoc plastic, c chit sut n2
< n1.

Hnh 1.5 : Cu trc tng qut si quang
Phn loi si quang
Phn loi theo chit sut:
- Si quang chit sut bc SI (Step-Index)
- Si quang chit sut bin i GI (Graded-Index)
Phn loi theo mode
- Si n mode (Single-Mode)
- Si a mode (Multi-Mode)
Si quang G652
L si n mode c s dng ph bin trn mng li vin thng nhiu nc hin
nay. N c th lm vic 2 ca s:
- ca s 1310nm: G652 c tn sc nh nht (xp x 0 ps/nm.km) v suy hao tng
i ln.
- ca s 1550nm: G652 c suy hao truyn dn nh nht v h s tn sc tng i
ln (xp x 20ps/nm.km)
Si quang G655
L mt chun v si quang c a ra bi ITU-T c cc u im sau:
- Si quang G655 thch hp cho h thng DWDM, lm tng dung lng truyn dn.
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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 14

- Si quang G655 thch hp cho h thng truyn dn ng di WDM dung lng
cao.
- tn sc dng ca si G655 trnh vic trn ln 4 bc sng quang.
- Vng hiu dng cao ca si G655 (vn nh hn si SMF) lm gim thiu cc hiu
ng phi tuyn.
- Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) khuch i cc tn hiu quang trong ca s
C, iu ny l tng cho loi si quang NZDS (non-zero dispersion-shifted).
1.4.4. B tch / ghp bc song: ( OMUX/ODEMUX)
nh ngha :B ghp/ tch knh bc sng, cng vi v kt ni cho quang, l
thit b quan trng nht cu thnh nn h thng WDM. Khi dng kt hp vi b kt ni
cho quang OXC s hnh thnh nn mng truyn ti quang, c kh nng truyn ti ng
thi v trong sut mi loi hnh dch v, m cng ngh hin nay ang hng ti.B tch/
ghp knh thc hin ghp tch tn hiu cc bc sng khc nhau.
B ghp/ tch knh bc sng thng c m t theo nhng thng s sau:
- Suy hao xen
- S lng knh x l
- Bc sng trung tm
- Bng thng
- Gi tr ln nht ca suy hao xen
- suy hao chen gia cc knh
(a) S khi b ghp
knh bc sng (MUX)
(b) S khi b tch
knh bc sng (DEMUX)
(c) Cc tham s c
trng ca b MUX/ DEMUX




Hnh 1.6. S khi b ghp/ tch knh bc sng
Ghp tng to b ghp knh dung lng cao:
- Ghp tng ni tip n knh
- Ghp mt tng
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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 15

- Ghp tng theo tng bng sng
- Ghp tng an xen chn l
1.4.5. B xen / r bc sng: ( OADM)
Khi nim :
- OADM ( Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer) thng c dng trong cc mng
quang th v cc mng quang ng di v n cho hiu qu kinh t cao, c bit i
vi cu hnh mng tuyn tnh, cu hnh mng vng.
- OADM c cu hnh xen/ rt mt s knh bc sng,cc knh bc sng
cn li c cu hnh cho i xuyn qua.
Cc cu trc cho OADM :
- Cu trc song song : tt c cc knh tn hiu u c gii ghp knh. Sau
mt s knh ty c cu hnh rt, cc knh cn li cu hnh cho i xuyn qua mt cch
thch hp.

Hnh 1.7 Cu trc song song
- Cu trc song song theo bng ( theo modun) :to thnh bng cch thit k theo
tng modun cho cu trc song song

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WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 16

Hnh 1.8 : Cu trc song song theo bng

- Cu trc ni tip : Mt knh n c thc hin rt v xen t tp hp cc knh
i vo OADM.
Hnh 1.9 : Cu trc ni tip
- Cu trc xen rt theo bng sng : trong cu trc ny mt nhm c nh knh
bc sng thc hin xen/ rt ti mi nt mng OADM. Cc knh c thit lp thc hin
xen/rt l cc knh lin tip nhau trong mt bng sng, s c lc bi mt b lc c
bng thng l di bc sng. Sau chng c a ln mc ghp knh cao hn v t
gii ghp knh thnh cc knh bc sng ring l

Hnh 1.10 : Cu trc xen rt theo bng sng





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WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 17



1.4.6. B ni cho quang: (OXC)
nh ngha : OXC l thit b p ng yu cu v kh nng linh ng trong vic
cung ng dch v, hay p ng kh nng p ng c s tng bng thng t bin ca
cc dch v a phng tin


Hnh 1.11 : S kt ni OXC
Cc yu cu i vi OXC :
- Cung cp dch v
- Bo v
- Trong sut i vi tc truyn dn bit
- Gim st cht lng truyn dn
- Chuyn i bc sng
- Ghp v nhm tn hiu







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WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 18




1.4.7. B khuch i quang: (OA - Optical Amplifier):



Hnh 1.12: Khuch i quang OLA
Trn thc t hin nay cc tuyn thng tin tc cao ngi ta s dng b
khuch i quang lm cc trm lp, ch yu l cc b khuch i ng dy pha tp
Eribum (EDFA). Cc b khuch i ny c u im l khng cn qu trnh chuyn i
O/E v E/O m thc hin khuch i trc tip tn hiu quang.
Li ch:
+ Thay th cc b lp t tin trong h thng b gii hn bi suy hao
+ Tng nhy ca b thu
+ Nng cao mc cng sut pht
+ c lp v tc v nh dng tn hiu, khuch i tn hiu a knh
WDM ng thi

OADM
My
thu
Laser
Bm
Rama
n
Laser


Chng
li
Chng
li
B b tn
sc

O
SC

O
SC

1
,
2

,,
W

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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 19

+ Nng cp n gin
c tnh ca 1 s b khuch i quang l tng
+ H s khuch i v mc cng sut u ra cao vi hiu sut chuyn i
cao.
+ rng bng tn khuch i ln vi h s khuch i khng i
+ Khng nhy cm vi phn cc
+ Nhiu thp
+ Khng gy xuyn knh gia cc tn hiu WDM
+ Suy hao ghp ni vi si quang thp.
Phn loi :
+ Vo : ging nh laser bn dn nhng c phn cc di ngng
+ B khuch i quang si pha tp t him: khuch i xy ra trong si
quang pha tp t him, ph bin l b EDFA
+ Ra : khuch i xy ra trong si quang nh mc cng sut bm cao
1.4.8. B chuyn i bc song
B chuyn i bc sng l thit b chuyn i tn hiu c bc sng ny
u vo ra thnh tn hiu c bc sng khc u ra. i vi h thng WDM, b chuyn
i bc sng cho nhiu ng dng hu ch khc nhau :
- Tn hiu c th i vo mng vi bc sng khng thch hp khi truyn trong
WDM
- B chuyn i khi c trang b trong cc cu hnh nt mng WDM gip s
dng ti nguyn bc sng hiu qu hn, linh ng hn.
- C 4 phng php ch to b chuyn i bc sng:
Phng php quang in
Phng php ca quang
Phng php giao thoa
Phng php trn bc sng

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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 20

1.5. Cc tham s c bn ca gp knh quang theo bc sng
1.5.1 Suy hao xen
c xc nh l lng cng sut tn hao trong tuyn truyn dn quang do cc im
ghp ni cc thit b WDM vi si v suy hao do bn thn cc thit b ghp gy ra. V
vy, trong thc t thit k phi tnh cho vi dB mi u. Suy hao xen c biu din
qua cng thc sau (xt b MUX-DEMUX m t hnh 2.7).

Trong L
i
l suy hao ti bc sng
i
khi thit b c ghp xen vo tuyn truyn
dn. Cc tham s ny c cc nh ch to cho bit i vi tng knh quang ca thit b.
- I
i
(
i
), O
i
(
i
) tng ng l tn hiu c bc sng
i
i vo v i ra ca th i ca b
ghp.
- I
i
(
i
), O
i
(
i
) tng ng l tn hiu c bc sng
i
i vo v i ra ca th i ca b
tch.
1.5.2. Xuyn knh
Xuyn knh l s c mt ca mt knh ny trong knh k cn lm tng nn nhiu v
gim t s tn hiu nhiu ca knh ang xt.
Trong h thng ghp knh quang, xuyn knh xut hin do:
- Cc vin ph ca mt knh i vo bng thng ca b tch knh v b lc ca knh
khc. Khi sng mang quang c iu ch bi mt tn hiu, s iu ch cng sut trong
cc vin ph ca n nh l iu ch cng sut trong bng bi knh k cn.
- Xut pht t nhng gi tr hu hn thc t v chn lc v cch ly ca cc b
lc.
- Tnh phi tuyn trong si quang mc cng sut cao trong cc h thng n mode.
C ch ca n l tn x Raman, l hiu ng tn x kch thch phi tuyn lm cho cng sut
| |
| | (2.2)
) (
log 10
(2.1)
) (
log 10
DEMUX dB
I
O
L
MUX dB
I
O
L
i i
i
i
i i
i
i

=
=
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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 21

quang mt bc sng tc ng n tn x v cng sut quang, trong cc bc sng khc
cng nh vy.
Trong mt b tch knh s khng c s d cng sut tn hiu t knh th i c bc
sng
i
sang knh khc c bc sng khc vi bc sng
i
. Nhng trong thc t lun tn
ti mt mc xuyn knh no , lm gim cht lng truyn dn ca mt thit b. Kh
nng tch cc knh khc nhau c din gii bng suy hao xuyn knh v c tnh
bng dB nh sau:
Trong b gii ghp th U
i
(
k
) l lng tn hiu khng mong mun bc sng
k
b
d ca ra th i m ng ra ch c tn hiu bc sng
i
, hnh 2.8a.






Trong cc thit b tch hn hp nh hnh 2.8b c 2 loi xuyn m knh l xuyn
m u gn v xuyn m u xa.






| | dB
I
U
D
k i
k i
i i (

=
) (
) (
log 10 ) (


MUX
Si
quang

I(
i
) ...I(
k
)

O
i
(
i
) ...U
i
(
k
)
Hnh 1.13: Xuyn knh b gii ghp
U
i
(
k
)+U
i
(
j
)
I(
i
)...I(
k
)
I
i
(
i
)
O
i
(
j
)
Si quang
Hnh 1.14: Xuyn knh b ghp hn hp
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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 22


- Xuyn knh u gn l do cc knh khc u vo sinh ra, n c ghp bn
trong thit b nh U
i
(
j
).
- Xuyn knh u xa l do cc knh khc c ghp i vo ng truyn gy ra, v
d I
i
(
k
) sinh ra U
i
(
j
).
1.5.3. rng knh
Mt vn quan trng i vi h thng WDM l c th s dng bao nhiu bc v
vic phn chia bc sng nh th no.
Hin nay trong h thng vin thng dng si quang thng s dng bc sng
1550nm v cc b khuch i EDFA. Bng thng cc i ca b khuch i si pha tp
EDFA khon 30nm. Nu ta mun xp khong 16 knh trong di bc sng ny th
rng gia cc knh l 30nm/16 knh hay 1,875nm. rng knh l tiu chun trong min
tn s hn l bc sng.
Mi quan h gia tn s v bc sng:

Trong : c l vn tc nh sng 3.10
8
m/s.
l bc sng hot ng.
V vy 1,875nm l tng ng vi rng ca cc knh c tn s xp x 250GHz.
Vy rng knh l di bc sng m n nh ra cho tng ngun pht quang. Di bc
sng C ca cc b khuch i EDFA l 1530-1550nm. Nu ngun pht th nht pht x
ti 1530, th ngun pht th hai phi pht x ti 1531,875nm v cc ngun pht khc
tng t. Nu ngun pht quang l cc diode laser th rng knh yu cu khong vi
chc nm. i vi ngun pht quang l diode LED yu cu rng knh phi ln hn t
10 n 20 ln LD v rng ph ca loi ngun ny rng hn.
2 2

c f c
d
df
c
f
c f
=
A
A
=
=
=
(2.4)
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 23


1.5.4. nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn
Trong h thng thng tin quang, cc hiu ng phi tuyn s xy ra khi cng sut tn
hiu trong si quang vt qu mt gii hn ca h thng WDM th mc cng sut ny
thp hn nhiu so vi cc h thng n knh.
Cc hiu ng phi tuyn nh hng n cht lng ca h thng WDM c th chia
thnh hai loi l hiu ng tn x v hiu ng Kerr (khc x).
a. Hiu ng tn x:
Bao gm cc hiu ng SBS v SRS:
- Hiu ng SRS (Stimulated Raman Scrattering) l hin tng chiu nh sng vo
si quang s gy ra dao ng phn t trong vt liu ca si quang, n iu ch tn hiu
quang a vo dn n bc sng ngn trong h thng WDM suy gim tn hiu qu ln,
hn ch s knh ca h thng.
- Hiu ng SBS (Stimulated Brillouin Scrattering) cng c hin tng nh SRS
nhng gy ra dch tn v di tn tng ch rt nh v ch xut hin hng sau chiu tn
x. nh hng cn ln th ngng cng sut cng thp.
b. Hiu ng Kerr:
Gm cc hiu ng SPM, XPM, FWM:
- Hiu ng SPM (Self Phase Modulation) l hin tng khi cng quang a vo
thay i, hiu sut khc x ca si quang cng thay i theo gy ra s bin pha ca sng
quang. Khi kt hp vi tn sc ca si quang s dn n ph tn dn rng v tch ly theo
s tng ln ca chiu di. S bin i cng sut quang cng nhanh th bin i tn s
quang cng ln.
- Hiu ng XPM (Cross Phase Modulation), c ngha l trong h thng nhiu bc
sng v hiu sut khc x bin i theo cng u vo dn n pha ca tn hiu b iu
ch bi cng sut ca knh khc.
- Hiu ng FWM (Four Wave Mixing) xut hin khi c nhiu tn hiu quang truyn
dn hn hp trn si quang lm xut hin bc sng mi gy nn xuyn nhiu lm hn
ch s bc sng c s dng. Vic ny sinh cc hiu ng phi tuyn s gy cc hin
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 24

tng xuyn m gia cc knh, suy gim mc cng sut tn hiu ca tng knh dn n
suy gim t s S/N, nh hng n cht lng h thng.
1.6. Cu trc mng truyn ti quang
1.6.1. Cu trc mng Ring

Hnh 1.15 : Cu trc mng Ring
Cc node ch lin kt vt l trc tip vi hai node gn nhau
Kt ni ny thun li cho vic bo dng, hiu nng cao ,chi ph thp, s dng phn
t mng mt cch hiu qu
1.6.2. Cu trc mng Mesh

Hnh 1.16 : Cu trc mng Mesh
Cc node lin kt vt l trc tip vi tt c node gn n
Cung cp nhiu kh nng nh tuyn
Cu trc c tin cy cao nhng kt cu phc tp
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 25

Thng c s dung trong cc mang i hi tin cy cao

1.6.3. Cu trc mng hnh sao
a. Cu trc mng hnh sao n

Hnh 1.17 : Cu trc mng hnh sao n
Chn mt node lm trung tm tn hiu s c truyn n cc node nh hnh trn
Cu trc mng n gin, cho php truyn dung lng ln
Node trung tm phi c kh nng truyn v s l vi dung lng ln
b. Cu trc mng hnh sao kp

Hnh 1.18: Cu trc mng hnh sao kp
Tng t nh mang sao n nhng ngoi node trung tm cn c cc thit b u xa
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 26

Cu trc kp cho php s dng hiu qu v mi nhnh c th c nhiu node con
Cu trc ny c nhc im do s dng thit b u cui nn tng chi ph lp t
Cu hnh phc tp cng lm gim tin cy. Kh pht trin dch v bng thng rng
c. Cu trc mng hnh Ring hai lp

Hnh 1.19 : Cu trc mng hnh Ring hai lp
ng dng cu trc mng ring hai lp c s dng trn thc t kt ni gia cc
cu trc ring ring bit tao thnh mt mang lin kt ln
Tc gia cc node trong mang ring th cao, ngc li tc gia cc mang ring
tng i chm
1.6.4. Cu trc mng Mesh v Ring hai lp

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 27

Tng t nh mng ring hai lp mng mesh v mang ring hai lp to kt ni gia
mang ni b vi cc mang ni b khc


1.7 u nhc im ca h thng WDM
a. u im :
H thng WDM c dung lng truyn dn ln hn nhiu so vi h thng TDM.
Khng ging nh TDM phi tng tc s liu khi lu lng truyn dn tng,
WDM ch cn mang vi tn hiu, mi tn hiu ng vi mi bc sng ring (knh
quang)
WDM cho php tng dung lng ca mng hin c m khng cn phi lp t
thm si quang
b. Nhc im :
Dung lng h thng cn nh, cha khai thc trit bng tn rng ln ca si
quang.
Chi ph cho khai thc, bo dng tng do c nhiu h thng cng hot ng
1.8 B khuch i quang EDFA
1.8.1 Cc cu trc EDFA

Hnh 1.20: Cu trc tng qut ca mt b khuch i EDFA
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 28

Cu trc ca mt b khuch i quang si pha trn Erbium EDFA (Erbium-Doped
FiberAmplifier) c minh ha trn hnh 2.9. Trong bao gm:
Si quang pha ion t him Erbium EDF (Erbium-Doped Fiber): l ni xy ra
qutrnh khuch i (vng tch cc) ca EDFA.

Hnh 1.21: Mt ct ngang ca mt loi si quang pha ion Erbium
Trong , vng li trung tm (c ng knh t 3 -6 m) ca EDF c pha trn
ionEr3+ l ni c cng sng bm v tn hiu cao nht. Vic pha cc ion Er3+
trongvng ny cung cp s chng lp ca nng lng bm v tn hiu vi cc ion
erbiumln nht dn n s khuch i tt hn. Lp bc (cladding) c chit sut thp
hnbao quanh vng li.Lp ph (coating) bo v bao quanh si quang to bn knh
siquang tng cng l 250 m. Lp ph ny c chit sut ln hn so vi lp bc dng
loi b bt k nh sng khng mong mun no lan truyn trong si quang. Nukhng k
n cht pha erbium, cu trc EDF ging nh si n mode chun trongvin thng.









B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 29





1.8.2 L thuyt khuch i trong EDFA
a) Gin phn b nng lung ca Er3+:

Hnh 1.22: Gin phn b nng lng ca ion Er3+ trong si silica
Gin phn b nng lng ca Er3+ trong si silica c minh ha trong hnh trn.
Theo, cc ion Er3+ c th tn ti nhiu vng nng lng khc nhau c k hiu:
4I15/2 , 4I13/2 , 4I11/2,4I9/2, 4F9/2, 4S9/2, 2H11/2. Trong :
- Vng4I15/2 c mc nng lng thp nht, c gi l vng nn (ground-state band)
- Vng 4I13/2 c gi l vng gi bn (mestable band) v cc ion Er3+c thi gian
sng(lifetime) ti vng ny lu (khong 10ms) trc khi chuyn xung vng nn.
Thigian sng ny thay i ty theo loi tp cht c pha trong li ca EDF.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 30

- Vng 4I11/2, 4I9/2, 4F9/2, 4S9/2, 2H11/2 l cc vng nng lng cao, c gi l
vng kchthch hay vng bm (pumping band). Thi gian cc ion Er3+ c trng thi
nnglng trong cc vng ny rt ngn (khong 1 s)
Ph hp th (absortion spectrum)v ph li (gain spectrum) ca EDFA c li pha
Ge c biu din trn hnh 2.12 [2].

Hnh 1.23: Ph hp th (absorption spectrum) v ph li (gain spectrum) ca
EDFAc li pha Ge [2].
b) Nguyn l hot ng ca EDFA
Nguyn l khuch i ca EDFA c da trn hin tng pht x kch thch. Qu
trnh khuch i tn hiu quang trong EDFA c th c thc hin:
Khi s dng ngun bm laser 980nm, cc ion Er3+ vng nn s hp th nng lng
tcc photon (c nng lng Ephoton =1.27eV) v chuyn ln trng thi nng lng cao
hn vng bm (pumping band) (1). Ti vng bm, cc ion Er3+ phn r khng bc x
rt nhanh (khong 1s) v chuynxung vng gi bn (2). Khi s dng ngun bm laser
1480nm, cc ion Er3+ vng nn s hp th nng lng tcc photon (c nng lng
Ephoton =0.841eV) v chuyn sang trng thi nng lng cao hn nh ca vng gi
bn (3)
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 31


Hnh 1.24: Qu trnh khuch i tn hiu xy ra EDFA vi hai bc sng bm 980
nmv 1480nm [1].
Cc ion Er3+ trong vng gi bn lun c khuynh hng chuyn xung vng nng
lngthp (vng c mt in t cao) (4)
Sau khong thi gian sng (khong 10ms), nu khng c kch thch bi cc photon
cnng lng thch hp (pht x kch thch) cc ion Er3+ s chuyn sang trng thi nng
lng thphn vng nn v pht x ra photon (pht x t pht) (5).
1.8.3 Yu cu i vi ngun bm
a) Bc sng bm
Vi cc vng nng lng c nu trong phn 1.8.2.a, nh sng bm c th c s
dngti cc bc sng khc nhau 650 nm (4F9/2), 800 nm (4I9/2 ), 980 nm (4I11/2),
1480 nm (4I13/2). Tuynhin, khi bc sng bm cng ngn th cc ion Er3+ phi tri qua
nhiu giai on chuyn inng lng trc khi tr v vng nn v pht x ra photon nh
sng.
Trong EDFA, iu kin c khuch i tn hiu l t c s nghch o nng
bngcch s dng ngun bm bm cc ion erbium ln trng thi kch thch. C hai
cch thc hinqu trnh ny: bm trc tip ti bc sng 1480 nm hoc bm gin tip
bc sng 980 nm.
Hin nay, bm bc sng 1480 nm c s dng rng ri hn v chng sn c hn
v tin cy cao hn. tin cy l c im quan trng i vi laser bm v n dng
bm chokhong cch di v trnh lm nhiu tn hiu.
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Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 32



Bng 2.1: So snh hai bc sng bm 980nm v 1480nm
b) Cng sut bm
Cng sut bm cng ln th s c nhiu ion erbium b kch thch trao i nng
lngvi tn hiu cn khuch i v s lm cho h s khuch i tng ln. Tuy nhin, h
s khuch ikhng th tng mi theo cng sut bm v s lng cc ion erbium c cy
vo si l c gii hn. Ngoi ra, khi cng sut bm tng ln th h s nhiu s gim. iu
ny s c trnh bytrong phn tnh h s nhiu ca EDFA.
c) Hng bm
B khuch i EDFA c th c bm theo ba cch:
Bm thun (codirectional pumping): ngun bm c bm cng chiu vi hng
truyntn hiu.
Bm ngc (counterdirectional pumping): ngun bm c bm ngc chiu vi
hngtruyn tn hiu.
Bm hai chiu (dual pumping): s dng hai ngun bm v c theo hai chiu
ngcnhau .
Mt EDFA c bm bng mt ngun bm c th cung cp cng sut u ra cc
ikhong +16 dBm trong vng bo ho hoc h s nhiu t 5-6 dB trong vng tn hiu
nh. C hai bc sng bm c s dng ng thi c th cung cp cng sut u ra cao
hn; mt EDFA c bm kp c th cung cp cng sut ra ti +26 dBm trong vng
cng sut bm cao nht cth t c. Hnh di y th hin mt EDFA c bm
kp.
Gi tr cc c tnh ca b khuch i EDFA c trnh by trong bng 2.2
Bc sng bm 980 nm 1480 nm
Tnh cht:
li
li cng sut bm
Suy hao cng sut bm
H s nhiu

Cao hn
Thp hn
Cao hn
Thp hn

Thp hn
Cao hn
Thp hn
Cao hn
ng dng Tin khuch i Khuch i cng sut
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 33


Hnh 1.25: Cu hnh b khuch i EDFA c bm kp [11].
1.8.4 Ph khuch i
Ph li ca EDFA c trnh by trong hnh 2.12 l tnh cht quan trng nht
caEDFA khi xc nh cc knh tn hiu c khuch i trong h thng WDM. Hnh
dng ca phkhuch i ph thuc vo bn cht ca si quang, loi tp cht (Ge, Al) v
nng tp cht c pha trong li ca si quang.
Mt s bin php c s dng khc phc s khng bng phng ca ph li:
Cng ngh cn bng li: dng b cn bng (equalizer) hp th bt cng sut
bc sng c li ln v b khuch i tng cng sut ca bc sng c li
nh.
Thay i thnh phn trn trong si quang: dng si quang trn thm nhm,
photphonhm hay flo cng vi erbium s to nn b khuch i c bng tn c m
rng vph khuch i bng phng hn.
B khuch i EDFA hot ng bng C (1530-1565 nm). Tuy nhin, li ca si
pha tp c ui tri rng n khong 1605 nm. iu ny kch thch s pht trin ca cc
h thng hot ng bng L t 1565 n 1625 nm. Nguyn l hot ng ca EDFA bng
L ging nh EDFA bng C. Tuy nhin, c s khc nhau trong vic thit k EDFA cho
bng C v bng L.
Cc phn t bn trong b khuch i quang nh b cch ly (isolator) v b ghp
(coupler) phthuc vo bc sng nn chng s khc nhau trong bng C v bng L. S so
snh cc tnh chtca EDFA trong bng C v bng L c th hin trong bng 2.2.
Bng 2.2: Bng so snh EDFA hot ng trong bng C v bng L
Tnh cht Bng C Bng L
li
Ph li
Nhiu ASE
Cao hn
t bng phng hn
Thp hn
Nh hn khong 3 ln
Bng phng hn
Cao hn

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 34

Hnh 1.25 trnh by cu trc ca mt b khuch i bng L lm bng phng li
trongkhong bc sng 1570nm 1610nm vi thit k hai tng [3].
Tng u tin c bm bcsng 980nm v hot ng nh mt b EDFA truyn
thng (si quang di 20-30nm) c kh nngcung cp li trong khong bc sng
1530-1570 nm. Ngc li, tng th hai c si quang di 200m v c bm hai chiu s
dng laser 1480nm. Mt b isolator c t gia hai tng nycho php nhiu ASE
truyn t tng th 1 sang tng th 2 nhng ngn ASE truyn ngc v tng th nht. Vi
cu trc ni tip nh vy, khuch i hai tng c th cung cp li phng trn mtvng
bng thng rng trong khi vn duy tr mc nhiu thp.

Hnh 1.26 Cu hnh ca mt b khuch bng L lm bng phng li trong khong
bcsng 1570nm 1610nm vi thit k hai tng.

1.8.5. Cc tnh cht ca EDFA
a) li (Gain)
li ca mt b EDFA c th c tnh theo phng trnh sau:
G = exp[

(2.11)
Trong :
-

(z),

(z): mt ion erbium trng thi kch thch v trng thi nn ti v tr


ztrong on si quang pha erbium.
- L: chiu di si pha erbium.
- (e)s , (a)s : tit din ngang hp th v pht x ca ion erbium ti bc sng tn
hiu.
Phng trnh (2.11) cho thy li lin quan n s nghch o nng trung bnh.
Gi1 N , 2 N ln lt l nng ion Erbium mc nng lng nn
v mc nng lng kch thchtrung bnh. Khi 1 N , 2 N s c tnh theo cng thc
sau:
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 35

=

(2.12)
=

(2.13)
Phng trnh (2.11) c th c vit li mt cch n gin hn nh sau:
G = exp[

(2.14)
Trong phng trnh(2.12), (2.13) c hai tham s N1(z) v N2(z) l hm theo v tr z
dc theo si quang c cho bi:
(2.15)
Trong :
: thi gian sng ca ion erbium trng thi kch thch 4I13/2.
Ps(z): cng sut ca tn hiu ti v tr z trong si quang.
Pp(z): cng sut bm ti v tr z trong si quang.
s : h s chng lp ti bc sng tn hiu.
p : h s chng lp ti bc sng bm.
A : din tch tit din ngang hiu dng.
fs : tn s tn hiu.
fp : tn s bm.
N : mt ion erbium tng cng.
s : l tit din ngang hp th v pht x ti bc sng tn hiu.
p : l tit din ngang hp th v pht x ti bc sng bm.
h : hng s Planck; h = 6,625.10-34J.s.
T cng thc (2.15) ta thy h s khuch i ca EDFA ph thuc vo cc yu t
sau:
Ph thuc vo nng ion Er+3: Khi nng Er+3 trong si quang ca b EDFA
tng
th kh nng chng c chuyn ln mc nng lng cao hn cng nhiu, do h s
khuch i tng. Nhng nu nng Er+3 tng qu cao s gy tch t dn n hin
tng tiu hao quang lm cho h s khuch i gim.
b) Cng sut ra bo ho (Output saturation power)


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 36

S bo ho xy ra khi cng sut tn hiu vo EDFA ln gy ra s gim h s khuch
i. S bo ho h s khuch i ny xut hin khi cng sut tn hiu tng cao v gy ra
s pht x kch thch mt t l cao v do lm gim snghch o nng . iu
c ngha l s cc ion erbium trng thi kch thch gim mt cch ng k. H qu l,
cng sut tn hiu ng ra b hn ch bi s bo ho cng sut. Cng sut ra bo ha
Pout, c nh ngha l tn hiu ra m h s khuch i b gim i 3 dB so vi
khikhuch i tn hiu nh.

Hnh 1.27: th biu din cng sut ra bo ho.
Cng sut ra bo ha tng tuyn tnh theo cng sut bm vo ti bc sng bm 975
nm i vi bc sng tn hiu l 1555 nm v 1532 nm.

1.8.6. Nhiu trong b khuch i
Nhiu trong b khuch i l mt yu t gii hn quan trng i vi h thng truyn
dn.i vi EDFA, nh hng ca nhiu ASE c tnh thng qua thng s h s nhiu
NF c chobi cng thc [2]:
NF = 2nsp (2.17)
Trong , nsp = N2/(N2-N1) c gi l h s pht x t pht, N1, N2 l nng ion
Erbium mcnng lng nn v mc nng lng kch thch.
Nh trnh by trong cng thc (2.15) v (2.16), N1, N2 thay i dc theo chiu di
casi quang v ph thuc vo cng sut ca ngun bm v cng sut ca tn hiu. Do
, h snhiu NF ca EDFA cng ph thuc vo chiu di ca si quang L v cng sut
bm PP, gingnh li tn hiu ca EDFA.
Hnh 2.17 biu din s thay i ca NF v li tn hiu theo chiu di ca si
quang vimt s gi tr ca PP/Psat khi cng sut tn hiu ng vo 1mW ti bc sng
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 37

1,53 m. Kt qu chothy rng FN c th t gn bng 3dB khi cng sut ca ngun bm
PP >> Pp,sat.Vi mc nhiu tng i thp, EDFA l s la chn l tng cho cc h
thng thng tinquang WDM hin nay. D vy, nhiu do b khuch i cng lm gii hn
cht lng cc h thngthng tin quang ng di s dng nhiu b khuch i EDFA.
Vn nhiu tr nn nghimtrng khi h thng hot ng trong vng tn sc khng ca
si quang. Khi cc hiu ng phituyn s lm tng nhiu b khuch i v gim ph tn
hiu. Ngoi ra, nhiu ca b khuch icng gy nn rung pha nh thi. Vn ny s
c trnh phn sau.

Hnh 1.28 (a) H s nhiu FN v (b) li ca EDFA
Khng ch gii hn t l SNR trong cc h thng s dng cc b khuch i quang,
nhiu ASE m cn t ra nhng gii hn khc ln cc ng dng khc nhau ca cc b
khuch i quang trong cc tuyn thng tin si quang. Chng hn, xem xt mt vi b
khuch i quang c ghp tng dc theo mt khong truyn dn nh cc b lp tuyn
tnh b suy hao si quang. Cng sut nhiu ASE Pnoise s l mt phn trong cng sut
u ra Pout ca mt b khuch i no trong chui khuch i v tr thnh u vo
ca b khuch i tip theo. Do s bo ho li ph thuc vo tng cng sut u vo,
nhiu ASE t u ra ca cc tng trc trong chui khuch i c th ln n mc n s
lm bo ho cc b khuch i pha sau. Nu s phn x ti u ra v u vo ca b
khuch i thp, ASE c pht x theo hng ngc v u vo t cc b khuch i
thuc cc tng sau cng c th vo cc b khuch i pha trc, cng lm tng s bo
ho gy ra do ASE.
Thm vo s suy gim hot ng v mt cng sut, s ln tp v pha ca tn hiu do
pht x t pht cng gy nh hng nh nhiu tn s v nhiu bin , c bit l nhiu
pha do s phn x ti cc giao din quang. V tn hiu n b khuch i quang cng c
mt lng nhiu pha do s tri rng ph ca ngun laser cng lm tng cao nhiu trong
b khuch i. iu ny s lm suy gim hot ng ca cc h thng thng tin quang.

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 38


1.8.7 u khuyt im ca EDFA
a) u im:
- Ngun laser bm bn dn c tin cy cao, gn v cng sut cao.
- Cu hnh n gin: h gi thnh ca h thng.
- Cu trc nh gn: c th lp t nhiu EDFA trong cng mt trm, d vn chuyn
vthay th.
- Cng sut ngun nui nh: thun li khi p dng cho cc tuyn thng tin quang
vtbin.
- Khng c nhiu xuyn knh khi khuch i cc tn hiu WDM nh b khuch i
quangbn dn.
- Hu nh khng ph thuc vo phn cc ca tn hiu.
b) nhc im:
- Ph li ca EDFA khng bng phng.
- Bng tn hin nay b gii hn trong bng C v bng L.
- Nhiu c tch ly qua nhiu chng khuch i gy hn ch c ly truyn dn.



















B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 39


CHNG II M PHNG TUYN THNG TIN QUANG WDM BNG PHN
MM OPTISYSTEM
2.1. Tng quan v phn mm Optisystem
Cng vi s bng n v nhu cu thng tin, cc h thng thng tin quang ngy cng
tr nn phc tp. phn tich, thit k cc h thng ny bt buc phi s dng cc cng
c m phng
OptiSystem l phn mm m phng h thng thng tin quang. Phn mm ny c kh nng
thit k, o kim tra v thc hin ti u ha rt nhiu loi tuyn thng tin quang, da trn
kh nng m hnh ha cc h thng thng tin quang trong thc t. Bn cnh , phn mm
ny cng c th d dng m rng do ngi s dng c th a thm cc phn t t nh
ngha vo.
Phn mm c giao din thn thin, kh nng hin th trc quan.
OptiSystem c th gim thiu cc yu cu thi gian v gim chi ph lin quan n thit
k ca cc h thng quang hc, lin kt, v cc thnh phn. Phn mm OptiSystem l mt
sng to, pht trin nhanh chng, cng c thit k hu hiu cho php ngi dng lp k
hoch, kim tra, v m phng gn nh tt c cc loi lin kt quang hc trong lp truyn
dn ca mt quang ph rng ca cc mng quang hc t mng LAN, SAN, MAN ti
mng ultra-long-haul. N cung cp lp truyn dn,thit k v quy hoch h thng thng
tin quang t cc thnh phn ti mc h thng.Hi nhp ca n vi cc sn phm
Optiwave khc v cc cng c thit k ca ngnh cng nghip in t hng u phn
mm thit k t ng gp phn vo OptiSystem y nhanh tin sn phm ra th
trng v rt ngn thi gian hon vn.
2.1.1. Li ch
- Cung cp ci nhn ton cu vo hiu nng h thng
- nh gi s nhy cm tham s gip vic thit k chi tit k thut
- Trc quan trnh by cc ty chn thit k v d n khch hng tim nng
- Cung cp truy cp n gin tp hp rng ri cc h thng c tnh d liu
- Cung cp cc tham s t ng qut v ti u ha
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 40

- Tch hp vi h cc sn phm Optiwave
2.1.2. ng dng
To ra p ng nhu cu ca cc nh khoa hc nghin cu, k s vin thng quang
hc, tch hp h thng, sinh vin v mt lot cc ngi dng khc, OptiSystem p ng
cc nhu cu ca th trng lng t nh sng pht trin mnh m nhng vn d s dng
cng c thit k h thng quang hc.
OptiSystem cho php ngi dng lp k hoch, kim tra, v m phng:
- Thit k mng WDM / TDM hoc CATV
- Thit k mng vng SONET / SDH
- Thit k b pht, knh, b khuch i, v b thu thit k bn phn tn
- nh gi BER v penalty ca h thng vi cc m hnh b thu khc nhau
- Tnh ton BER v qu cng sut tuyn ca cc h thng c sng dng khuch i quang.
- Thay i h thng tham s BER v tnh ton kh nng lin kt Khi h thng quang
hc tr nn nhiu hn v phc tp hn, cc nh khoa hc v k s ngy cng phi p
dng cc phn mm k thut m phng tin tin, quan trng h tr cho vic thit k.
Ngun OptiSystem v linh hot to iu kin thun li hiu qu v hiu qu trong vic
thit k ngun sng. "

2.2. c im v chc nng
2.2.1. Cu to th vin (Component Library)
Th vin OptiSytem bao gm hng trm cc thnh phn cho php bn c th nhp
cc thng s c o t cc thit b thc s. N tch hp vi cc th nghim v thit b o
lng t cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Ngi s dng c th kt hp cc thnh phn mi
da trn h thng con v ngi s dng v nh ngha l th vin, hoc s dng m phng
cng vi mt cng c ca bn th ba chng hn nh MATLAB hoc SPICE.
C th bao gm:
- Th vin ngun quang
- Th vin cc b thu quang
- Th vin si quang
- Th vin cc b khuch i (quang, in)
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 41

- Th vin cc b MUX, DEMUX
- Th vin cc b lc (quang, in)
- Th vin cc phn t FSO
- Th vin cc phn t truy nhp
- Th vin cc phn t th ng (quang, in)
- Th vin cc phn t x l tn hiu (quang, in)
- Th vin cc phn t mng quang
- Th vin cc thit b o quang, o in
2.2.2. Tch hp vi cc cng c phn mm Optiwave
Optisystem cho php ngi dng s dng kt hp vi cc cng c phn mm khc
ca Optiwave nh OptiAmplifier, OptiBPM, OptiGrating, WDM_Phasar v OptiFiber
thit k mc phn t.
Miu t c tn hiu pha trn
OptiSystem x l cc nh dng tn hiu hn hp cho tn hiu quang v in trong
Hp phn Th vin. OptiSystem tnh ton cc tn hiu ang s dng thch hp cc thut
ton c lin quan n cc yu cu m phng chnh xc v hiu qu.
Cht lng v thc hin cc thut ton
d on hiu sut h thng, OptiSystem tnh ton cc thng s chng hn nh BER v
Q-Factor bng cch s dng phn tch s hoc bn phn tch k thut ca h thng gii
hn bi biu tng nhiu v ting n.
Cc cng c trc quan nng cao
Cc cng c trc quan tin tin to ra ph OSA ,xung tn hiu,biu mt,phn cc trng
thi,cc s hp thnh v nhiu hn na.Ngoi ra,bao gm cc cng c nghin cu
WDM cc danh sch tn hiu ngun,hnh nh ting n v OSNR cho mi knh.
Theo di, gim st d liu
Bn c th chn cc cng thnh phn lu d liu v gn mn hnh sau khi m phng kt
thc. iu ny cho php bn x l d liu sau khi m phng m khng cn tnh ton li ,
Bn c th ty nh km mt s hin hnh ti mn hnh ti cng mt cng.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 42


2.2.3. Cc cng c hin th
Optisystem c y cc thit b o quang, o in. Cho php hin th tham s, dng,
cht lng tn hiu ti mi im trn h thng.
Thit b o quang:
- Phn tch ph (Spectrum Analyzer)
- Thit b o cng sut (Optical Power Meter)
- Thit b o min thi gian quang (Optical Time Domain Visualizer)
- Thit b phn tch WDM (WDM Analyzer)
- Thit b phn tch phn cc (Polarization Analyzer)
- Thit b o phn cc (Polarization Meter)...
Thit b o in:
- Oscilloscope
- Thit b phn tch ph RF (RF Spectrum Analyzer)
- Thit b phn tch biu hnh mt (Eye Diagram Analyzer)
- Thit b phn tch li bit (BER Analyzer)
- Thit b o cng sut (Electrical Power Meter)
- Thit b phn tch sng mang in (Electrical Carrier Analyzer)...
2.3. Tm tt hng dn s dng phn mm optisystem
2.3.1. Yu cu chung
Trc khi ci t Optisystem, chc chn rng cc yu cu i vi h thng l ph hp
vi cc m t di y.
Yu cu phn cng v phn mm
Optisystem yu cu cu hnh h thng thp nht l:
- PC b vi x l pentium 3 hoc tng ng.
- H iu hnh microsoft windows XP hoc Vista,32 hoc 64 bit.
- 400MB cng cn trng .
- phn gii ha 1024x768,nh nht 65536 mu.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 43

- Ram 128MB( gi ).
- Internet explorer 5.5 hoc cao hn.
- DirectX 8.1 hoc cao hn.
Key bo v: Mt key bo v phn cng c cung cp km theo phn mm
Ch : Xin hy chc rng key bo v phn cng khng c kt ni trong
sut qu trnh ci t Optisystem.
chc chn Optisystem vn hnh mt cch ng n, kim chng li theo
cc bc sau:
- Key bo v kt ni ng vo cng song song /USB ca my tnh.
- Nu bn s dng nhiu hn mt key bo v, chc rng khng c s xung t
gia key bo v Optisystem v cc key kia.
Ch : Dng mt hp chuyn i ngn chn s xung t key bo v. Chc rng
cp gia hp chuyn i v my tnh l ln nht ca dng c o.
Th mc Optisystem
Thng thng, b ci Optisystem s to ra mt th mc Optisystem trong
cng ca bn. Th mc Optisystem gm mt s th mc con sau:
- \bin cc tp thc thi c,th vin ng dn ng, v tp tr gip.
- \components tham s cc phn t ca Optisystem t nh cung cp.
- \doc ti liu h tr Optisystem.
- \libraries th vin phn t Optisystem.
- \samples tp v d Optisystem.
- \toolbox tp lin h MATLAB.
Ci t
Optisystem c th c ci t trn Windows XP hoc Vista. Nn thot ht cc
chng trnh Windows trc khi ci t chng trnh.








B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 44



Bng 1: Cc bc ci t
Bc Thc hin
1
ng nhp vo vi vai tr ngi qun tr hoc ng
nhp vo ti khon vi c quyn qun tr.
2 Cho CD Optisystem vo CD ROM.
3
Trn thanh cng c,vo Start v chn Run.
Hp thoi Run hin ra.
4
Trong hp thoi Run, g F:\setup.exe, F y l CD
ROM ca bn.
5
Bm OK v theo cc hng dn v du nhc trn mn
hnh
6 Khi ci t xong, khi ng li my tnh.
Trnh din Optisystem bao gm nhiu nht l 15 kch bn. Vi cng mt tp trnh din
nh nhau bn c th c nhiu kch bn vi cc phn t khc nhau v ty chn cc phn t.
Khu qut
Mi kch bn c th c cc tham s c gn sn trong ch qut. Bn c th
t gn s ln qut bng cch thay i tham s la chn. Gi tr tham s thay i theo mi
ln qut lp; to ln mt lot cc kt qu tnh ton khc nhau cn c trn s thay i gi
tr tham s.
Qut tham s ph thuc vo yu t ca mt kch bn: tham s v kt qu.
Ti u ha
Mi kch bn c s ti u ha. S dng ti u ha thay i gi tr ca cc
tham s bit trong sut qu trnh tnh ton v vy h thng ca bn cn t c nhiu
iu kin yu cu. Qu trnh ti u ha l c lp vi cc ln qut tham s, nhng c th
c s dng cho mi ln qut lp tham s ring bit.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 45


Hnh 2.1: Thnh phn trnh din
2.3.2 Hng dn s dng phn mm optisystem
Th vin cc phn t ( component library ) :
Ngi dng truy cp vo ly cc phn t thit k (Hnh 1)


Hnh 2.2: Th vin cc phn t
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 46

Th vin cc phn t:
- Th vin ngun quang - ( optical sources library )
- Th vin cc b thu quang - (receivers library)
- Th vin si quang - (optical fiber library)
- Th vin cc b khuch i (quang, in) - (amplifier library)
- Th vin cc b MUX, DEMUX
- Th vin cc b lc (quang, in) - (filter library)
- Th vin cc phn t FSO - ( free space optics library)
- Th vin cc phn t truy nhp - ( access library)
- Th vin cc phn t th ng (quang, in) - (passiver library)
- Th vin cc phn t x l tn hiu (quang, in) -( signal processing library)
- Th vin cc phn t mng quang (network library)
- Th vin cc thit b o quang, o in
Ngoi ra cc phn t c nh ngha sn, Optisystem cn c
- Cc phn t Measured components. Vi cc phn t ny, Optisystem cho php nhp cc
tham s c o t cc thit b thc ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau.
- Cc phn t do ngi s dng t nh ngha ( User-defined Components)
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 47


Hnh 2.3: Giao din th vin
Giao din ngi s dng ( GUI )
- Project layout : phn m ngi s dng thit k

Hnh 2.4. Giao din ngi s dng
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 48

- Dockers : bao gm
+ Project Browser : truy nhp n cc tham s v kt qu ca thit k (Hnh 3)

Hnh 2.5: Project Browser
+ Description : a ra cc thng tin m t tm tt v thit k

Hnh 2.6: Description


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 49

+ Status bar : hin th nhng gi v vic s dng Optisystem

Hnh 2.7: Status bar
+ Menu bar : cha cc menu c sn trong Optisystem

Hnh 2.8: Menu bar
+ Pan window

Hnh 2.9: Pan window
+ Tool bars : cc thanh cng c c sn trn ca s
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 50


Hnh 2.10: Tool bars
2.3.3 To mt d n mi
- Vo File menu, la chn New, ca s Project layout xut hin

Hnh2.11. Ca s Project layout
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 51

- Vo Component Library, dng chut ko phn t cn s dng v th vo Main
Layout (Hnh 10)

Hnh 2.12. t phn t vo Main layout

- Vic kt ni gia cc phn t trong thit k c th c thc hin mt cch t ng
hoc bng tay nh vic s dng cc nt chc nng trong Layout Operations


Hnh 2.13: Kch hot kt ni t ng


Hnh 2.14:Hy b ch kt ni t ng



B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 52

2.3.4. Hin th v thay i tham s ca cc phn t trong d n
Khi to mt thit k mi trn Optisystem, phi thit lp cc tham s ton cc. Cc tham
s ny s lin quan n tc , chnh xc v yu cu v b nh cho vic thc hin m
phng thit k. Cc tham s ny c gi l tham s ton cc v n nh hng n tt c
cc thnh phn trong thit k c s dng cc tham s ny. Trong Optisystem, cc tham s
ny bao gm:
- Tc bit (bit rate)
- Chiu di chui bit (Bit sequence length)
- S mu trn mt bit (Number of samples per bit).
thit lp thng s ton cc ta thc hin nh sau:
- Cch 1: Kch p vo mn hnh Layout.
- Cch 2: Layout -> Parameters t cng c Menu. Khi mn hnh Parameters
xut hin:

Hnh 2.15 :mn hnh Parameters
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 53

* Thay i cc tham s ca cc phn t trong bi ton m phng:
- Thc hin kch p vo phn t cn thay i tham s hp thoi v cc tham s ca
phn t xut hin .
- Di chuyn con tr n cc gi tr thch hp.
- Nhp gi tr tham s mong mun.
Ch : C ba ch ca tham s l Norman, Script v Sweep:
- Trong ch Scrip c thc hin khi tham s ny l tham s ton cc, n c lin
quan n tt c cc phn t khc trong h thng.
- Ch Sweep c s dng khi thc hin qut tham s.
- Ti mc Power cho php ta nhp cng sut pht quang c gi tr ph hp vi tng knh.
Tip theo tin hnh thay i tc bit (Bit rate): Ti mc value chn Set bit rate.

Hnh 2.16 :Chn trng thay i tc bt

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 54

Tin hnh nhp tc bit 10Gbit/s= 10000000000 (bt/s).


Hnh 2.17 : Nhp tc bt mun thay i


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 55

+ Tin hnh thit lp ca s thi gian: ti Value chn Set Time Window v nhp gi
tr
Hnh2.18 : Thit lp ca s thi gian thc
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 56


Hnh 2.19 : Thay i cng sut pht quang






B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 57

+ Kt thc ci t tham s ton cc bng cch click OK cc thng s ton cc c hin
th nh sau:

* Xa cc tham s mi khi d n: thc hin qua cc bc:
- Trong hp thoi Layout Parameter, kch vo ct Value bn cnh tham s bn mun
thay i.
- Kch Remove Par: Tham s c xa.
Ch : Bn khng th chnh sa hoc xa cc tham s h thng.










B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 58

2.3.5. Chy m phng
a. Chy m phng
n t hp (Ctrl F5), hoc click Colculatol trn thanh cng c. Mn hnh hin th:

Hnh 2.20: Giao din mn hnh chy m phng
+ Tip theo click vo nt Run chy chng trnh:
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 59


Hnh 2.21 : Chy chng trnh
+ Sau khi chng trnh chy xong, hin th gi tr ca BER ta kch p vo thit b o
BER ca knh u tin (CH1).
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 60


Hnh 2.22: o t s BER ca knh
+ Thc hin tng t nh vy vi cc knh cn li tm cc gii gi tr ph hp.
b. Hin th kt qu m phng
- Kch p chut vo cc phn t hin th trong thit k hin th th v cc kt
qu m qu trnh m phng to ra.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 61


Hnh 2.23 : Kt qu m phng
c. tin hnh thit lp tham s qut ta thc hin nh sau:
+ Cch 1: n t hp phm Ctrl +Home
+ Cch 2: Thc hin 3 bc sau:
Bc 1: Kch chut vo nt Set Total Sweep Iterarion trn Layout Bar hp thoi
Total Parameter Sweep Iterations trn Layout Tool Bar xut hin trn hnh:
Bc 2: Nhp gi tr s ln qut .
Bc 3: Click chut OK
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 62


Hnh 2.24: Thit lp tham s quyt
d. Thay i s ln qut:
Sau khi tnh ton, thay i s ln qut hin th trn bn thit k (layout), thc hin
cc bc sau:
- Bc 1: La chn Layout > Set Current Sweep Interation trn Menu toolbar. Hp
thoi Set Current Sweep Iterarion xut hin nh trn hnh 20
- Bc 2: Nhp vo s ln qut mun hin th trn bn thit k
- Bc 3: Kch chut vo nt OK
Hoc s dng Previous Sweep Interarion hoc Next Interation trn Layout
Toolbal chuyn i s ln qut.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 63



Hnh 2.25: Chuyn i s ln qut.
e. Thay i gi tr tham s qut: Sau khi chn s ln qut th chng ta thc
hin nhp gi tr cn qut ca tham s. Trc khi nhp tham s cn qut phi chuyn
sang ch qut Sweep Mode.
f. chuyn sang ch qut cho tham s thc hin nh sau:
+ La chn Layout -> Parameter Sweep trn Menu Toolbar . Hp thoi v cc tham
s ca cc phn t nh hnh v. Ch yu thit lp qut tham s cho ngun lazer.
+ Kch p vo ngun CW lazer Properies hp thoi xut hin:

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 64


Hnh 2.26: Hp thoi chuyn sang ch qut cho tham s
+ Ti Mode kch chut chn Sweep. Kt thc bng OK.

Hnh 2.27: Chn ch ca tham s
+ Sau tin hnh in tham s qut bng cch click chut vo Parameter Sweep trong
ct Value. Kt thc bng OK.
+ Sau khi thay i xong cc tham s qut tin hnh bc tip theo.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 65



g. Hin th kt qu m qu m phng qut tham s
Sau khi chng trnh chy xong, hin th gi tr ca BER ta kch p vo thit b
o BER ca knh u tin (CH1).
hin th kt qu m phng qut tham s (i vi thit k h thng, thng hin th
s thay i BER theo gi tr ca tham s qut), thc hin cc bc sau:
o Bc 1: La chn Report tab trong ca s Project Layout
o Bc 2: Kch chut vo nt Opti2Dgraph trn Report toolbar
o Bc 3: Trong Project Browser, la chn tham s Sweep Mode,
ko tham s ny v th vo trc X ca th 2D
o Bc 4: Trong Project Browser, la chn tham s Min. Log of BER ca
thit b phn tch li bit, ko tham s ny v th vo trc Y ca th 2D
Kt qu thay i BER theo tham s qut s hin th trn th 2D.
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 66


Hnh 2.28:. Cc bc hin th kt qu m phng qut tham s
2.4. M hnh m phng
2.4.1 Yu cu thit k
1) Bi ton: Xy dng phng n thit k h thng thng tin quang WDM c s dng
khuch i quang EDFA vi cc yu cu thit k nh sau:
- Tc bit: 10 Gbit/s
- C ly truyn dn: 300 km
- S lng knh bc sng: 4 knh
Mt s gi khi thit k:
- Loi si: Si quang n mode chun (G.652)
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 67

- Ngun pht: - Loi ngun: Laser.
- Phng thc iu ch: iu ch ngoi
- B thu: S dng PIN kt hp vi b lc thng thp Bessel
2) Yu cu:
a) S dng phn mm Optisystem xy dng m hnh m phng h thng thng tin quang
WDM theo phng n thit k.
Lu : cc tham s ton cc (global parameters m phng) c thit lp nh sau
- Tc bit: 10 Gbit/s
- Chiu di chui: 128 bits
- S mu trong 1 bit: 64
b) a cc thit b o vo m hnh m phng. Cc thit b o trn tuyn c t ti cc
v tr ph hp xc nh c cht lng v dng tn hiu ti cc im cn thit trn
tuyn. Cc thit b o c bn:
- Thit b o cng sut quang
- Thit b phn tch ph quang
- Thit b o BER
c) Chy m phng
d) Hin th kt qu m phng bng cc thit b o t trn tuyn
e) Thay i cc tham s ca cc phn t trn tuyn t c BER = 10
-12

3) Bo co kt qu thc hnh
- M hnh m phng
- Cc tham s m phng chi tit
- Kt qu m phng
o Kt qu m phng theo phng n thit k ban u h thng ban u
o S thay i ca cc tham s thit k t c BER = 10
-12

- Nhn xt, phn tch kt qu m phng .
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 68

2.4.2 M phng theo phng n thit k
2.4.2.1 Tuyn pht quang: chn ca s truyn 1550nm EDFA bng C
Mi knh quang bao gm ngun pht quang lazer CW lazer, b pht xung RZ pulse
genarator, b pht bit in pseudom-Radom Bit sequence Genarator, b iu ch Mach-
zehnder.
Tuyn pht quang gm 4 knh quang c tch hp thng quang b ghp knh quang
MUX.
Thit lp tham s ton cc
Tc bt: 10GBps
Chiu di chui: 128bits
S mu trong mt bt: 64
S mu =Chiu di chuiS mu trong mt trong mt bit=12864=8192

Hnh 2.29: Thit lp tham s ton cc
Ngun pht: S dng ngun CW Laser ( continous Wave Laser ) : nhm gim nh
hng ca tn sc si.

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 69


Hnh 2.30: Ngun Laser pht CW Laser
B to xung RZ


Hnh 2.31: B to xung RZ
B to chui bit


Hnh 2.32. B to chui bt


B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 70

B iu ch ngoi


Hnh 2.33: B iu ch Mach-Zehnder

B ghp knh quang (ghp 4 knh)


Hnh 2.34: B ghp knh MUX 41
Ton tuyn pht 4 knh quang
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 71


Hnh 2.35: Tuyn pht quang
2.4.2.2 Tuyn truyn dn quang

Hnh 2.36. Tuyn truyn dn quang
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 72


Si quang s dng G.652 c cc tham s: ti ca s truyn 1550nm th:
- Suy hao si: 0.2dB
- tn sc: 0.335 ps/nmkm
- dc tn sc (0.092ps/nm^2/k): 0.075ps/nm^2/k.
Do khong cch ng truyn ln thun tin cho vic m phng chng ta s dng
b Sloop ng vai tr nh mt b nhn cc vng lp.
Chn chiu di si G.652 l 60km, s b lp l: 300km60km=5 b.

Hnh 2.37. B lp
Do si quang c suy hao tn sc nn trong tuyn truyn dn s s dng b b tn sc
DCF.
Thng s ca b b tn sc:
- Gi s si G652 c chiu di l L1=50km.
- tn sc l : D1= 16.75 ps/nm.km.
- dc tn sc : 0.075ps/nm^2.km.
- Chiu di si b tn sc ( DCF) l L2=60km-50km=10km
- Th b tn sc D2= -D1L1/L2.= -5016.75/10= -83 ps/nm.km.
- dc tn sc : 0.375ps/nm^2.km.

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 73



Hnh 2.38. Thng s si b tn sc DCF
Khuch i quang EDFA: Do suy hao si quang nn cn s dng b khuch i
EDFA b suy hao si.
+ L1=50km th suy hao si l: 500.2=10dB
li ca b khuch i EDFA l 10dB
+ L2=10km th suy hao si l: 100.2=5dB
li ca b khuch i EDFA l 5dB







B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 74

2.4.4.3 Tuyn thu ca h thng WDM

Hnh 2.39. Tuyn thu WDM

Thit b o BER

Hnh 2.40. Thit b o BER



B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 75

2.4.3 Kt qu m phng theo yu cu thit k
Tuyn WDM theo yu cu

Hnh 2.41. Tuyn WDM thit k theo yu cu






B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 76


Quang ph tn hiu pht

Hnh 2.42. Quang ph tn hiu pht
Quang ph tn hiu thu

B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 77

Hnh 2.43. Quang ph tn hiu u thu knh th 3
Cng sut tn hiu pht

Hnh 2.44. Tng cng sut pht

Cng sut tn hiu thu

Hnh 2.45. Cng sut thu ca knh 4





B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 78

T l li bit BER
- Mt quang

Hnh 2.46. Hin th mt quang
- BER ca mt knh

Hnh 2.47. BER ca knh th nht l 10
-13
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 79

2.4.4. Kt qu m phng thay i cc tham s t BER=10
-12

Khi thay i mt trong cc tham s h thng th t s li bt BER se thay i theo.
- Thay i cng sut Laser pht

Hnh 2.48. Thay i cng sut Laser pht
- Hoc thay i h s suy hao si quang ln thnh 0.2025dB

Hnh 2.49. H s suy hao si quang thay i
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 80


BER thay i
+ BER ca knh th nht thay i

Hnh 2.50. BER ca knh th nht t 10
-12
+ Mt quang:

Hnh 2.51. BER t 10
-12
khi thay i mt s tham s
B mn Thng tin quang 2 Th.s Cao Hng Sn


Thit k v m phng h thng thng tin quang Nhm 2
WDM s dng phn mm Optisystem 81

TI LIU THAM KHO


- TS. V Vn San, H thng thng tin quang s dng k thut WDM, tp ch bu
chnh vin thng s 9-1999
- Gio trnh K thut thng tin quang 2 (dng cho sinh vin h o to i hc t
xa)_Ths. Vn Vit Em.
- Kevin H. Liu, IP over WDM, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2002
- Ti liu:khuch i quang si v kh nng ng dng vo mng vin thng- Dng
c Tu
- H thng ghp knh theo bc sng quang - Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin
thng, NXB Bu in, H Ni 5-2001