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MC LC 1.1 Khi nim thng tin quang...................................................................................5 1.2 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang.................................................................6 1.

3 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang.......................................................................8 1.4 u nhc im v cc ng dng ca thng tin quang.........................................9 1.4.1 u im.................................................................................................9 1.4.2 Nhc im.........................................................................................11 1.4.3 ng dng.............................................................................................12 2.2 Cc loi tn sc..................................................................................................16 2.2.1 Tn sc mode (Modal Dispersion):......................................................17 2.2.2 Tn sc trong mode..............................................................................20 2.2.2.1 Tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD Group Velocity Dispersion)............21 2.2.2.2 Tn sc vt liu (Material Dispersion)..............................................24 2.2.5 Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion)...................................25 2.2.6 Tn sc phn cc mode (Polarization Mode Dispersion).................28 2.3 nh hng ca tn sc trong h thng thng tin quang:...................................29 3.1 S cn thit ca vic qun l tn sc.................................................................33 3.2 K thut b tn sc trc (Precompensation)....................................................35 3.3 K thut b tn sc trn ng dy (In-line) ....................................................36 3.3.1 B tn sc bng si quang DCF(Dispersion Compensation Fiber).....36 3.3.2 B tn sc bng b lc quang..............................................................39 3.3.3 B tn sc bng tn hiu quang lin hp pha OPC..............................40 3.3.4 B tn sc bng cch t Bragg............................................................43 3.3.5 K thut b tn sc mode....................................................................44 3.4 K thut b sau (post compensation).................................................................50 KT QU THU C TRONG CHUYN I THC TP....................................51 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN...................................................................56 TI LIU THAM KHO............................................................................................58

DANH MC HNH DANH MC HNH.......................................................................................................2 LI NI U..............................................................................................................3 tn hiu in quang in...................8 Hnh 1.1 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang..................................................................8 Hnh 2.1 Minh ha s m rng xung do tn sc..........................................................15 Hnh 2.2 Tn sc gy ra tng BER...............................................................................16 Hnh 2.3 Cc loi tn sc trong si quang....................................................................17 Hnh 2.4 Cch thc cc lung sng tng ng vi cc mode i trong si quang........18 2

Hnh 2.5 Cch thc cng sut quang c mang bi cc mode truyn trong si quang v gy tn sc....................................................................................................................19 Hnh 2.6 Tn sc trong si SI.......................................................................................19 Hnh 2.7 Tn sc mode trong si GI............................................................................20 Hnh 2.8 S thay i ca chit sut n v chit sut nhm ng theo...............................24 bc sng ca silica nng chy...................................................................................24 Hnh 2.9 S phn b cng nh sng trong si n mode. ...................................25 Hnh 2.10 Tn s chun ha V.....................................................................................26 Hnh 2.11 Biu din DM, DW, D ...............................................................................27 Hnh 2.12 S ph thuc vo bc sng ca h s tn sc D i vi si chun,..........28 si dch tn sc v si san bng tn sc......................................................................28 Hnh 2.13 Tn sc phn cc mode...............................................................................29 Hnh 2.14 Kt qu tnh ton lng cng sut b tn tht ph thuc vo tn sc..........31 ( cho h thng 1Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s)...........................................................................31 Hnh 2.15 Cng sut quang b mt khi tng c ly truyn dn ca h thng 2,5 Gbit/s.32 Hnh 3.1 B tn sc dng m ha FSK: a) Tn s quang v cng sut tn hiu pht; b) Tn s v cng sut tn hiu thu v d liu in c gii m...........................................36 Hnh 3.2 S dng DCF b tn sc...........................................................................37 Hnh 3.4 Nguyn l phng php b tn sc bng cch t si Bragg.........................43 Hnh 3.6 B tn sc iu chnh c s dng cch t quang chirp khc x kp.........48 Hnh 3.7 th quan h gia h s m rng xung v gi tr DGD trung bnh............49 LI NI U Ngy nay cuc sng khng ngng pht trin, song song vi n l nhu cu ca con ngi v cc dch v nh: truyn s liu, gii tr qua mng internetngy cng nng cao. Chnh v vy cc nh cung cp dch v cng tm cch nng cao cht lng dch v. V h gii quyt c vn suy hao quang, suy hao quang khng cn l gii hn ln nht trong cc h thng thng tin quang, thay vo trong cc h thng thng tin quang hin i gii hn thng gp nht l do tn sc v cc hiu ng phi tuyn gy nn. Suy hao quang c gii quyt mt cch d dng bng cc b 3

khuych i quang tuy nhin i km vi n li lm gia tng tn sc, tri ngc vi cc b ti to (Regenerator) in t, mt b khuych i quang khng khi phc li tn hiu c khuych i thnh tn hiu gc ban u. Kt qu l, tn sc tch ly qua cc b khuych i lm gim kh nng truyn tn hiu. Chnh v l do ny, c nhiu m hnh iu khin tn sc c nghin cu sut thp nin 1990 hn ch tc ng ca tn sc trong cc h thng thng tin quang. Vy tn sc l g v phi lm nh th no hn ch nh hng ca hin tng tn sc trong truyn dn quang. Trong bi bo co ny, em gii thiu v hin tng tn sc v b tn sc trong thng tin quang. Bi bo co gm 3 chng v c th nh sau: Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v h thng thng tin quang, a ra cu trc chung ca h thng thng tin quang v chc nng nhim v ca tng phn trong h thng, sau rt ra u im, nhc im ca h thng thng tin quang, cui cng l ng dng ca h thng trong thc t. Chng 2: Tm hiu v hin tng tn sc trong thng tin quang, a ra khi nim v tn sc, phn loi tn sc, tm hiu r tng loi tn sc: tn sc mode, tn sc vn tc nhm, tn sc vt liu, tn sc trong si n mode, tn sc ng dn sng, tn sc phn cc mode, tn sc bc cao hn. nh hng ca tn sc n truyn dn quang nh th no. Chng 3: a ra cc phng php c th b tn sc: k thut b tn sc trc, k thut b tn sc trn ng dy, k thut b sau. Em xin chn thnh cm n gio vin hng dn Ths. Nguyn Anh Tun b mn Cng ngh truyn thng - khoa Cng ngh in t v truyn thng i hc Cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng i hc Thi Nguyn tn tnh gip em hon thnh thc tp tt nghip ny. Mc d c nhiu c gng song do thi gian v trnh c hn nn bi bo co khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp ca cc thy c gio v cc bn. Em xin chn thnh cm n!

Thi Nguyn, thng 03 nm 2012 Sinh vin thc hin

Trnh th Xun

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V THNG TIN QUANG 1.1 Khi nim thng tin quang Thng tin quang l mt h thng truyn tin thng qua si quang. iu ny c ngha l thng tin c chuyn thnh nh sng v sau nh sngc truyn qua si quang. Ti ni nhn n li c bin i thnh thng tin ban u.

1.2 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang Khi u ca thng tin quang l kh nng nhn bit ca con ngi v chuyn ng hnh dng mu sc thng qua i mt. Tip mt h thng thng tin, iu ch thng tin n gin xut hin bng cch s dng cc n hi ng cc n tn hiu. K tip l s ra i ca mt my in bo quang. Thit b ny s dng kh quyn nh mt mi trng truyn n v do chu nh hng ca cc iu kin thi tit, gii quyt vn ny ngi ta ch to ra my in bo v tuyn lin lc gia hai ngi cch xa nhau. Nm 1960 cc nh nghin cu ch to thnh cng ra laze v n nm 1966 ch to ra si quang c tn tht thp (1000dB/km). Bn nm sau Karpon ch to ra cp si quang trong sut c suy hao truyn dn khooangr20dB/km. T 3 thnh cng rc r ny nh nghin cu trn khp th gii bt u tin hnh nghin cu, pht trin v kt qu l cng ngh mi v gim suy hao truyn dn, v tng di thng v cc laze bn dn c pht trin thnh cng vo nhng nm 70. Sau gim tn tht xung cn 0,18dB/kmcn laze bn dn c kh nng thc hin giao ng lin tc nhit khai thc c ch to, tui th ko di hn 100 nm. C th lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang nh sau: 1790 : claude chappe, k s ngi Php xy dng mt h thng in bo quang (optical telegraph). H thng ny gm mt chui cc thp vi cc n bo hiu di ng trn . Thi y tin tc c truyn bng h thng ny vt chng ng 200 km trong vng 15 pht. 1870 : John Tyndall, nh vt l ngi Anh chng t rng nh sng c th dn c theo vi nc un cong, th nghim ca ng s dng nguyn l phn x ton phn, iu ny vn cn p dng cho si quang ngy nay. 1880 : Alexander Graham Bell, ngi M, gii thiu h thng photophone, qua ting ni c th truyn c qua mi trng khng kh m khng

cn dy, tuy nhin h thng ny cha c p dng trn thc t v cn qu nhiu ngun nhiu lm gim cht lng ca ng truyn. 1934 : Norman R.French, k s ngi M, nhn c bng sng ch v h thng thng tin quang, phng tin truyn dn ca ng l cc thanh thy tinh. 1958 : Arthur Schawlow v Charles H.Townes, xy dng v pht trin laser. 1960 : Theodor H.Maiman a laser vo hot ng thnh cng. 1962 : Laser bn dn v photodiode bn dn c tha nhn, vn cn li l phi tm mi trng truyn dn quang thch hp. 1966 : Charles H.Kao v Gooeorge A.Hockham, hai k s phng th nghim Standard telecommunications ca Anh, xut vic dung thy tinh truyn dn nh sng. Nhng do cng ngh ch to si thy tinh thi y cn hn ch nn suy hao ca si qu ln (suy hao xp x 1000 dB/km). 1970 : Hng Corning Glass works ch to thnh cng si quang loi si c suy hao nh hn 20dB/km bc sng 633nm. 1972 : Loi si Gi c ch to vi suy hao 4dB/km. 1983 : Si n mode (sm) c xut xng M. Ngy nay si n mode c s dng rng ri. suy hao ca loi si ny ch cn khong 0,2 dB/km bc sng 1550nm Da trn cng ngh si quang v cc laze bn dn gi y c th gi mt khi lng ln tn hiu m thanh d liu n cc a ch cch xa nhau hng trm km bng mt si quang c dy nh mt si tc, khng cn cc b ti to. Hin nay cc hot ng nghin cu ang c tin hnh trong mt lnh vc gi l photon hc l mt lnh vc ti quan trng trong thng tin quang, c kh nng pht hin v x l trao i v truyn dn thng tin bng cc phng tin nh sng. Photon 7

hc c kh nng s c ng dng rng ri trong cc lnh vc in t v vin thng trong th k 21. 1.3 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang Di y l cu hnh c bn ca h thng thng tin quang:

B bin i
Ngun pht tn hiu

tn hiu quang lp ng dy cp quang


O/E E/O O/E

in quang cp quang
E/O

Ngun thu tn hiu

b bin i tn hiu in quang in Hnh 1.1 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang B bin i in quang (E/O) bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang truyn trong mi trng cp quang (bin i xung in thnh xung quang). Yu cu thit b E/O bin i trung thc (nh sng b iu bin theo quy lut ca tn hiu in). Cp quang: l mi trng dng truyn dn tn hiu l nh sng, c ch to bng cht in mi c kh nng truyn c nh sng nh si thch anh, si thyur tinh, si nha. Yu cu: tn hao nng lng nh, rng bng tn ln, khng b nh hng ca ngun sng l (khng b nhiu). B bin i quang in (O/E): Thu cc tn hiu quang b suy hao v mo dng trn ng truyn do b tn x, tn sc, suy hao bi c ly bin i thnh cc tn hiu in v tr thnh ngun tin ban u.

Yu cu: nhy thu cao, thi gian p ng nhanh, nhiu nh, tiu th nng lng in t. Cc trm lp: c s dng khi khong cch truyn dn ln. Trm lp bin i tn hiu quang thu c thnh tn hiu in khuch i. Tn hiu c khuch i c bin i thnh tn hiu quang tip tc truyn trn cp si quang. 1.4 u nhc im v cc ng dng ca thng tin quang Thng tin quang cng nh nhiu loi thng tin khc n cng c nhng u v nhc im ring. c bit hin nay si quang tr thnh mt phng tin thng dng cho nhiu yu cu truyn thng. N c nhng u im vt tri hn so vi cc phng php truyn dn in thng thng. Bn cnh th vn c mt s nhc im. C th nh sau: 1.4.1 u im Dung lng ln: Cc si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin. Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi khong 600 cuc m thoi. Mt cp si quang c th cha c khong 200 si quang, s tng c dung lng ng truyn ln 6000.000 cuc m thoi. So vi cc phng tin truyn dn bng dy thng thng, mt cp gm nhiu i dy c th truyn c 500 cuc m thoi, Mt cp ng trc c kh nng vi 10.000 cuc m thoi v mt tuyn viba c th mang c 200 cuc gi ng thi. Kch thc v trng lng nh: So vi cp ng c cng dung lng, cp si quang c ng knh nh hn v khi lng nh hn nhiu. Khng b nhim in: Truyn dn bng si quang khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t hay nhiu tn s v tuyn v n khng to ra bt k su nhiu ni ti no. Cc cng ty in lc s dng cp qaung dc theo cc ng dy in cao th cung cp ng thng tin r rng gia cc trm bin p. Cp si quang cng khng b xuyn m. Thm ch nh sng b bc 9

x ra t mt si quang th n khng th xm nhp vo si quang khc c. Tnh cch in: si quang l mt vt cch in. Cp si quang lm bng cht in mi thch hp khng cha vt dn in v cho php cch in hon ton cho nhiu ng dng. N c th loi b c nhiu gy bi cc dng in chy vng di t hay nhng trng hp nguy him gy bi su phng in trn cc ng dy thng tin nh st nh hay nhng trc trc v in. y thc s l mt phng tin an ton thng c dng ni cn cch in. Tnh bo mt: Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao. Mt si quang khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phn tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin di dng tn hiu quang. Cc tia sng truyn tm si quang v rt t hoc khng c tia no thot khi si quang. Thm ch nu trch vo si quang c ri th n c th b pht hin nh kim tra cng sut nh sng thu c ti u cui. Trong khi cc tn hiu v tinh hay viba c th d dng thu v gii m c. tin cy cao v d bo dng: si quang l mt phng tin truyn dn ng nht v khng gy ra hin tng phading. Nhng tuyn cp quang c thit k thch hp c th chu ng c nhng iu kin v nhit v m khc nghit v c th hot ng c di nc. Si quang c thi gian hot ng lu, c tnh trn 30 nm vi mt s cp. Yu cu v bo dng i vi mt h thng cp quang l t hn so vi yu cu ca mt h thng thng thng do cn t b lp in hn trong tuyn thng tin; trong cp khng c dy ng(yu t c th b mn dn v gy ra hn tng lc c lc mt tn hiu); cp quang cng khng b nh hng bi su ngn mch, su tng vt v in p ngun hay tnh in.

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Tnh linh hot cc h thng thng tin quang kh dng cho hu ht cc dng thng tin s liu, thoi v video. Cc h thng ny u c th tng thch vi cc chun RS.232, RS422, V35, Ethernet, ARCnet, FDDI, T1, T2, T3, Sonet, thoi 2/4 dy, tn hiu E/M, video tng hp v cn nhiu na. D dng nng cp khi ch cn thay th thit b thu pht qaung cn h thng cp si quang vn c th gi nguyn. S ti to tn hiu: cng ngh ngy nay cho php thc hin nhng ng truyn thng bng cp quang di trn 70km trc khi cn ti to tn hiu, khong cch ny cn c th tng ln 150km nh s dng cc b khuch i laze. Trong tng lai, cng ngh c th m rng khong cch di hn na. chi ph tit kim c s dng t cc b lc trung gian v vic bo dng c th l kh ln. Ngc li, cc h thng cp in thng thng c vi km c th cn mt b lp. 1.4.2 Nhc im Hn ni kh khn hn cp kim loi, mun hn cp quang phi s dng my hn chuyn dng. Do cp quang thng v lng bng nn yu cu cht lng mi hn rt cao. Gin, d gy: si quang s dng trong vin thng c cht to t thy tinh nn gin v d gy. Nu h thng thng tin quang b hng th vic sa cha i hi phi c mt nhm k thut vin c k nng tt cng cc thit b thch hp. Mun cp ngun t xa cho cc trm lp cn c thm dy ng bn trong si quang. Khi c nc, hi m lt vo cp th s nhanh chng b hng v cc mi hn mau lo ha lm tng tn hao. Do si c kch thc nh nn hiu sut ca ngun quang thp.

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V c tnh bc x khng tuyn tnh ca laze diode nn hn ch truyn analog. Khi truyn tn hiu trn h thng thng tin quang hay b li tn hiu khi chuyn i quang in v in quang. Thit b thu pht quang t . Vn an ton lao ng khi hn ni cp quang cng cn ht sc ch . V khi hn ni si quang cn cc mnh ct vo l kn trnh m vo tay, v khng c phng tin no c th pht hin mnh thy tinh trong c th. Ngoi ra, khng c nhn trc din vo u si quang hay cc khp ni h phng nga c nh sng truyn trong si quang chiu trc tip vo mt. nh sng s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l nh sng hng ngoi, mt ngi khng cm nhn c nn khng th iu tit khi c ngun nng lng ny v s gy nguy hi cho mt. 1.4.3 ng dng Nh nhng u im trn m si quang c ng dng trong cc mng li in thoi, s liu, my tnh v pht thanh, truyn hnh ( dch v bng rng) v s c s dng trong ISDN (l mng kt hp gia k thut chuyn mch knh vi k thut chuyn mch gi), trong in lc cc ng dng y t qun s v cng nh trong cc thit b o. Hin nay thng tin quang c ng dng rng ri: S dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn quc t, kt ni Vit Nam vi cc nc trn th gii. c th c cc tuyn chnh nh: TVH (kt ni Thi Lan, Vit Nam v Hng Kong); SEA-ME-WE 3(ni cc nc ng Nam , Trung ng v Ty u); tuyn cp quang lin D n cp quang bin AAG, c chiu di gn 20.000 km, bt u t Malaysia (TM) v kt cui ti M (AT&T). AAG c cc im cp b ti Mersing (Malaysia), Changi (Singapore), Sri Racha (Thi Lan), Tungku (Brunei), Vng Tu (Vit Nam), 12

Currimao (Philippines), South Lantau (Hong Kong), Guam (M), Hawaii (M)...c tc dng kt ni internet quc t. Nhnh cp r vo Vit Nam c chiu di 314 km, cp b ti Vng Tu. Hin Vit Nam c 4 thnh vin tham gia AAG gm: FPT Telecom, VNPT, Viettel v SPT. S dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn lin tnh v ni tnh kt ni thng tin gia cc tng vi nhau. C th nh cc tuyn quc l 1A, tuyn cp quang trn ng 500KV(in lc), tuyn cp quang ng H Ch Minh, ng 5 S dng mng truy nhp cung cp ng truyn tc cao ti cc c quan, doanh nghip c nhn c nhu cu. V d, cung cp dng truyn tc cao hoc kt hp vi cp ng trong cc mng truyn hnh cp. Mng ng trc xuyn quc gia. Mng ng trc quc gia ca VNPT bao gm mng cp quang Bc - Nam dung lng 360 Gbps, cp quang dc theo tuyn 500 KV, cp quang ven bin. Mng c kt ni vng Ring m bo thng tin lin lc thng sut trong mi tnh hung. V Viettel cng v ang xy dng mng truyn dn ng trc Backbone vi dung lng 2,5Gb/s c nng cp ln 10Gb/s, s dng cng ngh ghp bc sng WDM v phn cp s ng b SDH. Vi vic s dng cp quang trn ng dy 500 KV v phi hp vi Tng Cng ty ng st Vit nam xy dng mi ng trc cp quang dc tuyn ng st Bc Nam, mng ng trc Bc Nam ca Viettel pht trin theo cu hnh bao gm cc mng vng vu hi WDM SDH vi tin cy v kh nng d phng cao. Mng truyn s liu, mng LAN Mng truyn hnh cp cung cp cho ngi s dng dch v truyn hnh cht lng cao thng qua dng cp quang hay cp ng trc kt ni nh cung cp vi ngi s dng.

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Hin nay cc nh mng s dng dch v truy nhp internet siu tc da trn cng ngh cp quang FTTH. Vi dch v ny, cc nhu cu v truyn ti d liu, truy nhp tc cao vi bng thng rng c p ng mt cch hon ho v chi ph hp l. y l cng ngh tin tin hin nay v ang c cc quc gia trn th gii tin dng, nh Hn Quc, Nht Bn, Hoa K,

CHNG 2 HIN TNG TN SC

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2.1.Khi nim tn sc Tn sc l hin tng tn hiu quang truyn qua si quang b gin ra. Nu xung gin ra ln hn chu k bt s dn ti s chng lp gia cc bt k cn nhau. Kt qu l u thu khng nhn din c bt 1 hay bt 0 c truyn i u pht, dn ti b quyt nh trong u thu s quyt nh sai, v khi t s BER tng ln, t s S/N gim v cht lng h thng gim. Hnh di y minh ha cho s m rng xung do tn sc.

Hnh 2.1 Minh ha s m rng xung do tn sc Gi D l tn sc tng cng ca si quang, n v l giy (s). Khi D c xc nh bi trong Ti, T0 ln lt l rng ti im mt na cng

sut cc i ca xung ng vo v ng ra ca si quang (n v l s). tn sc qua mi km si quang c tnh bng ns/km hoc ps/km. i vi loi tn sc ph thuc vo b rng ph ca ngun quang th lc n v c tnh l ps/km-nm.

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Hnh 2.2 Tn sc gy ra tng BER 2.2 Cc loi tn sc Trong Thng Tin Quang ngi ta chia ra thnh 3 loi tn sc nh sau: tn sc mode, tn sc phn cc mode v tn sc sc th (trong tn sc sc th bao gm tn sc ng dn sng v tn sc vt liu). Khi si truyn dn l a mode (tc loi si quang c th truyn cng lc nhiu mode sng khc nhau trong li) th ta c tt c cc loi tn sc ni trn. Nhng khi cng ngh ch to si pht trin th si n mode ra i v n khc phc c tn sc mode ca si a mode. Tuy nhin, v bn cht chit sut Silica l ph thuc vo bc sng, hn na ngun pht khng th pht ra nh sng n sc (nh sng ch c mt bc sng) m l mt chm tia sng vi mt rng ph no . Chnh v th trong si n mode vn cn tn ti tn sc, l tn sc phn cc mode v tn sc sc th. Ngy nay, vi cng ngh ch to pht trin mnh m ngi ta ch to ra c cc loi si quang mi c mc tn sc gim ng k. Nhng si ny c dng lp t trong cc mng mi cn tc bt cao v c ly ln. Sau y ta s tm hiu khi nim c bn v cc loi tn sc trong si quang. Hnh sau y m t s cc loi tn sc trong si quang 16

Hnh 2.3 Cc loi tn sc trong si quang 2.2.1 Tn sc mode (Modal Dispersion): Mt mode sng c th c xem l mt trng thi truyn n nh ca nh sng trong si quang. Khi truyn trong si quang, nh sng i theo nhiu ng khc nhau, trng thi n nh ca cc ng ny c gi l nhng Mode sng. C th hnh dung gn ng mt mode sng ng vi mt tia sng.Tn sc mode l do nng lng ca nh sng b phn tn thnh nhiu mode. Mi mode li truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau, nn thi gian truyn n u thu ca cc mode khc nhau l khc nhau gy ra tn sc. R rng ta thy tn sc mode ch tn ti si a mode, do mun loi b tn sc mode th ta phi s dng si n mode. V vy khi xt n tn sc mode ta ch xt si a mode. Nh ta bit, khu s (NA) biu din kh nng thu nh sng ca si quang. Khu s cng ln th cng d hng nh sng vo si quang. Nh vy ta c cm gic nh khu s cng ln th cng tt. Nhng iu ny l khng ng, c mt tr ngi khin ta khng th tng khu s ln. hiu c iu ny ta hy xem xt cc mode trong si quang. S tht l nh sng ch c th truyn trong si quang nh mt tp hp ca nhng lung sng hoc nhng tia sng ring l. Ni cch khc, nu ta c kh nng nhn vo si quang ta s thy mt tp hp nhng lung sng truyn vi gc bin thin t 0 n c nh c minh ha hnh sau:

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Hnh 2.4 Cch thc cc lung sng tng ng vi cc mode i trong si quang Nhng lung sng khc nhau c gi l nhng mode. Ta phn bit cc mode bng gc truyn ca chng, hay nh s th t ch nhng mode ring bit. Nguyn tc l: gc truyn ca mode cng nh th s th t ca mode cng thp. Nh vy mode truyn dc theo tm si l mode 0 (hay cn gi l mode c bn) v mode truyn gc truyn ti hn (c) l mode c s th t ln nht c th ca si quang. Nhiu mode c th cng tn ti trong si quang, v si quang c nhiu mode truyn c gi l si a mode. S lng mode: s lng mode ca si quang ph thuc vo c tnh quang v hnh hc ca si. Nu ng knh li cng ln, li cng cha c nhiu mode sng. V bc sng nh sng cng ngn th si quang cng cha c nhiu mode sng. Nu khu s cng ln th s lng mode sng si thu c cng nhiu. Nh vy c th kt lun l s lng mode sng trong si quang t l thun vi ng knh si (d), khu s (NA)v t l nghch vi bc sng nh sng s dng (). Gi V l tn s chun ha, ta c:

th s lng mode c tnh nh sau: N=V2/2 (i vi si SI), N= V2/4(i vi si GI) Nh vy ta thy i vi si a mode khi lung sng pht ra t ngun quang i vo si quang chia thnh mt tp hp mode. Trong si, cng sut quang tng cng 18

c mang bi nhiu mode ring l, v ti u ra nhng phn nh hp li thnh lung ra vi cng sut ca n. Hnh sau s minh ha cho vn trn (vi 4 mode lm v d)

Hnh 2.5 Cch thc cng sut quang c mang bi cc mode truyn trong si quang v gy tn sc T hnh trn ta thy rng xung tn hiu sau si quang c bt u bng mode 1v kt thc bng mode 4. Do tr v thi gian gia cc mode nn xung tn hiu b gin ra (T0>Ti).

Hnh 2.6 Tn sc trong si SI

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Hnh 2.7 Tn sc mode trong si GI 2.2.2 Tn sc trong mode Nh ta xt phn trn, tn sc mode l nguyn nhn ch yu gy ra s hn ch tc bt trong h thng Thng Tin Quang s dng si a mode. iu ny khng c ngha l trong si a mode ch c tn sc mode, m n cn chu nh hng ca nhiu loi tn sc khc. Tuy nhin do tn sc mode c nh hng ln hn c nn ta ch xt tn sc mode trong si a mode. khc phc tn sc mode ngi ta ch to ra loi si quang ch truyn mt mode sng, si quang nh th c gi l si n mode (SMF- Single Mode Fiber). R rng ta thy si n mode khc phc c hon ton tn sc mode. V th tc truyn dn c ci thin ng k v tng c c ly thng tin. Tuy nhin v si n mode vn c ch to t Silica nn n s cn chu nh hng ca cc loi n sc khc nh tn sc sc th v tn sc phn cc mode. Trong tn sc sc th l nguyn nhn chnh gy hn ch tc bt. By gi ta s i kho st hin tng tn sc trong mode trong si quang. y khng mt tnh tng qut khi ta xt tn sc sc th trong si n mode. C th ni nguyn nhn su xa ca tn sc sc th l do b pht quang (LED, LAZER) khng pht ra nh sng n sc (nh sng ch c mt bc sng), m n pht ra mt chm tia sng c bc sng trung m (ti cng sut pht cc i) v cc bc sng bin, hay cn gi l rng ph ngun pht. Tc l ngun pht pht ra nh sng nm trong mt di tn (di bc sng). M nh ta bit th chit sut ca si lm t Silica l

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mt hm ph thuc vo bc sng (hay tn s), nn vn tc lan truyn ca cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau l khc nhau, v n ph thuc vo bc sng theo cng thc sau: Tn sc trong mode c hai nguyn nhn sinh ra n: Th nht nh ta bit l cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau di chuyn vi vn tc khc nhau, v tn sc do nguyn nhn ny ngi ta gi l tn sc vt liu, y l nguyn nhn ch yu ca tn sc sc th. Tuy nhin cn c thnh phn tn sc th hai l tn sc ng dn sng, m nguyn nhn sinh ra n l do nng lng nh sng truyn i c mt phn trong li v mt phn trong lp bc. S phn b nng lng gia li v lp bc l mt hm ca bc sng, c th l nu bc sng di hn th nng lng trong lp bc nhiu hn. Nh vy nu bc sng thay i, s phn b nng lng s thay i v kt qu l h s lan truyn cng thay i. y chnh l s gii thch cho tn sc ng dn sng. Bn cnh tn sc sc th v tn sc phn cc mode, trong si quang cn tn ti mt loi tn sc khng km phn quan trng l tn sc vn tc nhm. Nh ta bit, u im chnh ca si n mode l khng c tn sc mode bi v nng lng a vo xung ch c chuyn ch bi mt mode n duy nht. Tuy nhin s m rng xung khng bin mt hon ton, v vn tc nhm ca mode c bn th ph thuc vo tn s do tn sc sc th. Kt qu l cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung truyn c vn tc nhm khc nhau mt cht, v tn sc c nguyn nhn nh trn c gi l tn sc vn tc nhm. 2.2.2.1 Tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD Group Velocity Dispersion) Xt si n mode c chiu di L. Mt thnh phn ph ring bit ti bc sng c tn s gc l s n ng ra cui si quang sau mt tr v mt thi gian l T=L/vg Trong vg l vn tc nhm v c nh ngha l: (1) 21

Bng cch p dng ta c th tnh c

( l hng s lan truyn) vo phng trnh (1) trong ng l chit sut nhm v c cho bi : (2)

S ph thuc vo tn s ca vn tc nhm dn n s m rng xung, n gin l bi v cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung b tn sc trong sut s lan truyn v khng n ng ra ca si cng mt lc. Nu l rng ph ca xung th phm vi m rng xung i vi si c chiu di L c cho bi:

(3) trong phng trnh (1) c s dng bin i. Tham s khi lan truyn trong si. Trong mt s h thng Thng Tin Quang, s tri ra v mt tn s c quyt nh bi di cc bc sng pht bi ngun quang. Thng thng ta s dng thay cho Bng cch s dng c

gi l tham s tn sc vn tc nhm. N quyt nh xung quang b m rng bao nhiu

Phng trnh (3) c th c vit li:

(4) trong

(5)

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D c gi l h s tn sc v c n v l ps/km-nm. [1] nh hng ca tn sc ln tc bt B c th c c tnh bng cch s dng iu kin B. T<1. Bng cch s dng T trong phng trnh (4) th iu kin ny tr thnh: (6) Phng trnh ny cho ta mt c tnh v tch B.L ca si quang n mode. i vi si quang n mode chun th D tng i nh trong vng bc sng 1,3m (D xp x1ps/km-nm). i vi Lazer bn dn c rng ph t 2 n 4nm th gi tr B.L c th vt qu 100Gbps-km. Trong thc t ta c cc h thng hot ng ti bc sng 1,3m c tc bt l 2Gbps vi khong cch trm lp t 40 n 50km. Gi tr B.L ca si n mode c th vt qu 1Tbps-km khi Lazer bn dn n mode c s dng gim di 1nm. H s tn sc D thay i ng k khi bc sng lm vic dch ra khi 1,3 m. S ph thuc vo bc sng ca D l do s ph thuc vo tn s ca chit sut mode n. T phng trnh (5) D c th c vit li:

(7) trong phng trnh (2) c s dng bin i. Ngi ta chng minh c D c th c vit nh l tng ca hai s hng: [1] D = DM + DW (8) trong DM l tn sc vt liu, DW l tn sc ng dn sng v c cho bi:

(8)

(9)

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y n2g l chit sut nhm ca lp bc, V l tn s chun ha, b l hng s lan truyn chun ha, l s chnh lch chit sut tng i gia li v lp bc. Trong cc phng trnh t (8) n (10) th tham s c xem l c lp vi tn s. 2.2.2.2 Tn sc vt liu (Material Dispersion) Tn sc vt liu xy ra do chit sut ca Silica (nguyn liu c s dng ch to si quang) thay i theo tn s quang (tc ph thuc vo bc sng tn hiu). Hnh sau y s cho thy s ph thuc vo bc sng ca chit sut (n) v chit sut nhm (ng) trong di t 0,5m n 1,6m i vi si Silica nng chy.

Hnh 2.8 S thay i ca chit sut n v chit sut nhm ng theo bc sng ca silica nng chy Tn sc vt liu (DM) c lin h vi dc ca ng bi cng thc (9) nh sau:

M v dng /d= 0 ti bc sng 1,276m nn DM = 0 ti ZD=1,276m (ZD c gi l bc sng tn sc 0). H s tn sc DM m khi < ZD v dng khi >

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ZD. Trong di bc sng t 1,25 n 1,66 m th DM c th c xp x bng cng thc : (11) Lu : ZD ch bng 1,276 m i vi si Silica thun khit. Gi tr ca ZD c th thay i trong di t 1,27 n 1,29 m i vi si quang m li v lp bc c pha tp cht thay i chit sut. Bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) ca si quang cng ph thuc vo bn knh li (a) v bc nhy chit sut () ca si quang. 2.2.5 Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion) Trong si a mode, tn sc ng dn sng l mt phn nh trong tn sc tng, do thng thy thut ng tn sc sc th v tn sc cht liu c th s dng hon chuyn cho nhau khi xt si a mode. Nhng i vi si n mode th tn sc ng dn sng li l mt thnh phn tn sc quan trng. Tn sc vt liu v tn sc ng dn sng ph thuc ln nhau v do ta phi xt chng cng nhau . Do xp x nn ta c th b qua s ph thuc xt ring chng. Tn sc ng dn sng xut hin l do nh sng c truyn bi cu trc l si quang. C ch gy ra tn sc ng dn sng trong si n mode nh sau: Sau khi i vo si quang, mt xung nh sng mang thng tin s c phn b gia li v lp bc nh c minh ha hnh sau:

Hnh 2.9 S phn b cng nh sng trong si n mode. MDF l ng knh mode. Hai thnh phn nh sng trong li v lp bc truyn vi vn tc khc nhau (do li v lp bc c chit sut khc nhau), nn n cui si quang vo cc thi im khc nhau gy ra tn sc. T hnh trn ta thy tn sc ng

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dn sng ph thuc vo s phn b trng mode gia li v lp bc, tc ph thuc vo ng knh ca trng mode (MFD Mode FieldDiameter) m MFD li ph thuc vo bc sng, do tn sc ng dn sng l ph thuc vo bc sng. Tn sc ng dn sng (DW) c tnh nh trong phng trnh (10) v ph thuc vo tham s V ( tn s chun ha ) ca si.

Hnh sau cho thy s thay i ca d(Vb)/dV v Vd2(Vb)/dV2 theo V

Hnh 2.10 Tn s chun ha V T hnh ta thy c d(Vb)/dV v Vd2(Vb)/dV2 u dng nn theo cng thc (10) th DW m trong ton b di bc sng t 0 n 1,6m. Hnh sau y s cho thy DM , DW v tng ca chng D= DM + DW ca mt si quang n mode thng thng.

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Hnh 2.11 Biu din DM, DW, D (Tn sc tng cng D v s phn b tng i ca tn sc cht liu (DM) v tn sc ng dn sng (DW) ca si n mode thng. Bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) dch n gi tr cao hn nh s phn b ng dn song). Ta thy tn sc ng dn sng (DW) lm cho bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) dch khong 30 n 40nm tn sc tng (D) bng 0 gn bc sng 1,31m. Ngoi ra, tn sc ng dn sng cn lm gim tn sc tng t gi tr tn sc vt liu (DM) trong di bc sng t 1,3m n 1,6m. Gi tr tiu biu ca D l t 15 n 18ps/(km-nm) gn bc sng1,55m. Khi D ln s hn ch hot ng ca h thng ti bc sng 1,55 m. V DW ph thuc vo tham s si nh bn knh li a v s chnh lch chit sut nn ta c th thit k si bc sng tn sc 0 dch n ln cn gi tr 1,55m. Si nh th gi l si dch tn sc. Ta cn c th ghp s phn b ng dn sng D tng i nh qua mt di bc sng t 1,3m n 1,6m, si loi ny gi l si san bng tn sc. Hnh sau y cho thy cc v d tiu biu v s ph thuc bc sng ca D i vi si chun (si thng), si dch tn sc v si san bng tn sc.

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Hnh 2.12 S ph thuc vo bc sng ca h s tn sc D i vi si chun, si dch tn sc v si san bng tn sc. 2.2.6 Tn sc phn cc mode (Polarization Mode Dispersion) Ngun gc ca s m rng xung trong trng hp ny c lin quan n s khc x hai ln (Birefringence) ca si ( ln lt l chit

sut mode ca cc mode phn cc trc giao). S khng i xng trn ca li to ra s phn x hai ln do chit sut mode ng vi cc thnh phn phn cc trc giao ca mode c bn l khc nhau. Nu xung ng vo kch c hai thnh phn phn cc th n tr nn rng hn do hai thnh phn tn sc dc theo si c vn tc nhm khc nhau. Hin tng ny gi l tn sc phn cc mode (PMD). Trong nhng si c Bm l hng s (v d si duy tr phn cc) s m rng xung c tnh t tr v mt thi gian gia hai trng thi phn cc trong sut qu trnh lan truyn xung l T. i vi si c chiu di L th T c cho bi:

(13) trong x, y dng ch hai mode phn cc trc giao; 1c lin h vi chnh lch vn tc nhm ca hai trng thi phn cc. Phng trnh (1) c s dng c s lin h gia vgvi hng s lan truyn , v T/L l i lng nh gi PMD. i vi si duy tr phn cc th T/L ln (khong 1ns/km) khi hai thnh phn c kch

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bng nhau ti ng vo ca si, nhng c th gim n 0 nh a nh sng dc mt trc chnh . i vi si thng th hi khc v Birefringence thay i dc theo chiu di si mt cch ngu nhin. i vi mt xung quang, trng thi phn cc cn khc i vi cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung. Trng thi phn cc cui cng khng l s quan tm i vi hu ht cc h thng Thng Tin Quang v Photodetector dng trong b thu khng nhy vi trng thi phn cc tr khi s dng tch sng Coherent. Vn nh hng n cc h thng nh th ny khng phi l trng thi phn cc ngu nhin nhng xung li b m rng do s thay i ngu nhin ca Birefringence. Mt xung quang khng c phn cc dc theo hai trng thi chnh chia lm hai phn lan truyn vi tc khc nhau. tr nhm vi sai T ln nht i vi hai trng thi phn cc chnh.

Hnh 2.13 Tn sc phn cc mode 2.3 nh hng ca tn sc trong h thng thng tin quang: Khi s dng EDFA trn tuyn th vn suy hao c gii quyt, c ly truyn dn c nng ln r rt, nhng tng tn sc cng tng ln. Do , li yu cu phi gii quyt vn tn sc, nu khng, khng th thc hin c vic truyn thng tin tc cao v truyn dn c ly di. By gi, nh hng ca hiu ng tn sc si quang li l mt yu t hn ch ch yu, nht l i vi h thng tc cao li cng th hin r rt. V d, si quang G. 652 tn sc tc 2,5 Gbit/s c ly b hn ch

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khong 928 km, nu tc tng ln 10 Gbit/s th c ly truyn dn b hn ch ch cn 58 km. Bng 2.4 ni v c ly b hn ch bi tn sc khi khng c trm lp. Bn cht ca tn sc l s gin rng xung tn hiu khi truyn dn trn si quang. Tn sc nh hng n cc si n mode bao gm: tn sc vn tc nhm, tn sc phn cc mode, tn sc bc cao v tn sc dn sng.

Phng php xc nh nh hng ca tn sc n h thng thng tin quang thng qua tnh ton qu cng sut h thng PB bng vic thit k di tuyn c thit lp theo cng thc (14). (14) Trong Pt(t) : cng sut tn hiu pht c tnh c nh hng chirp phi tuyn. G: khuch i ca cc b EDFA. PM : cng sut d phng ca h thng PD : cng sut tn tht do tn sc, y chnh l cng sut tng ng do nng lng ph ca xung tn hiu b dn ra ngoi khe thi gian nh sinh ra. Pp : cng sut n b lng cng sut mt mt. Ps (G,NF): nhy thu c tnh c nh hng ca b khuch i v nhiu ca EDFA Ns , Nc l s mi hn v s mi ni quang

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Hnh sau y l kt qu tnh ton tm thy s mt mt cng sut ca h thng do tn sc gy ra i vi h thng 1 Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s. Kt qu cho thy h thng 2,5 Gbit/s b tn tht cng sut h thng nhiu hn so vi h thng 1 Gbit/s vi cng mt gi tr tn sc. i vi tc bt 2,5 Gbit/s, cng sut b mt mt l khng ng k khi tn sc nh hn 100ps/nm. Tuy nhin, mt mt cng sut tng dn dn trong khong t 100ps/nm n200ps/nm. Khi tn sc vt qu 200ps/nm, lng cng sut quang b tn tht rt nhanh. gi tr 300ps/nm th cng sut mt mt ln ti 4dB. Trong khi tc 1 Gbit/s, s mt mt cng sut trong trng hp ny gn bng 0 khi tn sc nh hn 100ps/nm, ti gi tr 760ps/nm thi cng sut mt mt l 4 dB. Nh vy, r rng rng tn sc lm gii hn ng k tc truyn dn ca h thng thng tin quang.

Hnh 2.14 Kt qu tnh ton lng cng sut b tn tht ph thuc vo tn sc ( cho h thng 1Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s). Hnh di l kt qu tnh ton xc nh lng cng sut tn hiu b mt mt cho cc h thng thng tin quang 2,5Gbit/s vi cc Laser c ph rng 0,1 nm, 0,2 nm, v 0,3 nm. T kt qu thu c c th thy rng nhn chung, lng cng sut b tn tht s tng nhanh khi c ly truyn dn tng.

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Hnh 2.15 Cng sut quang b mt khi tng c ly truyn dn ca h thng 2,5 Gbit/s. Nh vy, mc d cc h thng cng b mt cng sut khi c ly truyn dn tng. Tuy nhin, cc ngun pht khc nhau s gy ra s mt tn hiu cng khc nhau. Khi rng ph ngun pht l 0,1 nm, mt mt cng sut xy ra l 4,5 dB khi c ly truyn dn di 52 km. i vi cc h thng c ph ngun pht pht rng 0,2 nm v 0,3 nm, cng sut b tn tht tng ng l 4,5 dB ti 26 km v 6,2 dB ti c ly ch cn 18 km. Khi tng c ly vt qu cc gi tr trn, tn hiu b mt qu ln v khng th thit k c h thng thc tin k cc s dng khuch i quang si. y l cc h thng s dng si G.652 c h tn sc D=18ps/km.nm. Nh vy, trong h thng thng tin quang, ngoi suy hao quang, c nhiu tham s tng tc ti tn sc si gy nh hng ti h thng v lm mt i ng k lng cng sut tn hiu. l cc tham s: C ly truyn dn, tham s tn sc, tc bt ca h thng v ph ngun pht.

CHNG 3 CC PHNG PHP B TN SC

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3.1 S cn thit ca vic qun l tn sc Nh chng ta xem xt Chng 2 nh hng ca tn sc c tc ng rt ln n cht lng h thng thng tin quang ni chung v h thng thng tin quang tc cao WDM ni ring. Tn sc gy ra hin tng dn rng xung, gy mo tn hiu, lm tng cc li bit xy ra, nh hng ln n tc truyn dn ca h thng. C th gim thiu nh hng ca tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) nu s dng cc laser ph hp v khi cng gn vi bc sng tn sc zero ZD ca si quang. Tuy nhin khng phi lc no cng kt hp gia bc sng hot ng v ZD . C th ly v d v cc h thng trn mt t thuc th h th ba hot ng gn bc sng =1,55m. V s dng cc thit b pht quang laze hi tip phn tn (DFB). Nhng h thng nh vy nhn chung u s dng mng li cp quang c xy dng trong nhng nm 1980 bao gm hn 50 triu km chiu di ca si n mode tiu chun vi ZD 1,31m. Do tham s tn sc D 16 ps/(km.nm) trong di bc sng 1,55m ca si n mode, do GVD s hn ch tnh nng khi tc bit vt qu 2Gb/s. iu bin trc tip laze DFB, chng ta c th s dng phng trnh: B.L.|D|. 1/4 (vi l rng ph ngun RMS trong ca ngun) c tnh khong cch truyn dn ti a nh sau: (1) Trong s l rng RMS ca ph xung c dn rng ng k bi dch tn s. Khi s dng D = 16 ps/(km.nm) v s = 0,15 nm trong phng trnh (1), cc h thng sng nh sng hot ng tc 2,5 Gb/s u b gii hn mc L 42km. Thc t, nhng h thng nh th thng s dng cc thit b ti to in t nm cch nhau 40 km, v khng tn dng c tnh kh dng ca cc b khuch i quang. Ngoi ra, tc bit ca chng cng khng th vt qu 2,5 Gb/s v l do c ly ca thit b ti to l qu nh c th m bo kh thi v mt kinh t.

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Tnh nng ca h thng c th c ci thin ng k bng cch s dng thit b iu ch ngoi, nh vy c th trnh c hin tng dn rng ph do dch tn s. Cch ny c ng dng cc loi my pht laze DFB thng mi vi mt b iu ch tch hp gn lin. Vi s = 0 hn ch c hn ch khi my pht s dng loi si tiu chun. Khong cch truyn gii hn khi s c tnh nh sau: (2) Trong 2 l h s GVD lin quan ti D. Nu thay gi tr 2 = -20 ps2/km, ti bc sng 1,55m, th L < 500 km v t tc 2,5 Gb/s. Mc d c ci thin ng k so vi laze DFB iu ch trc tip, nhng gii hn tn sc ny vn ng c lu tm khi cc thit b khuch i ng truyn c s dng b suy hao. Hn na, nu tc bit t10 Gb/s, khong cch truyn gii hn GVD s gim xung ch cn 30 km, y l mc qu thp cc thit b khuch i quang c th c s dng trong vic thit k cc h thng bc sng nh sng nh vy. T phng trnh 2 ta c th thy rng gi tr GVD tng i ln ca si n mode tiu chun s lm hn ch tnh nng ca cc h thng 1,55m c thit k s dng trong mng li vin thng hin c khi tc bit t 10 Gb/s hoc cao hn na. c mt s m hnh qun l tn sc c a ra gii quyt vn mang tnh thc tin ny. Nn tng ca nhng m hnh c th hiu c da trn phng trnh lan truyn c vit nh sau:

(3) Trong A l bin bao xung. Nhng nh hng ca tn sc bc ba c k hiu l 3. Trong thc t, k hiu ny c th s khng c s dng nu |2| ln hn 0,1 ps2/km. Gii phng trnh (3) s c kt qu nh sau :

(4)

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Xt khi 3= 0, ta c kt qu nh sau:

(5) Trong , (0, ) l khai trin Fourier ca A(0, t). S suy bin gy ra tn sc ca tn hiu quang l do h s pha t gi tr exp(i2z2/2) bi cc thnh phn ph ca xung trong qu trnh lan truyn trong si. Tt c cc m hnh qun l tn sc u c gng loi b h s pha ny nhm phc hi li cc tn hiu u vo, c p dng trong my pht, my thu hoc dc theo ng truyn si quang. 3.2 K thut b tn sc trc (Precompensation) K thut ny da trn nguyn l chung l sa c tnh xung ng vo ca b pht trc khi a vo si, l thay i bin ph ca xung ng vo (0,) nh sau:

trong L l chiu di si. Khi tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) s c b chnh xc v xung vn gi nguyn dng ti ng ra. K thut ny gm c k thut Prechirp, k thut m ha Novel v k thut Prechirp phi tuyn. iu ch FM v AM tn hiu quang cng mt lc th khng cn thit i vi vic b tn sc, ngi ta s dng mt phng php khc b tn sc l s dng iu ch kha dch tn FSK truyn tn hiu. Tn hiu FSK c to ra bng cch chuyn i bc sng ca laze bng mt khong gia bt 0 v bt 1 khi cng sut pht khng i. Trong sut qu trnh truyn dc theo si quang, hai bc sng ny lan truyn trong si vi tc khc nhau. Khong thi gian tr gia bit 0 v bit 1 c xc nh da trn khong bc sng dch v bng sng c chn sao cho . dch bc Hnh 3.1 ch lm th no mt bit b tr to ra

c ba mc tn hiu quang ti b thu. Xt v mt bn cht, do tn sc trong si 35

quang, tn hiu FSK b chuyn thnh tn hiu b diu ch c bin . Tn hiu c gii m ti u thu bng cch s dng b tch phn in kt hp vi mch quyt nh.

Hnh 3.1 B tn sc dng m ha FSK: a) Tn s quang v cng sut tn hiu pht; b) Tn s v cng sut tn hiu thu v d liu in c gii m. Mt phng php khc l m ha cp nh phn c th lm gim bng thng ca tn hiu cn 50%. Trong phng php m ha ny, hai bt k tip nhau trong chui nh phn gp li hnh thnh mt m cp nh phn ba mc tc bt ch bng mt na. V tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) ph thuc vo rng bng ca tn hiu, nn khong cch truyn c th tng nh gim bng tn ca tn hiu. Tc bt 10Gbps s dng m ha cp nh phn th c ly truyn dn c th tng thm 30 n 40km so vi m ha nh phn. M ha cp nh phn c th kt hp vi k thut lch tn trc. Trong thc t truyn c tn hiu tc bt 10Gbps qua c ly 160km si thng nh kt hp m ha cp nh phn vi b iu ch ngoi c C > 0. 3.3 K thut b tn sc trn ng dy (In-line) 3.3.1 B tn sc bng si quang DCF(Dispersion Compensation Fiber) Cc k thut b tn sc trc c th tng khong cch ln gp i nhng n khng thch hp cho cc h thng c c ly ln, trong tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) phi c b dc theo ng dy truyn dn theo chu k. Cc k thut b trn cc h thng nh th ny phi m bo ch ton quang, t trn si (ch khng phi t trn b pht hay b thu). V mt loi si c bit n l si b tn sc. Trong

36

thc t nng cp cc h thng thng tin quang s dng si chun hin c, ngi ta thm vo mt on si b tn sc (vi chiu di t 6 n 8km) i vi cc b khuch i quang t cch nhau 60 n 80km. Si b tn sc s b tn sc vn tc nhm(GVD), trong khi b khuch i s m ng nhim v b suy hao cho si. Ngi ta thng s dng si DCF kt hp vi cc b khuch i OA (thng sdng b EDFA) b tn sc trn tuyn quang, v ty vo v tr t DCF m c cc kiu b nh sau:

S dng si DCF trn tuyn quang.

Hnh 3.2 S dng DCF b tn sc K thut b bng cch s dng cc b b tn sc quang in t c th tng khong cch truyn ln 2 ln, tuy nhin n li khng ph hp vi cc h thng ng di, h thng ny yu cu GVD phi c b lin tc theo chu k dc theo ng truyn. c bit trong cc h thng ton quang vic s dng cc b b tn sc quang in t l khng ph hp. V th ngi ta ngh ra mt si quang c bit gi l si 37

quang b tn sc (DCF: Dispersion Compensating Fiber). Vic s dng si DCF cho cc h thng ton quang c th b GVD mt cch ng k nu cng sut quang trung bnh c gi nh th cc hiu ng phi tuyn bn trong si l khng ng k. Vic s dng si DCF b tn sc ht sc n gin l ch cn t si DCF xen vo gia, do c im ca si DCF l c tn sc m, ngha l khi tn hiu xung nh sng i qua si ny th xung nh sng s co li dn, hin tng ny ngc vi si SMF (single mode fiber) xung nh sng b gin ra do tn sc, do vic xung nh sng b gin ra gii quyt c. Si quang DCF phi c h s tn sc GVD(Group-Velocity Dispersion ) 1,55m l D2<0 cn trong si quang thng thng D1>0. Hn na chiu di si quang cng c la chn tha iu kin :

Trong thc t ngi ta c gng chn L2 nh nht nu c th, trng hp ny xy ra khi si DCF c gi tr m D2 rt nh (hay |D2| rt ln) H s tn sc D c gi tr -420ps /(nm.km) bc sng 1550nm v thay i nhiu cc bc sng khc. y l mt c tnh quan trng cho php b tn sc bng rng. Ni mt cch tng qut si DCF c thit k D tng theo bc sng. S ph thuc vo bc sng ca h s tn sc D l mt c tnh quan trng DCF c th hot ng trong cc h thng WDM.

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Hnh 3.3 Ph tn sc ca si DCF y l phng php n gin nht qun l tn sc trong cc h thng WDM dung lng cao vi s lng knh ln ngha ca ng bao tn sc c hiu t iu kin

Nhng ch p dng cho mt knh, khi c nhiu knh tha mn cho tt c cc knh th cn iu kin :

Trong : n l bc sng ca knh th n. D1 tng vi bc sng tng cho c hai si chun v si dch tn sc, kt qu l tn sc tch ly D1, L1 l khc nhau cho mi knh. Nu cng mt DCF phi lm vic cho tt c cc knh, ng bao tn sc ca n nn m v c gi tr tha mn cho tt c cc knh. ng bao tn sc ca DCF:

Trong : S l ng bao tn sc (ps/(nm2km)T s S/D l ng bao tn sc quan h (1/nm)Vi si chun D16ps/nm.km v S0.05ps/nm.km, t s ny khong 0.003nm-1. V th, cho DCF vi D- 100ps/nm.km th ng bao tn sc khong -0.3 ps/nm2km. b tn sc cho mt khong cch 90 Km cho si G.652 ta cn phi s dng xp x 9 Km DCF. Thng s suy hao in hnh ca DCF thng thng gp ti trn 3 ln so vi si quang chun, h s tn sc phn cc mode PMD cng gp i, do din tch hiu dng ca DCF l v cng nh. 3.3.2 B tn sc bng b lc quang Nguyn l ca phng php ny nh sau: gi s hm truyn t ca b lc quang l H() th nh hng ca n i vi pha ca xung tn hiu c th hin bi cng thc 39

Bng cch trin khai pha ca H() theo chui Taylor v gi s hng bc hai s c:

m = 0, 1,... c c lng ti tn s sng mang quang 0 Pha hng s gian quang c th c b bng cch chn b lc c

v tr thi

khng tc ng n dng xung v c th b qua. Xung pha to ra bi si

Xung s c phc hi hon ton khi H() = 1 v phn t th ba trong khai trin taylor phng trnh trn phi m.

C nhiu loi b lc quang c hm truyn t ph hp vi yu cu ny v c th c s dng lm cc b b tn sc trong c bit ni bt l cc loi b lc cu trc bung cng hng Fabry Perot v b lc giao thoa k Mach Zehnder. 3.3.3 B tn sc bng tn hiu quang lin hp pha OPC Mc d s dng k thut lin hp pha quang (OPC) cho b tn sc c ngh t 1979 nhng n 1993 k thut ny mi c a vo th nghim. N gy s ch rt ln t . K thut OPC l mt k thut quang phi tuyn. Trong mc ny s m t ngun gc v tp trung vo ng dng h thng quang trong thc t.

40

Nguyn l hot ng: Cc n gin nht hiu mt OPC c th b tn sc vn tc nhm GVD l gii phng trnh lin hp phc

Thu c: So snh hai phng trnh cho thy vng pha kt hp A* lan truyn vi h s truyn 2 ca GVD c o du. Nhn thy 1 iu rng, nu min quang c kt hp pha gia lin kt si quang, s tn sc trn na u v na sau ca lin kt l b nhau. V s hng 3 khng i du khi lin hp pha, OPC khng th b cho tn sc bc 3. y, d dng thy rng, bng cch gi cc thnh phn bc cao hn trong khai trin Taylor phng trnh:

khi OPC c th b cho tt c cc thnh phn tn sc bc chn m khng nh hng n cc thnh phn bc l. Tnh hiu qu ca lin hp pha quang khong gia ph trong vic b tn sc c th c kim chng bng cch s dng phng trnh

Min quang (optical field) trc OPC tm c bng cch s dng z = L/2 phng trnh ny. S lan truyn ca vng sng kt hp pha A* trong phn sau OPC nh sau: (*) Vi A* (L/2,) l bin i Fourier ca A* ( L/2,t) v c tnh bi: (**)

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Thay phng trnh (**) vo (*)ta c A(L,t)=A*(0,t). V vy, ngoi tr o pha do OPC, vng u vo c phc hi mt cch hon ton, v dng sng c phc hi nh ban u. V ph ca tn hiu sau OPC tr thnh i xng vi ph ban u, k thut OPC c cp nh k thut o ph khong gia. K thut OPC (Optical phase conjugation) lin hp pha quang i hi mt phn t quang phi tuyn m c th to ra tn hiu pha lin hp. Thng thng ngi ta dng phng php trn 4 bc sng (FWM- Four wave mixing) trong vng phi tuyn, v bn thn si quang t n l mt mi trng phi tuyn, (cch n gin l dng mt si quang di vi km c thit k mt cch c bit ti a hiu ng FWM). Tim nng ca k thut OPC c chng minh mt th nghim 1999 vi 1 b kt hp c bn FWM c s dng b tn sc vn tc nhm GVD tc 40 Gb/s trn chiu di 140 km si quang tiu chun. Hu ht cc cuc th nghim v b tn sc c nghin cu trn khong cch truyn l vi trm km. i vi ng truyn di hn n t ra vn k thut OPC c th b tn sc vn tc nhm GVD cho chiu di ln n hng ngn km si quang m c dng cc b khuch i b suy hao c hay khng. Trong 1 th nghim m phng, tn hiu tc 10 Gb/s c th truyn trn 6000 km trong khi ch s dng cng sut trung bnh di mc 3mW gim hiu ng phi tuyn si quang. Trong 1 nghin cu khc cho thy b khuch i ng 1 vai tr quan trng. Vi khong cch truyn trn 9000 km c th thc hin c bng cch gi cc b khuch i cho mi on 40 km. S la chn bc sng hot ng, c bit l bc sng tn sc khng c ngha then cht. Trong vng tn sc d thng, cng sut ca tn hiu bin i tun hon dc chiu di si quang. iu ny c th dn ti vic to ra cc (di bin) sideband do hin tng bt n iu ch. Tnh khng n nh ny c th c trnh nu thng s tn sc tng i ln (D>10 ps/(km-nm)). y l trng hp i vi si quang chun bc sng gn 1.55m. Hin nhin rng khong cch truyn ti a lun l vn

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quan trng i vi nhiu hang sn xut, nh k thut trn 4 bc sng FWM, khong cch dng b khuch i c th gim xung di 3000 km. 3.3.4 B tn sc bng cch t Bragg Nguyn l ch to si cch t b tn sc da trn iu kin phn x Bragg:
2n =

3.4

Trong : n = 1, 2, 3, ... l bc ca cch t l bc sng nh sng

Hnh 3.4 Nguyn l phng php b tn sc bng cch t si Bragg Si cch t Bragg c ch to bng cch dng tia t ngoi chiu qua mt mt n nh sng vo si quang n mode chun to ra cc vng c chit sut khc nhau phn b dc theo chiu di z ca si. b li tn sc vn tc nhm GVD, chu k quang ca cch t c ch to sao cho n gim dc theo di ca n cho ra GVD chun (2>0). Trong si quang n mode tiu chun, cc thnh phn tn s cao ca xung s lan truyn nhanh hn cc thnh phn tn s thp. V bc sng Bragg gim dc theo di cch t cho nn cc thnh phn tn s cao s di chuyn thm vo cch t trc khi c phn x v phi chu tr nhiu hn cc thnh phn tn s thp. Nh vy tr tng i c xut hin do cch t s b li GVD do si v b

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c tn sc si. Tham s tn sc Dg ca cch t c di Lg c xc nh bng mi lin h sau


TR = Dg Lg

3.4

Trong TR l thi gian i vng bn trong cch t v l s sai khc v cc


Tg = 2 Lg c

bc sng Bragg ti hai u ca cch t. V cho bi biu thc sau


Dg = TR 2n = Lg c

cho nn tn sc cch t c

3.4

Trn thc t cc loi si b tn sc cch t Bragg c thng mi ha rng ri trn th trng v chng c u im l thit b hon ton th ng, kch thc nh gn trong khi b c lng tn sc ln, d dng trong vic ghp ni vi si quang v suy hao xen nh. Tuy nhin chng cng c mt nhc im l cn s n nh v nhit cao do ch mt thay i nh v chiu di si cch t cng c th lm thay i hon ton c tnh b tn sc ca chng. 3.3.5 K thut b tn sc mode PMD l tc ng m rng xung quang do cc bin i ngu nhin ca hin tng lng chit/khc x kp dc theo chiu di si quang. Vic m rng ny cng lm xung b m rng hn na bn cnh vic dn rng xung do GVD. Cc k thut iu khin tn sc gp phn tc ng ln GVD nhng gn nh khng ng g n nh hng ca PMD. Chnh v l do ny PMD l mt trong nhng i tng quan tm c bit trong cc h thng iu khin hin i. Trc khi xem xt cc k thut s dng cho b tn sc PMD, chng ta tin hnh c lng cc thng s trong cc h thng khng b tn sc. Gi tr RMS (cn bnh phng trung bnh) m rng ca xung vi chiu di L c tnh theo cng thc:

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vi Dp l h s PMD v T l tr tng i theo hai nguyn l trng thi phn cc (PSP). K hiu T biu th gi tr trung bnh. Gi tr tc thi ca T dao ng trong mt di rng theo thi gian do nhit v cc thng s mi trng khc. Nu T ln hn khe bit (bit slot) h thng s ngng hon ton hot ng. Hot ng ca h thng b gii hn bi PMD c phn loi da trn khi nim xc sut ngng t xut, xc sut ny phi di gi tr qui nh (thng l 10-5 hay 5 pht/nm). Xc sut ny c tnh theo T da trn phn b Maxwell. Mt cch tng qut, gi tr RMS T phi nh hn khe bit TB vi tc bit l B=1/TB. Gi tr nh ca nm trong khong 0,1 n 0,15 ty theo loi iu ch (RZ, CRZ hoc NRZ) v cc thng s ca xung ng vo. Vi m hnh 10%, chiu di h thng v tc bit phi tha iu kin

Trong cc tuyn quang c s dng si quang tiu chun, iu kin ny tr thnh nu s dng . Do si quang yu cu phi

b tn sc PMD tc 10Gbps v khong cch truyn 100km, do trong cc si quang hin i thng thng h s tn sc PMD . Vi h thng c

thit k s dng si quang ny th B2L phi mc 106(Gbps)2-km. Kt qu l, b tn sc PMD khng cn phi thc hin tc 10Gbps nhng cn phi thc hin tc 40Gbps vi khong cch truyn 600km. Cc c lng chnh xc hn da vo l thuyt PMD c pht trin trong nhiu nm gn y.

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Hnh 3.5 M hnh b tn sc quang v b tn sc in Nh cp trn tn sc phn cc mode hn ch hot ng ca knh n khi tc bit ln vt xa 10Gbps. b tn sc phn cc mode c nhiu k thut c pht trin c th phn chia thnh k thut b PMD quang v b PMD in. Hnh 3.5 s b tn sc PMD quang v b tn sc PMD in. B cn bng PMD in u thu dng sa cc tc ng ca PMD s dng m hnh lc ngang. Cc b lc chia tn hiu in x(t) thnh nhiu nhnh dy r tr v cng kt hp chng ng ra

Vi N l tng s nhnh r, l thi gian tr v Cm l trng s r ca nhnh th m. Trng s r c th iu chnh c bng cc thut ton iu khin p ng nng cao cht lng h thng. Tn hiu li a vo mch in t iu khin thng c da vo trng thi ng ca mt trong gin mt ti u thu. Do k thut in t khng th hn ch PMD mt cch hon ton nn n t c nghin cu tip gim tr PMD so vi phng php nguyn l trng thi phn cc PSP (Principle state of Polarization). K thut ny c th hiu chnh c tt c cc ngun gy thoi ha dn n mt b ng ti u thu. B b tn sc quang cng s dng dy tr, n c th c chn vo theo chu k dc theo chiu di tuyn quang hoc ch chn vo u thu. Thng thng qu trnh b PMD quang c chia ra lm hai giai on, u tin tn hiu quang c chia thnh cc nhnh PSP bng cch s dng b iu khin phn cc kt hp theo sau l b chia tia phn cc; giai on th hai tin hnh kt hp tn hiu cc nhnh PSP trong c tn hiu c iu chnh tr mt nhnh

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bng dy tr. Vng hi tip dng xc nh tn hiu li hiu chnh b iu khin phn cc p ng vi cc thay i ca mi trng dc ln si quang PSP. Thnh cng ca k thut ny da vo t s L/LPMD vi L l chiu di si quang, v l chiu di PMD, T0 l b rng ca xung. Ci thin ng k c mong ch l a khong cch truyn c di nht c th v t s ny khng vt qu 4. Do chiu di LPMD vo khong 10.000km vi

v T0=10ps nn cc b b tn sc PMD c th s dng cho cc h thng truyn dn quang xuyn bin vi tc truyn 10Gbps Mt vi k thut quang khc c th c dng b tn sc PMD. Chng hn nh b b tn sc LiNBO3 based Soleil Babinet hot ng da trn vic iu khin phn cc cui ng truyn. Cc thit b khc nh tinh th st 2 v 3 khng bn, si quang duy tr phn cc kp, b lc quang all-pass v cch t quang chirp khc x kp. Hnh sau ch ra nguyn tc hot ng ca b b tn sc PMD s dng cch t. Do c mt lng ln khc x kp, hai trng phn cc dc theo hai trc nhanh v chm, n khc so vi bc sng Bragg v gn dch n bng chn. Kt qu l, n phn x ti v tr khc nhau dc theo cch t do nhn c gi tr tr nhm khc v v th c th b tn sc PMD, gim tr nhm. tr ph thuc vo bc sng bi v qu trnh chirp xy ra t nhin trong cch t. Hn na, n c th iu chnh c thng qua dch chuyn nm khong cch cch t. Cc b b tn sc PMD iu chnh c rt ph hp cho cc h thng WDM.

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Hnh 3.6 B tn sc iu chnh c s dng cch t quang chirp khc x kp Cc b b tn sc PMD hai hnh trn ch loi b thnh phn tn sc PMD bc 1. tc cao, xung quang ngn ph ca chng tr nn rng cc thng s PSP khng th l hng s trn ton b ph xung. Lc ny cc thnh phn tn sc PMD bc cao bt u c tc ng n h thng, thng cc h thng t 40Gbps cn phi xem xt nh hng cc ca cc thnh phn tn sc PMD bc cao. Do c nhiu k thut b tn sc c nghin cu gii quyt vn ny. Cc b b tn sc bc 1 c th c nh gi qua vic xung b m rng c hn ch nh th no. Phn tch l thuyt qu trnh b tn sc PMD ch ra rng gi tr trung bnh hoc gi tr k vng ca h s m rng c nh ngha l c biu din bi biu thc sau, vi T0 l b rng xung Gaussian khng chirp:

Vi

T l sai khc tr nhm dc theo cc

PSP v bu2 l gi tr trc khi b tn sc PMD

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Hnh sau m t h s m rng b2 (ng lin nt) v bc (ng chm nt) theo t s 0/TT . Vic b tn sc, trong trng hp tt nht v xu nht tng ng khi chn trng thi phn cc (SOP) ng vo cng c biu din trong hnh di y. Hnh ny c th c dng c lng nhm ci thin b b tn sc PMD bc 1.

Hnh 3.7 th quan h gia h s m rng xung v gi tr DGD trung bnh Gi tr DGD trung bnh phi khng vt qu 10% khe bit ca h thng m bo xc sut li xy ra thp hn 10-5. Gi tr m ng ti a gy ra bi PMD vo khong b=1,02. T hai phng trnh trn ta thy rng gi tr c th duy tr c cc h thng b tn sc PMD hot ng l T ln n 30%. B b tn sc bc mt c th tng gi tr chu ng ca DGD ln nhiu hn 3. Kt qu l khong cch truyn c tng mt cch ng k trong cc h thng b tn sc PMD. Mt lu rng b b tn sc PMD n khng th dng cho tt c cc knh WDM, trong khi yu cu t ra l c th dng chung b b tn sc ny cho tt c cc knh. iu ny lm cho vic s dng cc b b tn sc PMD ng dy tr nn t . B b tn sc bng quang tch hp trong b thu hoc cn bng PMD in tch hp trong b thu l mt gii php thc t hn v c hai c a vo thng mi ha vo nm 2001. 49

3.4 K thut b sau (post compensation) Cc k thut in t c th c dng b tn sc GVD ti b thu. tng ca phng php ny l mc d tn hiu quang c th b suy bin do GVD, nhng ta c th cn bng in t tn sc ny ca si quang bng hm truyn tng ng nhm trit tiu thnh phn tn sc 2. N c th d dng b tn sc nu s dng b thu Heterodyne nhn dng tn hiu. B thu Heterodyne u tin s chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu vi sng tn s trung tn IF vi y thng tin v bin v pha. B lc thng di (bandpass) vi sng c p ng xung theo hm truyn:

Cc k thut trong min in c th c dng b tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) trong my thu. Ta d dng cn bng nh hng ca tn sc bng k thut in nu si quang hot ng nh mt h thng tuyn tnh. Vic b s d dng hn nu b thu Heterodyne c s dng tch tn hiu: b thu ny u tin chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu vi ba ti tn s trung tn IF IF v vn gi thng tin v bin v pha. Mt b lc thng di hot ng tn s vi ba vi p ng xung c hm truyn t l:

trong L l chiu di si. B lc ny s khi phc li dng tn hiu ban u ca tn hiu nhn c. K thut ny thc t nht i vi h thng Coherent. Nhng ta bit l b thu Coherent thng khng thc t (v mt s l do) so vi b tch sng trc tip, v mch in tuyn tnh khng th b GVD trong trng hp ny. Vn l do thng tin v pha b mt khi tch sng trc tip do b tch sng ch p ng bin quang. Khi mt k thut cn bng khng tuyn tnh c th c s dng.

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Mt phng php khc na l vic quyt nh mt bt c thc hin sau khi xem xt dng sng (dng tng t) qua mt khong nhiu bt xung quanh bt ta cn quyt nh. Kh khn ca k thut ny l i hi mch in logic hot ng ti tc bt ca tn hiu v tnh phc tp ca n tng theo hm m ca s lng bt qua n (s lng bt m mt xung quang b tri rng ra do GVD). K thut cn bng v mt in thng b gii hn do tc bt t c thp v khong cch truyn ngn. Mt k thut cn bng quang in da trn mt b lc ngang (transversal filter) c a ra. Trong k thut ny b chia cng sut ti my thu chia tn hiu quang nhn c thnh nhiu nhnh, cc nhnh c tr khc nhau. Tn hiu quang trn mi nhnh c chuyn sang dng in nh s dng cc photodetector c nhy c th thay i, v tng dng in quang c s dng cho mch quyt nh bt. K thut ny c th tng khong cch truyn dn ln gp ba ln i vi h thng hot ng tc 5Gbps.

KT QU THU C TRONG CHUYN I THC TP 1. Thit b o

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ti ca em nghin cu v tn sc v b tn sc, hin tng tn sc c nh hng n vic suy hao cng sut quang trn ng truyn dn. Nn trong chuyn i thc t em thc tp v vic o suy hao cng sut quang da trn my o quang ODTR(optical time-domain reflectometer). My o cp quang l my o cc thng s v cp quang, y c th l thng s v im t, v suy hao im hn, suy hao ton tuyn, suy hao adaptor, suy hao u ni, cng sut pht, cng xut thu, nhy, gc, ng knh si, tn x, nhn bit si quang, o thng mch... OTDR c kh nng hin th hnh nh dng ha kt qu o, c kh nng tnh ton s l kt qu quang mt cch t ng, chnh xc, v l do x l hnh nh v tnh ton chnh xc ln my OTDR c tch hp rt nhiu cc module o, x l d liu. Chnh v l do ny ngi vn hnh my OTDR phi l ngi c hun luyn, o to chuyn su. Cc kt qu o OTDR thng c lu tr cn thn trong trng hp si quang b h hng hoc c yu cu bo hnh. Di ng quang ca mt my OTDR c gii hn bi s pha trn cc yu t nh rng xung, nhy u vo, cng sut u ra, v thi gian phn tch tn hiu. Cng sut u ra xung quang cng cao v nhy u vo cng tt, th s lm tng di o, v chng thng c tch hp v c c nh sn trn mi mt thit b ring l. Tuy nhin rng xung quang v thi gian phn tch tn hiu l do ngi dng c th hiu chnh c, v yu cu phi c cn bng vi mi ng dng ring bit. Mt OTDR c cng rng xung nh sng ln th vic o suy hao v phm vi o s trong phm vi cng rng. V d nh: Dng mt xung c rng ln s xc nh c c tnh si quang c chiu di 100 km, tuy nhin cc s kin o ch xut hin t 1km tr ln, trong phm vi di 1km s khng xc nh c g. iu ny rt thch hp o c tnh ca on di nhng vi s kin ngn th khng n cht no. V vy ln OTDR phi c di cc xung c th o thay i cc on cn xc nh, on ngn th dng xung ngn, on di dng xung di hn. Vng m khng xc nh c c tuyn, khng o c, gi l vng cht - hay vng m s kin. V mt l thuyt 52

OTDR s o c tnh si mc chnh xc tt khi phn mm v b pht xung chun thch anh i km c chnh xc nh hn 0.01%. Hnh nh

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Vic o suy hao cng sut quang c th s dng : Kim tra cc ch tiu k thut (specs). Kim tra sau lp t hay di chuyn Ghi nhn iu kin tt nht (bc sng hot ng hiu qu, bng thng ph hp). Kim tra li Xc nh v tr li Sa li Cc thi im cn o quang l: Ti nh my Khi nhn cp Sau khi lp t Sau v trong khi hn ni Nghim thu Bo dng nh k Sa cha v ng cu thng tin Vic o quang c thc hin thng xuyn theo thng v tng cng do quang vo nhng thi im cao im. C th l mi thng o 4 ln, vo nhng khong thi gian cao im nh nhng dp l tt nhu cu s dng cc dch v tng cao th s ln o kim s tng ln nhm p ng nhu cu ngi s dng tt nht c th v nhm pht hin s c kp thi. Nu pht hin s c xy ra s thc hin o quang kim tra xc nh v tr gp s c. Cc bc sng quang c dng ngy nay trong thng tin quang l: 850nm, 1300nm, 1310nm v 1550nm. Cng vic phi lm khi o quang l: 54

Kim tra thng mch (continuity) Mt mt trung bnh (Average loss-dB/km) Mt mt v v tr ca mi hn Phn x (Optical return loss - ORL) Suy hao ton tuyn (end to end atten) Chiu di tuyn 2. S liu thc t thu c Ngy o S ln wavelength o (nm) (km) Cc thng s o distance pulse width (ns) 03/02 /2012 1 2 3 1 2 3 10/02 /2012 1 2 3 1 2 3 17/02 /2012 1 2 3 1 1550 1550 1550 1310 1310 1310 1550 1550 1550 1310 1310 1310 1550 1550 1550 1310 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 55 splice loss (dB) 0.059 0.062 0.057 0,059 0,061 0,058 0,059 0,060 0,062 0,060 0,058 0,061 0,152 0,148 0,153 0,149 total loss (dB) 4,258 4,311 4,079 6,315 6,296 6,308 4,279 4,258 4,287 6,296 6,302 6,328 6,043 6,105 6,105 7,306 average loss (dB/km 0,095 0,096 0,091 0,140 0.139 0.140 0,095 0,094 0,095 0.140 0,140 0,140 0,134 0,136 0,136 0,156 ng truyn gp s Ghi ch

c 2 3 24/02 /2012 1 2 3 1 2 3 1310 1310 1550 1550 1550 1310 1310 1310 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 0,152 0,150 0.059 0.062 0.057 0,059 0,061 0,058 7,287 7,243 4,079 4,279 4,311 6,296 6,296 6,278 0,162 0,161 0,090 0,095 0,096 0,140 0,140 0,139

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN Nh vy, sau mt thi gian tm hiu v nghin cu ti: Nghin cu vn b tn sc trong truyn dn quang do s c gng nghin cu v hc hi ca bn thn cng s hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio hng dn Ths. Nguyn Anh Tun em hon thnh ti ca mnh. Bo co trnh by c cc ni dung sau: Chng 1: a ra mt cch tng quan v khi nim thng tin quang v lch s pht trin ca h thng thng tin quang, cu trc chung ca h thng thng tin quang cng chc nng ca tng thnh phn trong h thng. u nhc im ca h thng thng tin quang v ng dng ca n trong thc t. Chng 2: Trnh by v hin tng tn sc trong thng tin quang, a ra khi nim v tn sc, phn loi tn sc, tm hiu r tng loi tn sc: tn sc mode, tn sc vn tc nhm, tn sc vt liu, tn sc trong si n mode, tn sc ng dn sng, tn sc phn cc mode, tn sc bc cao hn. nh hng ca tn sc n truyn dn quang nh th no Chng 3: Trnh by s cn thit phi b tn sc v a ra cc phng php b tn sc. 56

Phng php b tn sc trc: K thut ny da trn nguyn l chung l sa c tnh xung ng vo ca b pht trc khi a vo si. V d nh k thut m ha Novel b tn sc bng m ha FSK. Phng php b tn sc trn ng dy gm: b tn sc bng si quang DCF, b tn sc bng b lc quang, b tn sc bng tn hiu quang lin hp pha OPC, b tn sc bng cch t Bragg, b tn sc phn cc mode. Phng php b tn sc sau. tng ca phng php ny l mc d tn hiu quang c th b suy bin do GVD, nhng ta c th cn bng in t tn sc ny ca si quang bng hm truyn tng ng nhm trit tiu thnh phn tn sc. Vn tn sc v b tn sc l vn rt quan trng trong thng tin quang. Hiu c vn ny chng ta c th p dng a ra nhng phng php hn ch suy hao truyn dn quang hp l. Do thi gian c hn nn ti ca em mi nu c mt s phng php b tn sc in hnh. V vy ti ca em c th pht trin thm v cc phng php b tn sc, tm hiu su hn v cc phng php c th p dng linh hot trong h thng thng tin quang thc t. Trong qu trnh lm ti em c gng tm hiu ti liu qua nhiu phng thc tng hp kin thc, hc hi t thy c v bn b hon thnh ti. Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c cng cc bn gip em hon thnh ti ny. Trong ti cn c thiu st mong thy c v cc bn gp em hon thin hn ti ca mnh. Em xin chn thnh cm n! Thi Nguyn, thng 03 nm 2012 Sinh vin thc hin

Trnh Th Xun

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TI LIU THAM KHO [1] Gio Trnh K Thut Thng Tin Quang (1) T.S L Quc Cng [2] Gio trnh Thng tin quang (2)- Th.S Vn Vit Em [3] Bi ging Thng tin quang Th.S C Vn Thanh [4] K thut thng tin quang Nguyn l c bn k thut tin tin Th.s v Vn San [5] Cng ngh truyn dn quang Cao Mnh Hng [6] Mng thng tin ton quang Dng c Tu [7] Nghin cu b tn sc - http://www.scribd.com [8] Optical communication network Biswanath Mukherjee [9] iu khin tn sc - http://www.ebook.edu.vn/

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