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Network designa computer network must provide general, cost-effective, fair, and robust connectivity among a large number of computers.

Network architecturesthat guide the design and implementation of networks.

1.3.1 Layering and Protocols Abstractions naturally lead to layering, especially in network systems. The hiding of details behind a well-defined interfaceis the fundamental tool used by system designers to manage complexity. Layering provides two nice features. First, it decomposes the problem of building a network into more manageable components. Rather than implementing a monolithic piece of software that does everything you will ever want, you can implement several layers, each of which solves one part of the problem. Second, it provides a more modular design. If you decide that you want to add some new service, you may only need to modify the functionality at one layer, reusing the functions provided at all the other layers.

Protocols- The abstract objects that make up the layers of a network system. Protocol provides a communication service that higher-level objects (such as application processes, or perhaps higher level protocols) use to exchange messages.

a protocol defines a peer interface: defines the form and meaning of messages exchanged between protocol peers to implement the communication service. This would determine the way in which a request/ reply protocol on one machine communicates with its peer on another machine. Protocol defines a communication service that it exports locally (the service interface), along with a set of rules governing the messages that the protocol exchanges with its peer(s) to implement this service (the peer interface). Multiplexing- A method which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Demultiplexing- A device taking a single input signal and selecting one of many data output lines which is connected to the single input. The 7-Layer Model

OSI- Open Systems Interconnection Model. Its a product of the (OSI) effort. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. An instance of a layer provides services to its upper layer instances while receiving services from the layer below. Physical Layer- defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. It defines the relationships between a device and a transmission medium such as copper or optical cable. Data Link Layer- provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. Network Layer- It provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on the network to a destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service. Transport Layer- Provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. It also controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, and error control signal. Session Layer- Controls the connections between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. Presentation- Establishes connection between the (Application Layer) entities in which higher layer entities may se different syntax and symantics if the (Presentation) provides a mapping between them. Application Layer- Is the OSI layer closest to the end user. The layer interacts with software applications that implement communication component.

1.3.2 Internet Architecture Internet Architecture- It is a meta-network that is constantly changing collection of thousands of individual networks intercommunicating with a common protocol.

Internet Protocol (IP)- protocol that supports the interconnection of multiple networking technologies into a single, logical internetwork.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)- alternative logical channels to application programs: TCP provides a reliable byte-stream channel, and UDP provides an unreliable datagram delivery channel (datagram may be thought of as a synonym for message).