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Introduction to some advanced electronic components

Physical Computing 2009

By Farshid Jafari Harandi

Todays topics
More on sensors as input More on actuators as output More info on Transistors, Relays, LEDs
Pictures from: http://www.robotroom.com/Pumpkin3.html http://www.parallax.com/ http://www.psartus.com/products/actuators.htm

Sensors as input
New sensors bring opportunities to develop initiative products/prototypes. iPhone games with accelerometers
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_brEsQlJlnE

Gyromouse
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tj2vxWkHW1Q

How sensors work


Sensors measure real world factors and translate them into corresponding electric signals.

Inputs such as Temperature Acceleration Magnetic field

Translate

Outputs such as Analog voltage Current PWM output Serial interfaces

How to read sensors?


Analog voltage / current: Analog voltage (0 to 5v) can be read by Arduinos analog input

Current can be converted to analog voltage

Picture from: http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0900/17/main.shtml

How to read sensors?


PWM: Varying duty cycle

Read by Pulsein(); command

How to read sensors?


Serial interfaces: Transfer data using less number of wires Ready-made and built in codes to read them:
I2C/Two wire UART (Soft /Hardware) 1 Wire SPI CAN

Sensors
Microphone Realtime Audio Processing Loopback Phasor Reverb

Picture and reference: http://interface.khm.de/index.php/lab/experiments/arduino-realtime-audio-processing/

Sensors
Distance measurement
Ultrasonic (Parallax Ping, 2cm3m, Serial interface) IR distance meters (Sharp GP2D12, 10-80cm, Analog) 3D Laser Scanners (Hokuyo URL04X, 240 2cm-5.6m,Uart)
Pictures from: http://www.wanyrobotics.com/ http://www.trossenrobotics.com/ http://www.parallax.com/

Sensors
Presence detectors
Passive infrared sensor (Human, 7m, Digital)

Reed switch (Magnetic, 5mm, Digital)

IR proximity sensor (IR, 2-10cm, Digital)


Pictures from: http://www.parallax.com/ http://www.dextermag.cn/ http://www.pololu.com/

Sensors
Position sensor
GPS LS20031 Open space 5Hz UART Absolute position
Picture from: http://www.sparkfun.com/

Sensors
Compass sensor Digital Magnetic compass CMPS03 Uses the Earth magnetic field Outputs timing pulse and I2C

Picture from: http://www.robot-electronics.co.uk/acatalog/Whoops.html

Sensors
Tilt sensor Mechanical tilt switch Two contacts and a metal ball inside Acts like a switch

Picture from: http://www.coolcomponents.co.uk/

Sensors
Pitch/yaw/roll sensor 3 Axis Accelerometer MMA7260QT 1.5/2/4/6 g Angle in steady state 3 Analog outputs
Pictures from: http://www.pololu.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/

Sensors
Gyroscopic effect sensor 1-Axis Gyroscope LISY300AL 300/s Rate of rotation around a particular axis Outputs analog voltage
More on Gyros and Accelerometers: http://diydrones.com/profiles/blog/show?id=705844:BlogPost:41145&page=1#comment-705844_Comment_41399 Pictures from: http://www.pololu.com/

Sensors
Temperature Temperature meter LM35 40C to +110C 10 mV/Deg C Outputs analog voltage

Picture from: http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/

Sensors
Temperature Resistance temperature detector, a variable resistor Thermocouple, millivolt level voltage Thermistor, a variable resistor

More sensors
Flow meters Smoke/gas detectors Optical interrupters Vision/camera Weight And even more

Concerns with sensors


Calibration/ offset Noise Drift Resolution Hysteresis Non-linearity

Actuators
Brushed/brushless/servo/stepper DC motors Single/three phase AC motors Linear motors Hydraulics Pneumatics Solenoids or magnetic actuators (attraction/ repulsion) etc.

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Concerns with actuators


Providing high amounts of current Taking care of back-EMF Timing And more

Back EMF
With inductive loads: Place a fast recovery diode in reverse bias across the load Examples of inductive loads: Motors Relays

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Current amplification
Relays

Transistors: BJT or MOSFET Drivers


Pictures from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-bridge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor

Current amplification guide


Load draws more than 40mA? Current amplification is needed

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Current amplification guide


Loads with less than 200mA Use transistors such as: 2N2222 BC547
For resistive loads diode can be omitted

Current amplification guide


Loads with less than 500mA Use ICs such as: ULN2003 ULN2803
Internal protection diodes

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Current amplification guide


Loads with more than 500mA Use transistors such as:
BD167 up to 1.5A 2N3055 up to 15A
(needs a different resistor)

IRF540 up to 33A
(requires V+ to be more than 12V)

IPS series

Current amplification guide


Loads with more than 500mA Use relays
Note that some relays draw more than 40mA!

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LED/resistor matching
How to calculate the proper resistor for a Single LED Number of LEDs
In series In parallel

Tips
Loose connections, use soldering! Use multimeter to check continuity

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Sources
Sensors : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sensors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensors Actuators : http://www.eod.gvsu.edu/eod/mechtron/mechtro n-145.html Modern Control Technology - Components and Systems, 2nd edition, Christopher T. Kilian, ISBN : 1401858066

Questions ?

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THE END

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