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Introduction to some advanced electronic components

Physical Computing 2009

By Farshid Jafari Harandi

Todays topics
More on sensors as input More on actuators as output More info on Transistors, Relays, LEDs
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Sensors as input
New sensors bring opportunities to develop initiative products/prototypes. iPhone games with accelerometers


How sensors work

Sensors measure real world factors and translate them into corresponding electric signals.

Inputs such as Temperature Acceleration Magnetic field


Outputs such as Analog voltage Current PWM output Serial interfaces

How to read sensors?

Analog voltage / current: Analog voltage (0 to 5v) can be read by Arduinos analog input

Current can be converted to analog voltage

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How to read sensors?

PWM: Varying duty cycle

Read by Pulsein(); command

How to read sensors?

Serial interfaces: Transfer data using less number of wires Ready-made and built in codes to read them:
I2C/Two wire UART (Soft /Hardware) 1 Wire SPI CAN

Microphone Realtime Audio Processing Loopback Phasor Reverb

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Distance measurement
Ultrasonic (Parallax Ping, 2cm3m, Serial interface) IR distance meters (Sharp GP2D12, 10-80cm, Analog) 3D Laser Scanners (Hokuyo URL04X, 240 2cm-5.6m,Uart)
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Presence detectors
Passive infrared sensor (Human, 7m, Digital)

Reed switch (Magnetic, 5mm, Digital)

IR proximity sensor (IR, 2-10cm, Digital)

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Position sensor
GPS LS20031 Open space 5Hz UART Absolute position
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Compass sensor Digital Magnetic compass CMPS03 Uses the Earth magnetic field Outputs timing pulse and I2C

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Tilt sensor Mechanical tilt switch Two contacts and a metal ball inside Acts like a switch

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Pitch/yaw/roll sensor 3 Axis Accelerometer MMA7260QT 1.5/2/4/6 g Angle in steady state 3 Analog outputs
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Gyroscopic effect sensor 1-Axis Gyroscope LISY300AL 300/s Rate of rotation around a particular axis Outputs analog voltage
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Temperature Temperature meter LM35 40C to +110C 10 mV/Deg C Outputs analog voltage

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Temperature Resistance temperature detector, a variable resistor Thermocouple, millivolt level voltage Thermistor, a variable resistor

More sensors
Flow meters Smoke/gas detectors Optical interrupters Vision/camera Weight And even more

Concerns with sensors

Calibration/ offset Noise Drift Resolution Hysteresis Non-linearity

Brushed/brushless/servo/stepper DC motors Single/three phase AC motors Linear motors Hydraulics Pneumatics Solenoids or magnetic actuators (attraction/ repulsion) etc.


Concerns with actuators

Providing high amounts of current Taking care of back-EMF Timing And more

Back EMF
With inductive loads: Place a fast recovery diode in reverse bias across the load Examples of inductive loads: Motors Relays


Current amplification

Transistors: BJT or MOSFET Drivers

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Current amplification guide

Load draws more than 40mA? Current amplification is needed


Current amplification guide

Loads with less than 200mA Use transistors such as: 2N2222 BC547
For resistive loads diode can be omitted

Current amplification guide

Loads with less than 500mA Use ICs such as: ULN2003 ULN2803
Internal protection diodes


Current amplification guide

Loads with more than 500mA Use transistors such as:
BD167 up to 1.5A 2N3055 up to 15A
(needs a different resistor)

IRF540 up to 33A
(requires V+ to be more than 12V)

IPS series

Current amplification guide

Loads with more than 500mA Use relays
Note that some relays draw more than 40mA!


LED/resistor matching
How to calculate the proper resistor for a Single LED Number of LEDs
In series In parallel

Loose connections, use soldering! Use multimeter to check continuity


Sensors : Actuators : n-145.html Modern Control Technology - Components and Systems, 2nd edition, Christopher T. Kilian, ISBN : 1401858066

Questions ?