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CHNG I : TNG QUAN

CHNG I: TNG QUAN


I. LCH S PHT TRIN CA H THNG THNG TIN DI NG
Thng tin di ng l h thng lin lc thng qua sng in, va lin lc va di chuyn c. Cc dch v ca in thoi di ng cho n u nhng nm 1960 mi xut hin, cc h thng in thoi di ng u tin ny cha tin li v dung lng rt thp so vi cc h thng hin nay.
1. H thng thng tin di ng th h th nht (1G)

H thng thng tin di ng th h th nht 1G, s dng cng ngh analog gi l a truy cp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA) truyn knh thoi trn sng v tuyn n thu bao in thoi di ng. Nhc im ca cc h thng ny l cht lng thp, vng ph sng hp v dung lng nh. Cc h thng ny pht trin c Chu u, Bc M v Nht Bn. Nm 1987, Nht Bn a vo h thng di ng t ong tng t u tin ca hng NTT. Tip sau , h thng in thoi di ng ca Bc u (NMT-Nordic Mobile Telephone) c a vo khai thc nm 1981. H thng ny hot ng c hai bng tn 450-900MHz. Nm 1983 M cho ra i h thng thng tin di ng tin tin (AMPS-Advance Mobile Phone System). Nm 1985, h thng thng tin thm nhp ton b (TACSTotal Access Communication) c bt u s dng nc Anh v sau l c. Nm 1991, M pht trin h thng AMPS thnh h thng AMPS bng hp NAMPS (Narrowband AMPS). Vi mt s thay i v bng tn, h thng N-AMPS c th phc v nhiu thu bao hn m khng cn thm cc cell mi. Vo thi im ny M cng a vo th nghim h thng s u tin l IS-54 nhng khng thnh cng. 2. H thng thng tin di ng th h th 2 (2G) Vo cui thp nin 1980, cc h thng th h th 2 (2G) s dng cng ngh s a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) ra i. Cc h thng ny c u im l s dng hiu qu bng tn c cp pht, m bo cht lng truyn dn yu cu, m bo c an ton thng tin, cho php chuyn mng quc tn u thp nin 1990, cng ngh TDMA c dng cho h thng thng tin di ng ton cu GSM

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

Chu u. n gia thp k 1990, a truy cp phn chia theo m (CDMA) tr thnh loi h thng 2G th 2 khi ngi M a ra tiu chun ni a IS-95. Nm 1993 ti Nht Bn, NTT a ra tiu chun di ng s u tin ca nc ny (JPD-Japanish Personal Digital Cellular System) v pht trin h thng thng tin di ng s c nhn (PDC-Personal Digital Cellular) vi bng tn hot ng l 9001400MHz. M tip tc pht trin h thng s IS54 thnh phin bn mi l IS-136 hay cn gi l AMPS s (D-AMPS ) v t c nhiu thnh cng. Nm 1985 cng ngh CDMA ra i, l cng ngh a thm nhp theo m s dng k thut tri ph c nghin cu v trin khai bi hng Qualcomm Communication. Cng ngh ny trc c s dng ch yu trong qun s v n nay c s dng rng ri nhiu ni trn th gii. 3. H thng thng tin di ng th h 2,5G v 3G Thng tin di dng ngy nay ang tin ti mt h thng th h th 3, ha hn dung lng thoi ln hn, kt ni d liu di ng tc cao hn v s dng cc ng dng a phng tin. Cc h thng v tuyn th h th 3 (3G) cn cung cp dch v thoi vi cht lng tng ng, cc h thng hu tuyn v dch v truyn s liu c tc t 144Kbps n 2Mbps. Cc tiu chun v h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 c ITU-R tin hnh chun ho cho IMT-2000 (Vin thng di ng quc t 2000). 4. H thng thng tin di ng 3,5G v 4G H thng 3,5G l s nng cp ca 3G s dng cc cng ngh nh cng ngh truy cp gi d liu tc cao HSPDA (High Speed Downlink Packet Acces), song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD( Time Division Duplex) v cc cng ngh c quyn nh Flash OFDM. Ti Nht Bn, NTT Docomo c k hoch khai trng cc dch v HSDPA vo 2005.

II. CC C IM C BN CA H THNG THNG TIN DI NG


Mng in thoi i ng khc bit ln so vi mng c nh ch mng c nh th thit b u cui ni kt c nh vi mng. Do tng i mng c nh lin tc gim st c trng thi nhc-t (t hp my in thoi) pht hin cuc gi n t thu bao, ng thi thit b u cui lun lun sn sng tip nhn chng. Nhng mng di ng, v s knh v tuyn qu t so vi s thu bao MS, nn knh v tuyn ch c cp pht theo kiu ng. Hn na, vic gi c v thit lp cuc gi i vi MS cng kh hn. Khi cha c cuc gi, MS phi lng nghe thng bo tm gi

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

n nh mt knh c bit, knh ny gi l knh qung b. Mng phi xc nh c MS b gi ang vng nh v no. Mng thng tin di ng phi m bo thng tin mi lc, mi ni. Mun vy mng thng tin di ng phi m bo mt s c tnh c bn chung sau y: - S dng hiu qu bng tn c cp pht t c dung lng cao. - m bo cht lng truyn dn yu cu. Do mi trng truyn dn l mi trng truyn dn h ( sng in t) nn tn hiu d b nh hng ca nhiu v phaing. - m bo an ton thng tin tt nht. - Gim ti a rt cuc gi khi thu bao di ng chuyn t vng ph ny sang vng ph khc. - Cho php pht trin cc dch v mi nht l cc dch v phi thoi. - mang tnh ton cu phi cho php chuyn mng quc t (International Roaming). - Cc thit b cm tay phi gn nh v tn t nng lng. Tm li c th c bn ca thng tin di ng l phc v a truy cp gn lin vi thit k mng t bo (do di tn dch v b hn ch). Cc h qu tt yu ko theo hoc lin quan ti vn ny l : Chuyn giao, chng nhiu, qun l di ng, qun l ti nguyn (sng in t), bo mt. Nhng iu ny khc rt nhiu vi mt mng thng tin c nh v lun l nhng i hi cao cho s ra i ca cc cng ngh mi.

III.

CU TRC CA H THNG THNG TIN DI NG

H thng thng tin di ng t ong bao gm c 3 phn chnh l my di ng MS (Mobile Station), trm gc BS (Base Station) v tng i di ng MSC (Mobile Service Switching Center). 1. Trm di ng MS My di ng c 2 phn l : M un nhn dng thu bao SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) v thit b thu pht bo hiu ME (Mobile equipment). SIM (Subcriber Identity Module): L mt ci kho cho php MS c dng, n gn cht vi ngi dng trong vai tr mt thu bao duy nht, SIM c th lm vic vi cc thit b ME khc nhau, tin cho vic mn cc ME tu . SIM cng c cc phn cng v phn mm cn thit vi b nh c th lu tr hai loi tin tc: Tin tc c th c c hoc thay i bi ngi dng v tin tc khng th c hay khng

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

cn cho ngi dng bit. SIM s dng mt khu PIN (Personal Indentity Number) bo v quyn s dng ca ngi s hu hp php. SIM cho php ngi dng s dng nhiu dch v v cho php ngi dng truy cp vo cc mng in thoi mt t cng cng PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) khc nhau nh tiu chun ho giao din SIM-ME.
SS ISDN PSPDN CSPD NN PSTN PLMN BSS BSC BTS VLR HLR MSC OSS EIR H thng Chuyn mch

AUC

H thng Trm gc

MS : Truyn dn tin tc : Kt ni cuc gi v truyn dn tin tc

Hnh 1.1: M hnh h thng thng tin di ng Cellular OSS: H thng khai thc v h tr AUC: Trung tm nhn thc HLR: B ghi nh v thng tr MSC: Trung tm chuyn mch cc nghip v di ng( gi tt l tng i di ng) BSS: H thng trm gc BSC: i iu khin trm gc OMC: Trung tm khai thc v bo dng PSPDN: Mng chuyn mch cng cng theo gi PSTN: Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

SS: H thng chuyn mch VLR: B ghi nhn dng thit b BTS: i v tuyn gc MS: My di ng ISDN: Mng s liu lin kt a dch v CSPND: Mng chuyn mch s cng cng theo mch PLMN: Mng di ng mt t cng cng SIM l mt card in t thng minh cm vo ME dng nhn dng thu bao v tin tc v loi dch v m thu bao ng k. S nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t IMSI (International Mobile Subcriber Identity) l duy nht v trong sut vi ngi dng. Nh cung cp mng GSM s bn SIM cho thu bao khi ng k. GSM thit lp ng truyn v tnh cc da vo IMSI SIM c cha cc tin tc sau: - IMSI: S nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t nhn dng thu bao, c truyn khi khi to. - TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - S nhn dng thu bao di ng tm thi) nhn dng thu bao mng di ng. - LAI (Location area Identifier): S nhn dng vng nh v c s dng cho th tc cp nht v tr ca thu bao di ng. - KI (Subscriber authentication Key): Kho nhn thc thu bao nhn thc SIM card. - MSISDN (Mobile station ISDN number): S in thoi ca thu bao di ng MSISDN=m quc gia+m vng+m thu bao. Cc thng s trong SIM c bo v. Ki khng th c, IMSI khng th sa i. ME (Mobile Equipment): Thit b my di ng Thu bao thng ch tip xc vi ME m thi: C 3 loi ME - Trn xe (Lp t trong xe, anten ngoi xe). - Xch tay (anten khng lin t hp cm tay). - Cm tay (anten lin vi t hp, ton b my cm tay nm gn trong lng bn tay. ME l phn cng thu bao truy cp mng. ME c s nhn dng l IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity). Nh kim tra IMEI m ME b mt cp s khng c phc v. 2. H thng trm gc BSS

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

Bao gm cc khi chc nng BSC, BTS Trm thu pht gc BTS (Base Transceiver Station) bao gm cc thit b thu pht, anten v x l tn hiu c th cho giao din v tuyn, c th coi BTS l cc modem v tuyn phc tp c thm mt s chc nng khc. Mt b phn quan trng ca BTS l TRAU (Transcoder/Adapter Rate Unit: Khi chuyn i m v tc ). TRAU l thit b m qu trnh m ho v gii m ting c th ring cho h thng di ng c tin hnh. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS nhng cng c th t n cch xa BTS v thm ch trong nhiu trng hp n c t gia MSC &BSC.

BTS

TRAU

BSC

MSC VLR

BTS

BSC

TRAU

MSC VLR

BTS

BSC

MSC VLR
Giao din A

TRAU

Giao din A-bis

Hnh 1.2 : Cc v tr ca TRAU - B iu khin trm gc BSC (Base Station Controller) c nhim v qun l tt c giao din v tuyn thng qua cc lnh iu khin t xa ca BTS v MS. Cc lnh ny ch yu l cc lnh n nh, gii phng knh v tuyn v qun l chuyn giao (Handover). Mt pha BSC c ni vi BTS cn pha kia ni vi MSC. Thc t BSC l mt tng i nh c kh nng tnh ton ng k. Mt BSC trung bnh c th qun l ti vi chc BTS ph thuc vo lu lng cc BTS ny. 3. Trung tm chuyn mch ca h thng MSC

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

N c ni vi tt c cc trm c s ca cc thu bao trong cng mt h thng. ng thi n cng c ni vi h thng in thoi cng cng PSTN. Trung tm chuyn mch di ng th x l cc cuc gi i v n, ng thi cung cp cc chc nng iu khin hot ng cho tt c cc trm c s trong cng mt h thng. Chnh v vy MSC l mt b phn quan trng nht trong h thng thng tin di ng. N bao gm cc b phn iu khin v qun l ton b h thng t c hiu qu cao ng thi phi m bo tuyt i v an ninh v an ton. - B ghi nh v thng tr HLR (Home Location Register) cha thng tin v thu bao nh cc dch v m thu bao la chn v cc thng s nhn thc. V tr hin thi ca MS c cp nht qua b ghi nh v tm tr VLR (Visitor Location Register) cng c chuyn n HLR. - Trung tm nhn thc AUC (Authentication Center) c chc nng cung cp cho HLR cc thng s nhn thc v cc kho mt m, mi mt MSC c mt VLR. - Qun l thu bao di ng EIR (Equipment Identity Register) EIR lu tr tt c cc d liu lin quan n trm di ng MS. EIR c ni n MSC qua ng bo hiu kim tra s c php ca thit b. Khi MS di ng vo mt vng phc v MSC mi, th VLR yu cu HLR cung cp cc s liu v v khch MS mi ny, ng thi VLR cng thng bo cho HLR bit MS ni trn ang vng phc v MSC no. Vy VLR c tt c thng tin cn thit thit lp cc cuc gi theo yu cu ngi dng. 4. Khai thc v bo dng OS (Operation System) - Khai thc: L cc hot ng cho php nh khai thc mng theo di hnh vi ca mng nh: ti ca h thng, mc chn, s lng chuyn giao (handover) gia hai , nh vy nh khai thc c th gim st c ton b cht lng ca dch v m h cung cp cho khch hng v kp thi s l cc s c. Khai thc cng bao gm vic thay i cu hnh chun b tng lu lng trong tng lai, tng vng ph. h thng vin thng hin i khai thc c thc hin bng my tnh v c tp trung mt trm. - Bo dng: C nhim v pht hin, nh v v sa cha cc s c hng hc. XU HNG PHT TRIN CA IN THOI DI NG Nhng thng tin mi nht cho thy hin nay thng tin di ng vn ang trong giai on pht trin mnh m, p ng nhu cu khng ngng tng ca khch hng c

IV.

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

v s lng, cht lng v loi hnh dch v. V c bn c th chia thnh cc hng pht trin sau: - T nm 1989 c nhng nghin cu rng ln trn th gii nhm pht trin h thng v tuyn c nhn v kt hp s thng minh ca mng PSTN, x l tn hiu s hin i v cng ngh RF. Khi nim PCS khi xng Anh khi ba cng ty ln c cung cp di tn 1800Mhz, Cc th nghim ln trn th gii c tin hnh nhm la chn k thut chung cho iu ch, a truy cp v k thut mng. PCN l khi nim mng m ngi dng c th thu v tin hnh cuc gi bt c u dng thit b c nhn nh nh. PCS l h thng v tuyn tng hp cc c im mng v c im c nhn trong h thng t bo ( Mt v d c th l mng City phone hin nay). - Xu hng pht trin mng v tuyn trong nh (indoor) cho php ngi dng kt ni my tnh vn phng trong cc to nh ln (trn tn s cao 18Ghz). - Xu hng chun IMT-2000 c quyt nh bi ITU, xy dng chun v quy hoch tn s trn ton th gii. IMT-2000 ha hn h thng di ng tng thch ton cu a nng th h th ba. H thng thng tin di ng th h ba nyphi l: + Mng bng rng v c kh nng truyn thng a phng tin. Ngha l mng phi m bo c c tc tc bt ca ngi s dng n 2 Mbps. + Mng phi c kh nng cung cp rng bng tn (dung lng) theo yu cu. iu ny xut pht t vic thay i tc bt ca cc dch v khc nhau. Ngoi ra cn m bo ng truyn v tuyn khng i xng vi tc bt cao ng xung v tc bt thp ng ln. + Mng phi cung cp thi gian truyn dn theo yu cu. Ngha l m bo cc kt ni chuyn mch cho ting, cc dch v video v cc kh nng s liu gi chung cho cc dch v s liu. + Mng phi c kh nng s dng ton cu, ngha l bao gm c phn t thng tin v tinh. - Xu hng pht trin h vin thng v tinh LEO: Cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh v tr, h thng tin v tinh phi hp vi h di ng mt t to nn kt ni ton cu thch hp vi mi loi a hnh v loi hnh thng tin. - Hin nay cc quc gia pht trin sau li c c hi i nhanh vo cc ng dng tin tin nht v la chn cc m hnh thch hp vi s pht trin ca tng lai.

V. H thng thng tin di ng WCDMA

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

Gii thiu cng ngh WCDMA - WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access - truy cp a phn m bng rng) l cng ngh 3G hot ng da trn CDMA v c kh nng h tr cc dch v a phng tin tc cao nh video, truy cp Internet, hi tho hnh... WCDMA nm trong di tn 1920 MHz -1980 MHz, 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz. W-CDMA gip tng tc truyn nhn d liu cho h thng GSM bng cch dng k thut CDMA hot ng bng tn rng thay th cho TDMA. Trong cc cng ngh thng tin di ng th h ba th W-CDMA nhn c s ng h ln nht nh vo tnh linh hot ca lp vt l trong vic h tr cc kiu dch v khc nhau c bit l dch v tc bit thp v trung bnh. Nhc im chnh ca W-CDMA l h thng khng cp php trong bng TDD pht lin tc cng nh khng to iu kin cho cc k thut chng nhiu cc mi trng lm vic khc nhau. H thng thng tin di ng th h ba W-CDMA c th cung cp cc dch v vi tc bit ln n 2MBit/s. Bao gm nhiu kiu truyn dn nh truyn dn i xng v khng i xng, thng tin im n im v thng tin a im. Vi kh nng , cc h thng thng tin di ng th h ba c th cung cp d dng cc dch v mi nh : in thoi thy hnh, ti d liu nhanh, ngoi ra n cn cung cp cc dch v a phng tin khc. Cc nh khai thc c th cung cp rt nhiu dch v i vi khch hng, t cc dch v in thoi khc nhau vi nhiu dch v b sung cng nh cc dch v khng lin quan n cuc gi nh th in t, FPT Cng trnh nghin cu ca cc nc chu u cho W-CDMA bt u t n CODIT (Code Division Multiplex Testbed : Phng th nghim a truy cp theo m) v FRAMES (Future Radio Multiplex Access Scheme : K thut a truy cp v tuyn trong tng lai) t u thp nin 90. Cc d n ny tin hnh th nghim cc h thng W-CDMA nh gi cht lng ng truyn. Theo cc chuyn gia trong ngnh vin thng, ng ti 3G ca GSM l WCDMA. Nhng trn con ng , cc nh khai thc dch v in thoi di ng phi tri qua giai on 2,5G. Th h 2,5G bao gm nhng g? l: d liu chuyn mch gi tc cao (HSCSD), dch v v tuyn gi chung GPRS v Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE).

1.

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

KBit/s 2M
Truyn hnh hi ngh (Cht lng cao)

a phng tin di ng

Qung b

Y t t xa

384
Truyn hnh hi ngh (Cht lng thp)

Truy nhp Internet WWW Th in t

64

Mua Video hng theo theo yu Catalog cu Video Truy nhp c s d liu Bo in t Th ting Xut bn in t Karaoke ISDN

Cc dch v phn phi thng tin

Truyn hnh di ng

Tin tc D bo thi tit Thng tin lu lng

Truyn thanh di ng

32
m thoi hi ngh

FTP in thoi IP vv

16 9.6 2.4 1.2


i xng in thoi

H.nh

Thng tin ngh ngi


S liu Th in t FAX Ting a phng a im

Khng i xng im n im

2. Cc c im ca WCDMA - Hiu sut s dng tn s cao: V nguyn tc, dung lng tim nng ca h thng c xem nh ging nhau ngay c khi cc cng ngh a truy nhp nh TDMA v FDMA c ng dng. Trong khi CDMA thng c coi l c hiu sut s dng tn s cao ngha l CDMA rt d nng cao hiu sut s dng tn s.Vic s dng cc cng ngh c bn ca h thng CDMA theo ng cch s em li hiu sut s dng tn s cao cho h thng. - D qun l tn s: Do CDMA cho php cc ln cn chia s cng mt tn s nn khng cn c quy hoch tn s. Ngc li trong cc h thng s dng TDMA v FDMA cn phi c bit ch n quy hoch tn s. - Cng sut pht ca my di ng thp: Nh c qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) m h thng W-CDMA c th gim c t s Eb/No (tng ng t s tn hiu trn nhiu) mc thp chp nhn c. iu ny khng ch lm tng dung lng h thng m cn lm gim cng sut pht yu cu khc phc tp m v nhiu. Vic gim ny ng ngha vi gim cng sut pht yu cu i vi my di ng. N lm gim gi thnh v cho php hot ng trong mt vng rng

Hnh 1.3: Cc dch v a phng tin trong h thng thng tin di ng th h ba

10

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

hn vi cng sut thp khi so vi h thng TDMA hoc h thng tng t c cng cng sut. Ngoi ra vic gim cng sut pht yu cu s lm tng vng phc v v gim s lng BS yu cu khi so vi cc h thng khc. Mt u im ln hn xut pht t qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht trong h thng W-CDMA l n lm gim cng sut pht trung bnh. Trong h thng W-CDMA, cng sut pht trung bnh c th gim v cng sut yu cu ch c pht i bi vic iu khin cng sut v cng sut pht ch tng khi xy ra pha inh. - S dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn mt cch c lp trong ng ln v ng xung: Trong CDMA, rt d cung cp mt cu hnh khng i xng gia ng ln v ng xung. V d trong cc h thng truy nhp khc nh TDMA s rt kh phn chia cc khe thi gian cho ng ln v ng xung ca mt thu bao c lp vi cc thu bao khc. Trong FDMA, rt kh thit lp cu hnh khng i xng cho ng ln v ng xung v rng bng tn sng mang ca ng ln v ng xung s phi thay i. Ngc li, trong CDMA h s tri ph (SF) c th c thit lp c lp gia ng ln v ng xung i vi mi thu bao v nh c th thit lp cc tc khc nhau ng ln v ng xung. iu ny cho php s dng hiu qu cc ti nguyn v tuyn ngay c trong cc loi hnh thng tin khng i xng nh truy cp Internet. Khi khng pht s liu th ti nguyn v tuyn khng b chim dng. Do nu mt thu bao ch thc hin truyn tin trn ng ln v mt thu bao khc ch thc hin truyn tin ng xung th cc ti nguyn v tuyn c s dng tng ng ti nguyn cho mt cp ng truyn ln v xung. 3. Cc c tnh c bn ca WCDMA - Phng thc truy nhp: CDMA tri ph trc tip - Phng thc truyn hai chiu (song cng): Song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD v song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD - rng bng thng: 5 MHz - Tc chip: 3,84 Mchip/s - Khong cch sng mang: 200 KHz - Tc s liu: ~ 2 Mbit/s - di khung s liu: 10, 20, 40, 80 ms - M hiu chnh li: M vng, m xon, m Turbo - Phng thc iu ch s liu: + ng xung: iu ch pha 4 trng thi QPSK + ng ln: iu ch pha hai trng thi BPSK - Phng thc iu ch tri ph:

11

CHNG I : TNG QUAN

+ ng xung: QPSK + ng ln: iu ch pha hn hp HPSK - H s tri ph (SF): 4 ~ 512 - Phng thc ng b gia cc trm gc: D b (cng c th s dng ch ng b) - Phng thc m ha thoi: M ha nhiu tc thch ng AMR (1,95 kbit/s 12,2 kbit/s). 4. Cu trc mng WCDMA V mt chc nng, cc phn t mng c nhm thnh hai phn: - Mng li CN (Core Network) thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn cuc gi v kt ni s liu. - Mng truy nhp v tuyn UTRAN thc hin chc nng lin quan n v tuyn.
Uu Nt B Nt B Iub Nt B Nt B RNC UTRAN SGSN Iu USIM MSC/ VLR

USIM Cu

RNC Iur

GMSC

PLMN, PSTN,ISDN

HLR GGSN CN

ME UE

Internet
Cc mng ngoi

Hnh 1.4: Cu trc ca UMTS USIM (UMTS Subscriber Identity Module): Modul nhn dng thu bao UMTS MS (Mobile Station): Trm di ng RNC (Radio Network Controller): B iu khin mng v tuyn MSC (Mobile Service Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng VLR (Visitor Location Register): B ghi nh v tm tr SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node): Nt h tr dch v GPRS GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): Nt h tr GPRS cng HLR (Home Location Register): B ghi nh v thng tr UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network): Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS. CN (Core Network): Mng li PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network): Mng di ng cng cng mt t PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network): Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng.

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CHNG I : TNG QUAN

ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network): Mng s lin kt a dch v ME (Mobile Equipment): Thit b di ng * UE (User Equipment): Thit b ngi s dng Thit b ngi s dng UE thc hin chc nng giao tip ngi s dng vi h thng. UE gm hai phn : - Thit b di ng ME ( Mobile Equipment ) : L u cui v tuyn c s dng cho thng tin v tuyn trn giao din Uu. - Module nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM) : L mt th thng minh cha thng tin nhn dng ca thu bao, n thc hin cc thut ton nhn thc, lu gi cc kha nhn thc v mt s thng tin thu bao cn thit cho u cui. * UTRAN (UMTS Terestrial Radio Access Network): Mng truy nhp v tuyn Mng truy nhp v tuyn c nhim v thc hin cc chc nng lin quan n truy nhp v tuyn. UTRAN bao gm nhiu h thng mng con v tuyn RNS (Radio Network Subsystem). Mt RNS gm mt b iu khin mng v tuyn RNC v cc nt B.
Uu Nt B Nt B Iub Nt B Nt B RNC UTRAN Iu - PS SGSN Iu Iu - CS

USIM Cu

RNC Iur

MSC/ VLR

ME UE

Hnh 1.5: Cu trc UTRAN - Chc nng ca UTRAN: + H tr cc chc nng truy nhp v tuyn, c bit l chuyn giao mm v cc thut ton qun l ti nguyn c th ca W-CDMA. + m bo tnh chung nht cho vic x l s liu chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi bng cch s dng giao thc v tuyn duy nht kt ni t UTRAN n c hai vng ca mng li. + m bo tnh chung nht vi GSM. + S dng c ch truyn ti ATM l c ch truyn ti chnh UTRAN.

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- Cc thnh phn ca UTRAN: + Nt B: L nt logic c chc nng thu v pht v tuyn, n cn c gi l trm thu pht gc BTS. Giao din gia nt B v RNC c gi l Iub. Nt B thc hin chuyn i dng s liu gia cc giao din Iub v Uu. N cng tham gia qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. Nt B ph sng cho mt hoc nhiu , n c kt ni vi thit b ngi s dng UE qua giao din v tuyn. + B iu khin mng v tuyn RNC (Radio Network Controller): C chc nng qun l cc ti nguyn v tuyn v iu khin nt B nh iu khin chuyn giao. Giao din gia cc RNC c gi l Iur . y l mt giao din logic c th thc hin u ni vt l gia cc RNC. RNC cn l im truy cp tt c cc dch v do UTRAN cung cp cho mng li CN. * CN (Core Network):Mng li - HLR (Home Location Register) : L thanh ghi nh v thng tr lu gi thng tin chnh v l lch dch v ca ngi s dng. Cc thng tin ny bao gm : thng tin v cc dch v c php, cc vng khng c chuyn mng v cc thng tin v dch v b sung nh : trng thi chuyn hng cuc gi, s ln chuyn hng cuc gi. - MSC/VLR (Mobile Services Switching Center/Visitor Location Register) : L tng i (MSC) v c s d liu (VLR) cung cp cc dch v chuyn mch knh cho UE ti v tr ca n. MSC c chc nng s dng cc giao dch chuyn mch knh. VLR c chc nng lu gi bn sao v l lch ngi s dng cng nh v tr chnh xc ca UE trong h thng ang phc v. - GMSC (Gateway MSC) : Chuyn mch kt ni vi mng ngoi. - SGSN (Serving GPRS) : C chc nng nh MSC/VLR nhng c s dng cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi (PS Packet Switch). - GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) : C chc nng nh GMSC nhng ch phc v cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi. * Cc mng ngoi - Mng CS (Circuit Switch): Mng kt ni cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh ging nh cc dch v in thoi. ISDN v PSTN l cc v d v mng CS. - Mng PS (Packet Switch): Mng kt ni cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi. Internet l mt v d v mng PS * Cc giao din v tuyn - Giao din Cu: L giao din gia th thng minh USIM v ME. Giao din ny tun theo mt khun dng chun cho cc th thng minh. - Giao din Uu: L giao din m qua UE truy cp cc phn t c nh ca h thng v v th m n l

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giao din m quan trng nht ca UMTS. - Giao din Iu: Giao din ny ni UTRAN vi CN, n cung cp cho cc nh khai thc kh nng trang b UTRAN v CN t cc nh sn xut khc nhau. Iu c hai kiu: + Iu CS kt ni UTRAN vi CN chuyn mch knh + Iu PS kt ni UTRAN vi CN chuyn mch gi - Giao din Iur: L giao din v tuyn gia cc b iu khin mng v tuyn, n cho php chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC t cc nh sn xut khc nhau. Giao din I ur phi m bo 4 chc nng sau: + H tr tnh di ng c s gia cc RNC + H tr knh lu lng ring + H tr knh lu lng chung + H tr qun l ti nguyn v tuyn ton cu - Giao din Iub: Giao din cho php kt ni mt nt B vi mt RNC. I ub c tiu chun ha nh l mt giao din m hon ton. Giao din Iub nh ngha cu trc khung v cc th tc iu khin trong bng cho tng kiu knh truyn ti. Cc chc nng chnh ca Iub: + Thit lp, b sung, gii phng v ti thit lp mt kt ni v tuyn u tin ca mt UE v chn im kt cui lu lng. + Khi to v bo co cc c th , nt B, kt ni v tuyn + X l kt hp chuyn giao +Qun l s c kt ni v tuyn

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