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Mc lc Mc lc Thut ng v vit tt............................................................

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Danh mc hnh

Danh mc Hnh
Thut ng v vit tt............................................................iv Hp nht nhn...................................................................................15 S duy tr nhn................................................................................16 iu khin nhn................................................................................16

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Thut ng vit tt

Thut ng v vit tt
AAL5 API ASN.1 ARP AS ATM BBRAS BCF BGP BOF COS CPE CR CSPF DNS DLCI DS ECR EGP EMS FEC FIB FR FTN IBM ICMP ICR IETF ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Application Programming Interface Abstract Syntax Notation Number One Addresss Resolution Protocol Autonomous System Asynchronous Transfer Mode BroadBand Remote Access Server Bearer Contrrol Function Border Gateway Protocol Board Of a Founders Class of Service Customer Premise Equipment Cell Router Constrained Shortest Path First Domain Name System Data Link Connection Identifier Differentiated Service Egress Cell Router Edge Gateway Protocol Element Management System Forwarding Equivalence Class Forwarding Infomation Base Frame Relay FEC - to - NHLFE International Bussiness Machine Internet Control Message Protocol Ingress Cell Router International Engineering Task Force Lp thch ng ATM 5 Giao Din chng trnh ng Dng Chuyn mch IP theo phng php tng hp tuyn Giao thc phn tch a ch H t qun Phng thc truyn ti khng ng b My ch truy nhp t xa bng rng Khi chc nng iu khin ti tin Giao thc nh tuyn cng min. Cuc hp tr b WG-IETF Lp dch v Thit b pha khch hng B nh tuyn t bo Giao thc nh tuyn tm ng ngn nht. H thng tn min Nhn dng kt ni lp lin kt d liu Cc dch v khc nhau Thit b nh tuyn t bo li ra Giao thc nh tuyn cng bin H thng qun l phn t Nhm chuyn tip tng ng C s d liu chuyn tip trong b nh tuyn Chuyn dch khung Sp xp FEC vo NHLFE Cng ty IBM Giao thc bn tin iu khin Internet Thit b nh tuyn t bo li vo T chc tiu chun k thut quc t cho Internet

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Thut ng vit tt IGP IN INTSERV IP IPv4 ISC ISDN ISIS IT LAN LC-ATM LDP LFIB LIB L2TP LMP LPF LSP LSR MAC MG MGC MIB MPLS MPOA MSF NGN NHLFE NHRP NLPID NNI NMS Interior Gateway Protocol Intelligent Network Integrated services Internet Protocol IP version 4 International Softswitch Consortium Intergrated Service Digital Network Intermediate System Intermediate System Information Technology Local Area Network Label Controlled ATM Interface Label Distribution Protocol Label Forwarding Information Base Label Information Base Giao thc nh tuyn trong min Mng thng minh Dch v tch hp Giao thc nh tuyn Internet IP phin bn 4.0 T chc chuyn mch mm quc t. Mng s lin kt a dch v Giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS

K thut thng tin Mng cc b Giao din ATM iu khin bi nhn Giao thc phn phi nhn C s d liu chuyn tip nhn Bng thng tin nhn trong b nh tuyn Layer 2 tunnel protocol Giao thc ng hm lp 2 Link Management Protocol Giao thc qun l knh Logical Port Fuction Khi chc nng cng logic Label Switched Path Tuyn chuyn mch nhn Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn Thit b iu khin truy Media Access Controller nhp mc phng tin truyn thng Media Gateway Cng chuyn i phng tin Media Gateway Controller Thit b iu khin MG Management Information C s d liu thng tin qun Base l MultiProtocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS over ATM MPLS trn ATM MultiService Switch Forum Din n chuyn mch a dch v Next Generation Network Mng th h sau NextHop Label Forwarding Phng thc gi chuyn tip Entry gi tin dn nhn Next Hop Resolution Protocol Giao thc phn tch a ch nt tip theo Network Layer Protocol Nhn dng giao thc lp mng Identifier Network Network Interface Giao din mng - mng Network Management H thng qun l mng v

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Thut ng vit tt system Object Identifier Object- Oriented Design Open Shortest Path First Open Systems Interconnection Operation Support system Protocol Data Unit Public switch telephone Network Permanent Virtual Circuit Quality Of Service Request for Comment Realtime Internet Protocol Resource Reservation Protocol US Secure Hash Algorithm 1 Ship- in-the-Night Service Level Agreement Service Node Access Point Signalling Network Interface Simple Network Management Protocol Synchronous Optical Network Service Provider Shortest Path First Switched Virtual Circuit Transport Control Protocol Tag Distribution Protocol Terminal Equipment Trunking Gateway Type-Length- Value Telecommunication Mngement Network Telecommunications Operations MAP Type of Service User based security Model User Data Protocol Virtual Circuit

OID OOD OPSF OSI OSS PDU PSTN PVC QOS RFC RIP RSVP SHA1 SIN SLA SNAP SNI SNMP SONET SP SPF SVC TCP TDP TE TGW TLV TMN TOM TOS USM UDP VC

Nhn dng i tng Thit k i tng nh hng Giao thc nh tuyn OSPF Kt ni cc h thng m H thng h tr vn hnh n v d liu giao thc Mng chuyn mch thoi cng cng Knh o c nh Cht lng dch v Cc ti liu v tiu chun IP do IETF a ra Giao thc bo hiu IP thi gian thc Giao thc ginh trc ti nguyn (h tr QoS) Tho thun mc dch v gia nh cung cp v khc hng im truy nhp nt dch v Giao din mng bo hiu Giao thc qun l mng n gin Mng truyn dn quang ng b Nh cung cp dch v Giao thc nh tuyn ng ngn nht Knh o chuyn mch Giao thc iu khin truyn ti Giao thc phn phi th Thit b u cui Cng trung k Gi tr chiu di tuyn (s nt) Mng qun l thng tin Hot ng thng tin MAP Cc kiu dch v Kiu bo mt c s ngi s dng Giao thc d liu ngi s dng Knh o vi

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Thut ng vit tt VCI VNS VPI VPN VPNID VR VSC VSCF VSF WAN WDM WFQ Virtual Circuit Identifier Virtual Network Service Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Private Network Virtual Private Network Identifier Virtual Router Virtual Switched Controller Virtual Switched Control Fuction Virtual Switched Fuction Wide Area Network Wave Division Multiplexing Weighted Factor Queque Trng nhn dng knh o trong t bo Dch v mng o Nhn dng ng o Mng ring o Nhn dng mng ring o B nh tuyn o Khi iu khin chuyn mch o Khi chc nng iu khin chuyn mch o Khi chc nng chuyn mch o Mng din rng Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Hng i theo trng s

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Li ni u

Li ni u
p ng nhu cu pht trin bng thng khng ngng ca ngi s dng, nh cung cp dch v (ISP) cn c thit b nh tuyn v chuyn mch tc cao. Nhu cu v mt phng thc chuyn tip n gin m cc c tnh qun l lu lng v cht lng chuyn mch truyn thng c kt hp vi chuyn tip thng minh ca mt b nh tuyn l rt r rng. Tt c cc nhu cu c th c p ng bi chuyn mch nhn a giao thc, n khng b hn ch bi mi giao thc lp 2 v lp 3. C th l, MPLS c mt vi ng dng v c th c m rng qua cc phn on a sn phm (nh mt b nh tuyn MPLS, mt b nh tuyn/chuyn mch dch v IP, mt chuyn mch Ethernet quang cng nh chuyn mch quang). MPLS l mt gii php quan trng trong vic nh tuyn, chuyn mch v chuyn tip cc gi thng qua mng th h sau p ng cc yu cu dch v ca ngi s dng mng. Bi ton qun l mng lun c t ra vi bt k giai on no ca qu trnh xy dng v pht trin h thng, SNMP l giao thc qun tr mng n gin c s dng ph bin nht trn mng IP. Trong qu trnh hi t cc c trn nn mng IP, giao thc qun l mng n gin th hin tt cc yu cu c bn. Tuy nhin, vic ci thin c s thng tin qun l MIB l mt xut tip cn ti phng php qun l v x l phn tn cc thng tin qun l mng hiu qu. Lun vn tt nghip ca em trnh by nhng kin thc c bn v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn, vn qun l mng vin thng v bi ton ci thin cng nh thc t trin khai cc ng dng lin quan ti c s thng tin qun l MIB trong mng MPLS . Do thi gian v trnh c hn, lun vn tt nghip ca em kh trnh khi nhng sai st, rt mong s ch bo ca cc thy c gio.

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Li ni u

H Ni ngy 25 thng 10 nm 2006 Sinh vin thc hin Trn Th Hng Tr

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Chng 1: TNG quaN V Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS 1.1. Khi nim c bn v chuyn mch nhn
Khi nim chuyn mch nhn tng i n gin. hnh dung vn ny chng ta xem xt mt qu trnh chuyn th in t t h thng my tnh gi n h thng my tnh nhn. Trong mng internet truyn thng (khng s dng chuyn mch nhn) qu trnh chuyn th in t ging ht qu trnh chuyn th thng thng. Cc a ch ch c truyn qua cc thc th tr (cc b nh tuyn). a ch ch s l yu t xc nh con ng m gi tin chuyn qua cc b nh tuyn. Trong chuyn mch nhn, thay v s dng a ch ch quyt nh nh tuyn, mt nhn c gn vi gi tin v c dt trong tiu gi tin vi mc ch thay th cho a ch v nhn c s dng chuyn lu lng cc gi tin ti ch. Mc tiu ca chuyn mch nhn a ra nhm ci thin hiu nng chuyn tip gi tin ca cc b nh tuyn li qua vic s dng cc chc nng gn v phn phi nhn gn vi cc dch v nh tuyn lp mng khc nhau. Thm vo l lc phn phi nhn hon ton c lp vi qu trnh chuyn mch. Trc ht ta xem xt mt s l do c bn hin nay ang c quan tm vi cng ngh mng ni chung v chuyn mch nhn: tc v tr, kh nng ca h thng, tnh n gin, ti nguyn mng, iu khin nh tuyn. Tc v tr Theo truyn thng chuyn tip gi tin da trn phn mm rt chm trong qu trnh x l ti lu lng ln trong internet v intranet, tr ch yu trong qu trnh ny l qu trnh x l nh tuyn tm ra thch hp cho cc gi tin u vo. Mc d c nhiu ci thin trong vic tm kim bng nh tuyn nh k thut tm kim nhanh trong bng nh tuyn, nhng ti lu lng trong bng nh tuyn lun ln hn kh nng x l, v kt qu c th mt lu lng, mt u ni v gim hiu nng ca ton mng (mng IP). Chuyn
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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

mch nhn a ra cch nhn nhn khc vi chuyn tip gi tin IP thng thng, s cung cp gii php c hiu qu gii quyt vn trn. Chuyn mch nhn thc hin qu trnh gn nhn cho gi tin u vo v s dng nhn truy nhp vo bng chuyn tip ti b nh tuyn nh mt ch s ca bng. Qu trnh truy nhp ny ch yu cu duy nht cho mt ln truy nhp ti bng thay v hng ngn qu trnh tm kim c thc hin trong bng nh tuyn truyn thng. Kt qu l cc hot ng ny hiu qu hn v v vy lu lng ngi s dng trong gi tin c gi qua mng nhanh hn, gim tr v thi gian p ng tt hn cho cc chuyn giao thng tin gia cc ngi s dng. Mng my tnh lun tn ti cc hiu ng tr, khi cc gi tin chuyn qua rt nhiu nt v nhiu chng khc nhau ti ch n to ra cc hiu ng tr v bin ng tr. S tch tr trn cc cung on s to ra tr tng th gia cc u cui. Ti mi nt mng a ch ch trong gi tin c xc minh v so snh vi cc a ch ch c kh nng chuyn tip trong bng nh tuyn tm ra ng ra. Cc gi tin chuyn qua cc nt mng to ra tr v bin ng tr khc nhau, tu thuc vo kh nng x l ca b nh tuyn cng nh lu lng ca lung tin s nh hng trc tip n tr ca ngi dng u cui. Mt ln na, c ch hot ng ca chuyn mch nhn vi kh nng chuyn tip gi tin nhanh l gii php gii quyt vn ny. Kh nng ca h thng Tc l mt kha cnh quan trng ca chuyn mch nhn v tng qu trnh x l lu lng ngi dng trn mng internet l vn rt quan trng. Nhng cc dch v tc cao khng phi l tt c nhng g m chuyn mch nhn cung cp. Chuyn mch nhn cn c th cung cp mm do cc tnh nng khc nhau p ng cc nhu cu ca ngi dng internet. Thay v hng lot cc a ch IP (tng ln rt nhanh tng ngy) m b nh tuyn cn phi x l th chuyn mch nhn cho php cc a ch ny gn vi mt hoc vi nhn. tip cn ny lm gim kch thc bng a ch v cho php b dnh tuyn h tr nhiu ngi s dng hn. Tnh n gin

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Mt kha cnh khc ca chuyn mch nhn l s n gin trong cc giao thc chuyn tip gi tin (hoc mt tp cc giao thc), v nguyn tc rt n gin:chuyn tip gi tin da trn nhn ca n. Tuy nhin, cn c k thut iu khin cho qu trnh lin kt nhn v m bo tnh tng quan gia cc nhn vi lung lu lng ngi s dng, cc k thut ny i khi kh phc tp nhng chng khng nh hng n hiu sut ca dng lu lng ngi dng. Sau khi gn nhn vo dng lu lng ngi dng th hot ng chuyn mch nhn c th nhng trong phn mm, trong cc mch tch hp c bit (ASIC) hoc trong b x l c bit. Ti nguyn s dng Cc k thut iu khin thit lp nhn khng chim dng ti nguyn ca mng, cc c ch thit lp ng chuyn mch nhn cho lu lng ngi s dng mt cch n gin l tiu ch thit k cc ng chuyn mch nhn. iu khin nh tuyn nh tuyn trong mng Internet c thc hin vi cc a ch IP (trong mng LAN l cc a ch MAC). Tt nhin, c rt nhiu thng tin c ly ra t gi IP thc hin qu trnh nh tuyn ny, v d nh: Trng kiu dch v IP (TOS), ch s cng...l mt phn quyt nh ca chuyn tip gi tin. Nhng nh tuyn theo ch l phng php thng thng nht hin ang c s dng. nh tuyn theo a ch ch khng phi l phng php lun em li hiu qu. Cc vn lp vng trn mng cng nh s khc nhau v kin trc mng s l tr ngi trn mt bng iu khin chuyn tip gi tin i vi phng php ny. Mt vn t ra na l cc nh cung cp thit b (b nh tuyn, cu). Trin khai phng php nh tuyn da theo a ch ch theo cch ring ca h: mt s thit b cho php nh qun tr mng chia s lu lng, trong khi mt s khc s dng cc trng chc nng TOS, ch s cng... Chuyn mch nhn cho php cc b nh tuyn chn tuyn u ra tng minh theo nhn, nh vy c ch ny cho cung cp mt phng thc truyn ti lu lng qua cc nt v lin kt ph hp vi lu lng truyn ti, cng nh l t ra cc lp lu lng bao gm cc dch v

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

khc nhau (da trn yu cu QOS) trn . Chuyn mch nhn l gii php tt hng lu lng qua mt ng dn, m khng nht thit phi nhn ton b thng tin t giao thc nh tuyn IP ng da trn a ch ch. nh tuyn da trn IP (PRB) thng gn vi cc giao thc chuyn mch nhn, nh FR, ATM hoc MPLS. Phng php ny s dng cc trng chc nng trong tiu gi tin IP nh: trng TOS, ch s cng, nhn dng giao thc IP hoc kch thc ca gi tin. Cc trng chc nng ny cho php mng phn lp dch v thnh cc kiu lu lng v thng c thc hin ti nt u vo mng(thit b g mng). Cc b nh tuyn trn lp li c th s dng cc bt ti thit b g quyt nh x l lung lu lng n, qu trnh x l ny c th s dng cc kiu hng i khc nhau v cc phng php xp hng khc nhau. nh tuyn da trn IP cng cho php nh qun l mng thc hin phng php nh tuyn rng buc. Cc chnh sch da trn IP cho php b nh tuyn: t cc gi tr u tin vo trong tiu gi tin IP. Thit lp bc k tip cho gi tin IP. Thit lp giao din ra cho gi tin. Thit lp bc k tip cho gi tin khi khng tn ti hng trong Chuyn mch nhn khc vi phng php chuyn mch khc ch n l k thut iu khin giao thc chuyn mch IP theo kiu topo. Mt khc s tn ti ca mt a ch mng ch s xc nh qu trnh cp nht trong bng nh tuyn ra mt ng dn chuyn mch hng ti ch. N cng khi qut c cu chuyn tip v trao i nhn, phng php ny khng ch thch hp vi cc mng ln nh ATM, chuyn mch khung, PPP, v n c th thch hp vi bt k phng php ng gi no.

bng nh tuyn.

1.2. Tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
1.2.1. Cc c im c bn ca cng ngh MPLS

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

MPLS l mt cng ngh tch hp tt nht cc kh nng hin ti phn pht gi tin t ngun ti ch qua mng Internet. C th nh ngha MPLS l mt tp cc cng ngh m da vo chun Internet m kt hp chuyn mch lp 2 v nh tuyn lp 3 chuyn tip gi tin bng cch s dng cc nhn ngn c chiu di c nh. Bng cch s dng cc giao thc iu khin v nh tuyn Internet MPLS cung cp chuyn mch hng kt ni o qua cc tuyn Internet bng cch h tr cc nhn v trao i nhn. MPLS bao gm vic thc hin cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP, n cng cung cp cc th tc v cc giao thc cn thit phn phi cc nhn gia cc chuyn mch v cc b nh tuyn . Nghin cu MPLS ang c thc hin di s bo tr ca nhm lm vic MPLS trong IETF. MPLS vn l mt s pht trin tng i mi, n mi ch c tiu chun ho theo Internet vo u nm 2001. S dng MPLS trao i khe thi gian TDM, chuyn mch khng gian v cc bc sng quang l nhng pht trin mi nht. Cc n lc ny c gi l GMPLS (Generalized MPLS ). Nhm lm vic MPLS a ra danh sch vi 8 bc yu cu xc nh MPLS l: 1. MPLS phi lm vic vi hu ht cc cng ngh lin kt d liu. 2. MPLS phi thch ng vi cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng v cc cng ngh Internet c lin quan khc. 3. MPLS cn hot ng mt cch c lp vi cc giao thc nh tuyn. 4. MPLS phi h tr mi kh nng chuyn tip ca bt k nhn cho trc no. 5. MPLS phi h tr vn hnh qun l v bo dng (OA&M). 6. MPLS cn xc nh v ngn chn chuyn tip vng. 7. MPLS cn hot ng trong mng phn cp 8. MPLS phi c tnh k tha. Tm yu cu ny chnh l cc n lc pht trin cn tp trung. Lin quan ti cc yu cu ny, nhm lm vic cng a ra 8 mc tiu chnh m MPLS cn t c:

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

1.

Ch r cc giao thc c tiu chun ho nhm duy

tr v phn phi nhn h tr nh tuyn da vo ch unicast m vic chuyn tip c thc hin bng cch trao i nhn. (nh tuyn unicast ch ra mt cch chnh xc mt giao din; nh tuyn da vo ch ng l nh tuyn da vo a ch ch cui cng ca gi tin).
2.

Ch r cc giao thc c tiu chun ho nhm duy

tr v phn phi nhn h tr nh tuyn da vo ch multicast m vic chuyn tip c thc hin bng cch trao i nhn. (nh tuyn mulicast ch ra hn mt giao din u ra. Nhim v tch hp cc k thut multicast trong MPLS vn ang tip tc nghin cu v pht trin. 3. Ch r cc giao thc c tiu chun ho nhm duy tr v phn phi nhn h tr phn cp nh tuyn m vic chuyn tip c thc hin bng cch trao i nhn , phn cp nh tuyn ngha l hiu bit v topo mng trong h thng t tr. 4. Ch r cc giao thc c tiu chun ho nhm duy tr v phn phi nhn h tr cc ng ring da vo trao i nhn. Cc ng ny c th khc so vi cc ng c tnh ton trong nh tuyn IP thng thng ( nh tuyn trong IP da vo chuyn tip theo a ch ch ). Cc ng ring rt quan trng trong cc ng dng TE. 5. 6. Ch ra cc th tc c tiu chun ho mang Ch ra mt phng php tiu chun nhm hot ng thng tin v nhn qua cc cng ngh lp 2. cng vi ATM mt phng iu khin v mt phng ngi dng. 7. Phi h tr cho cc cng ngh QoS ( nh l giao thc RSVP) (QoS l mt trong nhng ng dng quan trng nht ca MPLS, MPLS QoS s c th mang li nhiu li ch cho mng th h sau).

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

8.

Ch ra cc giao thc tiu chun cho php cc host

s dng MPLS.

1.2.2. Cch thc hot ng ca MPLS


MPLS c th c xem nh l mt tp cc cng ngh hot ng vi nhau phn pht gi tin t ngun ti ch mt cch hiu qu v c th iu khin c. N s dng cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP chuyn tip lp 2 m c thit lp bo hiu bi cc giao thc nh tuyn lp 3.
c cl pt n r mtp hn g uk i i h n mtp hn g c ut p h y n i d yt y n u rt u l c c n r a hn a g n gi hn u vo p tg i r h a u
c ut p h y n i

ht y n u n c u hyn m h c

c cc n g u vo

c cn r c a g u

Hnh 1.1: M hnh chung v chuyn tip v chuyn mch ti b nh tuyn Bi v cc khi nim chuyn tip, chuyn mch v nh tuyn l nhng vn quan trng hiu MPLS hot ng nh th no do vy ta xem xt cc vn ny trong b nh tuyn. Mt thit b nh tuyn chuyn mt gi tin t ngun ti ch bng cch thu hoc nhn, chuyn mch v sau chuyn tip n ti mt thit b mng khc cho ti khi n ti ch cui cng. Hnh 1.1 trn y m t m hnh chung v chuyn tip v chuyn mch ti b nh tuyn. Mt bng iu khin qun l mt tp cc tuyn ng m mt gi c th s dng, trong m hnh ny mt gi i vo thit b mng qua giao din u vo, c x l bi mt thit b m n ch x l thng tin v gi a ra quyt nh logic. Quyt nh logic ny c thng tin c cung cp t mt bng iu khin cha cc tuyn, cho cc thng tin v gi c cp nht ti thit b khc

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

chuyn tip gi thng qua giao din u ra ti ch ca gi tin . y l m hnh n gin nht trong cc cng ngh mng, nhng n l s bt u cho cc vn lin quan ti MPLS c thc hin nh th no. Cc cng ngh MPLS a ra m hnh mi cho vic nh tuyn, chuyn mch v chuyn tip chuyn cc gi tin trong mng Internet. Mt m hnh khc thng gp m t lung cc gi tin gia cc thit b mng (v d nh l cc b nh tuyn) c trnh by trong hnh 1.2 di y.
router A ph m n m ng u i khi n ng ch m ( u khi i n) router B ph m n m ng u i khi n

data

ng chuy n ti p ph cng n

ng nhanh (dli u)

ng chuy n ti p ph cng n

data

Hnh 1.2: M hnh lung gi tin gia hai thit b mng Lu lng trong mng c th c hiu theo hai cch: Lu lng iu khin bao gm cc thng tin v qun l v nh tuyn v Lu lng d liu. Lu lng d liu th i theo ng nhanh v c x l bi cc thit b mng. Trong hu ht cc thit b mng hin i, ng nhanh c thc hin bi phn cng. Bt c thit b mng no nhn mt gi tin khi x l tiu ca gi, thng tin v gi c gi ln ng iu khin x l. Cc gi iu khin bao gm cc thng tin yu cu cho vic nh tuyn gi, bt c mt gi no khc c th cha thng tin iu khin, cc gi d liu u tin vv.. th c x l chm bi v chng cn c kim tra bi phn mm. V l do ny ng x l ny thng c gi l ng chm.

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

M hnh ny rt quan trng hiu MPLS hot ng nh th no bi v n ch ra ng iu khin v ng chuyn tip l ring bit. Kh nng ca MPLS phn bit cc chc nng quan trng ny to ra mt phng php mi lm thay i phng thc truyn cc gi d liu qua mng Internet. MPLS ch yu lm vic vi cc giao thc lp 2 v lp 3, v cng hot ng trong nhiu kiu thit b mng khc. Cng ngh lp 2.5 l mt cch nhn v MPLS. Hnh 1.3 trnh by MPLS c xem nh l mt lp chn m t t n vo gia lp mng v lp lin kt d liu.
l p4 ( l pt y nt i, p in t d n gd n ) -7 ru h , r n i, n g h l p3 pm g (l n ) l p2 (MP ) .5 LS l p 2(linkd li) t u l p1(l pv t l)

Hnh 1.3: Lp chn MPLS M hnh ny ban u xut hin nh l mt m hnh khng ng nht vi OSI, m hnh ny ch ra rng MPLS khng phi l mt lp mi ring, m n l mt phn o ca mt phng iu khin di lp mng vi mt phng chuyn tip nh ca lp lin kt d liu. MPLS khng phi l mt giao thc tng mng mi bi v n khng c kh nng t nh tuyn hoc c s a ch, m yu cu phi c trong giao thc lp 3. MPLS s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn v cch nh a ch ca IP ( vi s iu chnh v m rng cn thit) MPLS cng khng phi l mt giao thc tng lin kt d liu bi v n c thit k hot ng trong nhiu cng ngh lin kt d liu ph bin m cung cp yu cu chc nng v a ch lp 2.

1.2.3. Cc thut ng trong MPLS


B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn v b nh tuyn bin nhn(LSR v LER)

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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Cc thit b tham gia trong k thut giao thc MPLS c th c phn loi thnh cc b nh tuyn bin nhn ( LER) v cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSR). Mt LSR l 1 thit b nh tuyn tc cao trong li ca 1 mng MPLS, n tham gia trong vic thit lp cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn (LSP) bng vic s dng giao thc bo hiu nhn thch ng v chuyn mch tc cao lu lng s liu da trn cc ng dn c thit lp. Mt LER l 1 thit b hot ng ti bin (cnh ) ca mng truy nhp v mng MPLS. Cc LER h tr a cng c kt ni ti cc mng khng ging nhau ( chng hn FR, ATM v Ethernet ) v chuyn tip lu lng ny vo mng MPLS sau khi thit lp LSP, bng vic s dng cc giao thc bo hiu nhn ti li vo v phn b lu lng tr li mng truy nhp ti li ra. LER ng vai tr quan trng trong vic ch nh v hu b nhn, khi lng vo trong hay i ra khi mng MPLS. Lp tng ng chuyn tip (FEC) FEC l mt s biu din ca nhm cc gi, cc nhm ny chia x cng yu cu trong s vn chuyn ca chng. Tt c cc gi trong mt nhm nh vy c cung cp cng cch chn ng ti ch. Ngc li vi chuyn tip IP truyn thng, trong MPLS vic gn mt gi c th vo mt FEC c th c thc hin ch mt ln khi cc gi vo trong mng. Cc FEC da trn cc yu cu dch v i vi mt tp cc gi cho trc hay n gin l i vi mt a ch cho trc (address prefix). Mi LSR xy dng mt bng xc nh xem mt gi phi c chuyn tip nh th no. Bng ny c gi l mt bng thng tin nhn c bn (LIB: Label Information Base), n l t hp cc rng buc FEC vi nhn (FEC-to-label). Tiu MPLS MPLS nh ngha mt tiu c di 32 bit v c to nn ti LSR vo. N phi c t ngay sau tiu lp 2 bt k v trc mt tiu lp 3. y l IP v c s dng bi ingress LSR (LSR vo) xc nh mt FEC, lp ny s c xt li trong vn to nhn. Sau cc nhn c x l bi LSR transit (LSR chuyn tip).

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10

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Khun dng v tiu MPLS c ch ra trong hnh1.4 . N bao gm cc trng sau: Nhn: Gi tr nhn 20 bits, gi tr ny cha nhn MPLS.
Exp: thc nghim s dng 3 bits.

S : bit ngn xp,1 bit, s dng sp xp a nhn.


TTL: Thi gian sng, 8 bit, t ra mt gii hn m cc gi MPLS

c th i qua. iu ny l cn thit bi v trng TTL IP khng c kim tra bi cc transit LSR (LSR chuyn tip).
Ti
Tiu IP m MPLS Tiu lp 2

Nhn (20)

COS (3)

S (1)

TTL (8)

Hnh 1.4: nh dng cu trc nhn

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11

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Ngn xp nhn Chuyn mch nhn c thit k co dn cc mng ln v MPLS h tr chuyn mch nhn vi cc hot ng phn cp, hot ng phn cp ny da trn kh nng ca MPLS c th mang nhiu hn mt nhn trong gi. Ngn xp nhn cho php thit k cc LSR trao i thng tin vi nhau v hnh ng ny ging nh vic to ng vin node to ra mt min mng rng ln v cc LSR khc. C th ni li rng cc LSR khc ny l node bn trong (transit node) mt min v khng lin quan n ng vin node (vi cu to router lin vng) v cc nhn c kt hp trong cc router ny. S x l mt gi nhn c hon thnh c lp vi tng mc ca s phn cp. l cc mc nhn th khng c LSR kim tra. gi hot ng n, cc chng trnh x l thng xuyn da trn nh nhn m khng cn quan tm n nhn trn n lc trc, hoc di n ti thi im hin ti. Kt hp lung FEC Cch thc cc lu lng o n cc FEC ti ra mt FEC ring bit cho mi a ch prefix. Phng php tip cn ny c kt qu trong vic thit lp cc FEC, cc lp ny c nh tuyn ging nhau ti node ra, vic hon i nhn c th ch c s dng chuyn lu lng ti node k tip. Trong tnh hung ny trong min MPLS, cc FEC ring r thc hin th s khng em li hiu qu tt. Trong quan nim ca MPLS, kt hp cc FEC ny to ra mt FEC c trng cho tt c l em li hiu qu nht. Trong tnh hung ny c hai la chn: Lin kt mt nhn ring bit ti mt min FEC. Lin kt mt nhn ti mt min, ng dng nhn kt hp vi tt

c lu lng trong min. Th tc lin kt mt nhn n ti mt min kt hp cc FEC, min ny chnh l mt FEC (trong min MPLS ging nhau) v ng dng cc nhn cho tt c cc lu lng trong min kt hp. S kt hp lm gim bt s lng nhn cn thit iu khin mt cch chi tit mt b gi v cng lm gim i s lng lu lng iu khin phn phi nhn cn thit.
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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Nhn v s lin kt nhn Mt nhn c s dng xc nh ng dn cho mt gi i qua. Mt nhn c mng hay c ng gi vo trong tiu lp 2 cng vi gi. B nh tuyn nhn kim tra cc gi vi ni dung nhn ca n quyt nh chng k tip. Mi khi gi c dn nhn th phn cn li hnh trnh ca gi qua ng trc mng c da trn chuyn mch nhn. Gi tr nhn ch c ngha cc b, ngha l chng ch lin quan n cc chng gia cc LSR. Mi ln mt gi c phn loi nh mt FEC mi hay FEC ang tn ti, mt nhn c phn b cho gi. Cc gi tr nhn nhn c t lp lin kt d liu nm pha di. Vi cc lp lin kt d liu (nh FR hay ATM), cc b nhn dng lp 2 nh l b nhn dng kt ni tuyn s liu (DLCI: Data Link Connection Identifier) trong mng chuyn tip khung (FR: Frame Relay) hay b nhn dng ng o (VPI: Virtual Path Identifier)/ b nhn dng knh o (VCI: Virtual Channel Identifier) trong mng ATM, c th c s dng mt cch trc tip nh cc nhn. Cc gi sau c chuyn tip da vo gi tr nhn ca chng. Cc nhn c rng buc ti mt FEC nh mt kt qu ca mt vi s kin hay chnh sch. iu ny ch ra mt yu cu cho rng buc nh vy. Nhng s kin ny c th hoc l cc rng buc d liu hay cc rng buc iu khin. Rng buc iu khin hay c s dng hn do c cc tnh cht m rng tin tin v c s dng trong nh tuyn thng tin trong mng MPLS. Cc quyt nh phn b nhn c th da trn cc tiu chun chuyn tip, chng hn nh: nh tuyn n hng ch. K thut lu lng. a hng (Multicast). Mng ring o (VPN: Virtual Private Network). QoS. Nhn c th nhng trong tiu ca lp lin kt d liu (VPI/VCI ATM v DLCI FR ) hay trong lp m . To nhn v phn b nhn C mt s phng php c s dng trong vic to nhn:
Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT 13

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Phng php da trn hnh (topology-based): s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn thng thng nh OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) v BGP (Border Gateway Protocol: Giao thc cng ng bin). Phng php da trn yu cu (request-based): s dng iu khin lu lng da trn yu cu nh RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol: Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn). Phng php da trn lu lng (trafic-based): s dng s tip nhn ca gi phn b thng tin nhn. Cc phng php da trn hnh v da trn yu cu l cc v d v cc rng buc nhn iu khin, trong khi phng php da trn lu lng l mt v d v cc rng buc d liu. Kin trc MPLS khng s dng mt phng php bo hiu phn b nhn. Cc giao thc nh tuyn ang tn ti nh BGP, c tng cng mang thng tin nhn trong ni dung ca giao thc. RSVP cng c m rng h tr vic trao i nhn c mang. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force: Nhm c trch k thut Internet) nh ngha mt giao thc c gi l Giao thc phn b nhn (LDP: Label Distribution Protocol) cho bo hiu tng minh v qun l khng gian nhn. S m rng ti giao thc LDP c bn cng c nh ngha h tr nh tuyn tng minh da trn cc yu cu v QoS v CoS. Nhng s m rng ny c lu gi trong nh tuyn da trn rng buc (CR: Constraint-based Routing) - nh ngha giao thc LDP. Mt tng kt v cc lc khc nhau cho vic trao i nhn nh sau: LDP - nh x cc ch IP n hng vo cc nhn. RSVP, CP-LDP - c s dng cho k thut lu lng v t trc ti nguyn. Multicast c lp giao thc - c s dng cho vic nh x nhn cc trng thi a hng. BGP cc nhn bn ngoi (VPN). ng dn chuyn mch nhn (LSP) Mt tp hp MPLS cc thit b c cho php biu din mt min MPLS. Trong mt min MPLS, mt ng dn c thit lp cho
Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT 14

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

mt gi c di chuyn da trn mt FEC. LSP c thit lp trc truyn dn d liu. MPLS cung cp 2 chc nng sau thit lp mt LSP: nh tuyn theo tng chng (hop by hop routing): Mi LSR la chn mt cch c lp tuyn k tip vi mt FEC cho trc. Phng php ny l tng ng vi phng php c s dng hin nay trong cc mng IP. LSR s dng mi giao thc nh tuyn c th nh OSPF, giao din mng-mng ring ATM (PNNI: Private Network to Network Interface), etc nh tuyn tng minh (ER:Explicit Routing): nh tuyn tng minh tng t vi nh tuyn ngun. LSR li vo (ngha l LSR ni m dng d liu bt u ti mng u tin) xc nh danh sch cc node m ER-LSP i qua. ng dn c xc nh c th l khng ti u. Dc ng dn cc ti nguyn c th c t trc m bo QoS cho lu lng d liu. ng ny lm gim nh cho k thut lu lng thng qua mng v cc dch v khc nhau c th c cung cp bng cch s dng cc lung da trn cc chnh sch hay cc phng php qun l mng. LSP thit lp cho mt FEC v bn cht l khng n hng. Lu lng ngc li phi s dng LSP khc. Khng gian nhn Cc nhn c s dng bi mt LSR vi cc rng buc FEC-nhn c lit k nh sau: per platform Cc gi tr l duy nht vt qua ton b LSR. Cc nhn c b tr t mt thng cha nhn chung. Khng c 2 nhn c phn b trn cc giao din khc nhau c cng gi tr. per interface Vng nhn (phm vi nhn) c kt hp vi cc giao din. Cc thng a nhn c nh ngha cho cc giao din v cc nhn c cung cp trn cc giao din ny c nh v t cc thng tch bit. Gi tr cc nhn c cung cp trn cc giao din khc nhau c th ging nhau. Hp nht nhn Dng lu lng n t cc giao din khc nhau c th c kt hp cng nhau v c chuyn mch bng vic s dng mt nhn
Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT 15

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

chung nu chng ang i qua mng hng ti cng mt ch cui cng. iu ny c bit nh l s hp nht lung hay kt hp cc lung. Nu mng truyn ti nm bn di l mt mng ATM, cc LSR c th s dng hp nht ng o (VP) hay knh o (VC). Trong kch bn ny, cc vn an xen t bo xut hin khi nhiu dng lu lng c kt hp trong mng ATM, cn phi c trnh. S duy tr nhn MPLS nh ngha s c x cho cc rng buc nhn nhn c t cc LSR, khng phi l chng k tip vi mt FEC cho. Hai ch c nh ngha: Bo ton (conservative) Trong ch ny, cc rng buc gia mt nhn v mt FEC nhn c t cc LSR khng l chng k tip cho mt FEC cho trc b hu b. Ch ny cn mt LSR duy tr s nhn t hn. y l ch c khuyn khch s dng cho cc LSR ATM. T do (liberal) Trong ch ny, cc rng buc gia mt nhn v mt FEC nhn c t cc LSR khng l chng k tip vi mt FEC cho trc c gi nguyn. Ch ny cho php tng thch nhanh hn vi cc thay i cu hnh v cho php chuyn mch lu lng ti cc LSP khc trong trng hp c s thay i. iu khin nhn MPLS nh ngha cc ch cho vic phn b nhn ti cc LSR ln cn nh sau: c lp (Independent) Trong ch ny, mt LSR nhn dng mt FEC no v ra quyt nh rng buc mt nhn vi mt FEC mt cch c lp phn b rng buc n cc thc th ng mc ca n. Cc FEC mi c nhn dng bt c khi no cc tuyn (route) tr nn r rng vi router. C th t (ordered) Trong ch ny, mt LSR rng buc mt nhn vi mt FEC no nu v ch nu n l router li ra hay n nhn c mt rng buc nhn cho FEC t LSR chng k tip ca n. Ch ny c khuyn ngh s dng cho cc LSR ATM.
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n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

1.2.5. Cc c tnh hot ng, iu hnh ca MPLS


Cc bc sau phi c thc hin vi mt gi d liu i qua mt min MPLS: To v phn b nhn. To bng ti mi router. To cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn (LSP). Chn/tm kim bng nhn. Chuyn tip gi.

Ngun gi d liu ca n ti ch. Trong mt min MPLS khng phi tt c lu lng ngun l cn thit c chuyn qua cng ng dn. Ph thuc vo c tnh lu lng, cc LSP khc nhau c th c to cho cc gi vi cc yu cu CoS khc nhau. Trong hnh 1.5, LER1 l router li vo v LER4 l router li ra
Lung d liu
LER2 LSR2 LER4

Ngun

LER1

LSR1 LSR3

ch Cc yu cu nhn
LER3

Phn phi nhn

Hnh 1.5 : S to ra LSP v chuyn tip cc gi thng qua mt min MPLS Cc bc sau y minh ho hot ng MPLS tc ng ti gi d liu trong mt min MPLS. To & phn b nhn Trc khi lu lng bt u, cc router quyt nh rng buc mt nhn vi mt FEC xc nh v xy dng bng ca chng.
17

Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Trong LDP, cc router ng xung khi to s phn b cc nhn v rng buc nhn/FEC. Ngoi ra, cc c tnh lin quan lu lng v kh nng MPLS c tho thun bng vic s dng LDP. To bng Ti pha nhn cc rng buc nhn, mi LSR to cc li vo trong c s thng tin nhn (LIB : Label Information Base). Ni dung ca bng s xc nh nh x gia mt nhn v mt FEC. nh x gia cng vo v bng nhn u vo ti cng ra v bng nhn u ra. Cc li vo c cp nht bt c khi no s ti m phn v rng buc nhn xy ra. To ng dn chuyn mch nhn . Nh c biu din bng ng ngt qung trong hnh 1.5, cc LSP c to phng ngc li vi s to cc li vo trong cc LIB. Chn/tm kim bng nhn Router u tin (LER1 trong hnh 1.5) s dng bng trong LIB tm chng k tip v yu cu mt nhn ch FEC xc nh. Cc router ch ln lt s dng nhn tm chng k tip. Mi ln gi chm ti LSR li ra (LER4), nhn c xo b v gi c cung cp cho ch. Chuyn tip gi . LER1 c th khng c nhn no cho gi ny khi l ln u tin xy ra yu cu ny. Trong mt mng IP, n s tm s ph hp a ch di nht tm chng k tip. Cho LSR1 l chng k tip ca LER1. LER1 s khi to mt yu cu nhn chuyn ti LSR1. Yu cu ny s pht thng qua mng. Mi router trung gian s nhn mt nhn t router pha sau n bt u t LER2 v i ln trn cho n LER1. Thit lp LSP c ch bo bi ng xanh da tri gy khc bng vic s dng LDP hay bt k giao thc bo hiu no khc. Nu k thut lu lng c yu cu, CR-LDP s c s dng trong vic quyt nh thit lp ng dn thc s chc chn yu cu QoS/CoS c tun th. LER1 s chn nhn v chuyn tip gi ti LSR 1.

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18

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS

Chng 1: Tng quan

Mi LSR ln lt, ngha l LSR2 v LSR3, s kim tra nhn vi cc gi nhn c, thay th n vi cc nhn u ra v chuyn tip n. Khi gi ti LER4, n s xo b nhn bi v gi s ri khi min MPLS v phn pht ti ch.

1.2.6. Kin trc ngn xp trong MPLS


Cc thnh phn MPLS ch yu c th c phn chia thnh cc phn sau: Cc giao thc nh tuyn (IP) lp mng. Chuyn tip bin ca lp mng. Chuyn tip da trn nhn mng li. Lc nhn. Giao thc bo hiu phn b nhn. K thut lu lng. Kh nng tng thch vi cc lc chuyn tip lp 2 khc nhau (ATM, FR, PPP: Point to Point Protocol). Hnh 1.6 m t cc giao thc c th c s dng cho cc hot ng MPLS. Module nh tuyn c th l bt c giao thc no trong cc giao thc cng nghip ph bin. Ph thuc vo mi trng hot ng, module nh tuyn c th l OSPF, BGP hay PNNI ca ATM, etcModule LDP s dng TCP truyn dn tin cy cc d liu iu khin t LSR ny n LSR khc trong sut mt phin. LDP cng duy tr LIB. LDP s dng UDP trong sut qu trnh khm ph ca n v trng thi hot ng. Trong trng thi ny, LSP c gng nhn dng cc phn t ln cn v cng nh s c mt ca chnh cc tn hin ca n vi mng. iu ny c thc hin thng qua trao i gi hello.

Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT

19

n tt nghip i hc cng ngh MPLS Routing LDP

Chng 1: Tng quan CR LDP

TCP

UDP

IP Fwd

LIB

MPLS Fwd

PHY

Hnh 1.6: Ngn xp giao thc MPLS IP Fwd l module chuyn tip IP c in, n tm kim chng k tip bng vic so snh ph hp vi a ch di nht trong cc bng ca n. Vi MPLS, iu ny c thc hin ch bi cc LER. MPLS Fwd l module chuyn tip MPLS, n so snh mt nhn vi mt cng u ra v chn s ph hp nht vi mt gi cho.Cc lp c biu din trong hp vi ng gp khc c th c thc hin bng phn cng hot ng nhanh v c hiu qu.

1.3. Tng kt chng


Trong chng 1 trnh by mt s vn c bn ca chuyn mch nhn a giao thc- MPLS, mt s vn lin quan n cng ngh ny nh: Khi nim, cch thc hot ng, cc thut ng, hot ng, sng t mt cch khi qut nht v cng ngh MPLS. Chng tip theo se trnh by v cch thc qun l mng vin thng qua cc h thng qun l hin hnh.

Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT

20

n tt nghip i hc trong mng vin thng

Chng 2: Qun l mng

Chng 2: Qun l mng trong mng vin thng

2.1. Gii thiu chung v qun l mng.


Cc thit b c trin khai trn mng c thng minh ngy cng cao, v vy mt iu rt th v khi suy ngm v qun l mng. Nu cc thit b rt thng minh th ti sao phi lo lng v vn qun l mng?. Khi cc phn t mng (NE) khng c kh nng t gii quyt, th nhiu mng doanh nghip a ra mt h thng qun l mng (NMS) ring cho h. y l mt s nguyn nhn gii thch ti sao qun l l mt vn ca doanh nghip v cc nh cung cp dch v SP cn:
Mt NMS duy tr cc bn tin hu dng v kim tra hiu qu

ca hnh ng (action) cu hnh trc .


NMS c th d dng hu dng cho cc dch v mng din rng

ging nh k thut lu lng, QoS, lp k hoch, sao d tr/ lu tr (ca cu hnh d liu).
NMS cho php truy nhp nhanh bng cch mc nh mng

mt vi phng php x l. Cho v d, nu mt mng cha ng nhiu mch o c nh ATM (PVCs) v c s tht bi trong lin kt, sau cc thit b chuyn mch khng t ng phc hi bi v cc PVC khng s dng bo hiu. Trong tnh hung ny, s can thip ca ngi qun l mng ph thuc vo s lu tr cc lin kt b ph v, khi c s lu tr ny, sau cc lin kt s c kt ni li. V d ,cc doanh nghip c th tng ti hn li vi gi tr quyt nh ph hp vi tnh nghim ngt ca hp ng dch v.
NMS h tr cu hnh mng cc mng sau khi phn cng c

thm vo. Khi mng m rng, cc thit b chuyn mch mi v cc router mi c thm vo, n cn thit mang cc thit b mi ti cc dch v nhanh. Mt h thng qun l mng c th h tr x l trn lu lng, cho php mt s lng ln cc hot ng t ng, ging nh cng mt lc c th to ra hng trm (thm ch hng nghn) cc mch o nh ATM PVCs hoc MPLS LSPs.

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21

n tt nghip i hc trong mng vin thng

Chng 2: Qun l mng

Cc h thng qun l mng c th cung cp iu khin cho

mng rng qua cc i tng h tr cho cc dch v. H thng qun l c th to ra hng nghn bn tin thc v vit chng ln c s d liu dch v. Cc thu bao o sau c th cp nht thng tin nh vic chng kt ni n mng. Mt iu rt tt ca NMS l m rng ci nhn tng quan v ngi vn hnh. Qun l mng cung cp mt phng tin gi cho cc mng chy theo th t. N bao gm lp k hoch , m hnh v hot ng chung, n cng c th cung cp cc lnh v iu khin phng tin. Ni rng ra, cc vng chc nng ph thuc vo mng em li hiu qu: Li: Tt c cc thit b ti vi im c th b li v cc kt ni o, cc lin kt, cc giao din c th i ln hoc xung. iu ny c th l tt c cc nguyn nhn pht sinh li d liu mng. Cu hnh: Tt c cc thit b hng ti s ph thuc vi kiu cu hnh. S thit lp cu hnh c th l ghi v c t cc thit b. B m: Thc n cho dch v l mt thnh phn quan trng trong qun l mng doanh nghip. Chc nng ny c th np sau vic s dng ti nguyn. Ging nh thit b dial-up, mt phn o l rt tt cho vic kim li thc n qui thun bi mt nh cung cp dch v. S thc thi: S ngi s dng v bng tn th cn ln mnh, l yu t cn thit cho s thc thi. S bo mt: S tn cng vo mng c th bao gm: truy cp tri php, thay i d liu, hoc n cp v hn th na. S bo mt l cn thit m bo mng c bo v.

2.2. Cc yu culc bn vi mtCng ty khai thc qun l kin trc Min qun H thng mng
qun l truyn thng doanh nghip vin thng

Khch hngiu Khch


hng Chc

nng NE OAM
Tng i c quan B ghp knh

khin ng i s dng cui /ngi s dng cui

Nh cung cp dch v
Thnh phn mng
Cc thnh phn dch v Cc thnh phn ti nguyn

Qun k dch v

Qun l ti nguyn

Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT


Min b qun l

22

n tt nghip i hc trong mng vin thng

Chng 2: Qun l mng

Hnh 2.1: Mi quan h trong h thng qun l mng Khi pht trin mt kin trc qun l mng khc phc s km hiu qu, gi thnh cao, v phc tp ca mi trng mng hin ti, ngi ta xem xt nhiu kha cnh v kinh doanh, v k thut v dch v. Cc kha cnh v dch v: - Cho php nhanh chng trin khai cc dch v mi trong c mi trng mng v mi trng h thng qun l mng. - Thc y vic khi to dch v nhanh hn H thng qun l mng phi c kin trc phn tn, theo kin trc hin i mt cch mm do, cho php nh cung cp dch v c th d dng tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng trong tng lai. Cc i hi ny bao gm: Trin khai v khi to dch v, tnh cc v in ho n, tnh nng truy nhp trc tuyn mt cch nhanh chng. Phn mm v cc tnh nng mi phi bo o rng dch v khch hng phi c tnh bng pht ch khng phi bng ngy hay tun. Cc kha cnh v cng ngh: - Thch thc v kh nng qun l v phn phi d liu mt cch hiu qu trn ton mng. - Chm dt kiu mng chng cho vt l hin ti cn thit cho vic trin khai cc ngun ti nguyn mng, cc dch v mng v cc h thng qun l mng lin quan. Qun l d liu i hi mt khon chi ph ln t pha nh cung cp dch v bo m tnh chnh xc, tnh d phng trong ton b hot ng ca nh khai thc. Do vy kin trc qun l mng mi
23

Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT

n tt nghip i hc trong mng vin thng

Chng 2: Qun l mng

phi c kh nng phn phi s liu trn tt c cc lp ca mi trng qun l mng h tr cc thnh phn mng thng minh INE x l s liu v chyn tip thng tin cho cc h thng qun l mng trn c s ng cp peer-to-peer. Cn phi t b vic qun tr cc c s d liu d phng mt cch th cng.

2.3. Cc thnh phn cng c bn trong mt h qun tr mng


Chng ta m t cc thnh phn cng bn trong chng phi hp vi nhau to nn mt NMS. Ging nh chng ta thy, qun l mng l phc tp. y c nhiu gii php cho s pht trin NMS. Trong chng ny m t mt cu trc c th. Vng phn cng NMS di y s c m t gm c: - Thnh phn Server Side. - Mng thu khng ng b - Mng gi - Truy nhp c s d liu - Thnh phn Client Side - Thnh phn Middleware - Miu t d liu - Giao din pha Bc Knh ngoi bng l mt vn ng ch bi v n cho php lu lng qun l mng s dng s dng knh tch ri t mt knh s dng cho d liu (khi nim ny tng t vi cc ng bo hiu c thc hin trong cc mng SS7). iu ny gip cho trnh cc vn tc ng song hnh. S tc nghn lu lng dch v lm s qun l cc knh kh khn. Server c trng cung cp cc chc nng di y: . Bo dng Client cc yu cu ca ngi s dng . a ra cc hot ng cung cp ging nh cch qun l Agent MIB (Chn vo bng cc thc th, cp nht hoc xo b cc i tng tn ti)

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

Client 1

Telnet / HTTP/ HTTP S/ IPSec

(ti OSS)

C s d liu

SNMP Set/Gets/ Responses

NMS SNMP
Mng vin thng

Knh ngoi bng

Hnh 2.2: Cc thnh phn NMS v cc lung d liu . Cung cp cc dch v c bit, ging nh NE c s v cu hnh sao lu tr c s d liu, khng lu tr v phn phi. . iu khin thng bo t mng. Tt c cc Server c cc chc nng h tr c th cho a ra kt qu trong truy cp d liu c s. Cc khun dng d liu c s gn kt vi nhau c mt h thng tng th.
Telnet to A
H thng qun l mng

Interfa ce A
Server u cui (vi SNMP Agent)

Mode mX PST N Mode mY T3 2x T1 T 1

Kt ni cho s

Hnh 2.3: Qun l giao din terminal- server. Client hng ti s dng c s d liu ngay lp tc thay v da vo Server qun l c s d liu. Bn ghi Client hot ng ging nh to ra FR hoc cc mch o ATM.

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

Client lu tr tiu ca lch trnh hot ng v kt hp cc kt qu. Cc Client c th da trn tiu chun trnh duyt Web, y c th c nhiu Client (c kh nng l 100 nt hoc mng rng ln), y s lng mng x l l mt quyt nh thit k quan trng. Chng ta tha nhn rng ngi s dng i khi mun truy nhp h thng menu, cung cp bi kt ni t xa. Mt kt ni cho l mt thit b cho php cc knh TDM l chun b cho cc mch bng tn cao hn hoc thp hn. Hnh 2.3, minh ho 1 T3 vo ra khi n l 1 T1 v T1s c trch ra v truyn dn ti trong hng khc. Trong v d ny, kt ni dc cho l mt ng ring, n cung cp mt giao din ni tip cho qun l mng s dng mt h thng menu text hn l SNMP. N c th tm thng qua modem X kt ni vi giao din A trn server u cui ni ht. Ngi s dng kt ni n giao din A s dng telnet v c th bt u gi cc lnh n modem X, cho v d, quay s ti modem X theo cch ny, trc khi giao din A c th s dng, n phi c cu hnh. V server u cui cho php s dng SNMP thit lp nhn cu hnh t cc giao din ni tip ca chung. V vy, ngi s dng mun cu hnh giao din no th gi tr i tng MIB cho giao din gm: . Bitrate (tc bit) . Parity (chn l) . S ca bit d liu . S ca bit bt u . S bit Stop Cch qun l OSI s dng m hnh hng i tng ca cc thng tin qun l. Cc biu hin c quan tm (nhiu, li, di ca hng ch) l cc dng khc nhau ca mt chui thi gian. Ngi ta c th nh ngha mt nhm vt th b qun l chung m t cc s liu ca cc hot ng v cc chui thi gian tnh ra cc chc nng ca chui thi gian v d cc phin bn). Vt th b qun l cng c th cung cp cc thng bo v nhng s kin chung (khi mt s chc nng ca chui thi gian vt qu ngng). Nhm vt th b qun l sry thi gian chung c th c phn ra thnh cc nhm

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

vt th to ra cc phin bn ca cc vt th qun l ny trong c s d liu ca thit b. Agent thit b c th gim st tng ng x ca mng v ghi li cc gi tr tng ng trong cc phin bn vt th qun l ny. Hn th na, h thng c th ngh cc Agent nhn thng bo v cc s kin m t nhng thay i ln ca t l li, hoc ca hng ch qu y ca b vi x l.

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2.4. Qun l mng theo m hnh OSI


2.4.1. Khung lm vic ca m hnh OSI
Mc tiu ca m hnh OSI (Open System Interconnection) l m bo rng bt k mt x l ng dng no u khng nh hng ti trng thi nguyn thu ca dch v, hoc cc cc x l ng dng c th giao tip trc tip vi cc h thng my tnh khc trn cng lp (nu cc h thng cng c h tr theo tiu chun ca m hnh OSI). M hnh OSI cung cp mt khung lm vic tiu chun cho cc h thng. Cu trc phn lp c s dng trong m hnh v c 7 lp, c th phn loi thnh 2 vng chnh. Lp thp cung cp cc dch v u cui - ti - u cui p ng phng tin truyn s liu (cc chc nng hng v pha mng). Lp cao cung cp cc dch v ng dng p ng truyn thng tin (cc chc nng hng v ngi s dng). M hnh OSI c th chia thnh ba mi trng iu hnh Mi trng mng: lin quan ti cc giao thc, trao i cc bn tin v cc tiu chun lin quan ti cc kiu mng truyn thng s liu khc nhau. Mi trng OSI: Cho php thm vo cc giao thc hng ng dng v cc tiu chun cho php cc h thng kt cui trao i thng tin ti h thng khc theo hng m. Mi trng h thng thc: xy dng trn m hnh OSI v lin quan ti c tnh dch v v phn mm ca ngi sn xut, n c pht trin thc hin nhim v x l thng tin phn tn trong thc t. Cc c tnh ca mi trng iu hnh OSI o Chc nng ca cc lp, giao thc nh ngha tp hp ca nhng quy tc v nhng quy c s dng bi lp giao tip vi mt lp tng ng tng t trong h thng t xa khc. o Giao tip gia cc lp. o Mi lp cung cp mt tp nh ngha ca nhng dch v ti lp k cn. o Mt thc th chuyn thng tin phi i qua tng lp. Chc nng qun l h thng s c thc hin qua cc lp ca m hnh OSI. N chnh l mt tp chc nng nh ngha bi nh qun
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l. Tp chc nng ny ph thuc vo yu cu qun l v c cha trong ng dng. H thng qun l mng theo OSI l mt tp cc tiu chun qun tr mng c thc hin bi ISO. Cc khuyn ngh X cho mng d liu v truyn thng h thng m nh ngha cho cc tiu chun qun l. V d : X.700-X.709 kin trc khung qun l h thng, X.710-X.719 giao thc v dch v truyn thng qun l, X.720-X.729 Cu trc ca thng tin qun l. Trao i thng tin qun l: c thc hin theo 3 hng: Qun l h thng, qun l lp v iu hnh lp. Nhim v qun l h thng c thc hin t lp ng dng v s dng khi nim thc th ng dng qun l h thng (SMAE) qun tr h thng. Giao thc lp ng dng thng c coi l giao thc mnh nht, n c kh nng trao i nhiu thng tin qun l, p ng tt cc yu cu qun l, l cch tip cn nhanh nht ca ngi qun l h thng vi h thng. Nhim v qun l lp ca m hnh OSI thc hin qun l cc i tng thuc lp, v trao i thng tin qua h thng giao thc ti cc lp k cn. i tng b qun l, qun l thng tin v MIB. i tng b qun l nm trong cc lp khc nhau thuc m hnh OSI, v thng tin qun l nm trong c s d liu thng tin qun l (MIB). MIB c coi l mt dng c s d liu, ni dung ca c s d liu ny khng cha i tng b qun l m ch cha cc thng tin lin kt vi cc i tng ny. h thng qun l lp thc hin duy tr mi lin kt gia i tng b qun l v thng tin trong c s d liu. V vy, nu xut hin li ti qun l lp th thng tin trong c s d liu khng phn nh ng thc trng qun l ca h thng.
O L : M i t n g q u n l

C s L M t h n g t i n q u n l L M Q u n l l p

Hnh 2.4: Cc thnh phn ca h thng OSI n

2.4.2. Khi qut v qun l h thng theo OSI (SMO)


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Chng 2: Qun l mng

c nh ngha nm 1991, a ra cc khi cnh qun l nh sau: thng tin, t chc, chc nng v truyn thng. Kha cnh thng tin ca m hnh qun l h thng xem xt ti cc ti nguyn h thng qun l ( cc i tng b qun l), chng c nh ngha nh l cc thc th lp, cc u ni, cc thit b phn cng. h thng qun l s ch xem xt ti cc c tnh ca i tng qun l thc hin chc nng qun l h thng.
i tng qun l iu hnh
c tnh

Thng bo

v hnh vi

Hnh 2.5: Qun l i tng theo m hnh OSI V vy, cc nh qun tr mng c th hon ton a ra cc cu hnh khc nhau trong cch thc qun l ca h. Kha cnh t chc qun l ca m hnh OSI theo cch t chc tp trung. Theo cch ny, mt khi qun l c th iu khin mt vi agent. Mi trng qun l OSI c th chia thnh nhiu vng qun l. Cc khu vc ny da theo yu cu chc nng (v d nh, bo mt, tnh cc, qun l li) v cc yu cu khc nh v tr a l, cng ngh mng ng dng. Cc tiu chun ny theo b tiu chun ca ISO.
iu hnh manage r Thng bo

Agent

Agent

Agent

Agent

Hnh 2.6: T chc qun l ca m hnh OSI theo kiu tp trung Kha cnh chc nng c chia thnh 5 vng gm c qun l li, qun l cu hnh, qun l tnh ton, qun l bo mt. Kha cnh truyn thng c nh ngha trong chun giao thc dch v thng tin qun l chung (CMIS). CMIS nh ngha cc dch v c bn nh : khi phc thng tin qun l, thay i c tnh ca i tng b qun l (agent), xo b v to ra cc i tng qun l mi, bo cc cc s kin trong qu trnh qun l.

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Vai tr Manager CMIP
SMAE Managed objects

Chng 2: Qun l mng


Vai tr Agent

SMAE

Hnh 2.7: Trao i thng tin gia manager- Agent

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

2.5. Giao thc qun tr mng n gin SNMP


Giao thc qun tr mng n gin (SNMP)c thit k trn m hnh Manager/Agent. c gi l n gin v theo m hnh ny, Agent i hi phn mm ti thiu. Hu ht cc chc nng c cha trong h qun tr. Kin trc c bn ca SNMP c ch ra trn hnh 2.8 sau y. Manager SNMP to ra kt ni ti Agent thc hin cc lnh trn thit b mng t xa, nhn thng tin qun l cc thit b thng qua h tng mng truyn thng. MIB nm ti cc Agent gm cc bin nhn dang SNMP. Tu thuc vo cc lnh c gi ti m Agent s c cc tc ng thch hp. H qun tr gi cc lnh get, set, getnext tm kim cc bin n hoc i tng hoc thit lp gi tr ca mt bin n. H b qun tr gi thng bo ca s kin gi l trap, khi xy ra vt ngng.
H thng qun l mng SNMP Thit b qun l mng SNMP Qun l ti nguyn ng dng qun l mng get set .response SNMP Manager UDP IP Link Mng vin thng trap Cc bn tin SNMP MIB i tng qun l SNMP get set .response SNMP Manager UDP IP Link trap

Hnh 2.8: Kin trc c bn ca SNMP

2.5.1. Giao thc SNMPv1


Phin bn c gii thiu ln u nm 1990. (SNMP,RFC 1157) s dng UDP (RFC768) trao i bn tin qua cng 161,162 (truy vn, trap) .
32

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

SNMPv1 cung cp 4 iu hnh : 2 iu hnh khi phc d liu, 1 t d liu v 1 cho thit b gi thng bo. Get, s dng ly thuc tnh i tng Get-next ly thuc tnh i tng thng qua cy MIB. Set, s dng thay i thuc tnh i tng. Trap, thng bo khn cp c gi i t Agent (ngng cnh bo). Cc iu hnh trn c nhng vo trong bn tin SNMP. Khun dng bn tin nh sau: Trng Version ch th phin bn ca SNMP (SNMPv1:0);
Version Community SNMP PDU

Type

Requid

Veriable binding

Hnh 2.9: Khun dng bn tin SNMPv1 Trng Community l mt chui xc nhn pasword cho c tin trnh ly v thay i d liu. SNMP PDU cha iu hnh gm: kiu iu hnh (get, set), yu cu p ng (cng s th t vi bn tin gi i) n cho php ngi iu hnh gi nhiu bn tin ng thi (requid). Bin ghp gm cc thit b c c t trong RFC 2358 v cha c gi tr t ti i tng. Bn tin TRAP c gi i t Agent, mt thit b c th gi i cc thng tin nh: dung lng b nh, ngi s dng li truy nhp Log in. Cc thng tin ny lm gim ti x l cho cc manager khi n khng phi kim tra nh k. Cu trc thng tin qun l (SMI, RFC 1155) l mt tp cc lut c t thng tin qun l trn chnh thit b. Cc i tng b qun l c sp xp theo hnh cy. Chnh v vy m thng tin trong SNMP PDU c dng nh sau:

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iso org dod internet

Chng 2: Qun l mng

directory

Mib-2(1) interfac e

private

system

at(3)

Ipv4

sysdecr Sysobje ct syscont act sysnam e syslocat ion sysServi ce Systime

Hnh 2.10: Cu trc thng tin SNMP PDU i tng sysUptime c nhn dng 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3 v nm trong nhnh 1.3.6.1.2. Nhn dng ny c gi l nhn dng i tng v c s dng truy nhp i tng trong MIB. (Ch c l c truy nhp )

2.5.2. Cu trc SNMPv3


SNMPv3 (FRC2575) nh a ch cho hai vng chnh, qun tr v bo mt.
Thc th SNMP SNMP Engine
Dispatcher H thng con x l bn tin H thng con bo mt
H thng con iu khin truy nhp

Cc ng dng
B to lnh B thu thng bo H thng con chuyn tip Proxy

B phc p lnh

B to thng bo

Khc

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Hnh 2.11: Kin trc thc th ca SNMPv3. Cc thnh phn ca c cu SNMP gm c : iu phi (Dispatcher) Phn h x l bn tin (Message Processing Subsystem) Phn h bo mt (Security Subsystem) Phn h iu khin truy nhp (Access Control Subsystem) Phn h iu phi x l bn tin gi v nhn, khi n nhn c bn tin n s xc nh phin bn ca SNMP v gi bn tin ti phn h x l bn tin tng ng, phn h x l bn tin chia thnh 3 module nh sau:
H thng con x l bn tin
M hnh x l bn tin SNMP v1 M hnh x l bn tin SNMP v2c M hnh x l bn tin SNMP v3 M hnh x l bn tin khc

Hnh 2.12: Phn h x l bn tin. Gi s phin bn SNMP s dng l v3. Model SNMPv3 tch phn d liu ca bn tin gi ti phn h bo mt gii nn v nhn thc. Phn h bo mt cng c nhim v nn d liu. Cu trc module ca phn h bo mt nh sau:
H thng con bo mt
M hnh bo mt kiu ngi dng M hnh bo mt kiu chia s M hnh bo mt kiu khc

Hnh 2.13: Cu trc module ca phn h bo mt. SNMPv3 tng thch hon ton vi SNMPv1v SNMPv2, n gm m hnh bo mt da trn ngi s dng v m hnh bo mt chung x l SNMPv1,v2. Cu trc module ny n gin khi thm vo cc module bo mt dng khc trong qu trnh pht trin. Khi s liu c tch ra khi PDU v c gi ti ng dng thch hp qua phn h iu khin truy nhp. Phn h iu khin truy nhp chu trch nhim xc nh i tng b qun l v cch thc truy nhp ti n. Hin nay ch c mt m hnh iu khin truy nhp (2003) nhng n c th m rng trong tng lai:
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H thng con iu khin truy nhp
M hnh iu khin truy nhp kiu quan st M hnh iu khin truy nhp kiu khc

Chng 2: Qun l mng

M hnh iu khin truy nhp kiu khc

Hnh 2.14: Cu trc phn h iu khin truy nhp. M hnh iu khin truy nhp c th nhn thy (RFC 2575) quyt nh ngi s dng no c th truy nhp (c, hoc t trng thi) cho i tng qun l. M hnh ny c gi t ng dng khi i tng c truy nhp. Cc ng dng ca SNMPv3 (RFC 2273) l cc ng dng ni trong cc thc th SNMPv3. Chng tr li cc bn tin SNMP nhn c, to ra thng bo, c 5 kiu bn tin: 1. Command Generators To ra cc lnh SNMP c hoc t li d liu. 2. Command Responders Tr li cc lnh v cung cp truy nhp ti d liu. 3. Notification Originators Khi to bn tin trap. 4. Notification Receivers Nhn v x l bn tin trap. 5. Proxy Forwarders Chuyn cc bn tin gia cc thc th SNMP.

2.5.3. iu hnh SNMP


n v d liu giao thc (PDU) l mt khun dng bn tin m manager v agent s dng trao i cc thng tin cc iu hnh sau y l chung cho tt c cc phin bn ca SNMP hin ang s dng: GET GET-NEXT GET-BULK (SNMPv2,SNMPv3) SET GET-RESPONSE TRAP

NOTIFICATION (SNMPv2, SNMPv3) INFORM (SNMPv2, SNMPv3)

REPORT (SNMPv3)

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2.6. C s thng tin qun l trong SNMP


2.6.1. Cu trc MIB
MIB cung cp m hnh c s d liu th bc cho cc thng tin b qun l. Cc thng tin b qun l c ghi trong cc bin s b qun l v lu tr ti cc l ca mt cy tnh. SNMP tn dng cy ng k ca ISO nh l mt th mc thng tin b qun l. Nh minh ho ti hnh 2.15, ngi ta s dng cy ng k nh du cc nh ngha ca cc tiu chun khc nhau.
Gc

CCITT (1) Nh khai thc mng Cu hi (1) C quan (2) Khuyn ISO (1) Qun l (2) ngh (0) Tiu chun (0) Ftam (8751)

Hn hp ISO-CCITT (2)

C quan ng k (1)

Thnh vin (2)

T chc c xc nh(3) dod (6)

Internet (1) Th mc (1) Qun l (2) mib (1) Th nghim(3) T nhn (4) Doanh nghip (1)

Hnh 2.15: Cy ng k ca OSI MIB II Mi nt thuc cy c nh du bng mt tn (c im nhn dng chung) v mt s (c im nhn dng tng i). Mt nt c xc nh mt cch duy nht bng cch ni cc s trn ng gc ca n. V d mt cy con c nhn l Internet c xc nh bi ng 1.3.6.1. Cy con ny c t trong t chc Internet ghi li cc tiu chun ca n.

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Chng 2: Qun l mng


Internet (1) [1,3,6,1]

Th mc (1)

Qun l (2) Th nghim (3), (4) Ring (4) ISO (1)

at (3) ip (4) H Giao din Imcp (5)udp (7) cmot (9) trans (10) thng(1)) SysObjectld (2) SysDes (1) (0) (0) ifTable (2) ifentry (1) tcp (6) Egp (8)

SNMP (11)

Bng ng kt ni TCP (13) Bng ng kt ni TCP (13)

Hnh 2-17: Cy MIB Internet Cy Internet c ba cy con lin quan n qun l, l: qun l,th nghim v ring. Cc cy con ny c s dng ghi li cc MIB khc nhau theo chun Internet (MIB-II), cc chun MIB ang c xem xt (RMON) v MIB thuc sn phm t nhiu nh ch to thit b khc nhau (nh hnh 2.16 ):Tt nht l ta nn xem xt cu trc ca cy nh mt phng tin thc hin hai mc ch. Th nht, n cho ta mt c im nhn dng duy nht ca cc thng tin b qun l. V d hnh 2-16 ch ra mt ng 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1 dn ti t bo sysDesc cha cc thng tin m t v

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

h thng. Th hai, n cho php nhm cc thng tin lin quan ti mt cy con. V d ti hnh 2-16, tt c mi thng tin b qun l gn di h thng Internet c ghi di cy con 1.3.6.1.2.1.1. hy nh rng cu trc th mc ca thng tin b qun l l tnh. V tr ca thng tin trn cy MIB c xc nh ti thi im ngi ta thit k MIB. Hnh 2.16 minh ho t chc ca cy MIB-II Internet. Mc tiu ca MIB ny l cung cp cc bin s b qun l chung x l MIBII ra thnh 11 cy chc nng con. Mi cy con i din cho mt nhm bin s lin quan trc tip n thc th b qun l (thc th giao thc nh IP hoc TCP). Cc cy ny li tip tc c a ra thnh cc cy con di na. Ti y ca cy l l, l c s dng nh du cc bin s b qun l thuc mt loi nht nh. Mt s l (nh sysDesc m t h thng) ch nh du mt thi im duy nht ca bin s b qun l v ch i hi mt t bo lu tr duy nht. Nhng l khc (nh tepConnState m t trng thi mt ng kt ni TCP) c th ch dn nhiu thi im khc nhau. Cc thi im khc nhau ny c t chc thnh cc ct t bo. Cc ct ny to thnh mt bng m cc hng thuc bng ny biu din nhng thi im khc nhau ca mt thc th (nh mt ng kt ni TCP hoc mt giao din). Vic nh ch dn truy nhp i vi cc thi im n l mt vn n gin. T bo lin quan ti l nh vy c coi l con ca l v c nh nhn l O V d, bin s b qun l cha s nhn dng vt th ca h thng (t bo bn di sysObjectld) c xc nh bi 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.2.0. iu ny c ngha l ng ti sysObjectld lin kt vi O. Tuy nhin, cc s liu c xp thnh bng li i hi mt c ch ch dn phc tp hn, bi v ta cn xc nh mi hng trong bng mt cch duy nht (mt thi im ca mt thc th). Cc thi im ca mt thc th b qun l cho trc (v d nh giao din) c th thay i khc nhau gia cc h thng hoc theo thi gian. Ngi ta s dng bng h tr s thay i ng . Agent c th b sung thm hoc xo i cc u vo mi. Do ta ch khng th nh ch dn cho cc hng ca bng mt cch tnh. Bng cc ct cha kho, ngi ta c th xc nh u vo ca bng

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

mt cch duy nht. Ngi ta s dng ni dung ca cc ct cha kho nh l ch dn. C kh nng c s dng trong bng giao din l a ra mt ch dn c bit ng vai tr nh cha kho. Gi tr lu tr trong ct ny cho php ta xc nh cc hng ct mt cch duy nht. V d, gi s hng th ba thuc bng giao din c gi tr ifIndex l 12, khi ifInError.12 xc nh phn t th ba thuc ct ifInError. C mt kh nng na c s dng trong bng ng kt ni TCP, l s dng mt s t ct ng vai tr nh cha kho. Bn ct <a ch ni b ng kt ni TCP, Cng ni b ng kt ni TCP, a ch t xa ng kt ni TCP, Cng t xa ng kt ni> cho ta mt cha kha ca bng ng kt ni TCP. Gi tr ny c kt hp sau c im nhn dng ca ct ch dn gi tr thi im tng ng mt cch duy nht. V d, gi s rng hng th ba ca bng kt ni TCP cha cc gi tr ca cha kho nh sau: (128.10.15.12,173,128.32.50.01,130). Trng thi ca ng kt ni TCP tng ng c xc nh bng cch ghp c im nhn dng ct trng thi ng kt ni TCP [1.3.6.1.2.1.6.13.1.1] vi gi tr ca bn ct ch dn 128.10.15.12.173.128.32.50.01,130. R rng l k thut nh ch dn ny c th dn n vic xc nh v truy nhp cc bin s b qun l khng hiu qu. n gin ho vic truy nhp, trong phin bn SNMPv2 ngi ta ci tin k thut nh ch dn i vi s liu dng bng. Tm li, trong giao thc SNMP, cc c s thng tin qun l MIB c t chc di dng c s d liu th bc vi s liu b qun l c lu tr ti cc l ca cy. Cc cy con c s dng biu th ni dung logic, cn cc bin s b qun l c lu tr ti cc l cy. Ngi ta s dng cc bin s ny biu din cc thi im ca thc th tng ng. Cu trc ca cy c s d liu ny c cc nh thit k MIB nh ra mt cch tnh. Ch c s thay i m rng trong cc gi tr ca c s d liu v trong vic to ra hay xo i cc hng ca bng.

2.6. 2. Truy cp MIB


Ta c th nhn nhn SNMP nh mt ngn ng hi i vi cy MIB. Chng trnh nh qun l s dng cc lnh GET, GET-NEXT

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

truy xut d liu t MIB. p li hai n nguyn ny l GETRESPONSE tr li d liu di dng i bin s. Ta c th s dng c hai n nguyn truy xut nhiu bin s b qun l. Lnh GET trc tip ch ra tp hp cc bin s b qun l thng qua c im nhn dng ng dn ca chng. iu ny rt hu ch cho vic truy xut d liu dng thng thng (dng khng phi bng), bi v ng truy nhp l tnh v bit trc. V d, truy xut s m t ca h thng, lnh GET phi cha c im nhn dng ca t bo, l 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0. GET-NEXT c s dng di chuyn trn cy v p dng cho s liu dng bng. Ta c th th t truy xut s liu bng cch i li trn cy MIB. Theo quy nh ca th t ny, th h thng truy xut s liu ti nt m trc ri n nt con t tri qua phi. Trong bng, cc ct c nh th t t tri qua phi v cc hng t trn xung di. Th t ny c gi l th t trc (preorder) v c minh ho hnh 2-15. Ta p dng GET-NEXT cho cc mc 10, 14 trong hnh 2-8 truy xut cc mc 11 v 15. Trong v d sau, ta cng xem xt mt phn bng giao din nh minh ho di y. GET v GET-NEXT cho ta phng tin truy xut d liu MIB. Bng n nguyn SET ta c th iu khin c ng x ca thit b. SET thng c s dng khi to hnh ng ca Agent nh l hiu ng ph i vi nhng thay i ca MIB. V d ta c th khi ng mt th tc kim tra chun on bng cch t trng thi hnh chnh ca thit b (thng qua SET) l th nghim. iu ny c ngha l cc Agent phi ch ng gim st nhng thay i ca MIB v khi to cc hnh ng cn thit. iu ny khng ging vi cc h thng c s d liu th ng m s cp nht s liu ch n thun l ghi li s liu. C mt nhc im ca vic truy xut s liu bng lnh GET-NEXT trong SNMP, l h thng cn phi truy cp mt hng ti mt thi im. iu ny c th lm chm qu trnh i li trn cy, c bit trong trng hp bng ln. Thng th h thng phi qut v truy cp ton b bng. khc phc im ny, trong phin bn th hai SNMPv2 ngi ta thay

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

lnh GET-NEXT bng lnh GET-BULK. Lnh GET-BULK truy cp mt s hng lin tc va vo mt khung UDP. Ta c th nhn nhn vic ny nh l vic tng quan ho lnh GET-NEXT ci thin thi gian truy cp i vi d liu dng bng.

2.6.3. Ni dung ca MIB


Cu trc ca thng tin b qun l (SMI) cho ta mt m hnh n gin v s liu b qun l. M hnh ny c nh ngha bi mt ngn ng m phng c php d liu, l ASN.1. SMI m phng su loi d liu, l b m, kiu (gauge), tch tc thi gian, a ch mng, a ch IP v s liu khng trong sut (opaque). B m c s dng din t s ly mu tch t ca chui thi gian. Kiu (gauge) din t cc mu ca chui thi gian, tch tc thi gian c s dng o thi gian tng i, cn loi s liu khng trong sut th c s dng m t mt chui bit bt k. Ngi ta cng s dng cc loi d liu c s chung nh s nguyn chui octet, c im nhn dng vt th xc nh s liu b qun l. Vic gii hn cc loi d liu trong SMI v hn ch quy m ca cc hng mc s liu trong MIB lm gim nhiu phc tp ca vic t chc lu tr, m ho, gii m s liu. Trong mi trng Agent c ngun ti nguyn c hn th s n gin ho v vic iu khin ngun ti nguyn l rt quan trng v gi mt vai tr trung tm trong vic thit k SNMP. SMI cng bao gm mt MACRO m rng c bit ca ASN.1 l OBJECT-TYPE. Macro ny phc v nh mt cng c chnh xc nh cc vt th b qun l ti l ca cy MIB. Macro OBJECT-TYPE cho ta phng tin nh ngha bin s b qun l v gn cho n mt loi d liu, mt phng php truy nhp (c, vit c/vit), mt trng thi (bt buc, tu ) v mt v tr cy MIB tnh (c im nhn dng ng). nh ngha ca Macro OBJECT-TYPE v ca cc bin s b qun l c trnh by trong bng di y. Phn th nht ca nh ngha MIB cho ta cc c tnh nhn dng ng ny i vi cc mode bn trong ca cy MIB v c gn vo loi d liu nhn dng vt th. Ta c th xc nh c im nhn dng ca mt nt bng cch rng buc mt s vi c im nhn dng

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

ca nt b ca n. Khi cc nt bn trong c xc nh ri, bng Macro OBJECT-TYPE h thng c th to ra cc mode ti l cy. Cc nt ti l cy ny xc nh loi d liu (c php) ca cc bin s b qun l m chng lu tr. Cc nt l cy cng iu khin vic truy nhp, xc nh trng thi v ng c im nhn dng vt th truy nhp bin s b qun l. Di y l mt s im hu ch cn lu v cc nh ngha ny v cch s dng chng. 1. Cc c im nhn dng vt th xc nh v tr ca cc nt bn trong (nh system, Interfaces), hoc l trn cy MIB (sysDeser, ifInErrors). Ta c th to ra c im nhn dng ca ng bng cch ghp ng m vi nhn ca nt (v d sysDeser = {system 1}). 2. Cc bng c to nn di dng chui ca cc hng. Cc hng xc nh ra cc ct ca bng. V d, bng giao din c thit lp t cc ct c dnh ring cho cc tham s giao din khc nhau. Cc tham s ct khc nhau ny c ng k nh l di cy con ifEntry m t trong bng. 3. Cc nh ngha cu trc MIB ch n gin cho ta mt cu trc v c php. Ting Anh c s dng gii ngha cho cc bin s khc nhau c th din gii ngha ca mt s bin s khc nhau. i khi ta khng th bo m vic tun th cc ng ngha. 4. H thng c th s dng cc nh ngha chnh thc ca MIB to ra MIB v cu trc truy nhp chng. B bin dch s dng cc nh ngha ny to ra cu trc c s d liu cho vic lu tr MIB. iu ny lm n gin ho qu trnh pht trin MIB. 5. Vic trin khai MIB l c thc hin. Ta c th lu tr cc s liu khng phi dng bng trong cu trc d liu tuyn tnh c nh. H thng cn to kh nng cho s liu dng bng thu nh hoc m rng, khi cc hng ca bng b xo i hay c b sung. Ta c th dng cu trc ca mt danh sch lin kt (Linked list) hoc cy biu din cc s liu ng nh vy (cc bn ghi ca bng c lu tr ti l cy). Chng ta cn nhn nhn cu trc MIB theo cc h thng c s d liu truyn thng. Ngi ta c th s dng ngn ng x l s liu (DML) to ra h thng c s d liu v m t cu trc ca c s

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

d liu. Ta c th coi m hnh SMI hoc cc phin bn m rng ca ASN.1 nh l ngn ng DDL xy dng MIB. B bin dch MIB cng tng t nh b bin dch DDL, c s dng to ra cu trc c s d liu t mt chng trnh tru tng. Ta cng c th coi cc n nguyn truy nhp giao thc nh ngn ng x l s liu DML. Nhn trn quan im cc h thng c s d liu truyn thng th ta c th coi SNMP nh l mt h thng c s d liu th bc n gin m bn cht ca n do cc ngn ng DDL (SMI) v DML xc nh (cc n nguyn giao thc). Bng s m t MIB Internet (MIBII) mt cch gn gn chng ta s kt thc mc ny y. Bng di y tm tt li vai tr ca cc cy con.

2.7. Nhng im hn ch trong SNMP v MIB.


2.7.1. M hnh thng tin b qun l
Vn cng nhc trong MIB: S liu b qun l c xc nh ti thi im thit k MIB. S liu cn cho cc nh khai thc hoc phn mm ng dng c th khng sn sng mt cch trc tip cho MIB. V d, mt chng trnh ng dng i hi thng tin v nhng thay i trong t l li bit, trong khi MIB ch cha b m li trc tip. nh qun l phi thc hin vic tnh ton cc thng tin cn thit. iu ny c ngha l h thng thng phi truy xut mt lng s liu th ln, thng l khng thc t. Cc thnh phn mm ng dng thng cn mc iu khin t l vi vic ly mu cc ng dng x l h thng, ch khng ph thuc vo cc quyt nh cng nhc ca nh thit k MIB. Vic thit k mt MIB gim st t xa cng nhm thc hin mt bc quan trng m bo s linh hot trong iu khin cc tin trnh gim st. Cc chu trnh gim st c t cc tham s mt cch linh hot thu thp s liu hot ng. Cc tham s iu khin nhng quy trnh ny c t chc trong mt MIB iu khin. Mt chng trnh ng dng c th t (SET) cc u vo trong bng iu khin MIB xc nh xem h thng s thu thp nhng s liu no no v theo phng thc no. Bn thn s liu c lu tr trong MIB s liu tng ng v c th truy xut bng lnh GET. Tuy nhin cn ghi nh rng, bn thn cc th tc gim st c xc nh mt cch cng nhc ti thi im thit k MIB.
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Chng 2: Qun l mng

Cn phi thc hin cc hnh ng qun l thng qua tc dng ph ca lnh SET: Agent phi ci by cc truy nhp SET v khi to th tc qun l tng ng. Cc hnh ng n gin khng i hi tham s m cng chng tr li gi tr no (v d nh khi ng h thng) cng c th c thc hin mt cch hu chTuy nhin, c ch ca lnh SET khng tho ng cho cc hot ng i hi phi truyn tham s. V d, ta hy xem xt mt chu trnh chn on cng. Khi gi chu trnh i hi mt vi tham s v khi kt thc, n s khi to. Khi chu trnh ny kt thc, h thng c th s dng lnh GET ly gi tr khi tr li ca n. Nh qun l v Agent cn phi thc hin ng b vic t (SET) cc bin s u vo, cc bin s khi to v ly (GET) kt qu. Yu cu ng b t xa c th phc tp, mt thi gian v thm ch c hi trong mi trng a nh qun l. Nu nh nhiu nh qun l lin tip gi chu trnh ny, chng c th gy nhiu phin nhiu cho nhau, i hi c ch iu khin ng thi thng qua SET/GET.

2.7.2. M hnh truy cp thng tin


SNMP khng h tr cc cng c truy xut tch lu. V d, vic truy xut ton b mt bng phi c thc hin thng qua lnh GET-NEXT ly tng hng thuc bng . Thng thng, vic x l thng tin qun l i hi phi truy nhp tt c cc hng ca bng. Cc bng ln i hi s ln truy nhp rt ln. Nu ta h tr vic truy nhp mt lng s liu khng hn ch th giao thc s tr nn phc tp hn nhiu. Mt lnh ly thng tin duy nht c th vt qu dung lng ca mt ln tr li. Giao thc cn c kh nng h tr cc chui tr li. Cc phin bn m rng ca SNMP ch cho php truy xut mt lng s liu hn ch bng vi kch thc ca khung tr li. SNMP khng c kh nng la chn (hay lc) s liu c truy nhp. Vic qun l ch yu l x l cc iu kin ngoi l. Nh qun l thng ch quan tm ti cc s liu phn nh cc ng x khng bnh thng ca h thng. Mt c ch truy nhp s liu l tng cn phi cho php cc nh qun l la chn s liu m h quan tm ch khng phi bt h ly mt lng s liu v ch ln. Trong v d tng i PBX, nh qun l SNMP c th ch quan tm ti cc s my c tham s cht lng t di ngng. Nh qun l bt buc phi

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Chng 2: Qun l mng

ly ton b bng thu bao v qut n ti mi trng qun l. Nu kch c ca bng ln (10000 thu bao) th vic qun l s rt km hiu qu. Cn phi nn s liu mt cch ti a ti ngun thay v ko chng qua mng ti nh qun l. Nu m rng cc chc nng SNMP h tr vic truy nhp s liu mt cch c la chn th cng phn no lm tng phc tp ca cc chc nng Agent v ca cc giao din giao thclnh SET c th a n s phc tp v c tc hi na. Cu trc MIB khng bao gm cc iu khon din t cc mi quan h phc tp gia cc thc th b qun l. Trong v d v tng i PBX, h thng i hi mt bng ring cho mi quan h gia cc cng v th mch thu bao. Nu mun truy xut s liu gn lin vi mt cng hoc mt th mch, th h thng cn truy xut tt c cc bng lin quan ti cng th mch v tp hp chng ti nh qun l. Mi ln, h thng ch c th c mt hng ca bng, do vy vic so snh tng quan s liu n gin nht gia cc thc th b qun l khc nhau cng i hi phi truy nhp mt lng s liu ln. T phng din ca l thuyt c s d liu c in, th c ch truy vn d liu ca SNMP khng h tr mi tng quan gia cc thc th thng qua mi quan h. Mi tng quan cn thc hin trong mi trng qun l, do vy i hi phi truy nhp ton b d liu lin quan vi nhau trc. Vic iu gii s liu b qun l thng i hi phi x l mt lng ln tng quan s. Vic so snh tng quan s liu ti mi trng qun l c th dn ti tnh trng h thng phi truy nhp mt lng s liu qu ln.

2.8. Tng kt chng


Chng ny a ra mt cch nhn khi qut v qun l mng vin thng. H thng qun l mng a ra vi nhng c im c bn v phn cng. Phng php qun l mng c la chn y theo hng m hnh OSI. Trong phn ny cp n giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP cng vi MIB. MIB vi chc nng cung cp m hnh c s d liu th bc cho cc thng tin qun l, n kt hp cht ch vi SNMP trong hot ng qun l mng vin thng. Hot ng c th ca MIB trong mt mng xc nh (MPLS) s c cp trong chng sau.
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Chng 2: Qun l mng

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

Chng 3: ng dng MIB trong Qun l mng MPLS 3.1. Gii thiu v cc gii php qun l MPLS
Cc i tng qun l MPLS Trong mc ny ta ln lt tm hiu v cc i tng qun l mng MPLS.

i tng nh tuyn r rng (ERO) Cc kho ti nguyn ng hm v LSP In segment (giao din vo)

Out segment (giao din ra)

Cross connect (chuyn mch) Cc giao thc nh tuyn Cc giao thc bo hiu Cc hot ng nhn: tra cu, y, trao i, xo. K thut lu lng QoS.

Nh chng ta bit, cch kh khn nht ca qun l cc mng nh MPLS l vn khng s dng bo hiu thit lp cc LSP. Cc phn t mng NE trong MPLS c th h tr bo hiu. Mt nguyn nhn khc l vn iu khin tt c cc i tng, l mt vn lin quan ti qun l mng n gin SNMP gp kh khn. i tng nh tuyn r rng (ERO) Mt ERO l mt danh sch cc a ch lp 3 trong mt vng mng MPLS. Ging nh mt danh sch chuyn tip thit k (DTL) trong ATM. N m t mt danh sch cc node MPLS m mt ng hm i qua. Mc ch ca mt ERO l cho php ngi s dng nh r tuyn m mt ng hm a ra. Theo ngha khc, n cho php ngi s dng cng bc mt tuyn. ERO c th hoc khng r rng hoc chnh xc. i tng nh tuyn r rng nh r tt c cc hop

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

trn ng. Mt ERO lu tr trong mt bng MIB trn node khi u, v c th c s dng bi nhiu hn mt ng hm khi u trn node MPLS . Cc ERO khng s dng trong phng php cu hnh bng nhn cng ca cc LSP. Cc ERO s c s dng bi cc giao thc nh tuyn (ging nh RSVP TE) to ra cc ng hm. ng nh r trong ERO c th thc hin c (v d, cc lin kt phi tn ti gia cc node thit k) v bt k s ph thuc no nh cc ti nguyn bng tn. Cc khi ti nguyn MPLS cho php s dnh trc ti nguyn trong mng. iu ny cung cp phng tin cho nh vn hnh mng. Cc khi ti nguyn cung cp mt phng tin cho bn tin v s thit lp bng tn, v sau chng c th thit k cc LSP c trng. Cc thnh phn ca mt khi ti nguyn bao gm: . Bng tn thu ln nht . Kch c b lu lng ln nht. . di gi Mt LSP c th c mt s kt hp u cui - u cui bng tn. LSP c thit k mang lung lu lng dc theo cc tuyn c trng. ng hm v LSP Cc ng hm MPLS miu t mt kiu xc nh cho cc tuyn ng xuyn qua mng bi cc node vi cu hnh giao din vo (in segment), chuyn mch (cross connect) v giao din ra (out segment). Gi tin MPLS i vo ng hm, di t bn ny sang bn kia mt ng thch hp, v c 3 c im quan trng a ra: . Chuyn tip da trn c s tra cu nhn MPLS. . Cch i x ti nguyn l c nh, da trn pha thu ti thi gian ca s to kt ni. . Cc ng a ra bi lu lng l min cng bi ng chn trong s thun li bi ngi s dng. Cc ng hm v cc LSP cung cp cch tm cho lu lng vi cc a ch IP ch c trng. Cc giao thc nh tuyn gi cc gi trn cc ng hm c trng v LSP theo th t tm c a ch IP thch hp.

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

In Segments v out segments (giao din vo- giao din ra) In segment trn mt node MPLS miu t mt im vo lu lng.

Out segment m t mt im ra cho lu lng. Hai kiu i tng segment l c s phi hp hp l s dng mt cross connect. Cross connects (Kt ni cho) Cross connects l i tng kt hp segment vo v ra vi nhau. Node MPLS s dng thit lp cross connect quyt nh cch chuyn mch lu lng gia cc segment. Bng Cross connect h tr cc kiu kt ni di y: - im ti im - im ti a im - a im ti im Mt thc t cross connect c c mt trng thi hnh chnh v trng thi hnh ng, cc trng thi hot ng ch th trng thi thc ca cross connect trong node. Cross connect hot ng th khng chuyn tip lu lng. MPLS hp thnh cc giao thc nh tuyn IP ging nh OSPF, IS IS, v BGP. iu ny thc hin bi cc giao thc ny c s dng v cung cp qu nhiu nm. Hp nht chng sang cc chun MPLS ci tin cc c hi trin khai MPLS. K thut lu lng m rng s thm vo cc giao thc nh tuyn ngha l chng c th thng bo c phn phi tiu s nh tuyn v ti nguyn (e.g bng tn lin kt). y l quyt nh cho thit b v s to ra nh tuyn min cng LSP (ie: ng hms). iu cui cng cho php thit b ngi s dng tc ng a ra bi lu lng IP thng qua vng MPLS. Cc giao thc bo hiu Nh chng ta thy, vic to ra LSP v ng hm (ng hm) c th t c hoc bng iu khin nhn cng (tng t nh cch ATMPVC to ra) hoc thng qua bo hiu. Cc kt ni bo hiu c ti nguyn c thu, cc nhn, phn phi, v cc ng c chn bi cc giao thc nh tuyn nh RSVP TE hoc LDP.

3.2. c im MIB trong qun l mng MPLS bng SNMP


3.2.1. V tr v u im ca MIB
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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

MIB m t s phn chia khng gian tn gia cc Agent SNMP v cc nh qun l mng. MIB hot ng tc ng n thit b qun l c trin khai trn mng. Bi v, n ng vai tr trung tm trong mng qun l . MIB cung cp vi nguyn tc trong c s gia tng tng iu khin NE. Nh vy, Nu a ra cu hnh qun l thch hp th mt NE th rt d c ci t, cu hnh v hot ng trong mt mi trng NMS, y l mt thun li ln cho nh qun tr mng. Nu chc nng NE, thit lp (v d, MPLS, Frame Relay) rt d truy nhp (SNMPv3) sau i hi s tch hp v quyn s hu c gim bt. Ngi s dng cui cng c nhiu thun li ging nh vic ci to hoc mua thit b mi.

3.2.2. Mt s vn i vi i tng ca MIB


SNMP c to ra cc dng mi trong cc bng MIB. Vn nm y l hiu v ngha ca mi lin h gia cc ct bng. Nu mt bng (ging nh bng ng hm MPLS, gm c rt nhiu ct (column), khng phi tt c cc ct c th thit lp theo th t to ra thc th c hiu lc. S kt hp khng qu cht gia cc column l mt iu tt. y l mt cch tt kt hp cc khi ca i tng MIB cung cp nhiu bng (tng t vi s lin kt c s d liu thng thng). Mt cch rt c bit, khi cc bng c th dng li (v d, ging nh trong ng hm MPLS, bng hop cho EROS v ng hm MPLS, bng ti nguyn cho bng tn dnh trc. y c hai bng c th dng li bi nhiu ng hm), v vy khng bao gm cc i tng ca n trong bng ng hm, ch c d liu thch hp trnh d tha. Cc bng truyn thng, c th sau lin kt ti bng chnh s dng ch mc s nguyn. Cc bng ngoi tr sau c th c chia s (v d, nhiu hn trng hp mt ng hm c th c chia s ging ERO). Ti ni ny mi lin h lin ct tn ti iu ny phi c ch th thng minh trong MIB s dng li ch gii. Cc ct c ngha trong bng MIB th ph thuc vo s phc tp m cung cp bi v phn cng NMS phi hiu v mi lin h gia cc ct. T khi NMS phi tm c mi trng thi ca cc NE NMS phi lu tr d liu NE thng trong c s d liu quan h. Mt

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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

vn khc l gin c s d liu quan h cng phc tp v rc ri khi mi lin h gia cc ct phi c sao li. Nu l gin cui cng th n thng ph thuc vo s sao li d liu MIB, lin ct MIB ph thuc vo vic to ra mt gin c s d liu phc tp hn. Cung cp cc gi tr i tng MIB mc nh Cung cp cc gi tr mc nh cho tt c cc i tng bng MIB l hu dng to s d dng cho lp m cung cp. Ni cch khc, cuc gi cung cp gi tr c trng cho s cho s ph thuc cc ct trong bng v da vo gi tr mc nh cho tr. Khi yu cu NMS n ti lp m cung cp, tt c cc d liu c th vit n l, ti i tng MIB NE kt hp vi vic kim tra nhanh. Cc gi tr mc nh c th a ra cc i tng MIB bt ngun t ngoi (i tng cc ct th khng cn thit trong mt hot ng SNMP a ra), cho v d, mplstunnelIncludeAffinity trong bng ng hm MPLS. Ch th ny c s dng khi to ra mt ng hm trong ngi s dng mun cng bc cc ng tn hiu trong qua mt vng MPLS. V n s dng dch v thu cho ngi s dng cui cng trong cch ngn nht, nhiu thi gian, kiu ny ca ng hm c th khng ph thuc, v i tng mplstunnelIncludeAffinity trong nhiu trng hp s khng c thit lp. Cung cp gi tr mc nh cho i tng ny v cc ch th tng t c th gip ngn cn cc Agent. y c th xut hin nu s tnh c pha thu s dng mt gi tr khng c hiu lc cho mt column a ra v Agent c gng gii thch gi tr bng bt k cch no v a ra mt ngoi l. Nguyn tc ny ch th rng ch c cc ct iu khin bng nhn cng c thit lp. minh ho iu ny, gi tr cho php ca mplstunnelIncludeAffinity l mt n bt nguyn. Mi mt n bit miu t mt gi tr m mu giao din, cho v d: 0x00001 cho vng, 0x00010 cho bc, v 0x00100 cho ng. Cc hot ng mng phi cu hnh cc mu ny trn tt c cc NE ni phn mu s c s dng. C th cu hnh h tr cho mu bc v ng trn giao din vo ca chng. Sau mt ng hm c th to ra mt ng cng bc s dng ch vi giao din vi mu bc v ng bi s thit lp mplstunnelIncludeAffinity ti 0x00110.

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

Mt gi tr mc nh nhn bit c cho mplstunnelIncludeAffinity (v i tng kt hp ca n) c th l 0 ch th vic khng s dng i tng MIB ny. T khi gi tr cung cp mc nh c chn khp vi gi tr mc nh MIB y khng cn cp nht gi tr trc khi cp nht MIB. S gim bt kch c ca lp m cung cp MIB mi s c vit ra cho cc gi tr mc nh yu cu ca tt c cc i tng. Tp trung MIBS khp vi cc c trng phn t mng Mt v d tt ca mt tnh nng tp trung l bng ng hm MPLS. S cha ng hu ht mi quan h ng hm c xc nh trong bng ny. Cc bng n l cho php cc ng hm c to ra sa i, qun l v xo. Mt cch ni khc, s qun l y s dng vi mi quan h bng MIB. iu ny gip cho m cung cp (v m khm ph kt ni) n l v trnh s cn thit s np vo ng thi nhiu trng MIB trong NMS. iu ny tng t vi s suy xt v gii php k thut. MIB c cu trc sao cho cc thnh phn gii php l thng minh v d truy nhp. Mt ln na bng ng hm MPLS l mt v d tt v n minh ho MPLS chnh qun l i tng (ging nh ng hms EROS, v cc khi ti nguyn) theo mt cch thng minh v ngn gn. S a ra ging nh cc ch MIB trn cung cp mt tng tt cho chuyn vin thit k ca NMS duy tr MIB lm vic trong s hp tc vi chuyn vin thit k NE. Trong mt t khc, quyn hn v trch nhim cho MIB phi c chia s gia cc phn thit k chnh. Cht lng km MIBs c th cho kt qu m khng nht thit cn s phc tp phn cng. Cc trnh duyt MIB Cc trnh duyt MIB l cc cng c c bit kim tra cc gi tr ca cc trng hp i tng MIB trn mt Agent a ra. Mt trnh duyt c th l mt tch hp y GUI- da trn ng dng, hoc mt vn bn c s n l. Chng khng th thiu cho cc chuyn vin thit k NMS v rt hu dng cho vic hc v SNMP. in hnh mt trnh duyt MIB cho php mt ngi s dng kiu bin dch, mt phng php thit lp cc file MIB v sau l thng

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

k gi tr ca cc trng hp i tng kt hp. Nu mt trng hp i tng a ra gi tr c chuyn i ( get) bi mt NMS. Sau trnh duyt MIB cho php ngi s dng thy ( get) gi tr chuyn i trn mt thit b v tc ng ca n.

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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

3.3. Qun l mng MPLS vi MIB


3.3.1. Phc tho cc chun MPLS MIBs
MIB c m t trong phc tho ca IETF gm c cc ni dung chnh: Qun l cc i tng MPLS mc thp ging nh cc giao din, Cross Connect, cc bng segment. S to ra cc LSPs. Qun l cc i tng MPLS mc cao, ging nh k thut lu lng ng hm, EROS, v cc khi ti nguyn. Cc i tng LSR MIB bao gm cc bng, n m t: -

Cu hnh giao din MPLS In segment Out segment. Cross connects Cc ngn xp nhn. Cc gii hn lu lng. Cc gii hn thc thi.

Cc i tng ny s c m t trong cc phn di y. Tng t, cc i tng MIB TE bao gm cc bng n m t:


-

ng hm k thut lu lng. Cc ti nguyn ng hm. Cc ng ng hm Cc b m thc thi ng hm.

3.3.2. Cc thit b MPLS


Cc thit b MPLS l cc NE trong k thut MPLS c trin khai v chng c th bao gm:
-

IP router Cc chuyn mch ATM hot ng trn ch SIN. Chuyn mch a dch v.

K thut MPLS c th thm vo ging nh mt s nng cp chng trnh c s ti nhiu thit b, n c th bao gm c cc chun
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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

sn xut thnh phn. iu ny phn nh phng php tip cn s di tr chp nhn s trin khai MPLS: N c th chuyn mch tt/ m v s dng trn c s cn thit. Trong cc t khc, mt nh vn hnh mng c th thc hin trong vic s dng MPLS trong s kt hp vi cc k thut tn ti nh l ATM v FR. Ging nh s trin khai (v t k hoch trin khai) ca MPLS tng thm, kh nng p dng a giao thc cho chuyn mch a dch v trn c s h tr mt s k thut khc nhau. Chuyn mch a dch v trong hnh 3.1 chuyn mch cho kiu dch v, ging nh Ethernet, X.25, TDM, IP, FR v MPLS. R rng, chuyn mch l mt phn ca mt mng rng ln h tr cc dch v ny. N ging nh nhiu mng X c th di tr IP hoc c th IP v MPLS. V nguyn nhn ny, chuyn mch a dch v l mt hng pht trin kh quan.

X.25

Ethernet

TDM

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

Chuyn mch a dch v

MPLS

ATM

IP

Hnh 3.1: Mc tiu ca chuyn mch a dch v Mt trong cc l do l khng cn thay i ton b phn cng rt. V vy, MPLS NES thc hin cc gii php k thut MPLS trong chng trnh c s v truy cp n kin to dch v thng qua cc giao din mng.

3.3.3. Cc giao din MPLS qun l ca MPLS


Mt giao din MPLS l giao din trn MPLS c cu hnh v c th bao gm cc phn sau:
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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

. Mt giao din nh tuyn IP

Mt giao thc nh tuyn IGP vi s m rng k thut lu lng, ging nh OSPF- TE, IS IS TE. Mt giao thc nh tuyn IGP th khng iu khin bng nhn cng cc nh tuyn tnh c th c s dng thay th.

C th mt giao thc EGP nu b mt ngoi node ca mt h thng t tr. in hnh gi tr IGP v EGP khng c s dng trn giao din ging nhau. iu ny trnh l thng thng tin nh tuyn gia cc mng lin k.

Mt giao thc bo hiu ging nh LDP hoc RSVP TE

Hnh 3.2 m t cc giao din MPLS vi cc ch A, B, C v D tch bit. Na thp hn ca biu c nhiu hn 4 giao din MPLS c cc a ch IP di y: 5.5.4.1; 5.5.4.2; 5.5.5.1 v 5.5.5.2. y l mng trong s s dng nghin cu MIB. Gi tr ifindex cho giao din trong cc du ngoc n. Cng nh vy, cc giao din thp hn trong na di ca biu tho lun k khng dn nhn. Hnh 3.2: LSP v ng hm trong mt mng MPLS. Hnh 3.2 minh ho 4 node mng MPLS, mng ny chia s mt ng bin gii vi mt mng IP. Mng MPLS lu chuyn thi gian thc
Core router 1 5.5.3.1 VoIP v lu lng thi gian khng thc SMTP (mail) t mt bin ca mt 5.5.6.1 5.5.2.2 B (7) C (8)

mng IP trong s iu khin ca mt mng con gn k cha ng SMT


SMT P hai gateway. S thit lp ng thi ca lu lng vch gii hn trn cc P A (6) D (9) SMTP 155.154.4.2 Gateway thit b nh du ch. Mt LSP v mt ng hm thit k lu lng 5.5.2.1 5.5.3.2 VoIP c cu hnh trong mng MPLS gia hai node bin (LER) vi cc Egde 5.5.4.1 5.5.5.2 5.5.8.1 router li (LSR) hnh ng ging nh chuynVoIP tip cc node. ng router 2 5.5.5.1 Core router 2 VoIP hm (gi l ng hm TE trong biu ) c to ra s dng c TE Gateway 5.5.7.1 155.154.4.2 router 1 Egde

MIB v LSR MIB. ng hm TE cho php bng tn (640 Kbps)


5.5.4.2 5.5.5.1 mang ng thi 10 knh thoi khng nn trn ng ny. LSR

khng d tr bng tn v xut hin mt mc dch v tt nht. Phn TE sau ca chng ny, chng ta ch ra cch thc MIB iu khin bng nhn cng to ra cc thc th ny. ng ch ti mc quan tm v LSP v ng hm l chng bt u v kt thc trong cc LER ng hn l cc giao din bn
Tunnel

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

ngoi. Mi trong chng phc v mt a ch IP ch (hoc c nh), lu lng, IP vo t trn router bin mt v sau c y trn LSP hoc ng hm ph hp. ng hm hay LSP ci no s c s dng. iu ny c quyt nh da trn lu lng IP t nhin (ban u). Nu n nh du s thu tt hn vic chuyn lu lng (hop by hop) tt nht, n c th a ra ng cung cp bi ng hm. Vic quyt nh dn nhn cng c th to ra da trn bt k hoc tt c cc yu t di y: . Nm trong tiu IP trng DS ( 2 bit ch th s tc nghn r rng). . a ch IP ch v ngun. . Cng ch v ngun. Mt im quan trng ch rng quyt nh dn nhn da trn c s mt s kt hp cc thng s. Cho v d hnh 3.2, chng ta a ra s la chn c s nht bi v lu lng IP c th y vo hoc ng hm hoc LSP c s, ch da trn a ch IP ch. Chnh sch i x lu lng l vn chung trch nhim ca nh vn hnh mng. Mi giao din MPLS A, B, C v D c mt thc th tng ng trong MIB mplsInterfaceConfTable. Mt iu tng t l ng vi cc giao din khng nh du na di ca hnh 3.2. y khng ch gii theo th t lm gim bt s ln xn. Mi node MPLS s t ng c tr trong bng ny c minh ho trong bng 3.1. Ch rng phn trch MIB a ra khun dng SEQUENCES ca cc i tng. y l dng hnh ASN.1 v copy dc t nh ngha MIB. Danh sch cc i tng phi c hnh dung ging nh cc ct trong mt bng (khi nim tng t mt bng tnh hoc mt bng c s d liu lin quan). Cc i tng ch mc c bnh lun v xut hin. Mt s miu t di y ca cc bng MIB, chng ta m t cch thc cc bng s c iu khin nhn cng to ra cc i tng LSP v ng hm.
MplsInterfaceConfEntry : : = SEQUENCE { MplsInterfaceLabelIndex -Index MplsInterfacelabelMinIn Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT InterfaceIndexOrZero, MplsLabel, 58

n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS MplsInterfaceLabelMaxIn MplsInterfaceLabelMaxOut MplsInterfaceTotalBandWidth MplsInterfaceAvaiLabelBandwidth MplsInterfaceLabelPaticipationType

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun MplsLabel, MplsLable, MplsBitRate, MplsBitRate, BITS }

MplsInterface Bng 3.1: Bng MIB giao din MPLS. y c mt mi lin h gia cc giao din trong bng MPLS v interfaces Iftable. Mi lin h ny cung cp bi gi tr ca i tng
mplsInterfaceCofIndex. Vng ca cc gi tr nhn MPLS, l cc giao

din ny c th thu ch th bi i tng MplsInterfacelabelMinIn v


MplsInterfaceLabelMaxIn. i tng mpls label c miu t bi 4 octets.

Bit t 0 n 19 m t nhn vi cc gi tr h tr. Ging nh chng ta m t trong phn trc, cho v d explicit Null (0), Router Alert (1). Cn li 12 bit m ho, cc trng Exp, Stack v TTL. Tng s bng tn s dng trn giao din ny c ch th bi
Mpls interfaceTotalBandwidth v theo l thuyt, cc n v d liu

c trng Kb/s. Tng s bng tn c hiu lc ti bt k thi gian a ra c ch th bi Mpls InterfaceAvailableBandwidth. y l s khc nhau gia MplsInterface TotalBandwidth v tng s bng tn s dng. i tng MplsInterfaceLabel ParticipationType ch th khng gian nhn c phn phi dc theo nn hoc cc giao din. Mi s tham d nn nhn ch th rng cc nhn ch th ton b trn nn. Mi s tham d giao din nhn ch th rng mi giao din chia x, khng gian nhn vi mt min theo l thuyt.

3.3.4. Cc tham s cu hnh ca MIB


In segments Mt in segment l mt ng vo ca mt on LSP da trn s a ra MPLS NE. y l mt i tng, n iu khin vic lu chuyn cc gi ti mt LSP. Mi mt in segment trn mt node MPLS gm mt thc th tng ng trong bng MIB mplsInsegmentTable. Mt thc th trong bng ny c minh ho di y.
MplsInsegmentEntry : : = SEQUENCE {

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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS mplsInterfaceIfindex Index mplsInterfaceLabel mplsInterfaceNPop mplsInterfaceAddrFamily mplsInterfaceXCIndex mplsInterfaceOwner mplsInterfaceTrafficParamPtr mplsInterfaceRowStatus

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun InterfaceIndexOrZero, - MplsLabel, Integer32, AddressFamilyNumbers, Unsigned32, MplsInitialCreationSource, Rowpointer, RowStatus, - - index

Bng 3.2. Bng MIB chi In-segments. Bng ny c ch mc bi mt s kt hp ca ifindex ca giao din vo v nhn nh cao nht, l mplsInsegmentIfindex v mplsInsegmentLabel. S lng nhn xo c ch th bi gi tr ca mpls insegment Mpop. Nu gi tr ny l 2 sau node xo 2 nhn khi ngn xp mplsInsegmentAddsFamily a ra s a ch quyn hn con s thit k internet (IANA) cho trng hp, IPv4 c gi tr 1 v Ipv6 c gi tr 2. Cross connect kt hp vi on ny c cung cp bi mplsInsegmentXCIndex. y l mt ch mc ti mpls XCTable mplsSegment Owner ch th cc thc th n to ra v thuc v bn thn on ny mplsSegmentTraficparamptr ch th thc th trong mplsTraficParamtable rng cha ng cc tiu lu lng cho on ny. Kiu ny l RowStatus v cch ny c th c s dng m t lt na trong phn ny, ni chng ta to ra mt LSP. Cui cng kiu lu tr cho on (segment) c m t bi mplsInsegmentStorageType. Nu i tng ny c gi tr readonly (5), sau mt SetRequuest, khng c kh nng xo hoc chuyn i n . Out segments Mt out segmet l ng ra ca mt segment LSP trn mt MPLS NE a ra. y l iu khin lu chuyn cc gi dc theo cc ng ca LSP. Mi mt out segment trn mt node MPLS c mt thc th tng ng trong bng MIB mplsOutsegmentTable. Mt thc th trong bng ny c minh ho trong bng di y.
MplsOutSegmentEntry : : = SEQUENCE {

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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS mplsOutSegmentIndex mplsOutSegmentIfIndex mplsOutSegmentPushTopLabel mplsOutSegmentTopLabel mplsOutSegmentTopLabel mplsOutSegmentNexHopIPAddr mplsOutSegmentXCIndex mplsOutSegmentOwer mplsOutSegmentTrafficParamPtr mplsOutSegmentRowStatus mplsOutSegmentStorageType

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun Unsigned32, -- Index InterfaceIndexOrZero, TruthValue, MplsLabel, InetAddressType, InetAdress, Unsigned32, MplsOwner, RowPointer, RowStatus, StorageType }

Bng 3.3 : Bng MIB out-segment MPLS Cc thc th trong bng out segment c th to ra da trn c s cc gi tr ch mc t i tng mplsOutsegmentIndeXnext. Mt ln na, gi tr ch mc c thu chng ta c th ch nh n ti mplsOutSegmentIfdex. Ch mc giao din ca giao din i ra c cha ng trong mplsOutsegmentIfindex.

mplsOutsegmentPushTopLabel kiu boolean ch th nu mt


nhn (gi tr ca nhn ny c tm trong mplsOutSegementToplabel s c y vo ngn xp nhn ca mt gi MPLS i ra. outSegment lin quan n ni s gi mt gi MPLS ra. Kiu ca ch c ch th bi gi tr ca mpls OutSegmentNextHopIpAddrTypre. V c th IPv4 (1) v Ipv6 (2) mplsOutSegment NextHopIpAddr cha ng hoc iu chnh Ipv4 hoc Ipv6 ca hop k tip, c quyt nh da trn gi tr ca mplsOutSegmentNexdHopIpAddrType.

Mpls

OutSegmentOwner ch th thc th n to ra v chnh bn thn

Segment. Mpls OutSegmentTrafficParamPtr ch th thc th trong


mplsTrafficParamTable, thc th ny cha ng tiu lu lng cho

segment ny. Mpls OutSegmentRow Status c ng hc ng nht vi i tng tng ng trong bng in segment. S ging l ng cho
mplsOutSegment StorageType.

Cross connects

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

Cross connects c s dng kt hp gia Segment LSP. S kt hp Sever ny ging nh s gii thiu cho MPLS NE chuyn mch gia cc Segment nh r. LSR MIB h tr cc kt ni im im, im n nhiu im, nhiu im - im Thc th trong mplsXCtable c th to ra trn c s cc gi tr ch mc thu c t i tng mplsXCIndexNext. Gi tr ch mc duy nht c thit k cho mplsIndex. MplsXCtable c mt ch mc to bi bn i tng u tin trong hnh 36. i tng
mplsXCInSegmentIfindex miu t ch mc giao din in-segment cho

LSP khng bt ngun t node ny. Vi cc LSP bt ngun t node ny th mplsXCinsegmentifindex u c gi tr l zero. Gi tr nhn vo trn kt ni cho (cross-connect) l mplsXCInSegmentlabel. i tng mplsXCoutSegmentIndex l ch mc out-segment cho cc LSP qua cc node ny. Vi u cui LSP trn node ny, mplsOutSegmentIndex l zero. LSP n kt ni cho (cross-connect) c ch th bi gi tr ca mplsXClspid. i tng mplsXClabelStackIndex ch th mt thc th trong bng ngn xp nhn. S ch th ngn xp nhn ny c th y vo nhn MPLS, nu kt ni cho (cross-connect), phi c lu tr sau khi c s hng hc xy ra (e.g mt card cng c khim khuyt hoc mt ngun chuyn mch hng), sau gi tr ca
mplsXCIsPersistent

phi thit lp gi tr true (1). Gi tr ca

mplsXCOwner ch th thc th to ra v bn thn kt ni cho ny.

i tng mplsXCAdminSatus ra lnh cho s ph thuc trng thi hnh chnh ca kt ni cho: up(1). iu ny c ngha l cc gi c th chuyn tip lu lng. Gi tr ca mplsXCoperStatus c thit lp ch bi NE ch cho bit cc trng thi hot ng thc s. Nu xut hin mt ln sau gi tr ca mplsXCoperStatus phi phn x n. y l phng tin, nu mt card cng IP hng, sau LSP khng c kh nng lu chuyn cc gi v cc trng thi hot ng s phi chuyn i t up(1) sang down(2). Cc ngn xp nhn
Mplslabelstacktable ch r ngn xp nhn c y ln trn mt

gi. Cc thc th ti bng ny c cp t mplsXCtable (thng qua


62

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n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

i tng mplsXClabelStackIndex. Nhn nh cao nht c s dng bi cc MPLS NE cho vn chuyn tip lu lng. Nhn di nhn cao nht c xo b. iu ny rt hu dng khi cch i x nh tuyn c th bc ph thuc vo mt gi a ra. Cho v d, chng ta cp n ngn xp nhn c hai nhn, nhn X v nhn Y. Mt gi IP n ti router bin MPLS ra 1 trong hnh 3-2. Ti im ny cc gi c gii m MPLS v hai nhn c y ra, u tin X v sau Y. Gi MPLS sau c x l a n NE k tip, nhng ch c nhn nh Y c s dng cho s i x lu lng, cn li X-khng chuyn i. Khi gi MPLS tm thy bin trong min ca chng ti router bin MPLS 2, nhn nh cao nht c xo, nhn X cn li c th c xo v s dng cho nh tuyn truyn thng. Kiu sp xp c th bc ny c th s dng khi s nh tuyn cc gi i qua mng SP chuyn tip ging nh s ti lin tng i(IXCs).
Mplslabelstackentry : :=SEQUENCE { Mpls labelstackindex Mplslabelstacklabelindex Mplslabelstacklabel Mplslabelstackrowstatus mplslabelstackstorageType Unsigned32, --index

Unsigned32, -- secondary index mplslabel, rowstatus, storageType }

Bng 3.4: Bng MIB cha ngn xp nhn Li mt ln na, mplsLabelStackIndexNext c ly mu a ra ch mc rnh ri k tip trong bng ny. Sau gi tr ny c th thit k cho mplsLabelStackIndex. i tng mplsLabelStackLabelIndex l mt ch mc th hai ch ra v tr trong ngn xp nhn. Mt gi tr nh hn ca mplsLabelStackLabelIndex ch th thc th cao hn trong Stack. MplslabelStackLabel l nhn c y ln pha trn gi. Cc thng s lu lng Bng ny ch th c im ca i tng, thng s lu lng cho in-segment v out-segment. Mt thc th trong bn ny c minh ho trong bng 3.7
mplsTrafficParamEntry : := SEQUENCE { mplsInterfaceInlabelsUsed Trn Th Hng Tr - D2001VT gauge32, 63

n tt nghip i hc l mng MPLS mplsInterfaceFailedLabelLookup mplsInterfaceOutLabelsUsed

Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun counter32, gauge32,

Bng 3.5 :Cc tham s lu lng trong MIB Cc thc th trong bng ny c th to ra bi vic s dng ca i tng.mplsTrafficParamIndexNext. Gi tr sau cng c th thit k cho mplsTraficParamIndex. Mi thc th trong bng ny c th c ci nhn tng quan ging nh mt hin trng, n m t c im bng tn ca LSP kt hp tc ti a trong cc n v kb/s c ch th bi gi tr ca mplsTraficParamMaxRate, y l s ph thuc tc ln nht ca s lu chuyn cc gi. Tng t nh vy, gi tr tc trung bnh trong cc n v kb/s c ch th bi gi tr ca mplsTraficParamMeanRate. iu ny ph thuc vo tc trung bnh ca s chuyn tip cc gi. Kch c ti a theo byte c ch th bi gi tr ca mplsTraficParamMaxBurstSize. iu ny ph thuc vo kch c gi mong i.

3.3.5. To ra mt ng hm s dng TE MIB


Mt ng hm MPLS l mt tuyn LSP r rng. Cc ng hm c to ra s dng TE MIB c th thu ti nguyn tt nh di y. Cc tuyn r rng lng lo hoc cht ch, cc NE trong cu hnh ng ng hm thch hp cc i tng MIB LER v LSR theo th t s ph thuc cc rng buc. Cc ng hm v tt c cc thnh phn t ng sinh ra khi qua mng. Cu hnh MPLStunnelTable Chng ta t mt thc th trong mplstunnelTable. y l mt bng ln hn trong cc phn u tin, s bnh lun vi cc ct thit k. Hu ht s thit lp ph hp vi cc gi tr MIB mc nh. T khi y l mt ng hm thit k lu lng, chng ta phi nh r tt c ti nguyn v cc node ph thuc trong mt ng. y l vic lm k tip, ni r rng, thc th MPLStunnelTable c th to ra sau khi cc ti nguyn c nh r v danh sch cc hop to ra. Cu hnh MPLStunnelResourceTable ng hm c th kt hp vi mt b ti nguyn, n cung cp cho ng hm vi kh nng mang lu lng, y vo n. Cc ti nguyn c nh ngha bi mt dng trong MPLStunnelResourceTable.

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

Chng ta la chn thc th ch mc cho bng ny ging nh ch s 5(e.g: y c th l gi tr rnh ri thu c t mu i tng
MPLStunnelResourceIndexNext). iu ny thit lp nh di y:

{MPLStunnelRsourceIndex
MPLStunnelRsourceMaxRate MPLStunnelRsourceMeanRate MPLStunnelRsourceMaxBurstSize MPLStunnelRsourceRowStatus

=5 =640000, -- 10 * 64kbps voice channels =640000, = 2000, = createAndGo (4) }

Tt c nm i tng ny c th bao gm trong mt bn tin SNMP setRequest danh sch lin kt bin i. i tng trc thit lp trng thi dng. y l mt ch s Agent xa, hot ng ca n l to ra mt dng, gi tr 4 c gi l createAndgon v ch th dng c to ra vi mt trng thi tch cc, cc dng sn sng cho dch v. ERO c th hp nht vo trong ng hm bi s thit lp
MPLStunnelHopTableIndex =1.

Cc gi x l cho cc ng hm thit k lu lng trn thc t, tng t trong hnh 3-10. S khc nhau chnh , l:

Mt ng hm khc c la chon. ng hm c mt s kt hp dnh trc ti nguyn.

iu ny hon thnh m t v s to ra cc LSP v cc ng hm thit k lu lng. To ra cc LSP v ng hm s dng mt NMS Chng ta m t cc lung lm vic c th cho ng thi cc trng hp:
1. M mt nh x cha ng cc node MPLS trong hnh 3.2.

2. Kch hai node bin, chn mt im cui kt ni.


3. Chn kiu kt ni (LSP hoc ng hm) 4. Nu kiu ng hm c la chn, sau GUI cho php to ra

mt ERO.
5. Khng bt buc mt ng tnh ton (trong hnh 3-2 nhng

kh hn khi 100, 1000, hoc thm ch 100 trong s 1000 node l rc ri) gia hai node cui.

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6. Chn s ph thuc cc ti nguyn (Bng tn, kch c b ln

nht)
7. Tnh ton tng quan v chuyn i n nu cn.

8. Truy nhp ng v gi kt ni cho s cung cp Ti im ny tt c cc bng MIB cn thit c cp nht bi phn mm NMS. Cho trng hp ca ng hm, node vo (Router bin 1) MIB cn cp nht vi tn hiu cn li. Cho LSP, nu khng c tn hiu c s dng, sau m cung cp NMS phi i hi cp nht MIB cho tt c cc node/ng(router bin1, router li 1 v router bin 2). Cui cng NMS phi bo co sau khi c thnh cng hoc hng hc ca hot ng. Xa hn, NMS sau c th bt u qun l to ra kt ni nh bn thn i tng- cc i tng m n to ra. S khc nhau gia cc kt ni ny, cung cp s dng ESM (i.e ngoi NMS, s dng CLI)

hn l NMS

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3.4. Thc t qun l mng MPLS qua SNMP


Tt c cc c im ca MIB chng ta xem trn y, chng phc v cc tiu bn tin ca qun l mng. S lu tr gim st trong MIB s dng cc qui tc lu tr v hnh ng, s gim bao gm cc iu khin v hnh ng phi c a ra khi pht hin cc iu kin . Trong phn ny chng ta nghin cu FTN MIB bi v n cung cp cho s gim st lu tr c th s dng qun l lu lng IP vo mng MPLS.

3.4.1. Cc s ph thuc lin ct kt hp vi nhau cht ch


Mt vng quan trng ca thit k l mt s ph thuc ct trong gi tr ct x Trong hnh 3.3 i y, chng ta thy mt mng MPLS vi hai ng hm. Mt l s cp, mt l d phng. iu ny c th a ra bi vic to ra hai thc th trong MIB. Hai ng hm c th c nh hnh th chia s nhiu b ti nguyn ging nhau, ging nh bng tn, hoc chng c th nhn i ti nguyn ng hm s cp di y l ng {LER 1, LSR1, LSR 2, LER2}, trong ng sao lu d phng theo sau { LER1, LSR3, LSR4, LER2}. Trong hnh 3-14 chng ta c th xem 1 phn trch t ng hmmplsTable trong LER 1. Hnh 3.2: ng hm s cp vi trng hp sao lu d phng MIB LER1 ng hm s cp c gi tr 1 trong c MPLStunnelIndex v MPLStunnelInstance. Theo mt cch ni khc n l thc th u tin trong MPLStunnelTable v khng c trng hp no khc ca ng hm Primary Tunnel LER1 LSR1 LER2 ( VD : n l trng hp ca chnh n ) ng hm dLSR2 phng, c gi tr mplsTunnelIndex = 1 1 trong MPLStunnelIndex v 2 trong MPLStunnelInstance. iu ny c mplsTunnelInstance ngha l ng hm d phng ng vai tr l thc th th hai trong =1 MPLStunnelTable v l trng hp d phng ca ng LSR4 s cp. hm LSR3 Chng ta s nghin cu tng bc cch thcs dng SNMP. To ra mplsTunnelIndex = 1 tunnnel s cp, chng ta thit lp gi tr cho c MPLStunnelIndex v mplsTunnelInstance MPLStunnelInstancemp bng 1. Chng 2 ging nh vic chng ta tm = kim ga tr MPLStunnelindexnext (ch th ny nhn). to ra ng hm d phng chng ta phi tra cu MIB ( hoc mt c s d liu bn ngoi ) cho gi tr ca MPLStunnelIndex l ph hp vi ng hm s cp trong trng hp 1. Sau khi chng ta to ra thc th khc trong
Backup Tunnel Excerpt

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MPLStunnelTable vi MPLStunnelIndex v MPLStunnelInstance gi tr 1 v

2 tch bit ra. V vy gi tr ca MPLStunnelInstance cung cp ch th nn ng hm l 1 trng hp ca ng hm khc. Nu 2 ( hoc nhiu hn ) hng trong bng ng hm c gi tr ging nhau ca MPLStunnelInstance, sau chng l trng hp ln ca nhau. Nc ng hm c th hnh ng ging nh d phng ca nhau v chng c th np chia s thng tin vo. y l mt v d v s ph thuc ca cc ct, trong gi tr ca mt ct da trn gi tr ca cc ct khc. Trong trng hp h tr ( hoc np chia s ) cc ng hm, gi tr ca MPLStunnelIndex l ga tr ging v MPLStunnelIndex t dng khc MPLStunnelTable. Hai thc th l khc nhau c qui nh bi gi tr ca MPLStunnelInstance. S ph thuc gp phn to nn s phc tp cho MIB. Cho v d chng ta c th cho php xo ng hm s cp trc khi xa ng hm d phng. Thng l khng, bi v ng hm d phng nhn chung tn ti ch bo v cho ng hm s cp. V vy Agent trn LER c hiu lc cho vic ny v NMS di y l ph hp. Vi nhiu quyt nh thit k cch tt nht thc hin y iu ny l xo cc qui tc, ging nh vic ngn nga xo mt ng hm s cp m tt c cc trng hp khc ca ng hm ny c th xo. Cc Agent s c hiu lc cc qui tc ny cng vi NMS ( VD : nu ngi s dng c gng xo mt ng hm s cp trc khi xo ng hm d phng )

3.4.2. Cc gi tr mc nh v cc lp m
Sau c cc gi tr mc nh thng qua mnh DEFVAL. Cho rng chng ta c mt MIB ti c hai ct X v Y v chng c mi quan h vi nhau. Chng ta ni rng X khng mc nh gi tr v c th a ra gi tr 1 v 2 nhng chng ch c gi tr khi Y c mt gi tr khng phi bng rezo. Theo mt t khc, nu Y c gi tr 0, sau chng ta khng th thit lp bt c gi tr no cho X. y l mt thit k MIB khng kh quan do vi nguyn nhn :
-

Gi tr X khng c nh ngha nu Y bng 0 SNMP m phn mm iu khin trong NMS phi kim tra gi tr ca Y trc khi thit lp X.

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Khng thit lp gi tr ca X ( VD : Khi Y bng 0 c th a ra vng trong MIB). Kim tra gi tr cho mc ch to ra m SNMP m khng phc tp. N to thnh cc hot ng xuyn lung, kh c th t c bi v d liu vo phi c cng nhn. iu ny xut hin ti giao din ngi s dng. N cng gii thiu cc trng hp c bit cho phn mm NMS.

3.4.3. Cc MIB v s thay i t l


Vai tr ch yu ca MIB dng trong qun l mng l trng thi trong nhiu thi gian.Trn thc t MIB l phn ch yu lm n gin ho c cu trc NMS v s d dng vi mng trong s qun l. T l ca ni bt NE l SNMP c th tip cn mt gii hn vt l. S thit k MIB phi hp nht khuynh hng v cho php cc k thut c th ging nh d liu nn (v d, L777) theo th t vn dng mt s lng ln d liu. Mt cch hiu qu, Cc PDU ln hn c th s dng bi v mi trng c th c nn. iu ny c th lm phc tp iu khin PDU v lm chm hn s p ng bi s nn trn. y l s y thm quyt nh qun l to dung lng ti bn thn NE. Vic nh x cc gi IP sang min MPLS khng phi l mt nhim v bnh thng. Tc cao tng hn v m lng ca gi IP cung cp cc cng trnh mng l nguyn nhn ch yu cho s di chuyn cc gi o, s gii quyt iu khin ngoi NMS. Vn quan trng khc ca MPLS, MIB cung cp mt khung cho iu ny v c m t. MPLS FTN MIB

Tiu y ca MIB : MPLS FEC to NHLEF management informationbase s hiu v MIB s gip chng ta mt ln na nh gi ng v MPLS. V d : m t trong phn trn, n cng minh ha mt cch gim st lu tr trong MIB. S gim ny c to bi ngi s dng NMS v thc hin bi NE (s dng trong s lin kt vi phn mm mang mc ch c bit ).

3.4.4. V d v vic s dng FTNMIB

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y l v d v FTNMIB thit lp s ph thuc cho MPLS m ho lu lng IP ti mt LSP khc trong mt ng hm. Hnh 3.4 minh ho hai lung IP cung cp cho mt LER MPLS ( Edge router 1). Mt ngun IP gi lu lng thoi/IP (VoIP) v giao thc khc l SMTP ( phn phi mail ). Chng ta mun y lu lng SMTP thng qua LSP v lu lng VoIP thng qua ng hm. Lu lng VoIP c cc yu cu thi gian thc. V vy chng ta cho rng chng ta to ra ng hm v mt QoS thch hp. Lu lng SMTP th khng yu cu thc nghim, v chng ta s dng mt LSP cho mc ch ny, vi khng c ti nguyn bng tn ch nh v mt QoS best effort ng hm theo cch ny c th mang d liu thoi thi gian thc, v vy chng ta cho rng ng hm l ti nguyn chuyn dng ( V d : 640Kb/s ) Hnh (trang bn) LSP v ng hm c kh nng truyn ti MPLS gi gn gi IP thng qua mng li v phn pht chng ging nh IP ti im ra ( Edge router 2 ). Trong trng hp ny, chng ta c hai a ch IP ch. Gateway SMTP ti a ch 10.81.1.131 v mt vic thit lp chng ta minh ho trong hnh 3.15 l theo mt phng hng duy nht. ( Mt ng dng din thoi s ph thuc vo cc kt ni hai chiu ) hon thnh bc tranh VoIP chng ta cn ng hm khc (hoc LSP) hng lu lng theo hng i lp. Nh c th nhn thy trong hnh 3.4 nhn MPLS ra c s dng bi router li thu c gi tr 0. Gi tr ny r rng l mt gi tr null v c s dng theo th t ch th node MPLS k tip ( Edge router 2 ) l d liu MPLS phi c lt b khi gi v thc hin mt vng lp IP bnh thng. Trong t khc gi tr nhn 0 ni cho node k tip rng cc gi phi c tr v trong min IP. V Tunnel d di y minh ho cch thc cc kiu lu lng LDP khc hoc ng hm. gateway VoIP ti 10.81.1.132 hai a ch ny tch bit LSP nhau. ISP
VoIP A (6) IP SMTP MPLS B (7) E (8) MPLS F (9)

Core Router Edge Router 2 LSRID = 2.2.2.2

10.81.1.131 SMTP Gateway

Edge Router 1 LSRID = 1.1.1.1

PSTN

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Hnh 3.3: S thit lp FTN MIB cho lu lng IP Thit lp MPLS FTN table cho s i hng LSP Theo th t y lu lng IP ti LSP trong hnh 3.4, mt thc th ph thuc vo mplsFTNTable. LSP thit lp s ph thuc nh qun l mng bit thm thun li ca gi tr mc tiu di y ti mi hop.

Bng ch dn giao din vo (khng cn thit ti LER vo).

Nhn vo (nu thch hp- khng cn thit ti LER vo).

Bng ch dn giao din ra (khng cn thit ti LER ra).Nhn ra ( nu xt v mt ng dng khng cn ti LER ra).

Cc i tng minh ho cc i tng MIB cn cho s thit lp mplsFTNTable. Cc i tng ny ch ph thuc vo router bin 1 v bao gm cc phn sau:

Nhn vo th khng ng dng bi v lu lng IP t ti giao din vo (ni ny th khng tri buc cc nhn MPLS). Gi tr ch mc giao din ra l 6 (giao din ra).

30 l gi tr nhn bin. a ra cc tiu ny, chng ta c thng tin y v ni c tr mt dng trong mplsFTNTable:
{ mplsFTNIndex = 1, mplsFTNDescr =FTN-ENTRY-1 for IP subnet 10.81.0.0, mplsFTNMask =0x01, --Look up destination address only mplsFTNAddrType = ipv4, mplsFTNDestIpv4AddrMin = 10.81.1.131, mplsFTNDestIPv4Addrmax = 10.81.1.131, mplsFTNActionType = redirectLsp, mplsFTNActionPointer = mplsXCLspId.5.0.0.3 }

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Gi tr ca mplsFTNActinPointer ch th LSP ti cc gi phi c chuyn hng. N thit lp im ti i tng ct u tin ca thc th XC rng p ng ti LSP ny. y l mplsXCIndex.5.0.0.3, n c miu t theo thc th mplsXCTable:
{ mplsXCIndex =5, mplsInsegmentIfindex =0,--originating LSP mplsInsegmentLable = 0, -- originating LSP mplsoutsegmentIndex mplsOutSegmentTable = 3, --pointer to a row in

mplsXCLableStackIndex=0 }

Thc th mplsTable ny trong cc im tr v dng di y trong


mplsOutsegmentTable: { mplsOutsegmentIndex =3, mplsOutsegmentIfindex =6, mplsOutSegmentPushTopLable = true, mplsoutsegmentTopLable =30 Egress lable value}

Ging nh c th xem, cc gi tr trong mplsOutsegmentTable ph hp vi s minh ho trong hnh 3.4. Cui cng, chng ta c mplsFTNMapTable, n lm hot ng thc th FTN:
{ mplsFTNMapIfindex =1, mplsFTNPrevIndex=0,--The first FTN entry on this interface mplsFTNMapCurrentIndex =1 }

Hin ti,cc gi IP vi a ch ch 10.81.1.131 i hng trn LSP nh mt qui nh. S thit lp mplsFTNTable cho s i hng ng hm Theo th t y lu lng IP vo ng hm trong hnh 3.4, mt thc th khc b ph thuc mplsFTNTable. Chng ta a ra dng ny gi tr ch mc 2.
{ mplsFTNIndex = 2, mplsFTNDescr=FTN-ENTRY-2 for IP subnet 10.81.0.0, mplsFTNMask=0x01, -- look up destination address only mplsFTNAddrType = ipv4,

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mplsFTNDestIpv4AddrMin = 10.81.1.132, mplsFTNDestIpv4AddrMax = 10.81.1.132, mplsFTNActionType = redirectng hm, -- We assume that the ingress and egress LSR IDs are 1.1.1.1 and -- 2.2.2.2 respectively for this ng hm as seen in Figure 9-2 mplsFTNActionPointer=MPLStunnelIndex.4.0.1.1.1.1.2.2.2.2 } Trong MPLStunnelTable, chng ta c dng sau vi ch mc 4: { MPLStunnelIndex = 4, MPLStunnelInstance =0, -- primary ng hm MPLStunnelIngressLSRID = 1.1.1.1, MPLStunnelEgressLSRID = 2.2.2.2 }

Cui cng chng ta c mplsFTNMapTable, n kch hot thc th FTN :


{ mplsFTNMapIfIndex = 1, mplsFTNPrevIndex = 1, mplsFTNMapcurrIndex = 2 }

Cc gi ny vi a ch ch 10.81.132, by gi c chuyn hng sang ng hm thit k lu lng nh l mt quy nh

3.5. Tng kt chng


Chng ny khi qut chung vic ng dng MIB trong qun l mng MPLS. Vi mc ch , y cp n cc vn sau:
-

c im ca ca mng MPLS cn s dng MIB qun l, c th nh vic to ra nhn, ngn xp nhn, c im s lu chuyn thng tin bng hon i nhn, to cc ng LSP, to ng hm ng hm c im ca MIB ph hp vi qun l mng MPLS l cu thnh di dng bng, gia cc ct c mi lin h vi nhau, cc i tng trong bng cu thnh di dng ch mc th bc

Sau l c th vic qun l, thit lp cc ch s mc nh trong bng MIB qunl mt mng MPLS. Vai tr trung tm ca MIB trong qun l mng l mt ti ln trong n ny. Hi vng rng trong tng lai, t chc cung cp v

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Chong 3: ng dng MIB trong qun

cc tiu chun c th lm nhiu vic tng tnh iu khin to ra nhiu s thit k tt cho MIB.

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Kt lun
ng lc thc y vic nghin cu chuyn mch nhn a giao thc v c s thng tin qun l mng tp trung vo hai u im chnh l:
Tc x l thng tin nhanh, gii quyt cc vn v tr,

tng qu trnh x l lu lng ngi dng trn mng Internet, nguyn tc chuyn tip gi tin rt n gin. Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP vi MIB cu trc di dng c s d liu ph hp vi mng MPLS. Mt s im hn ch ca n:
n mi ch dng li mc tng quan ca k thut m nhiu

vn quan trong khc nh: cch mt gi di chuyn qua cu trc mng MPLS, cc cu trc c th ca tng router, LSR, LER cha c xem xt mt cch chi tit.
MIB mi ch gii thiu mc tng quan, cha c s so snh vi

ng dng trong cc mng khc. V vy vic nghin cu ng dng MIB trong qun l mng MPLS em li hiu qu cao v c tnh kh thi, trong tng lai s c trin khai trn mng vin thng Vit Nam- ng dng vo trong mng NGN.

Sinh vin thc hin Trn Th Hng Tr

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Ti liu tham kho [1] Multiple Protocol Label Switch, book in English. [2] Traffic Enginering, book in English. [3] Cng ngh chuyn mch IP v MPLS, th.s Hong Trng Minh. [4] MPLS and Label Swiching Networks. By Uyless Black. [5] Network Management, MIBs and MPLS : principle, design and Implementation, by Stephen B.Morris.Li ni u

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