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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

THE MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA


Learning Objectives At the end of this session, participants should be able to: explain the meaning of the concept of Government; Identify the different tiers of Government in operation in Nigeria; outlines Arms of Government and discuss their functions; discuss the functions of the Public Service as they relate to the functions of Government. Introduction The topic Machinery of Government deals with the application of state power through the process of administering or ruling a State by a recognized Legal Institution i.e. the Government. Government as an institution is the instrument through which the sovereign power of State is exercised according to some agreed norms, laws and procedures, as contained in the Constitution or Edicts. Government Defined At the macro level, government can be defined as an institution of State set up according to some definable legal provisions (e.g. Constitution or Edict) to carry out the purposes of state. Viewed thus, government defines the institutions of State which administer or govern the affairs of State. Government can also be defined as the way or manner in which a Country is ruled. This involves the act and process of control and administration of public policy within a political unit such as a country or state.

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

In summary, government can mean state institutions responsible for ruling, governing or administering a country and the manner and or process by which these institutions do rule. Tiers of Government Generally, tiers of government i.e levels of government are associated with the form of government in operation in a country. Nigeria since 1979 has operated the presidential system of government within the ambit of a federal state. In consonance with the federal nature of the Nigerian state, the Nigerian constitution provides for three tiers or levels of government, namely: Federal Government; State Government; and Local government. The three tiers of government have specified levels of

responsibilities as stipulated in the 1979 and as amended in the 1999 Constitution. The Federal government responsibility is contained in what is referred to as the Exclusive List. The Exclusive List itemises those areas of national life that are to the exclusive preserve of the federal tier of government and none other. The Exclusive list includes Declaration of War, National Defence, Diplomatic Relations, Control over Mineral and Petroleum Resources, policing e.t.c. The second area of responsibilities is referred to as the Concurrent list. This list itemizes those areas of national life that both the federal and State government gave authority to legislate on. This area of responsibility includes internal issues such as tertiary and secondary education, health, road transportation, judiciary e.t.c.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The third list is called the Residual list which is the preserve of the State and Local Government. This covers areas such as Land Use, Local Taxes, Primary Healthcare, Primary Education. One of the unique features of the presidential system is the entrenchment of the fundamental principles of separation of powers which presupposes that each organ of government is separate and has its own distinctive powers. The organs are: 1. 2. 3. The Executive (Presidency) The Legislature Judiciary

The Executive 1999 Constitution vests executive power on President and Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces. Exercises power through National Assemblies and Ministers; Maintains laws and administers the country; Appoints Ministers; Delegates responsibilities; Determines the general direction of domestic and foreign policies of the government of the Federation; and Establishes Federal Executive Bodies to aid the President in the execution of his functions: (a) Council of State (b) Federal Civil Service Commission (c) National Electoral Commission (d) Judiciary Service Commission (e) Defence Council (f) National Population Commission (g) Police Commission, etc.

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The Legislature: National Assembly Senate, House of Representative. Powers of the Assembly: 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. To make laws for the land Exercise control over public funds Authority to extend its life for six months, during war or when the President considers that it is not possible to hold elections Control the conduct of government businesses; Ensure proper administration of the government of the Federation of Nigeria; The Senate screens all Presidential appointees; and Powers to impeach the President.

**State Assembly: Functions similar to National Assembly. The Judiciary: Composition: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The Supreme Court The Federal Court of Appeal The Federal High Courts The State High Courts, The Sharia Courts of Appeal The Customary Courts.

Powers: 11. 12. 13. The defender of the Constitution Checks the excesses of the other two organs of government Administers justice.

The Structure of an Organisation The structure of any organisation is a function of many variables: 14. 15. The size of the organisation The objectives of the organisation
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

16. 17. 18.

Its capital outlay Its location Its lifespan.

In general, however, Mintsberg (1979) had identified five component parts of any fairly large organisation. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (a) The strategic apex The middle line The operating core The techno structure The supporting staff The Strategic Apex This group consists of those in the top management of an organisation. Such are the chief executives and other top level managers and who, with the Board Members take vital decisions that affect the overall management of the organisation. This group sets targets and dictates the tone and direction of the organisations goals and objectives. (b) The Middle Line This is an intermediate level between the top managers and the operating core. It is a strong link in the chain of authority from the top to bottom. Because of their position, they assist in the

formulation of organisational policies through the feedbacks they give to those at the strategic apex. They also supervise and pass
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

down decisions of the top management to the operating core. In smaller organistions, the middle line may not exist, and if they do at all, their role is no more than that of Supervisors. (c) The Operating Core This group is known as the operators of all the works and services of an organisation. It is the heart of an organisation and the

success or failure of an organisation would depend on the proper management of this group. There is the need for a proper

industrial harmony, better conditions of service for an organisation to make a giant stride in its development efforts. As producers and distributors of goods and services, their welfare is paramount in the pursuits of good performance of their jobs. (d) The Technostructure Comprises the technical arm of an organisation. These are the professionals whose main responsibility is to analyse and service the means of production. Such workers are the engineers,

technicians, accountants and other analysts in the organisation. (e) The Supporting Staff This comprises such units as the Legal services, Public Relations, Industrial Relations, Research and Development, Reception, Mail6

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Room, Cafeteria, etc. Collectively, they facilitate the work of the top management by cushioning the work pressure and assist in the good image-making of the organisation. Civil Service Structure before the 1988 Reforms Federal Civil Service Commission (appointments, promotion, discipline) Permanent Secretaries were chief executives and accounting officers Ministers were only political heads Rampant staff movements in the administrative cadre (common pool) Irregular number of Department in the Ministries THE CIVIL SERVICE STRUCTURE AFTER THE 1988 REFORMS. Highlights of the 1988 civil service structure included; (a) (b) (c) The Horizontal Structure of the Ministries; The Vertical Structure of the Ministries; and The staff structure in the Ministries

Other features of the structure were the various Personnel Management Committees in each Ministry viz: 19. 20. 21. the Management Staff Committee (M.S.C) the Senior Staff Committee (S.S.C) the Junior Staff Committee (J.S.C)

However, in the case of J.S.C; there were two categories. One category was for the staff at the Headquarters, while the other was for the staff at the local zones.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The Ayida Review Panel of 1994 The abolition of the 1988 Civil Service (Re-organisation) Decree 43 led to the setting up of the Ayida Review Panel. The Review Panel was aimed at correcting the identified anomalies brought about by the 1988 Civil Service Reforms. Salient changes which the Panel recommended that were accepted in the White Paper of 1997 include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Restoration of the post of the Head of Service Restoration of the post of the Permanent Secretary Restoration of the Pooling System Reduction in the size of Ministries to between 2 and 6, depending on their roles & functions. Restoration of the functions of the Federal Civil Service Commission etc It is pertinent to note, however, that the Ayida Review Panel addressed those issues that bordered on low morale in the service as well as those that tended to lower productivity. Since no structure is permanent, changes are only desirable where they can bring about improvement in the service. It is only hoped that proper implementation of the accepted provisions of the Review Panels Report would lead to improved productivity in the Nigerian Civil Service.

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

PUBLIC SERVICE The Federal Public Service is made up of the Civil Service as has been discussed above, as well as Parastatals and Agencies of Government. Parastatals are semi-autonomous units of the executive arm of government created in an attempt to enhance efficiency, speed and effectiveness. OBJECTIVES OF THE FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE The following are some of the objectives of the Federal Public Service of Nigeria: (a) to initiate public policy and advice government on the implications of policy options open to it. (b) to execute government policy once such policy is settled by the Cabinet or the Minister as the Political head of the Ministry (c) to provide continuity and serve as a reservoir of knowledge of past government decisions and procedures (d) to provide one of the unifying factors in a developing nation, especially in periods of national crisis (e) to serve as an embodiment of government in the day-today life of the people and help to preserve the authority and legitimacy of government through the daily contact of officials of all levels with general public.

References
Webster, M (2000): Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition www.duhaime.org www.answers.com/topic/governmentalfunctions
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

FUNCTIONS AND CORE VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE


Objectives: The objectives of this module include the following: To refresh the memory of the participants on what constitutes the Nigerian Public Service To know what the Nigerian Public Service does and how it does them To make the participants know the core values of the Nigerian Public Service To remind the participants of the need to imbibe the core values of the Nigeria Public Service To make participants know the consequences of disregarding the Public Service core values INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE? The Public Service of the Federation as defined by the Federal Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is: The Service of the Federation in any capacity in respect of the Government of the Federation and it Includes the clerk and the staff of the National Assembly, the Judiciary, the staff of any commission established by the constitution or an act of National Assembly; staff of any educational institutions established or financed Principally by the Government the Armed Forces and staff of government owned companies or statutory agencies.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The Public Service is the administrative machinery of Government for implementing polices and programmes impacting meaningfully on the lives of the citizenry. The Public Service is the main instrument of continuity of administration. The Public Service, therefore, is required to stay connected with the people by being people-centred since it embodies the collective spirit and aspirations of the nation to respond to the dynamics of development challenges. The Public Service is to be seen to deliver valuable goods and

services to all citizens irrespective of their socio-economic and political status. Therefore, the Nigerian Public Service is the totality of all structures of governance, or organizations established as part of government machinery for the delivery of services. These include the staff of the three arms of government: (i) National Assembly (Legislature) (ii) Judiciary - adjudication of law - information seeking redress and settlement of disputes (iii) Executive - executing of government policies. These include the career staff of - The Presidency - The Ministries - The Extra-Ministerial Department such as the
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Federal Public Service Commissions Independent National Electoral Commission Federal Judicial Commission Federal Character Commission National Population Commission Police Service commission Public Complaints Commission The Armed Forces/Military Army, Navy, Air force The Police The Paramilitary Custom, Immigration, Prisons. The Parastatals - Social service/infrastructural Agencies e.g. FERMA - Regulatory Agencies, e.g. National Communication Commission - Educational Institutions e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education - Research Institutes e.g. NISER. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PUBLIC SERVICE SERVICE The Public Service is usually referred to as government machine for the delivery of the totality of services to the public. The civil service is narrower than the Public Service in the sense that it excludes the staff of the Judiciary, parastatals and government companies. Civil servants AND CIVIL

are public servants but not all public servants are civil servants. The
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Public Service is a canopy sheltering the civil service. The Government the Armed Forces and staff of government owned companies or statutory agencies. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE? The Nigerian Public Service appears to have lost its glory and seem to have fallen into decay. This decay is captured vividly by the former President of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo at different fora as can be seen by the statement below: (i) Public Offices are the shopping floors of government Business, Regrettably, Nigerians have for too long been feeling short-changed by the quality of public service delivery by which decisions are not made without undue outside influence, and files do not move without being pushed with inducements. Our public offices have for too long been show cases for the combined evils of inefficiency and corruption, whilst being impediments to effective implementation of government policies, Nigerians deserve better. And we will ensure they get what is better. (ii) let me state right from the outset that I strongly believe that without an efficient, effective, dedicated, well - informed and technology - powered civil service, the goals of stability, growth and development could be easily compromised. Any dedicated and forward - looking Public Service must, at all times, identify with Service Delivery, innovation, motivation, transparency, accountability and development. (iii) Service is what we offer ourselves for. And service is what the people are entitled to expect from us. In this simple equation lies our great concern when the people feel shortchanged in their expectations of the standard of service provided by government institutions. This situation has damaging effect on the amount of trust the people have in our ability to govern as their elected government. In the circumstances, we as responsible and sensitive government, are obliged to take steps to thoroughly examine what the real
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

trouble is with service delivery and determine how best we can remedy it.we were like most Nigerians, well aware of the unpleasant manifestations of the appalling standard of service delivery in the country. The summary of what former President Olusegun Obasanjo said about the Public Service of Nigeria include: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) (xvii) (xviii) (xix) (xx) Lethargic and slow in official decisions and action Insensitive to the value of time Irregular attendance at work Nepotism Wasteful with government resources Slow to change Corrupt Unresponsive and discourteous to the public Unclear role definition Poor staffing occasioned by patronage and aclientelism. Inappropriate supervision control system Over-centralization of decision making Breakdown of disciplinary system Total disregard of code of conduct Political, social, economic fraud Deceit Untruthful Insincerity Dishonesty Unpatriotic

UNERSTANDING OF TERMS USED IN WORK ENVIRONMENTS 1. VISION: Vision is a short, succinct, and inspiring statement of what the organization intends to become and to achieve at some point in the future.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Visions are intentions that are broad, all intensive and forwardthinking. A vision builds a model of what the organization would become in future. e.g. ASCON Vision To be a World Class MDI involved with cutting edge performance and State-of-the Art Technology. 2. MISSION: Mission is the purpose of the existence of an organization It

tells what an organisation is offering to the society either as a product or service. A Mission statement reveals the unique operating style and philosophy, organizations. Mission tells who we are, what we do and what we hope to become e.g. ASCON Mission To consistently Research provide and Excellent Allied Management for Training, which distinguishes the organization from other

Consultancy,

Services

Performance

Improvement in all Sectors of the Economy. 3. GOALS: - Goals are the ends towards which efforts will be directed - They are like mile stones in a life journey - Goals usually stem from mission 4. OBJECTIVES: - Objectives are descriptions of exactly what is to be done, derived from the goals - They are clear, specific statements of measurable tasks that will be accomplished as steps towards reaching organizational goals
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

5. VALUES: - Values are the things or relationships that an organization or a person would like to have or enjoy - They are the things people hold dear to them. WHAT ARE CORE VALUES? - Core values are a statement of the framework in which an organization accomplishes its mission - Core values express the manner in which, both individuals and groups in the organization pursue their mission - Core values are the things that bind the workforce together as one big family - Core values of an organization are those things the members of an organization hold which form the foundation on which they perform their work and conduct themselves. - Core values underlie the work people do in the organization - Core values from the platform of interaction with one another and the strategies employed to fulfill the organizational mission - Core values are the basic elements of how the workforce go about their work - Core values are the driving forces expressed in everything, workers of an organization do. USEFULNESS OF CORE VALUES Core values can be useful in many ways: - They guide organizations and its workforce to achieve their mission and strategic goals - They guide and regulate the conduct of the work- force in the discharge of - their daily work and other important responsibilities CORE VALUES: - Govern personal relationships - Guide business processes - Clarify who we are
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Articulates what we stand for Explain why businesses behave the way they do Guide us on how to teach Inform employers of labour on how to reward hardworking, committed and faithful workers - Guide us in making decisions - Bind the organization together. CORE VALUES AND PUBLIC SERVICE Membership of the Public Service is by choice and not by compulsion. The public service is characterized by privileges and obligations basically essential in the conduct of Public Affairs. By becoming a public servant, a person assumes these obligations which include administering laws to which his duties pertain: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) rendering faithful service to realize the objectives of the government; implementing lawful decisions; advising political office holders, and above all; serving the public diligently and impartially. However, a public servant is expected to maintain a balance between his private interests and conscience and these obligations. The public servants participate in the governance process of the society which requires that a public servant be responsible to the public. The failure to observe the core values of the service by members of the Public Service has affected: (i) (ii) the efficiency levels of the Services brought the public service into discredit and disrepute with the public losing faith in their governments

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

WHAT THE PUBLIC EXPECT FROM PUBLIC SERVANTS The public that we serve demand: (i) a right to be informed (ii) a right to quality service (iii) a right to be served right and timely (iv) a right to make choices and they are not prepared to accept substandard service and (v) expect the highest level of professionalism and commitment. Unfortunately, however, the essential ethical core values instituted by government authorities have, to a large extent, been eroded, disregarded, or are made to be of no effect. CORE VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE Even though all the Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs) have their separate vision mission and core values, and rules as required by Service Charter, the Federal Government has identified Some core values that should be applicable to all MDAs. These are: Discipline: - all public servants are to be well disciplined - must operate within and obey the rules and regulations meant for the conduct of government business Patriotism: - all efforts must be made to put Nigeria first, and above all other considerations Loyalty: - all public servants are to be loyal to constituted authority Honesty: - Public Servants are to be honest in all their dealings with the
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

authority, members of the public, colleagues, and subordinates Honesty means being someone others can rely on for accurate, complete, and timely disclosure of Information. It involves accepting responsibility for ones action Integrity: - Integrity is the cornerstone of the core values - It is the quality of being honest, sincere, and morally upright - Integrity requires discipline, consistency and Persistence in order to reflect the core values in every day life - In practice, it involves doing the right thing - It is doing the right thing when nobody is looking Integrity is the inner voice, the source of self-control, the basis for trust. WHY HONESTY MATTERS: Honesty breeds trust and the more trust in a society, the better the society functions If people who have to work together trust one another, doing business will cost less By contrast, people who do not trust one another will end up cooperating only under a system of formal rules and regulations, which will be negotiated, agreed to, litigated, and enforced. This legal apparatus, serving as a substitute for Trust entails transaction cost Trust is a social good to be provided just as much as the air we breathe, or the water we drink. When it is damaged, the community as a whole suffers; and when it is destroyed, Societies falter and collapse. - Sissela Bok

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

IMPORTANCE OF TRUST IN GOVERNMENT Trust is central to legitimate democratic government, to the formulation of public policy, and its implementation To function, government requires trust between: the executive and legislative branches the elected and appointed officials the political and career managers the managers and frontline workers the federal and state governments the state and local government Integrity also covers several other core values indispensable to public service. These are: (a) Courage: - A person of integrity possesses moral courage and does what is right even if the personal cost is high. (b) Responsibility: (c) No person of integrity is irresponsible A person of true integrity acknowledges his/her duties and acts accordingly

Accountability: No person of integrity will shift blames to others or take credit for the work of others

(d) Justice: - A person of integrity practices justice and fairness - Those who do similar things must get similar rewards or similar punishment. (e) Respect: - A person of integrity respects others, great or small and respects
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

oneself - A person who respects does not behave in ways that would bring discredit upon himself or the organization to which he belongs. (f) Courtesy/humility: - A person of integrity is polite to colleagues and the general public who benefit from services provided by government. (g) Love, Care and Compassion: - A person of integrity shows love, and cares for others - He is also compassionate and empathizes with people under distress (h) Truthfulness: - A person of integrity will tell the truth at all times -He will not lie to cover up gross inadequacies LYING: - lying is asserting something one does not believe to be true - the liar therefore, induces a fake belief in the gullible public to act in false beliefs EFFECTS OF LYING: lying harms the liars own character lying makes the liar a more selfish person lying erodes the integrity and reputation of the liar lying makes the liar not to be believable the person who lies becomes a little inclined to lie again in the future - lying lowers society generally as it tends to destroy trust and the spirit of co-operation - lying makes legitimate government illegitimate - a liar in government is likely to be fraudulent

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

CONCLUSION: Morality is the sense of right and wrong in human beings. It is the

consciousness that certain ways of behaviour are wrong and should be avoided while some ways of behaviour and actions are right and should be encouraged . Every sane society would want the establishment of good governance powered by visionary and ethical leadership and responsive and responsible workforce. The Nigerian Public Service has witnessed over time and space, a rapid decline in the recognition of these highly valued non-material resource (core values). In this era of rebranding, there is the urgent need to re-instate and adopt earnestly these cherished core values by all public officials, public servants and Political Officers. Once this is done the Nigerian Public Service will begin to wear an attractive new look. (i) Public officials will be held accountable for their actions and inactions (ii) Transparency in service will increase (iii) Governmental responsiveness and legitimacy will be enhanced (iv) Policy formulation and implementation will improve (v) Trust between the leaders and the governed will be established.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

REFERENCES Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON 2005): Top Management Retreat. Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON 2006): National Workshop on Repositioning the Public Service for Effective Service Delivery. Civil Service Handbook (1997): Office of the Head of the Civil Service of the Federation, The Presidency. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1990) Grover Starling (2008): Managing the Public Sector, Thomson Wadsworth. W. N. Shellukindo and R. Baguma (1993): Ethical Standards and Behaviour in AfricanPublic Services, in Sading Rasheed and Dele Olowu (eds) Ethics and Accountability in African Public Services, AAPAM.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

OVERVIEW OF OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE


Learning Objectives: At the end of the session, participants should be able to define communication and state its importance explain the relevance of information to the job of a Public/ Civil Servant list and explain the sources of information in the Service list the means/ media of communication in the Service. Introduction Communication is the most general form of interpersonal interaction required for decision-making. It has been said that managers/administrators spend more than eighty percent of their time communicating, attending meetings, reading and writing memos, circulars as well as letters or answering telephone calls. In other words, communication is the process which links all the managerial functions in an organization. Therefore, an understanding of the communication process, media of communication and the principles of communication can lead to improved managerial performance.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Concept clarification Communication is defined as the process of transmitting information and understanding from the sender to the receiver(s) (Eniaiyejuni, 2001). It involves at least two parties- a sender and a receiver. In other words, communication is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others. It is unnecessary to have agreement in

communication but there must be a mutual understanding for the idea(s) to be successful. Otherwise the sender will be transmitting spoken or written words. Process of Communication Every communication process requires seven (7) steps namely: Ideation - involves the sender creating an idea, opinion or fact to be communicated. Encoding involves translation of the message(s) into a set of symbols which the sender feels will communicate his intended message to his receiver. The encoded symbols may be words, tables, diagrams, pictures etc. Transmission of the encoded message over a channel which may take the form of writing (memoranda, circular, letter) or oral delivery (telephone, speech, TV, radio conversation) or body movements (facial expressions, gestures). Receiving the message by the target. However, the receiver may not be listening or his thoughts may be on another activity entirely at the time of transmission, so the message can be lost.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Decoding involves the receiver interpreting the message to have a particular meaning. Understanding requires the ability of the receiver to decode the symbols to mean exactly what the sender intended it to be. Feedback - which is in form of an action or behavioural change indicates the level of understanding created. This allows the sender to determine if the intended message has been accurately received. Basic purposes of Communication in the Service The basic purposes of communication in the service are to, among other things,: Achieve coordinated action; Influence or motivate people; Make decisions; Give advice or warn; Give directive; Make suggestions; Persuade or educate

Sources and media of communication The entire operations of the Public/ Civil Service depend on communication. As earlier mentioned officers are either reading or writing memos, minutes, letters, speeches etc or even attending meetings as well as making or receiving phone calls. In all of these, accurate information is key because the quality of subsequent decisions is dependent on the accuracy or otherwise of the information provided.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Hence the need for officers to be able to identity sources of information required for his/ her work. Sources of information Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Public Service Rules Financial Regulations Circular and Circular letters Official gazette Approved estimates/ the budget Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and states Civil Service Commission guidelines Reports of Commissions Government White Paper Hansards of the National and State Assemblies Civil Service Manual and Handbook Conditions of Service document Office Manual Annual Reports of MDAs Central Bank of Nigeria publications Bureau of Statistics publications Annual Abstract of Statistics Nigerian Year Book Who is Who in Nigeria Telephone Directory Other government publications

The media of communication in Government include: Minutes Letters Reports Meetings Minutes of meetings
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Circulars Office notices News letters Handing over notes File notes Briefs Memorandum Endorsement etc

All of these constitute the forms of your work virtually on daily basis. Principles of Communication In all of the above listed means of communication, the following principles must apply. Principle of clarity (no double interpretation) Principle of objective Principle of simplicity Principle of adequacy (complete information) Principle of timeliness Principle of correctness Principle of politeness

Conclusion The bulk of the work done by public servants is production of minutes and correspondence. It is, therefore, of major importance that they should be familiar with basic principles and procedures of minuting, memo and letter writing among others. At the same time, they must be familiar with basic techniques of clear writing. They must learn to seek clarification when in doubt. Finally, they should be reminded that:
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

All communication from public servants must be polite. Even replies to discourteous writers should be couched in courteous manner.

References Eniaiyejuni, B.O. (2001). Making Communication Effective in 21st Century Organisation. ASCON s Occasional Paper Series OHCSF( ). Civil Service Manual and Handbook .

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

REPORT WRITING
Learning Objectives At the end of the session, you will be able to: define Report list the stages of Report Writing list some of the principles of clear writing identify the stages involved in structuring a Report; and describe how to produce a Report. Agenda The contents of this session include: - Introduction - The Meaning of a Report - Stages of Report Writing - Reports in Perspectives - Structuring the Report - Drafting the Report - Typing and Printing the Report 1.0 Introduction Functional or business writing takes many forms, such as reports, memos, letters, circulars, or even brochures. The

language and layout used in any two of them will often not always be the same. This is because they serve different purposes and attract different readerships. The language must be simple for the reader to understand. Design and layout should enable the reader to get facts in a sequence that helps him/her grasp the whole picture clearly and logically.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

1.1

The Meaning of a Report A report is a formal statement of the results of an investigation or of any matter on which definite information is required. It is a document in which a given problem is examined for the purpose of: * * * * conveying information expressing findings putting ideas forward and/or making recommendations.

A report is a form of written communication with obvious components such as the subject, the writer (person or body) the reader and a purpose. It is therefore essential for whoever is Report

writing a report to bear all these components in mind.

writing, as a task, therefore needs planning in order to ensure that the reader gets a product that is not only accurate and complete but also clear to him/her. 1.2 Stages of Report Writing There are, at least, four basic stages in the report writing process. These are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Preparation Planning Writing Revision

Each stage has a number of factors to consider. 1.2.1 Stage I: Preparation This stage includes:
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Understanding the Purpose of the report Stating the objective(s) of the report Reaching an agreement on the Terms of Reference Defining the reader Determining what the reader already knows, what he wants to know and how he will use the report. Deciding on how to collect materials Experiment, Observation, Interviews, Questionnaire and where to collect materials Library, Files, Internet etc. 1.2.2 Stage II: Planning This stage involves: Composing thesis/ideas/opinion statement (if any) Deciding what must be included Arranging collected materials in logical sequence Making an outline Sketching out headings and sub-headings.

1.2.3 Stage III: Writing This stage is very critical, requiring decision on: Styles depending on types of report: Business Scientific/Technical Investigation Feasibility Study Group Training Needs Analysis

Arrangement: Numbering/Lettering of paragraphs Chapters and Parts


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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Table of Contents, Appendices, Glossary, etc.

Introduction: containing: Significance of report Purpose and Terms of Reference Background Information Summary of Recommendations

The Main Sections List of References 1.2.4 Stage IV: Revision This includes editing and proofreading. It is a stage of criticizing the report by: Examining the report as a whole (the plan, the parts, the proportioning, etc). Checking agreement of Title, Table of Contents, Introduction, Summary, Conclusions, etc. Checking agreement of headings with Table of Contents Examining details of text (transition from topic to topic, part to part, sentence to sentence) Check wordings for accuracy, placement Reading texts aloud to oneself or some one else Checking for ambiguities, grammar, spellings, completeness and

punctuations Ensuring simplicity and logical flow Giving report to a second person to make comments

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The four stages above dovetail into one another without any concrete delineation. 1.3 Reports in Perspective Written communication complements oral communication, but in some cases the written report will become the main or the unique communication channel. In addition to summarizing and conveying information and stimulating the reader to act, reports have other important functions. They contribute by their quality and presentation to the impact the writer makes during the assignment. They also affect the writers general reputation. An excellent report meets three basic criteria: First, it is reader-friendly. Its structure, styles, terminology, readers arguments used and any other features are selected with regard to the readers background, needs and preferences. The basic question is: What sort of report will render the best service to the reader and will be easily read and understood by the reader and not: What sort of report do we like to produce in our firm? Obviously, in many cases the reader will have no particular preference and will leave the choice to the writer. Yet the question must be asked, and discussing it directly with the reader may be very helpful. Second, a report should be easy for the writer to write. Ease of writing leads to ease of reading. In addition, it saves time and money for the reader who is going to pay for the time, spent by the writer on report writing, and uses his or her own time studying the report.
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In an extreme case, a poorly

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

drafted report may put off the readers and achieve the contrary of what was intended. Third, and most importantly, the aim of every report is to convey a particular message. This message (or purpose) needs to be clarified before drafting the report. This course of action will help to structure the report, choose a convenient style, and organize facts and information in support of the message to the reader. Before starting work, the writer should consider six basic questions and expand on them as in the following examples. WHO: WHAT: WHY: HOW: WHEN: Who is going to read the report? What does the intended reader already know? Why is it necessary for the report to be written? How should the report be presented and in what form? When will the recommendations of the report be carried out? And therefore by what date must the report be completed? WHERE: Where will the report be written?

As a matter of principle, reports should not repeat information obtained from the reader or well known to him or her, and general information on the background situation, with the exception of information which directly justifies conclusions or documents the work performed. The essence of information is news. Thus, the information content of reports should consist of: facts discovered for the first time by the writer; newly discovered significance of known facts; newly found connections between known effects and hitherto unknown causes;
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

solutions to the readers problems, and their justification; facts showing to the reader that he or she needs to take action, and any other facts commanding the readers attention.

1.4

Structuring the Report The contents need to be arranged in the best sequence for the nature and purpose of the report and for the desired reaction to it. This may be difficult. The author may be tempted to describe the whole analytical and thinking process of the team, but the reader is looking for results and proposals that will bring tangible improvements to the organization. Although the author may hope the reader will start at the beginning and read through to the end, there is no guarantee of this. This is one of the hazards of written communication. Persuasion requires careful build-up through a reasoned sequence which the reader may not choose to follow. A solution to this may be in a well-presented summary at the beginning of the report, which is confined to the principal message of the report and key supporting information. Many busy

executives will read the summary for overall guidance to the structure and the main conclusions of the report even if they do not read all chapters. Based on the executive summary, they may choose to look at certain parts of the report more carefully. A table of contents is essential (except in very short reports); it is regrettable that many reports do not have one. The best place for the table of contents is at the very beginning of the reports, i.e. preceding an introduction, a preface, a summary, or any other
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sections. In some countries (e.g. France) it has been customary to give a table of contents at the very end. The whole report should be carefully planned. It will contain main ideas and topics, some of which will have subdivisions. It may help to write headings and sketch the subject-matter on sequence sheets or cards. The sheets may then be sorted into the best order for deciding the outline and for drafting. Marshalling the body of a report into a logical structure is aided by having a formal system of numbers and/or letters for main headings, subheadings and so on. The wording after each

number may be printed in a different style. A decimal system may be used, as in the example on the left, or number and letters, as in the example on the right:
1. 1.1 1.1.1 Main heading Subheading Sub-subheading 1. Main heading 1. Subheading A. Sub-subheading (i) Listed item (ii) Listed item

The advantage of such a scheme is that it makes the writer think about priorities and determine which topics are genuine subdivisions of others. It promotes the orderly organization of the structure and points the way to economy of layout and avoidance of repetition. For example, a report covering three subject areas, Buying, Stores and Production, deals with three statements about them: Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations. Which of the three layouts overleaf may be the best? For any particular report one of these may prove easiest, but if findings tell the reader nothing new, there is no point in
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belaboring them.

Conclusions usually lead straight into

Recommendations. It could even be that the whole report needs to be written as for section 4 in the third column overleaf, the recommendations themselves being written so as to make the findings and conclusions quite clear. A report is not a research paper, but carries a message that should stimulate and orient action.
1. Findings Buying Stores Production 2. Conclusion Buying Stores Production 3. Recommendations 3.1 Buying 3.2 Stores 3.3 Production 1. Buying Findings Conclusion Recommendations 2. Stores 2.1 Findings 2.2 Conclusion 2.3 Recommendations 3. Production 3.1 Findings 3.2 Conclusion 3.3 Recommendations 1. Buying Findings Conclusion 2. Stores 2.1 Findings 2.2 Conclusion Production 3.1 Findings 3.2 Conclusion 4. Recommendation 4.1 Buying 4.2 Stores 4.3 Production

3.

Everything depends on priorities, weights, balance and purposes; a scheme of marshalling helps to sort them out. Appendices are useful for taking out of the body of a report detailed descriptions, listings, tables, charts, diagrams, etc., that would break up the continuity of reading and would be difficult to fit in. The body of the report is essentially for reading and quick examination of summary data. Appendices can include items

which, though they make a contribution, require a more lengthy examination. It does not help to make a case if the reader is
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suddenly confronted with several pages of closely tabulated

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

figures. Small tables or diagrams, however, are not disturbing. They break the text monotony, convey selected or summarized information, and should be maintained in the main text. If a report included, for example, the complete specification of an office system, this would almost certainly be in an appendix. Such an appendix may later become part of a general manual of procedures for the reader, while the report may remain confidential. Acknowledgements have to be made, especially in final assignment reports. This will require tact. If names are mentioned there must be no omissions; every genuine helper likes to see his or her name on the list. At the same time, to include someone who has been more of a hindrance than a help and knows it may cause mixed feelings all round. If the list would be too long, it is better to leave it out and settle for general thanks and the remark that it would be an impossible task to mention everyone who 1.5 Drafting the Report Executives are flooded with reports, and hate long and badly written ones. It is useful, therefore, to observe certain principles, which have been summarized in box A1. Box A1: Principles of clear writing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Keep the report as short as possible. Consider your reader, his or her outlook and experience. Write to express, not to impress. Write naturally: style that flows smoothly and does not draw attention to it is the most effective. Try to keep sentences short; vary their length but let the average be around 20 words. Avoid clumsy sentences and carefully blend short and
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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

17.

long words. Use familiar words, avoiding rare or far-fetched ones. Avoid jargon unless it is sure to be familiar to the reader and you know what it means. Avoid unnecessary words that give an impression of padding. Use terms the reader can picture; use the force of the active voice; use the passive voice to vary the style. Put action into your verbs; use the passive voice to vary the style. Keep every item of a report relevant to the purpose. Ensure that the contents include all the points necessary to the purpose. Keep a proper balance, giving space and emphasis to each item according to its importance. Keep a serious tone as befits a serious purpose; do not tempt the reader to read between the lines; if you do, you are at the mercy of his or her imagination. Be careful in the use of numbers; figures tend to draw attention to themselves; decide when absolute values have more significance than percentages and ratios, and vice versa; when quoting figures from other sources, be exact; when estimating, consider the order of accuracy and round off. If you quote from other sources give precise and complete references.

Source: some of the principles are adapted from R. Gunning: the technique of clear writing (New York, McGrawHill, 1952) When the author has the time, the first complete draft should be put aside for a day or two, after which anything wrong is more easily seen and revised. someone else should read it. When drafting the report, the author may find out the report outline originally chosen is not the best one. There is no point in
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When it looks right to the author,

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

sticking to an inconvenient outline. However, if the reader agrees to that outline before hand, he or she should also be asked to agree to a modified outline to avoid a possible misunderstanding. If the report is a collective piece of work and the co-authors are known to have different personal styles, final editing should be foreseen. Consistency and homo-geneity (of style, layout,

terminology, length of sections, etc.) are key characteristics of excellent reports. 1.6 Typing and Printing the Report The report must look professional in every respect. Its cover and binding should give an excellent impression without looking luxurious. Inside, the layout of the text should allow a generous margin for binding and notes made by the reader, be impeccably printed on a laser printer or similar, and free from extraneous marks or alterations. Any graphs, charts and diagrams must be well drawn and in every respect up to the typescript. The author may have his/her own standard format that not only distinguishes its reports but caters for filing and control in its reports library. Within the covers, the body of the report may also have a standard layout for division and subdivision of the contents, which can be used if it is not in conflict with the purpose and spirit of a particular report. The final draft prepared for reproduction should leave the secretary/typist in no doubt as to precisely what is required. The author should take the trouble to lay out the text as it should appear in the final version.
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The author is also completely

responsible for ensuring that no mistakes remain.

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

The production of reports is greatly improved by judicious use of word processing. Most authors prepare their reports, or their inputs in collective reports, on their personal computers. All contributors must strictly adhere to a common format. Corrections and amendments can then be made easily by the report author or editor. A reader may wish to receive the report on a diskette or through E-mail in addition to, or instead of, getting printed copies. System compatibility should be kept in mind because flawless conversions of documents are rare.

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DRAFTING, MINUTING, MEMO AND OFFICIAL LETTER WRITING


1.0 Learning Objectives At the end of the discussion, participants will be able to: 2. define a draft; write an acceptable draft; define Minuting; explain form and content of a minute; define a Memo; state levels of Memo Writing; discuss proper steps in Memo Writing; and write a good Official Letter. Introduction: In the conduct of Government Business, the above subject is practiced on daily basis and so frequently. Hardly can one day pass in any Government office without somebody doing any of the activities itemized in this subject, nor can Government Business take place without any of the items constituting this subject. In short, Drafting,

minuting, memo and official letter writing constitute the soul of the conduct of Government business. The bulk of Government business is transacted through the production of minutes and other forms of correspondence for which the basic principles and procedures are standardized. In the Public Service, all officers are involved in drafting,
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

minuting, memo and official letter writing. We shall treat this subject by taking its components one after the other. 3. Drafting: Drafting is the process by which a draft is produced. A draft is a proposed reply, circular, speech or other document, put up by an officer to a higher authority for vetting. If the proposed reply or suggested document serves the prescribed purpose, it is considered good and approved. When a draft has been approved, it is sent to a typist to be produced in the correct form for issue. The act of typing the letter in form is known as fairing and the finished document is known as a faired draft. A draft may be amended by filling in the gaps in the efforts of the officer or by the incorporation of additional facts by the senior officer. A bad draft, e.g. one which does not show an appreciation of the point at issue or one hastily put up without taking pains, may be rejected and scrapped. Feature of a Good Draft (i) (ii) Clarity of thought and expression Say exactly what you wish to say in simple and direct language. Avoid repetitions. Accuracy Verify all facts and figures before writing.

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Grammar Weak or indifferent grammar mars the quality of a draft. Special care is necessary in the use of punctuation marks. (iv) Courtesy All communications from public servants to persons inside or outside the public service must be polite. Even the reply to a discourteous writer should be conducted in courteous terms. Double line spacing is used in typed drafts so that there is ample (iii) space for amendments. Drafts should be typed or printed on reverse of used sheets. Clean sheets with discarded typescripts at the front may be used for producing drafts. Discarded papers containing classified information should never be used for drafting. Bad Draft Does not show appreciation of the point at issue? Inadequate research. Hastily put up. Full of gaps and inaccurate.

When to draft 4. A routine matter Reply letter for vetting and signature. Directive from superior officer. Minuting A minute may be defined as a communication in writing usually in files between two or more officials. This definition does not apply to a letter from one officer to another. Minutes are normally used to consider
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

and settle matters or to direct what action may be taken in a given circumstance. Minuting is the act of writing a minute. Forms and Contents of a Minute: The top left-hand side of a minute refers to the person, by appointment, to which it is written. The text of the minute follows. It is concluded by the signature or initials of the writer. Immediately under the signature or initials is the name of the officer writing it. Under his name, the post held is shown and the date of his minute. In recent times, the practice is not to write names in minutes, only the signature, post, and date. This notwithstanding, names are written in so many organizations. It is a matter of style. If a minute contains references to matters already dealt with or to papers within the file, the pages so referred to should be flagged with slips of paper clearly showing their numbers. When minutes are copied to other files, the copies should be clearly marked at the top with the reference and page number of the file containing the original minute. Short titles and official abbreviations are used when writing minutes e.g. Perm, Sec. or D-G. When a minute is routed through more senior officers, they should not alter it (other than amending spelling or grammatical errors) but
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

should write additional paragraphs in which they can each express their views on the statements made by their subordinates. additional statement is signed by its contributor. Every such

If an intermediate

officer entirely agrees with the statements made by his subordinates, he can indicate this by merely initialing and dating against his designation in the address of the minute. He needs not append a paragraph merely for that purpose, but if he particularly wishes to emphasise his support, he can do so even if that paragraph contains nothing more than the word supported. Minutes are usually routed back through the same

channels as they were routed outwards, Minutes are expected to be short and straight to the point. There should be no subject heading. When a minute is addressed to a superior officer and there is insufficient space for his reply, a blank unnumbered sheet should always be enclosed in the file before it is submitted. 5. Memo Writing Memo writing is a form of written communication, used in the public service, to initiate action or policy, with a view to obtaining approval. This idea of obtaining approval implies that a higher authority gives it to a lower level for implementation by all concerned. Hence, memo writing as an activity is bottom-up and not top-bottom process,
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

because, the subordinate through Memo seeks approval. The higher authority rather directs the lower authority or subordinate officer in view of the fact that the public service is hierarchical. Memo could be written at the following three (3) levels of communication. (i) Within the Ministry/Parastatal and this we can refer to as intra organisational; (ii) From one Ministry/Parastatal to the other and this we can refer to as inter ministerial or organizational; and (iii) From a Ministry/Parastatal to the Cabinet Office for

consideration by the Executive Council of the Government. Such memos are prepared as Council Memoranda (Council Memo) by the Cabinet Office in a special form that it would be considered by the Executive Council. It should be noted that memos for the Executive Council meeting could emanate from any Agency or Arm of Government. The purpose of

memo at whichever level of communication is for a higher authority to take decision on the subject at issue. It should be remembered that memo is not letter. Hence, memo should not be written as letters rather, if a memo has to be sent outside the Ministry/Organisation, such a memo should be sent via a covering letter.

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Steps in Memo Writing: The following are steps or stages of memo writing: (i) Designation and Address of Addressee:The official

designation and address of the addressee should be written at the top left hand corner of the paper. (ii) Subject of the Memo:- The subject of the memo should be written below the address but centralized. The subject is

usually written in capital letters. This could be highlighted in computer-processed documents but not underlined. (iii) Introduction:- The opening paragraph of any memo is usually an introductory one. Here, the background of the matter is

stated in a comprehensive way. This enables the reader to have a good grasp of the subject. Inability to give adequate background information leads to inability to follow the arguments in subsequent paragraphs. The rationale and the antecedents of the matter must be made clear to the reader. (iv) Analysis:- After the introductory section, the facts of the matter are presented. Quantitative data could be provided where

available. Here, the writer is expected to give the two sides of

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the presentation or situation. In doing this, the following sides of the mater could be given: Advantages and disadvantages Merits and demerits Strengths and weaknesses Pros and cons This enables the approving authority to see the issue in its entirety before taking decision. It is improper, nay, an offence, to conceal an aspect of the matter from the approving authority. This is because, as soon as approval is given, the approving authority becomes liable for any consequence of that decision. It is unfair to conceal a fact from the approving authority, thereby making him take decision that he would not, given the full facts. The writer of the memo is required to do a thorough research, updating all data before forwarding the memo for approval. It is a mark of laziness to compel the superior officer to supply the missing facts in a memo. The entire write-up must be error proof because, in forwarding a memo for approval, the writer by implication is saying that he has given all the facts and that the superior officer can now take decision. (Sometimes to his own peril).
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The hallmark of a good administrator is writing a convincing memo. The seasoned administrator is expected to take argument systematically along the direction he wants to support, writing strongly and convincingly in that direction, at the end of which the higher authority cannot but approve the request. A convincing memo recommends itself. It is better to support your memo with facts and figures and convince the reader, than relying on sentiments, which do not sound convincing, and get the memo thrown out. (v) The Prayer:The climax of any memo is the prayer. By

prayer we mean the request. The prayer section or paragraph requires the writer to state in a nutshell what he/she wants the approving authority to do. Sometimes, there may be just one request to be made e.g The Permanent Secretary is hereby requested to kindly/graciously approve that Or There may be several aspects or items to be approved in which case the prayer could be itemized as follows: The Permanent Secretary is hereby requested to kind/graciously approve that:
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) It is improper to ask approving authority to approve everything you wrote in a particular paragraph in which several sides to the matter exist. Such prayers prevent the approving authority from giving approval. Rather, they will write, Speak or please discuss. The reasons being that some aspects of the memo are not agreeable to him/her. In order to avoid refusal or delay to approve on block issues, it is advisable to itemize your prayer as shown above. This would enable the approving authority to select the items he wants to approve and be silent on the rejected ones. On the other hand, all the items may be considered good and hence approved. (vi) Submission:- After the approval section, the memo ends with the submission paragraph. e.g. Submitted for the Permanent Secretarys kind consideration and approval, please. Or Submitted please. ; and

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

(vii) Identity of Writer:- The memo ends with the signature of the writer, below which is written the name. The designation of the writer comes below the name, after that, the date comes last. 6. OFFICIAL LETTER WRITING Official letters are written on official letterhead. Hence, the writer does not need to bother about arranging the items on the letterhead. Fill in the required items like Reference No., Date and any other information required. The address of the addressee is written at the top left hand corner of the paper. If the correspondence is to an organization, the official designation of the addressee is written. Sometimes, there may be a schedule officer in charge of the matter requiring the communication. In such a case, the letter may be written for his/her attention, usually indicated below the address of the addressee. Every official letter is expected to have a heading. Letters are usually written in paragraphs that are numbered. If a letter is a reply to an earlier one received, there are three (3) or more ways of beginning paragraph 1. We start by saying for example: (a) (b) With reference to your letter Ref. No. APP/TRG/II/146 dated 6th June, 2009 Reference your letter No APP/TRG/II/146 dated 6th June, 2009
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

(c) (d)

Your letter Ref. No APP/TRG/II/146 dated 6th June, 2009 refers. Please refer to your letter No APP/TRG/II/146 dated 6th June, 2009.

After the reference, you many add one or two more statements in that paragraph 1. Otherwise, the reference statement could be used as paragraph 1. The matter at issue is conveyed in paragraphs and

logically presented. At the end of the letter, you may end by saying Thank you In official letters, use of salutations at the beginning is often avoided. When a letter is to be written to a familiar person outside the organization, the style adopted is usually Dear.. ending with Yours Official letters to non-Government bodies are slightly more formal, they open with Dear Sir and close with Yours faithfully or when the addressee is personally known to the writer, Dear Mr.. and ends with Yours sincerely. The rule in Public Service is that any designated officers can write a letter on behalf of the organization but he or she must sign for the Chief Executive. A letter may contain an enclosure or attachments. Indication of attachments or enclosure is made by typing a hyphen at the left margin
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

of the line on which the enclosure or attachment was written. Or, the word enc could be written at the bottom of the letter at the left corner. Some letters may require endorsement. This is a short letter,

addressed to another person just below the original letter, indicating what action the second addressee is expected to take. This must be signed also, but in a signature different from that on the original letter. Letter to Organisations outside Public Service -

They take a more formal approach. Use of salutations. Closed with Yours faithfully.

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SPEECH WRITING
LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the session, participants should be able to; I. II. III. IV. V. Define key concepts; Identify the major components of speech writing; Discuss Speech Writing as every officers job; Identify a good speech; and Explain the tools of Speech Writing-components, types, style, language, construction etc.

LEARNING OUTLINE Introduction Concept Clarification The Concern of Speech Writing Essential Components Speech Writing in Public Service Types of Speech Style and Language Speech Construction Conclusion INTRODUCTION The whole idea about writing is to effectively communicate , that is to share information between two or more or groups to reach a common understanding. Effective communication therefore is an essential component of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal,
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intergroup, organizational, or external levels. But any communication that is said to be effective involves transmitting the message in a manner which is clear and articulate. This results in leaving the person who is communicating and the one who is receiving the message in a clear alignment. Speech Writing is an effective communication tool that relates organizational or govt. policies and programs to individuals,

organizations, or any other intended target group(s) or audience in order to gain the support of the people. This may be in form of a welcome address to be presented to an august visitor, a speech to a club or town association or union, a political speech to an electorate, or a talk to a professional body. It thus becomes necessary for the writer to be very careful in planning and preparation irrespective of the form it takes. THE CONCERN OF SPEECH WRITING It becomes essential to state that in speech writing, the writer must be concerned with the ingredients necessary for effective

communication. This is because the whole process gyrates on sharing information and reaching a common understanding. Information management views speech writing as an important tool of communication that relates government policies and programs to individuals, groups, organizations and all other stakeholders or intended target audience. Speech writing as a means of communication is widely recognized as an essential instrument of informing, persuading, convincing and mobilizing the support of the citizens or masses towards government policies and programs.
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The importance of speech writing in the sphere of government activities cannot be over emphasized. This is because this activity is gradually gaining good ground as a potent tool to inform the citizens of its policies and programs. In this respect, where the intended beneficiaries of a good policy measure are not properly informed through effective communication media, there could exist a premature death of a good idea, intention policy project or program. In other words, tactlessness and poor communication can kill bright ideas. In addition, poor communication and/or inappropriate

communication channel is an index which is capable of making a beautiful and beneficial welfare policy measure rejected by the citizens before implementation. It is however, necessary to use good communication and proper language (style) to disseminate the idea (message). ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A SPEECH SITUATION Since the central point of speech writing is to communicate, there are essential components of speech situations that must be given utmost care and considered when writing speeches in order to achieve the desired goals sharing of information and reaching a common understanding. These are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The Speaker The Topic The Audience The Time The Purpose The Occasion
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(vii) The Place

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

THE SPEAKER When the need arises to communicate through speech writing, the speaker is first and foremost seen (despite the fact that he seldom shows face to the person writing the speech) as the initiator of the communication process. Therefore, the writer will, for effectiveness, design the speech according to both his skill and close thoughts of the speaker. In order words, the character, attitude, ethical and moral standing, including opinions and views of the speaker are the corner stones upon which the speech should be constructed. Thus, attempts should not be made to make the speaker deviate from what the public already knows of him and what is expected of him, including his personality which must be reflected in the speech. TIME It is important to consider speech writing on the basis of time (expediency, immediacy or future effect), speakers status (whether civilian/politician or military) and the prevailing circumstances at the time of writing the speech. In addition, the speech should reflect whether there is upheaval, protest, ceremony, appreciation, new policy or general information in order to couch the intended message in such a way that the sense and substance of the content will reveal the mood and temper without being moody and temperamental. In this light, it is expected that the language (style) of the speech should reflect any of these in order to drive the point home. Let us consider the following statement as examples of situational differences : a. A bill will be forwarded to enact a law. b. The following decisions come into immediate effect
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

There is every reason to believe that (a) is indicative of a democracy while (b) reflects a situation of military order. Hence the language in (b)is authoritative and incontestable. Therefore, it is necessary in considering the speakers personality, to put the following into focus: leadership, responsibility, humanity, intelligence, integrity and ethics as qualities identifiable with him/her. Let us consider the following statements: a. This regime will be firm, humane and decisive. We will not condone or tolerate any act of indiscipline. Any attempt to test our will, will be decisively dealt with Gen. Sanni Abachas maiden speech 18th Nov. 1993 b. I will need good men and women of proven integrity and record of good performance to help me in my cabinet It is one of the best ways of rendering dedicated service to humanity-Chief O. Obasanjos Inaugural speech on the 29th of May, 1999. While statement (a) is a peremptory, typical of a military regime that must be obeyed, (b) is a solicitation-like request statement in a democratic administration. The tone and mood of both statements are in contradistinction. They serve different purposes either to command or to appeal, depending on who speaks what and to whom, why where and when? Please consider the following: In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course J.F.Kennedys Inaugural address on Friday, 20th January, 1961. The style of the inaugural address has remained world class because of diction (choice of words, figurative language, phrase making, and variety of appeals. Therefore, the speech was hailed as distinguished in style

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and brevity as well as for its meaty content (The New York Times magazine Feb. 25, 1962, p.70) THE AUDIENCE This can be described as the total number of people who are reached by a particular medium. As can be found in the process of communication which involves a sender (encoding) message, medium, receiver (decoding), noise (semantic) and feed back (response). The audience is the receiver in speech writing. Therefore, the audience constitutes the persons or group of persons to which the speech (message) is addressed In writing a speech, attention is required to be focused on the people for whom the speech is meant. In this regard, the audience level of education, understanding of the subject, medium of communication (whether print, electronic or locally employed medium), their cares and fears, security, preferences and prejudices, cultural background and general perception of things must be considered. Most importantly, it is the level of perception that holds the key to the success or otherwise associated with audience(s). This is because it has a central role in making the people to select, organize, and interpret sensory input to give meaning and order to the world around them. Therefore, the role of perception determines a lot of things. This is part of the feedback because it is inherently subjective and influenced by peoples personalities, values, attitudes and moods as well as by their experience and knowledge. THE TOPIC, OCCASION AND PLACE These are factors that determine the materials to use. In choosing the materials, it is the personality of the speaker that will give flavor to
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the occasion within the context of the time required to deliver the speech. Such good choice of materials will make the audience understand the topic very well. Let us take the case of John F. Kennedy, former American president (1917-1963) who made two antithetical statements on two different occasions, as follows: Specimen A: We observe today not as a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom (Inaugural Address, Washington, D.C. January 20,1961). Specimen B: We observe tonight not a celebration of freedom but a victory of party (Democratic Party Celebration Speech after winning the election- Times Magazines, Feb. 25, 1962, Page 70) It can be noted that President Kennedys diction was intended to suit particular occasions like, Inauguration, United Nations Assembly, Cocktails etc. His speech writer, Mr. Ted Sorenson ensured that the audience, occasion, time and place were focal points in the content and delivery of all the speeches he presented to the president. In line with this unique style of Speech Writing, one can consider the import and impact of Specimens (A) and (B) above to see how the writer couched a particular style of language to present the personality, integrity, intelligence and uniqueness of President Kennedy. Juxtaposing specimens A and B, there is a manifestation of a rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words or clauses. That is why the sentences are antithetical. It becomes necessary to treat this pattern of language usage, and style more extensively in the subsequent paragraphs.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

SPEECH WRITING IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE It is a medium of communication used by government to disseminate information on its programs. In this connection, it is considered as an instrument for relating those ideas and information. WHOSE JOB? Speech writing is an embedded responsibility of every officer in the Public Service. Under the general rule, every officer is expected to have some level of skills in communication to be able to write coherently, including writing speeches, minuting and memos. This is a task that can be performed through picking from old or previous speeches which can be adopted, updated and upgraded. But care must be taken not to insert ridiculous information like using old nomenclature.

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TYPES OF SPEECH THE BROAD TYPES OF SPEECH Argumentative or Convincing Speech This type strives on logic backed up with facts, figures and other pieces of evidence, with a view to changing the perception of the audience. Examples: The need for a rise in workers salaries The need for America to remain in Iraq Privatisation of Unity Schools in Nigeria Informative or Expository Speech It explains a process or an idea. It uses the methods of

presentation of facts with examples, illustrations, charts, comparisons or description. Examples: The loss of an aircraft from the Nigerian Air Space. New drugs/tactics to combat HIV/AIDS scourge Nigerians launching of SAT-X Persuasive Speech This starts with a balanced argument supported with relevant facts, quotations, anecdotes to appeal to listeners emotions, pride and personal interest. This type of speech demands a clear logical

progression from one point or argument to the next. It is controversial in nature. Take the following as examples: Obama vs Hilarys views on foreign policy;
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Yaraduas appealing speech against violence in the Niger Delta. Inspiring or Stimulation Speech This stimulates and arouses the enthusiasm of the audience. It

deepens their feeling of respect and devotion. It spurs them to muster courage and take action. Examples: Mark Anthonys speech at Caesars funeral in JULIUS CAESAR; An Aluta speech from a Students Union Government (SUG) to embark on a peaceful demonstration; Speeches on the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) Day. Entertaining Speech This makes the audience relax. It contains humour and

amusement. It employs and explores various methods or avenues like jokes, anecdotes, satire, information etc, arranged sequentially and relevant to the occasion, and interesting to the audience. Examples : Wedding Reception Speech by the Bestman. A speech to arrest the attention of the audience by a comedian. STYLE AND LANGUAGE In making a general survey or overview of Speech Writing, the language used can be dissected in a rather lucid or clear and easy manner in order to create a conducive environment of understanding of
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

the subject as clear as possible. In this regard, there is need to analyze language habits with the main purpose of identifying , from the general mass of linguistic features common to English as used on every conceivable occasion, those features which are restricted to certain kinds of social context. Those elements of style which make some features to be used and become uniquely identifiable with an individual(s) or social context, as opposed to other alternatives, and to classify these features into categories upon a view of their function in the social context. This is what stylistics is concerned with. Speech or Writing which a person can single out from the general flow of language and discuss can be regarded as features. In this context, a particular word, part of a word, sequence of words, or way of uttering a word can be stylistically significant or stylistically distinctive feature when it is restricted in its occurrence to a limited number of social contexts. STYLE Communication is the key factor in Speech Writing. And,

achieving the essence of effective communication rests on sharing of information to pave way for mutual understanding. necessary to have the following, in writing speeches: The speech should be simple and clear; It should be devoid of ambiguity; It should contain interesting figurative language; The language to use should be easy to understanding; and The style to use should be memorable. Therefore, it is

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SPEECH CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION Subject This requires the writer to introduce the subject in the best way possible business; Focus to Audience As a speech is written for a particular audience, everything should revolve around them because they are the focal point; It should arrest the audiences attention and sustain their interest; and The introduction can be started with a rhetorical question or quotation. BODY This is where the speech is developed; It is developed through the use of empirical facts, figures, proofs etc.; There should be a flow of ideas: one idea presentation or point should lead to another; and because it opens the

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All paragraphs should connect to the central theme. CONCLUSION Generally, speech writing embraces some of the communication activities of the staff in an organization. We must therefore, admit that it is a duty that can be assigned to any officer. It is a function that does not emphasize on specialization but one can gain experience over the years. But good communication skills and educational qualification remain an added advantage. It is however necessary for all officers to learn the art of writing speeches.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

SERVICING MEETINGS
1.0

Learning Objectives At the end of the discussion, participants will be able to: organise a meeting; cover proceedings of meetings; write acceptable minutes of meeting; determine what should go into the minutes; and state the components of minutes of a meeting. Introduction Servicing meetings is a group activity, naturally co-ordinated by

2.

one individual the Secretary. The popular opinion is that only the Secretary services meeting and that the Secretary can service meetings without assistance from any one. This is not correct because, there are so many things to be taken care of which one person may not do alone with ease. One may never be appointed secretary in his or her life, but nobody can escape servicing meetings throughout life so long as he or she belongs to an organized group or body. The knowledge of this subject could be useful in any future occasion when any individual

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suddenly becomes part of the team to work with a Secretary towards the successful conduct of a meeting. 3. What is Servicing Meetings? Servicing meetings means, performing functions without which the body or committee or panel cannot function effectively. For any meeting to hold successfully, there are activities required to be carried out before, during and after the meeting. The performance of these activities constitute servicing meeting. 4. Who Services Meetings? The Secretariat, under the leadership of the Secretary services meetings. 5. Activities Constituting Servicing Meetings For any meeting to hold successfully, the following activities must be carried out: Pre Meeting Activities: Sending out of Notice of Meeting to members Securing of venue for meeting Circulation of minutes of meeting Preparation of Agenda and Briefs Processing of members claims or allowances (if applicable)
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Arrangement on Refreshment for members (if applicable)

Activities During Meeting: Recording of proceedings Circulation of Attendance Register Supply of stationery items (if required) Provision of refreshments (if any)

Post Meeting Activities 6. Production of Minutes of Meeting Custody of committees documents Liaison with Chairman on committee matters Minutes of Meeting Definition: A minutes of meeting is a written record of the business transacted at a meeting. 7. How are Minutes Written? There are several views about how a minutes of meeting should be written and they go as follows: (i) Summary: Some school of thought say that minutes of

meeting should be a summary of the views and statements of the members at a meeting.

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(ii)

Verbatim Recording:

Some say, that minutes of meeting

should be verbatim recorded, that is, word-for-word transcription of the discussions. (iii) Conclusions Only: The third style is to record conclusions only, so that the discussions and motions proposed and seconded etc, are not recorded. meeting. The best minutes are long enough to cover the essential points, but short enough to be pleasing. 8. (i) General Considerations in Writing Minutes of Meeting: Names of contributors: Unless in meeting of a Task Group (Task Force) names of contributors should not be written in minutes of meeting. The contributor should be referred to as a member. Avoiding use of names eliminates dispute on who said what at a meeting and the urge to say something in order to make ones name written in the minutes of meeting. (ii) Verbose Minutes: Minutes of meeting require economy of words, not long sentences and repeated ideas. It should be straight to the point. This is typical of Board

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(iv)

Recording of Discussion:

The Recorder at a meeting could

capture (write) the discussions in any form he prefers. It could be written in short or long hand to be transcribed later. The rule is that any minutes taken in short hand should be transcribed immediately after the meeting, to prevent forgetting what a symbol means. (v) First Draft of Minutes: The rule in the Public Service is that the draft of the minutes of meeting should be submitted to the Chairman for vetting not more than 24 hours after the meeting. (vi) Resolutions: It is essential to record the exact wording of a Resolution. The Recorder should take care to make an exact note of it at the meeting. If necessary, he or she should ask the Chairman to repeat the decision (resolution), or, read out what you understand to be the decision or resolution. Every

resolution must be recorded verbatim and it is best to put the names of the proposer and seconder of motions. When the voting is unanimous, this should be stated. Sometimes a member will ask the Secretary to record the fact that he voted against a certain Resolution; this must be recorded.
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

(vii) Tenses in Minutes: The minutes of meeting is usually in reported speech, hence, the tenses should be in the past, except where one is quoting somebodys statements. 9. Components of Minutes of Meeting In any minutes of meeting, there are required steps to be taken and expected contents. The following constitute the components of a minutes of meeting and in the order presented. (i) Heading: Indicating the name of the body that met, the type of meeting, the serial number of the meeting; the venue; time and date of the meeting. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Attendance: Indicating those present, absent and apologies. Commencement of Meeting Presentation and Adoption of Agenda Reading and adoption of minutes of the previous meeting Matters Arising (from the Minutes read)

(vii) All other matters on Agenda (viii) Any other business (ix) (x) Adjournment Signature of Chairman and Secretary.

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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

It is important to note that the Secretary is expected to sign the minutes of meeting before sending them out or circulating. This is a confirmation that the minutes being circulated emanated from the Secretariat. The Chairman signs only after the minutes has been read, corrected and adopted by members. 10. Essentials of Good Minute Writing: Good minutes must be: (i) Accurate: That is, it must provide a true, impartial and

balanced account of the proceedings. (ii) Complete: That is, it must present the full record of the meeting in clear, concise and unambiguous language. (iii) Brief: That is, it must be as brief as possible and compatible with the degree of accuracy required. (iv) Methodical: That is, it must follow a method of presentation which makes for rapid assimilation of the contents. (v) Authentic: That is, it must be true. Nothing more than a precise account of the proceedings of the meeting. 11. Preparation of Briefs: Briefs are provided at meetings to enable members take decisions. The Secretariat is expected to go through the Agenda items agreed
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upon with the Chairman and see whether there are issues that require further clarifications. It may be an issue raised or discussed at a

previous meeting but which must be concluded at the proposed current meeting. The Secretariat has to provide a background reading on the issue and circulate to members before the meeting, or before the issue is brought up for decision. The background reading (Brief) would enable those who had no clear idea about the matter, or those who were absent at the meeting when the matter was first discussed, to take good decision. 12. Format in Writing Minutes of Meeting: Two formats are available. One is in tabular form, providing The items required

headings under which items should be written.

under the tabular format include: Topic, Discussion, and Action by. Sometimes, a fourth column is useful, and that is on Decisions. The second format entails writing in normal prose. The choice of format depends on the style adopted by the body or organization. 13. Chairmans Signature: The Chairman at the meeting in which a minutes of meeting was read, corrected and adopted, signs the portion for Chairman. It does not

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matter if he or she was not the Chairman at the meeting when the discussion was recorded. 14. Conclusion: The minutes of meeting reflects the members of that body, hence, every member should contribute towards giving the body a good image.

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HANDLING OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS


Learning Objectives At the end of the presentation, participants will be able to: - Handle files in the correct way; - Carry out proper receipt of correspondence; - Determine appropriate classification of documents; - Treat official documents with suitable attention; and - Apply appropriate security measures on official documents. 2. INTRODUCTION The work output in the Public Service is either in form of goods or services. In order to have either of the outputs, a lot of resources are

utilized and as is usual with the Public Service, the use of these resources is documented for proper accountability. In the process of this documentation of use of resources, a large quantum and variety of records are generated. These records form the life blood of an

organization in view of valuable information which they constitute. Organisations, therefore, pay close attention to the numerous processes through which their records are created or captured, used, distributed, maintained and retrieved. In the conduct of Government

business, every transaction is conducted on paper and in files. The papers generated must be classified, filed and stored to be retrieved
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when needed. The place where filling, classification and storage take place is called the Registry. These documents in the registry have

special ways of handling and processing to ensure that the system works well. (i) Handling of Official Documents and Records (i) Handling of Files

Files are the medium through which various forms of written communication are channeled from one officer to the other, and eventually kept as records at the end of the transaction. There are three (3) classes of files: the open; secret and confidential. When a file is classified as secret or confidential, it is handled with special care. In handling of files, all in-coming and out-going files must be subjected to due registration. The Movement Register so created is ruled in such a way to have on record the file reference number; subject, destination and date of movement. Other functions performed with files include: The opening of new files; merger of Temporary files with main files, as well as the rejacketing of worn out files. These are carried out in the Registry. The Registry also creates Temporary (T) files for files not easily available or

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lost. The Registry replaces files when they are lost and the process of this replacement is as follows; The T marked on the Temporary file is removed and on the front cover of the file, the following are written: Duplicate, Original missing. Thereafter, the numbering of pages of file previously done in pencil is changed to red ink numbering. (ii) Handling of Correspondence Ideally, letters are received in the Registry, but in some organizations, they are received in the office of the Chief Executive, who directs each to the relevant officer. Irrespective of where letters are received, the handling of correspondence requires that: (a) all letters received are recorded in the correspondence

register; and (b) noting their Ref. No., subject, source and date of receipt.

The correspondence Register is critical in an office because it shows the movement of all letters at each point in time. 3. Classification of Documents Classification of documents is done in order to indicate or determine the degree of secrecy required in the handling of any
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document.

Incoming and outgoing correspondence are classified

according to the degree of their importance and contents. Classified correspondence means any correspondence, which has been accordingly graded as: Restricted; Confidential; Secret; and Top Secret. Each of the four classifications calls for the observance of

certain different security measures. The higher the classification, the better the standard of protection required. The sole criterion for deciding on which classification is appropriate is the degree of harm the unauthorized disclosure of the information would cause. The definitions given below were provided in the National Security Instruction and must be followed by all government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). (i) Top Secret Information and material the unauthorized disclosure of which would cause exceptionally grave damage to the nation. (ii) Secret Information and material the unauthorized disclosure of which would cause serious injury to the interest of the nation.
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(iii)

Confidential Information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which would be prejudicial to the interest of the nation.

(iv)

Restricted Information and material the unauthorized disclosure of which would be undesirable in the interest of the nation.

Official

documents

should

be

given

appropriate

security

classification in accordance with their importance so that adequate security protection is provided, to safeguard them against espionage, subversion and sabotage. With the exception of open files containing unclassified

correspondence, all other files are always kept under lock and key in a restricted area for security reasons. All documents whether classified or unclassified could be upgraded or downgraded depending on the current situation and there are rules for custody of downgraded Top Secret documents. 4. Priority Classification of Correspondence Priority classification is done to indicate or determine the speed for treating a document. Incoming mails are classified

immediately on receipt, to denote the degree of urgency and importance.


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The

different

systems

of

denoting

priority

classifications

of

correspondence in a government office can be grouped into three (3) namely: (a) Printed Slip Coloured Slip Red X

Printed Slips The slips have the following words boldly printed on them IMMEDIATE OR AT ONCE TODAY URGENT

(b)

Coloured Slips Another form of priority classification is by attaching red and green/blue slips to papers requiring urgent attention. A red slip denotes Priority, Immediate attention, while a

Green/Blue slip suggests urgent action. (c) Red X Markings Some departments denote priority classifications by the marking of Xs with a red pencil or pen on the papers requiring urgent action.
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XXX mean Immediate, Priority , At Once XX X mean Today mean Urgent

Application of the classifications Whether the system of classification is printed slips; coloured slips or Red X; the classifications common to the three system are: Immediate, priority, at once, urgent, today. classifications is as follows. (i) Immediate If a slip denoting Immediate, priority, At Once or Now is attached to a piece of work or document, it should be handed personally to the officer required to take necessary action. He is required to suspend action on any other work he was doing at the moment and treat the work to which immediate etc is attached. This classification takes precedence over all others. He should after completing his action, return it by hand to the officer who has ordered the work. (i) Background Investigation This measure is designed to know the prospective employees background in order to determine his suitability for
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his/her proposed employment. Otherwise, he may jeopardize the safety of the sensitive corporate documents and corporate goals. (ii) Classification of Official Documents Official documents are classified into Top Secret, Secret, Confidential and Restricted. The classification will accord the This prevents

document with some measure of security.

unauthorized disclosure or accidental/intentional disclosure. (iii) Control There are various measures usually put in place to control corporate sensitive documents. The measures are: (a) The circulation of classified documents should be strictly limited to those who need them for the effective performance of their duties. (b) Number outgoing correspondence or shade the

names/designations of addressees with special markers. (c) (d) Shred all waste papers. Electric typewriters with memory and computers should be checked and memory cleared. In the case of

typewriter, remove and replace the battery.

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(e)

Control of photocopying machines. This is easily used for illegal or unauthorized copying of classified documents.

(f)

Taking of classified documents out of the office must be discouraged. To be allowed only when it is essential to

the conduct of official business. (iv) Transmission of Classified Documents This has to do with the movement of documents or files from one office to another. The following hints among others should always be observed; (a) All classified documents may be passed directly by hand from one authorized officer to another. Or in a locked box or by hand of an authorized messenger and addressed to an individual by name. (b) Classified documents may be forwarded in sealed envelope (c) Do not discuss sensitive aspects of your work with outsiders or even your spouse. (d) In your ministry, department or agency, (MDA), discuss classified matters only with officers who need to know such matters for the effective performance of their official duties.

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(v)

Storage By storage, we mean the manner by which official

documents are kept to discourage damage, theft, pilferage or leakage. Chapter 6 of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Security

Instructions provides as follows: (a) Top Secret and Secret documents should only be kept in protected positions. A protected position is one which is physically secure and which is guarded by patrols outside working hours. (b) Classified material is at greater (much) risk when after working hours, it is kept in various rooms throughout a large building. For this reason, separate classified Registries should be established. Top secret documents should always be kept in a safe overnight. (c) Top Secret documents should be kept in safes, preferably fitted with combination locks. Such safes should be secured to the floor except overweight and size becomes advantageous. Secret and confidential documents should be kept in metal filing cabinets fitted with a metal bar covering all drawers and secured with a six-lever padlock. 6. Good Records Keeping Good Record Keeping entails the continuous process of: receiving/collecting, classifying, storing, updating and retrieving information about organisations activities and employees. For a record to be regarded as good, it should be accurate, complete, economical, accessible, relevant, adaptable to changes, simple to refer to and operate, properly indexed and classified.
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Purpose of Keeping Good Records 7. Calculation of staff benefits Showing details of progress in the service Determination of incremental dates Training and qualifications obtained Tax deductions, salary, leave and sickness etc. Discovery of Ghost Workers.

Management of Registries Registries are principally of two (2) types: Open Registry and

Secret/Confidential Registry. Open Registry In this Registry, non-classified documents, correspondence are stored and retrieved. Unauthorized persons and outsiders are not allowed to enter open registry. Secret/Confidential Registry In some organizations, this is split into two: Secret Registry and Confidential Registry. Documents kept in the Secret Registry are highly classified and officers working there are required to swear an oath in accordance with the Secret Act of 1962. Entry into the Secret Registry is often tightly restricted. Documents are stored away in steel cabinets with iron bar fitted across with locks.

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Confidential Registry keeps mostly personnel files of staff of the organization. SYNDICATE EXERCISES. 1. What is the rationale for paying close attention to official documents? 2. Discuss the process of opening, Temporary (T) Files and state the conditions under which T files could be opened by the Registry. 3. Where should files be kept? 4. Why are documents attached with slips indicating Priority Classification not put in officers in-tray? 5. Should a secret document/information be made available to every senior member of the department? 6. Why is Steel Cabinets with iron bar fitted across with locks preferred to Steel cabinets without iron bar fitted across? 7. Do you consider Audio Tapes and Films as documents that could be classified? What are your reasons for your answer?

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AN OVERVIEW AND STRATEGIES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE RULES
1. PREAMBLE The Public Service Rules is a Government document that specifies the rights and privileges of a Public Servant. It is a book which contains relevant information used in resolving the day to day issues relating to appointments, discipline, allowances, salaries, leave, transport, legal protection and retirement benefits provided by Government for its employees. 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since Independence in 1960, the document has undergone several reviews. The first set of rules guiding the conduct of Civil

Servants was known as General Orders or G.O., it was first reviewed in 1974 when it transformed from the General Orders to Civil Service Rules. Another review in year 2000 changed the document to Public Service Rules to emphasize its applicability to all Government Agencies and Parastatals outside the main Civil Service. The latest review

embarked upon in 2009 was recently approved by the President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The main

thrust of the review was to remove obsolete rules, regulations and procedures inimical to the success of the reforms in the Public Service.
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The reviews also took cognizance of the provisions of extant Circulars, Guidelines on Appointment, Promotion and Discipline issued by the Federal Civil Service Commission, Pension Reforms, the Monetization Policy of the Government, and Laws promulgated from time to time to reflect the rapid changes in the economic and social development of the country. 3. CONTENTS OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE RULES The old edition had a number containing five digits, of which the first two indicated the chapter, the third indicated the section within the chapter while the last two gave the number of the individual rule within the section, e.g. 14211 is the eleventh Rule in Section two of Chapter Fourteen. The five digits system of numbering of chapters and sections in the approved edition has been changed to six digit binary system. The first two indicate the chapter, the next two, the section and the last two, the rule number. 4. The current Public Service Rules (revised in 2008 is made up of 16

Chapters) within a General Appendix which contains Foreign Service Regulations. The method of numbering like any other official document is different. The old edition has five digits system of numbering which has been changed to six digits binary system. The first two indicates the
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

chapter, the next two, the section and the last two, the rule e.g., 140106, i.e., Chapter 14, Section 01, Rule 06. I would like to state here that, amendment of the Public Service Rules would be made through circulars which will be issued from time to time. It is also recommended that the review will be carried out every five (5) years. 5. The Public Service Rules should however, be read in conjunction

with other extracts, regulations and documents in order to be an effective Public Officer. These documents include: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Existing Statutory Legislation Federal State Laws and Edicts Financial Regulations; Circulars (Administrative, Policy, Treasury etc) Guide to Administrative Procedures

For the purpose of this lecture, we shall pay attention to the general principle of the Public Service Rules. CHAPTER 1 6. INTRODUCTION It shall be the duty of every officer to acquaint himself with the Public Service Rules, other regulations and extant circulars. This Public
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Service Rules apply to all officers except where they conflict with specific terms approved by the Federal Government and written into the contract of employment or letter of appointment. The specific and general

definitions of various words and terms employed in the Public Service Rules are contained in this chapter. below: i. ii. Emolument Public Service The total remuneration package as contained in the letter of appointment A body or organ which enjoys continuity of existence. Essentially, it covers Ministries and Extra-Ministerial Offices A post provided for under the personnel emoluments sub-head of the estimates A Permanent Secretary/Head of ExtraMinisterial Office Pensionable Officer on GL. 06 and below When used without qualifications means staff in an established post, either on pensionable or contract terms A few examples are indicated

iii.

Established Post

iv.

Head of Department

v. vi.

Junior Officer Officer

Notwithstanding that, throughout the Public Service Rules the terms Officer and Staff are referred to in the masculine gender, the provision of the Rules apply equally to female Public Servants.

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CHAPTER 2 7. APPOINTMENT AND LEAVING THE SERVICE The appropriate authority for appointment to Public Offices in the Federal Public Service is the Federal Civil Service Commission, either by a letter written under its direction or by formal agreement between the officer and the Federal Government or its appointed agents. Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra-Ministerial Officers are authorized to appoint eligible candidates to posts in respect of which the powers of appointment have been delegated to them. 8. APPOINTMENT Appointment means the filling of vacancies by the appointment of persons not already in the Public Service of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It, however, excludes transfer of officers from other Public

Service in the federation to the Federal Public Service. 9. TYPES OF APPOINTMENT Direct appointment to the Federal Public Service may be in any of the following categories: (a) (b) (c) (d) as trainees or pupils; on probation in a pensionable post; on non-pensionable contract to a non-pensionable post, or against a pensionable post for a specific period; on temporary basis other than (c).
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When a post proves difficult to fill, they shall normally be advertised. 10. ELIGIBILITY FOR APPOINTMENT PSR 020205 To be eligible for appointment to the Federal Public Service, every applicant must: (a) (b) not be less than 18 years and not more than 50 years of age; possess such minimum qualifications as are specified from time to time; (c) be certified by an authorized Health care provider as medically fit for Government service; and (d) possess a testimonial of good conduct from his last employer; or If not previously employed, from the last school or college attended. 11. The Chapter also contains provisions which enjoin Public Officers

to sign an Oath of secrecy on Security Form 1 and prohibits them from membership of any Secret Society. Any contravention shall be regarded as an act of serious misconduct and may attract dismissal from service. 12. SECTION 4 RULES FOR APPOINTMENT ON CONTRACT A contract appointment is a temporary

PSR 020401

appointment (which does not provide for the payment of pension) to a post of the level to which appointment is made by the Federal Civil
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Service Commission for a specific period as opposed to appointment and temporary employment. The contract appointment must be

recorded in a formal document of agreement. The conditions of service of a contract officer are those provided for in his/her contract only. Nigerians may be appointed on contract if they are pensioners, 50 years of age or over, possess specialized competencies, and such is in the best interest of the service. Souses married to Nigerians should remain on contract until granted Nigerian citizenship. Retired officers may only be reemployed (on contract) into career posts on grade levels immediately below that on which they retired. 13. SECTON 5 TRANSFERS AND SECONDMENTS

PSR 020501 Transfer is the permanent release of an officer from one scheduled service to another or from one class to another within the same service. Secondment means the temporary release of an officer to the service of another Government, approved body or any recognized international organizations for a specific period. 14. SECTION 6 ACTING APPOINTMENT When it is necessary that a particular duty post

PSR 020601

(of status not lower than Senior Clerical Officer, GL. 06) should continue to be filled at a time when no officer of corresponding substantive rank is
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

available for posting thereto, some other officers may, with the approval of the Federal Civil Service Commission, be formally appointed by notice in the Gazette to act in the duty post, and assume either fully or partly, the duties and responsibilities thereof. 15. SECTION 7 PROMOTIONS Promotions shall be made strictly on the basis of

PSR 020701 -

competitive merit from amongst all eligible candidates. The minimum number of years are as follows: GL. 06 and below GL.07 14 GL. 15 17 Minimum of 2 years Minimum of 3 years Minimum of 4 years

All promotions are subject to satisfying minimum requirements declared by the Federal Civil Service Commission and availability of vacancies. 16. SECTION 8 LEAVING THE SERVICE This Section contains provisions for the termination and

relinquishment of appointment during probationary period, resignation and leaving the service on grounds of failing an examination or abolition of office or re-organization. An officer who resigns will be liable to forfeit all claims to vacation leave, and refund to the Government in full any sum of money which he/she may be owing to Government. By virtue of
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

the provisions of regulation 15 of the Pension Reform Act 2004, all previous pensionable service is forfeited on resignation. 17. PSR 020808 (3)

(i) Officers who fail promotion examinations on three

consecutive attempts on the same grade and whose on-the-job performance has been assessed to be below average required to leave the serve. (ii) An officer whose service is no longer required in the event of abolition of office, re-organization of the office or redundancy shall be required to leave the service. 18. RULES RELATIONG TO PREGNANCY A female staff that is pregnant is entitled to 16 weeks Maternity Leave at a stretch with full pay. A medical certificate showing the shall be

expected date of confinement must be presented not less than two months before the date. The annual leave of that year will, however, be regarded s part of the maternity leave. When the annual leave has already been enjoyed before the grant of maternity leave that part of the maternity leave equivalent to the annual leave will be without pay. CHAPTER 3 19. INTRODUCTION

KNOWLEDGE OF DISCIPLINARY RULES PSR 030101

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It shall be the duty of every officer to acquaint himself/herself with the disciplinary rules and any other regulations in force. 20. DISCIPLINE

PSR 030201 GENERAL INEFFICIENCY General Inefficiency consist of a series of omissions or incompetence the cumulative effect of which shows that the officer is not capable of discharging efficiency the duties of the office he/she holds. It shall be the duty of every superior officer to draw attention to shortcomings in the work of an officer subordinate to him/her, while an officer must have been warned on three occasions in writing before proceedings for the removal of an officer for general inefficiency may be commenced. 21. MISCONDUCT PSR 030301 Misconduct is defined as a specific act of wrong doing or an improper behavior which is inimical to the image of the Service and which can be investigated and proved, it can lead to termination and retirement. It includes: (a) Scandalous conduct such as: i. immoral behavior ii. unruly behavior iii. drunkenness iv. foul language
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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) 22.

v. assault and vi. battery Refusal to proceed on transfer or to accept posting; Habitual lateness to work; Deliberate delay in treating official document; Failure to keep records; Unauthorized removal of public records; Dishonesty; Negligence; Membership of Cults; Sleeping on Duty; Improper dressing while on duty; Hawking merchandise within office premises; Refusal to take/carry out lawful instruction from superior officers; Malingering; Insubordination; Discourteous behavior to the public SERIOUS MISCONDUCT PSR 030402 Serious Misconduct is defined as a specific act of every serious

wrong doing and improper behavior which is inimical to the image of the Service, can be investigated and if proven, may lead to dismissal. Serious acts of misconduct include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Falsification of records; Suppression of records; Withholding of files; Conviction on a criminal charge (other than a minor traffic or Sanitary offence or the like); Absence from duty without leave; False claims against Government; Engaging in partisan political activities;
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(h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) 23.

Bankruptcy/serious financial embarrassment; Unauthorized disclosure of official information; Bribery; Corruption; Embezzlement; Misappropriation; Violation of Oath of Secrecy; Action prejudicial to the security of the State; Advance Fee Fraud (Criminal Code 419); Holding more than one full-time paid job; Nepotism or any other form of preferential treatment; Divided loyalty; Sabotage; Willful damage to Public property; Sexual Harassment; and Any other act unbecoming of a Public Officer.

The section contains provisions which preclude Public Servants

from lending money at interest, or guarantee or stand surety for money lent on interest to any other person. 24. INTERDICTION PSR 030404 When a serious case that may lead to dismissal has been instituted against an officer, the Permanent Secretary/Head of ExtraMinisterial Office may interdict him/her on not more than half pay pending the determination of the case. he/she shall cease to report for duty. When an officer interdicted,

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25.

SUSPENSION PSR 030406 Suspension shall apply where prima facie case, the nature of

which is serious, has been established against an officer and it is considered necessary in the public interest that he/she should forthwith be prohibited from carrying out his/her duties. An officer on suspension is precluded from the enjoyment of his/her emolument. 26. DISMISSAL PSR 030407 The ultimate penalty for serious misconduct is dismissal. An

officer who is dismissed forfeits all claims to retiring benefits, leave or transport grant etc., subject to the provisions of the Pension Reform Act 2004. 27. ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE PSR 030413 Any officer who absents himself/herself from duty or travels out of Nigeria without leave renders himself/herself liable to be dismissed from the service, and the onus shall rest on him/her, to show that the circumstances do not justify the imposition of the full penalty. 28. SERIOUS FINANCIAL EMBARRASSMENT PSR 030414 Where Serious Financial Embarrassment is caused by

imprudence or other reprehensible cause, the officer concerned shall be liable to immediate dismissal unless he/she could prove otherwise.
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29.

OATH OF SECRECY PSR 030415 Every officer is subject to the Official Secrets Act (Cap. 335), and

all officers, employees and temporary staff who have access to classified or restricted papers are enjoined to sign the Oath of Secrecy in the appropriate form, unauthorized disclosure of official information is an offence under the Public Service Rules. 30. PUBLICATION AND PUBLIC UTTERANCES PSR 030421 Except in pursuance of his/her official duties, no officer shall without the express permission of his/her Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra-Ministerial Office, engage in any publication or make public utterances and allow himself/herself to be interviewed, or express any opinion for publication on any question or a political or administrative nature, or on matters affecting the Administration, Public Policy, defence or military resources of the Federation or any other country. 31. POLITICAL ACTIVITIES PSR 030422 No officer shall, without express permission of the Government, whether on duty or leave of absence: (a) (b) hold any office, paid or unpaid, permanent or temporary, in any political organization; offer himself/herself or nominate anyone else as a candidate for any elective public officer including membership of a Local Government Council, State or National Assembly;
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(c) (d) 32.

indicate publicly his support for or opposition to any party, candidate or policy; engage in canvassing in support of political candidates. Public Officers are not prohibited from holding shares in both

public and private companies operating in Nigeria or abroad, except that they must not be director in private companies. Private practice is also prohibited, with exception granted to Private Medical Practitioners and Law Lecturers in the Universities. The rules precludes Public Officer form seeking influence of prominent persons in matter connected with discipline, or with a view to obtaining consideration for appointment, transfer, promotion or postings. Similarly, no officer may borrow money either as principal or as surety, or in any manner place himself/herself under a financial obligation to any person with whom he may likely have official interaction. Public Officers are not expected to accept gifts or presents, whether in the form of money or otherwise, from any person in recognition or anticipation of service rendered or to be rendered by virtue of his/her official position. 33. PROHIBITION OF BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION PSR 030434 In order to improve Public Service management and enhance accountability and transparency, no officer shall receive any bribe or engage in corrupt practices.
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CHAPTER 7 34. MEDICAL AND DENTAL PROCEDURES

MEDICAL TREATMENT PSR 070206 Among other topics in this chapter are medical check-up, procedure for medical check-up and medical treatment abroad. Approval for some public officers, including officers of the Armed Forces of the rank of Brigadier General (or its equivalent) and above, to receive periodic medical check-up at Government expense abroad will be given by the President and commander-in-Chief. In so doing, officers of the Armed Forces of the rank of Brigadier-General (or its equivalent) will submit to the President their applications through the appropriate Service Chief. Approvals/rejection will be notified through the same

channel. Public Officers on GL. 12 15 will rcive medical check-up once in a year subject to approval. 35. SICK LEAVE PSR 070316 The maximum aggregate sick leave which can be allowed an officer, who is not hospitalized, during any period of twelve months shall be forty-two (42) calendar days. Where such an officer have been absent from duty on the ground of ill-health for an aggregate period in excess of forty-two (42) calendar days within twelve calendar months,
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the officer should be made to appear before a Medical Board with a view to ascertaining whether he/she should be invalidated from Service. Sick leave for a period up to three months in the first instance may be allowed on the certificate of an approved Health Care Provider to an officer who is hospitalized. CHAPTER 9 36. PETITIONS AND APPEALS

PROCEDURE 090101 Every officer who has any representations of a public or private nature to make to the Government should address them to: the Chairman, Federal Civil Service commission, in respect of matters relating to appointments (including acting appointments), promotion, transfer and discipline; or (b) The Head of Civil Service of the Federation on matters relating to other Conditions of Service, e.g. leave, passages, allowances, pensions, gratuities, etc. 37. PETITION TO HEAD OF GOVERNMENT 090102 Any officer in the Federal Public Service may address the Head of Government, in which case he/she must transmit such communication, unsealed and in triplicate to any of the channels mentioned in the preceding rule requesting that the petition be forwarded in due course to the Head of Government. Every letter of document which may be (a)

received by the Head of Government otherwise than through the proper


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MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

channel will be returned to the writer. The rule requiring transmission of communications to the Head of Government through appropriate channel is based on the strongest grounds of public convenience, in order that all communications may be duly verified as well as reported on or before they reach the Head of Government, it extends therefore to communications relating to public affairs as well as to the concerns of the writer. 38. SECTION 2 PETITION RULES

DEFINITION 090201 (i) For the purpose of this section a petition is a formal appeal to ultimate authority that is to the Head of Government for special consideration of a matter affecting an officer personally. It must be distinguished from a letter of representation addressed to an appropriate senior officer of Government in the normal way. (ii) Without prejudice to their constitutional rights, officers should as much as possible exhaust all avenues provided in the Public Service Rules and Circulars for redress before proceeding to courts;

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39.

APPLICATION 090202 Petitions by an officer (or by an ex-officer on matters relating to

his/her conditions of employment as an officer or his/her condition as a pensioner of Government) must be submitted in accordance with, the rules, set out in this section. 40. OUTSIDE INFLUENCE 090203 An officer must not attempt to bring political or other outside influence to support his individual claims. If he/she is dissatisfied, the proper course is to make representations to his/her immediate superior officer or Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra-Ministerial Office. If

his/her representations are not successful, it is open to him/her to submit a formal petition to the appropriate authority under Rule 090101. 41. ROUTING OF PETITION 090204 A petition must be submitted through the proper departmental channels, namely through the petitioners immediate superior officer and the Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra-Ministerial Office, who will forward the petition with his/her comments and recommendations to the Chairman of the Federal Civil Service Commission or the Head of the Civil Service of the Federation in accordance with administrative instructions in force at the time. It is in the petitioners interest that the
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above-mentioned rule concerning the routing of a petition should be strictly observed in order that the petition will be duly verified and reported before it reached the final destination. 42. NUMBER OF COPIES 090205 A petition addressed to any of the channels mentioned in the

preceding rule must be submitted in duplicate and an advance copy may be sent directly to the appropriate authority. In either case, one copy will be retained by the Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra-Ministerial Office. 43. IDENTITY OF THE PETITIONER 090206 A petition must bear the full name, staff number, signature and address of the petitioner. When written by a person other than the

petitioner, the signature and address of the writer must be included. 44. PETITION SUBMITTED ON BEHALF OF AN ILLITERATE

PERSON 090207 When a person submits a petition above his/her own signature on behalf of an illiterate, the petition should contain a statement that he/she has been asked to write on behalf of the illiterate. DISQUALIFICATION 090208 (a) A petition which: (i) does not comply with Rule 090201;

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(ii) of Law; (iii) (iv) (v)

deals with a case in which legal action is pending in a Court is illegible or meaningless; is worded in abusive, improper or foul language; or merely repeats the substance of a previous petition without introducing new relevant matter, will not be entertained.

Delay to be explained (b) A petition submitted more than six months after the decision complained of has been given, will also not be entertained, unless such delay is supported by valid reasons. 45. CONCLUSION OF PETITION 090209 A petition should be concluded by stating concisely the nature of the redress sought, and a petition which exceeds in length of two pages of foolscap must also include a summary of the reasons adduced in support of the redress sought. CHAPTER 10 46. TYPES OF LEAVE 100201

Annual Leave: It is granted to an officer in accordance with his grade: GL. 07 and above GL. 04 6 GL. 03 and below 110

30 calendar days 21 calendar days 14 calendar days

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

47.

CASUAL LEAVE It is the absence of an officer from duty for a short period not

exceeding an aggregate of five working days within a leave year as may be authorized by superior officer. 48. MATERNITY LEAVE FOR FEMALE PUBLIC SERVANTS Government has approved 16 weeks Maternity Leave entitlement with full pay to female Public Servants at a stretch, beginning not later than 4 weeks from the expected date of delivery. A Medical Certificate, indicating the Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) must be presented not less than two months before that date. The annual leave for that year will, however, be regarded as part of the maternity leave. Where this annual leave has already been enjoyed before the grant of maternity leave, part of the maternity leave that is equivalent to annual leave will be without pay. 49. SICK LEAVE Sick leave is the absence of an officer from duty on account of illhealth as authorized by a healthcare provider. STUDY LEAVE In-Service training Study leave with pay Study leave without pay
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OTHER TYPES OF LEAVE Examination leave Sabbatical leave Leave on compassionate ground 2 weeks Pre-retirement leave Leave on ground of urgent private affairs Leave to take part in cultural or union activities Leave of Absence with pay on ground of Public Policy

CHAPTER 13 50. ALLOWANCES KILOMETRE ALLOWANCE It is paid to the following officers: Newly appointed officers reporting for duty and officers on transfer/posting Retiring officers Officers undertaking official assignment, using his/her personal car Rates PSR 130103 Ministers/Permanent Secretary Officers on GL. 15 17 Officers on GL. 07 14 Officers on GL. 06 and below 51. DISENGAGEMENT ALLOWANCE: It is paid to officers proceeding on retirement from service at uniform rates of 5% of annual basic salary.
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N150.00 per kilo N75.00 per kilo N55.00 per kilo N35.00 per kilo

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

52.

1ST 28 DAYS ALLOWANCE FOR NEWLY APPOINTED AND NEWLY POSTED OFFICERS. Newly appointed officers, officers on transfer/posting from cities different from their place of domicile shall be entitled to transfer fare for self, spouse and not more than four (4) children. In addition, they shall be eligible for hotel

accommodation for the first 28 days or an allowance for the first twenty eight days in lieu of hotel accommodation at the following rates: Permanent Secretary Officers on GL. 15 -17 Officers on GL. 07 14 Officers on GL. 06 and below Duty Tour Allowance Ministers/HCSF/SGF Permanent Secretaries Officers on GL. 15 17 Officers on GL. 07 14 Officers on GL. 06 and below 53. N20,000.00 per night N13,000.00 per night N9,000.00 per night N3,000.00 per night N35,000.00 N20,000.00 N16,000.00 N12,000.00 N 5,000.00

TRANSPORT ALLOWANCE AND LOCAL RUNNING (a) All officers are entitled to air fare depending on the exigencies of duty and with the approval of the Accounting Officer.

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(b)

Transport Allowance shall be paid to all officers when traveling to towns and cities where air transport services do not exist at the rate of N20.00 per Kilometre.

(c)

For local running, officers shall be entitled to 30% of Duty Tour Allowance (DTA) in addition to airport and taxi fare at the prevailing rates.

54.

ESTACODE ALLOWANCE USD 900 USD 600 USD 425 USD 381 USD 206

Ministers/SGF/HCSF Permanent Secretaries Officers on SGL. 15 17 Officers on SGL. 07 14 Officers on GL. 06 and below

An officer who is required by Government to proceed to a foreign country on duty or on an approved course of instruction will be eligible for a warm clothing allowance of US$720.00.

55.

LOCAL COURSE ALLOWANCE

Courses Not Exceeding 28 Days GL. 16 17 GL. 14 15 GL. 12 13 GL. 09 10 GL. 07 08 GL. 04 06 GL. 01 03
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N5,000 per day N3,000 per day N2,500 per day N2,000 per day N2,000 per day N1,000 per day N600 per day

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

56.

Courses exceeding 28 days

Where lodging and boarding are not provided GL. 16 17 GL. 14 15 GL. 12 13 GL. 09 10 GL. 07 08 GL. 04 06 GL. 01 03 N5,000 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N4,000 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N3,000 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N2,500 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N2,000 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N1,600 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter. N1,200 per day for 1st 28 days and N500 for each day thereafter.

PROJECT ALLOWANCE Training for 1 year and above Training below 1 year BOOK ALLOWANCE Training for 1 year and above Training below 1 year 57. RESPONSIBILITY ALLOWANCE N20,000 N10,000 N20,000 N10,000

Confidential Secretaries/Typist attached to Chief Executive and others not below grade salary 17 are entitled to: Chief Confidential Secretaries
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N50,000 per annum

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

Asst. Chief Confidential Secretaries Confidential Secretaries and Typists 58. OVERTIME ALLOWANCE

N30,000 per annum N20,000 per annum

It shall be paid to officers on GL. 14 and below Payment of overtime shall be made for time worked in excess of the normal working hours (8.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.) Payment of overtime allowance on normal working days shall be at the rate of 0.7% of the monthly consolidated salary of an officer, subject to a maximum of 45 hours in one month. Hours worked on work-free days will be paid at the rate of of the normal overtime rate while the rate shall, on public holidays be double of the normal overtime rate. All applications for payment of overtime allowance must be approved by the Accounting Office/Chief Executive 59. UNIFORM ALLOWANCE Nurses and midwives Fire Officers N20,000 per annum N25,000 per annum

It is paid on first appointment or promotion to any of the post listed above. 60. SHIFT DUTY ALLOWANCE Officers who perform shift duties and are not Health Professionals shall be paid Shift Duty Allowance at the rate of 6.0% of their monthly consolidated salaries. 61. RESETTLEMENT ALLOWANCE, DISTURBANCE ALLOWANCE The allowance covers:
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FORMALLY KNOWN

AS

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Transfer of officer from one station or other Government to another during service is a tour of service. The allowance shall be paid at the rate of 2% of an officers annual emolument. An officer whose transfer is at his request shall only be entitled to transport allowance and not resettlement allowance. 62. TEACHING ALLOWANCE

Part time Teacher/Instructor (members of staff) is entitled to N500 per hour. Part time Teacher/Instructor (none staff) is entitled to N500 per hour. House master/mistress is eligible for allowance at the rate of N500 per month. Science/Mathematics Teachers are eligible for Science/Mathematics Teaching allowance at the rate of N750 per month. Laboratory attendant working in the evening class section of the Institution in addition to his normal duties is entitled to allowance rate of N100 per month. CHAPTER16 63. APPLICATION OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS RULES TO

SECTION 1 GENERAL DEFINITION 160101 A Parastatal is Government-owned organization established by statute to render specified service(s) to the public. It is structured and
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operates according to the instrument establishing it and also comes under the policy directives of Government. 160102 Parastatals shall be classified into four (4) categories as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 64. Regulatory Agencies; General Services; Infrastructure/Utility Agencies; Security Agencies.

EXISTING RULES/CONDITIONS OF SERVICE 160103 Parastatals are to retain and improve existing rules, procedure and practices in their establishments and ensure that there are no deviations from the general principles contained in the Public Service Rules. For example variations in probationary periods and maturity periods for promotion only reflect organizational

peculiarities and not inconsistencies with the Public Service Rules. However, in the absence of internal rules and regulations on any matter, the relevant provisions of the Public Service Rules shall apply. 65. SECTION 2 BOARDS/COUNCIL MATTERS FUNCTIONS OF BOARDS/COUNCIL 160201 (a) Statutory Boards/Councils shall set operational and administrative policies in accordance with Government policy directives and supervises the implementation of such
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(b) (c)

policies. The administrative policies may include those relating to appointment, promotion and discipline of staff. A Board shall not be involved directly in the day to day management of a Parastatal only. A Minister exercise control of Parastatals at policy level through the Board of the Parastatal only.

66.

PRIVILEGE OF MEMBERS OF BOARD 160201 Accommodation shall not be provided to any Part-time member of a Board on a permanent basis. No part time member of the Board shall be allowed to retain official vehicle for the use on a permanent basis and regulations on any matter, the relevant provisions of the Public Service Rules shall apply.

67.

SECTION 3 APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTION

AUTHORITY FOR APPOINTMENT 160301 All appointments to public offices, both senior and junior, in Federal Government Parastatals shall be made on the authority of the Boards/Councils within the approved manning levels. 68. APPOINTMENT 160302 Appointment into all grades in Parastatals shall be need based and subject to the approval of the Supervisory Boards/Councils. Such appointments shall be made through a fair and open selection process that ensures merit, credibility and equal employment opportunity for all
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with due regard to the Federal character principle.

Eligibility for

appointment under this rule shall be in accordance with the provisions of Public Service Rules 020205, subject to the fact that reference made in Rule 020205 to the HCSF shall not apply to Parastatals. 69. AUTHORITY TO APPROVE PROMOTION 160303

The Board/Council of a Parastatal shall approve all promotions without prejudice to its powers to delegate. 70. ELIGIBILITY FOR PROMOTION 160304 The provisions of PSR 020701 (b) and (c) on eligibility for promotion shall apply to all Parastatals, without prejudice to a Parastatals, without prejudice to a Parastatals conditions of service. 71. SECTION 5 DISCIPLINE AUTHORITY TO DISCIPLINE 160501 The power to exercise disciplinary control over officers in Parastatals is vested in the supervisory Boards/Councils in accordance with their respective conditions of service. 72. GENERAL APPLICATIONS 160502 The provisions of Sections 2 to 6 in Chapter 3 of the Public Service Rules shall guide all Parastatals in addressing disciplinary matters provided that where reference to the Federal Civil Service
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Commission, Head of the Public Service of the Federation or the Permanent Secretary, the Board/Councils shall perform such functions. 73. SECTION 6 PETITIONS AND APPEALS PETITION TO HEAD OF GOVERNMENT 160601 In consonance with Section 2 of Chapter 9 of the Public Service Rules an officer of a Parastatal who wishes to make a representation to the Head of Government shall route such representation through the proper Departmental channels, namely: the petitioners superior Officer; the chief Executive Officer; the Board/Council and the supervising Ministry of the organization.

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PUBLIC SERVICE FINANCIAL REGULATIONS


Learning Objectives At the end of this presentation, participants will be able; to appreciate the usefulness of regulations in relation to public financial transactions instead of arbitrariness understand the various laws behind the regulations know the responsibilities of various financial authorities and individuals in the Public Service to facilitate the implementation of the various regulations in their workplaces ensure the availability of the booklet in their offices as constant reference material assist in meeting the recording, analyzing and reporting requirements demanded by the Financial Regulations.

INTRODUCTION In his preface to the 2000 edition of the Financial Regulations, the former president General Olusegun Obasanjo remarked that The complexity which Government business is expected to assume under this administration has made it necessary to take a closer look, once again, at the Financial Regulations by which Government finance and accounting procedures are regulated. This review is necessary for any Administration moreso, for the Democratic Administration to usher in a great and dynamic economy, ensure a just and egalitarian society and above all to enhance transparency and public accountability. That aptly summarizes the reasons why Financial Regulations are essential because where there are no express rules governing anything arbitrariness reigns and anarchy will eventually result. Financial

Regulations are meant for all public officers and are therefore the financial Bible/Koran of public officers.
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The Accounting Officer in charge of each ministry, department and agency (MDA) has the task of safeguarding public funds and ensuring the regularity and propriety of expenditure under his control. This

module is therefore designed to take participants through essential parts of the financial regulations. CONCEPTS CLARIFICATION: PUBLIC SERVICE In a recent paper presented at the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria, (ASCON), by Dr. Goke Adegoroye, Director-General of Bureau of Public Service Reforms then, the term Public Service was defined as agglomeration of all organizations that exist as part of government machinery for the delivery of services, which to him included: (i) The Civil Service- the career personnel of the Presidency, the Ministries, the Extra Ministerial Departments, and the Services of the National Assembly and the Judiciary. The Armed Forces The Police and other Security Agencies, Educational Institutions, Research Institute etc.

(ii) (iii)

FINANCIAL REGULATIONS Financial Regulations in the Public Service can be described as rules and regulations which govern the acquisition, recording, utilization and accounting for and control of Public funds and resources of government to achieve state objectives. These rules and regulations are usually brought together in booklet or manual form which is called Financial Regulations at Federal level, Financial Instructions at state level and Financial Memorandum at Local Government level. The provisions of this book are so important that they become standard against which all financial activities are measured and judged.
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For example in auditing all public service organizations the AuditorGeneral or his agents rely on the provisions of this book to determine acceptable or unacceptable financial transaction(s) and/or practices(s). To emphasize this, the President in his Preface to the 2000 edition, remarked that the Financial Regulations is issued on my instruction. to underscore my concern for restoration of rules and regulations and the need to adhere strictly to them in the conduct of Government business particularly in the control and Management of public funds and resources of government. OBJECTIVES OF FINANCIAL REGULATIONS Financial Regulations are issued to: (i) guide the day to day financial operations of Government Ministries, Extra Departments, Agencies and parastatals. (ii) ensure appropriate system of information flow from Management to finance and accounts staff. (iii) ensure prudence in carrying out government business. (iv) provide common standard, procedures and guides by which auditors and Treasury Inspectors can ascertain that Ministries are able to control and maintain up to date records of financial transactions. (v) promote fiscal accountability, Management accountability and programme result accountability in Government financial Management and control. SOURCES OF FINANCIAL REGULATIONS In paragraph 4 of Part I of chapter 1 of the Financial Regulations, it is stated that the Minister of Finance shall issue from time to time Financial Regulations in accordance with existing policies and laws. This simply implies that the Financial Regulations are derived from existing laws and policies governing finances of government at the time of issue. Such laws and policies include:
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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii)

The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 Finance (control and Management) Act 1958 The Audit Act 1956 Allocation of Revenue Act 1981 The Public Service Rules The Anti corruption. Law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 2000 Treasury and Finance Circulars Head of Service circulars Appropriation Acts Supplementary Appropriation Acts Accounting codes, standards and Internal Audit Guides of the organizations Special Instructions from authorized sources including Departmental circular. Public Procurement Act 2007.

FINANCIAL AUTHORITIES At the apex of financial authorities in the Public Sector is the National Assembly which approves the annual budget. This body is

followed closely by Federal executive council, the president, ministers, permanent secretaries (Accounting officers) Chief executives of parastatals (Accounting officers) Auditor-General, Accountant-General etc. All are assigned special responsibilities in the management of These responsibilities are spelt out in the Financial

public funds. Regulations. (a)

Office of the Accountant-General of the Federation: The following are the key roles and responsibilities of the

Accountant-General of the Federation: i ii The Accountant-General of the Federation is the head of the Federal Government accountant services and the Treasury. He serves as the Chief Accounting Officer of the receipts and payments of the Government of the Federation.
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iii

iv v

vi vii viii

Supervises the accounts of the Federal Ministries and ExtraMinisterial Departments, through the Inspectorate Department. Collates, presents and publishes statutory financial statements of accounts required by the Finance Minister. Maintains and operate the accounts of the Consolidated Revenue Fund, Development Fund, Contingency Fund and other public Funds and provides cash-backing for the operations of Government. Manages Federal Government Investments through MOFIMinistry of Finance Incorporated. Maintains and operates the Federation Account. Establishes and supervises Federal Pay Offices in each state of the Federation.

(b)

Treasury Accountants Treasury Accountants are posted to every Ministry to enforce compliance with the provisions of the Financial Regulations. Their roles include assisting to improve the quality of financial management and control in the public sector.

(c)

Treasury Inspectorate The Chief Accounting Officer of Government who is the Accountant-General of the Federation has a Treasury Inspectorate Department, the duties of which include inspection of the books and records of the accounts of Ministries etc. to ensure compliance with financial regulations. The Department is empowered to

investigate cases of fraud or any breach of regulations and to recommend disciplinary actions against all those who may be implicated. It is also empowered to demand for any financial

information, which the Ministries are mandated to supply.

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(d)

Auditor-General for the Federation (i) The Auditor-General for the Federation is the officer responsible for the audit and report on the public accounts of the Federation including all persons and bodies entrusted with the collection, receipt, custody, issue, transfer, delivery of government property and for the certification of the annual accounts of the Federal Government. In this respect, the Auditor-General for the Federation is the external auditor to the Federal Government. (ii) He examines and ascertains all accounts relating to public funds and property as to whether in his opinion: (a) the accounts have been properly kept (b) all public monies have been fully accounted for. (c) Monies have been expended for the purpose for which they were appropriated and payments fully authorized (d) Essential records are maintained and the rules and procedures applied are sufficient to safeguard and control government funds and property. Accounting Officer The Accounting Officer as designated in the Financial Regulations is the Permanent Secretary of a Ministry or the Head of ExtraMinisterial Department entrusted with the financial stewardship of safeguarding the public funds and the regularity and propriety of the expenditure under his control. The functions include briefly: i ensuring that proper budgetary and accounting systems are established in his ministry to ensure and enhance internal control, accountability and transparency; ii ensuring that management control tools are put in place to minimize waste and fraud. iii ensuring that all government revenues are collected and paid into the Consolidated Revenue fund promptly. iv rendering monthly and other periodical accounting returns and transcripts to the Accountant-General.
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v vi vii

ensuring prudence, safety and proper maintenance of all government monies and assets under his custody. ensuring accurate and prompt collection of, and accounting for, all public monies received and expended. responsibility for answering all audit queries pertaining to his Ministry or Office. In addition, the Accounting Officer shall be held personally and pecuniarily responsible for all financial wrongdoings in his Ministry.

(f)

Sub-Accounting Officer This is an officer, other than the Accounting Officer, who is entrusted with the receipt, custody and disbursement of public money and who is required to keep one of the recognized cash books (main Cash book, Revenue Collector Cash book and Petty Cash book), together with such other books of accounts as my be prescribed by the AccountantGeneral.

(g)

Revenue Collector Revenue collector is an officer, other than a sub-accounting officer, entrusted with an official receipt, license or ticket booklet for the regular collection of some particular form of revenue and who is required to keep a cash book.

(h)

Imprest Holder Imprest holder is an officer, other than a sub-accounting officer, who is entrusted with the disbursement of public money for which vouchers cannot be presented immediately to a sub-accounting officer for payment. He keeps a petty cash book.
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BUDGET We have just discussed that at the apex of the financial authorities in the public sector is the National Assembly. The main function of the National Assembly with regards to Public Finance is the approval of the annual budget, followed by oversight/monitoring functions. In addition they also exercise control function through the instrumentality of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC). Suffice to mention here that Budget is made up of Revenue and expenditure. While revenue can be broken into capital and Recurrent, Expenditure can also be divided into Recurrent and Capital. All the

chapters in the Financial Regulations deal with these two areas. On the revenue side chapter 3 of Financial Regulations (2000) provides that receipt shall be issued for every revenue collected on behalf of government while on the expenditure side, Financial Regulations 401 states that Estimates and Appropriation Act will be held to limit and arrange the disbursement of the funds of the Federal Government and no expenditure may be incurred except on the authority of a warrant of the Minister of Finance. ACCOUNTABILITY AND PROBITY The Financial Regulations are expected to aid the achievement of probity and accountability in Government financial transactions. According to FR.101, the need and responsibility to establish a sound financial and accounting system; to ensure optimal utilization of scarce resources and strict compliance with financial regulations in the achievement of Government objectives rests principally with the Accountant-General of the Federation, and also with the Accounting
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Officers

(i.e.

the

Permanent

Secretaries/Chief

Executives

of

Ministries/Agencies). The Accountant-General of the Federation is the Chief Accounting Officer for the receipts and payments of public funds. He is also responsible for the general supervision of the accounts of all ministries, extra-ministerial departments, agencies and all arms of government within the Federation. REVENUE ACCOUNTING The year 2000 Revised Financial Regulations comprise two broad sections viz, finance and Accounts contain codes of regulations made up of rules which specify actions acceptable and those not acceptable in the collection, documentation, custody, disbursement etc. of public funds. All Federally collectable revenue as spelt out in the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, are paid into the Federation Account, before they may be shared out for use by the various tiers of Government. The share of the Federal government is paid into the Consolidated Revenue Fund Account of the Federation (CRF). The Financial Regulations require that all revenue collected must be receipted, recorded in the appropriate revenue books and banked. The financial Regulations also spell out funds disbursement procedures. In this respect, the Annual Estimates and Appropriation Act determine the limits and arrange the disbursement of the funds of the Federal Government. Therefore, no expenditure may be incurred except on the authority of appropriate organ or individual as provided in these financial regulations (FR 401). All expenditure warrants are signed only after the National Assembly has passed the Appropriation Bill into an Act.
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RENDITION OF MONTHLY ACCOUNTS In compliance with the provision of Financial Regulation No. 208, (2006) all Federal Ministerial/Extra-Ministerial Departments and Self

Accounting Units are mandated to submit their transcript of accounts and returns to the Office of the Accountant-General of the Federation not later than 14th day of the following month of the accounts. In the case of Nigerian Missions abroad, they are to ensure the dispatch of their accounts within the same period by diplomatic bag or registered Mail. THE NATURE OF THE TRANSCRIPT OF ACCOUNT The monthly transcript of accounts expected to be submitted to Office of the Accountant General of the Federation by each Ministry/Extra-Ministerial Department consist of: (a) (b) (c) (d) Original Cash Book Foils arranged in day to day order, with cash specifications on the last page. Original and duplicate copies of all Receipts and Payment Vouchers. Certificate or Statement of Cash and Bank Balances Bank Reconciliation Statement There is also a list of accounting returns which Ministries/Extra-Ministerial offices or self-accounting units are expected to submit to the Office of the AccountantGeneral of the Federation on a monthly basis.

PURCHASE CONTROL OBJECTIVES The Control Objective for purchases and contracts are mainly to ensure that: (i) all purchases are properly authorized and approved before goods or services are ordered; and that goods received or services rendered are properly checked and authorized prior to acceptance of payment;

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(ii)

(iii)

liability for all purchases is accurately recorded in the books of accounts and that suppliers received payments in accordance with agreed terms; and materials purchased and services rendered are actually received and properly analysed and that the appropriate stock, expenses or fixed assets records are up-dated.

PAYEMENTS CONTROL OBJECTIVES (i) to set up liability for payments for goods supplied or services rendered at any given date. (ii) to ensure strict control over payments : and (iii) to accelerate settlement of accounts. SALARIES AND WAGES CONTROL OBJECTIVES In relation to payrolls, the control objectives are:(i) to ensure that only bonafide employees are remunerated for services; (ii) to ensure that amounts paid to employees are properly authorized and relate to service actually rendered, e.g. overtime allowance: and (iii) to ensure that the computation of payments is properly carried out and all statutory deductions have been properly calculated. CONTROL OBJECTIVES FOR FIXED ASSETS Fixed Assets include: Land and Buildings; Plant, Machinery and equipment; Motor Vehicles; Furniture, Fixtures and Fittings; and Tools. The control objective is mainly to ensure that capital expenditure is properly incurred and recorded by maintaining Fixed Assets Register. LOANS AND ADVANCES CONTROL OBJECTIVES To ensure that: (i) all loans and advances are properly approved and authorized before payment is made; (ii) proper records are maintained for all loans and advances;
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(iii) (iv)

all loans and advances made are recorded as and when due; and no new loans and advances are given before existing loans and advances of the same class are fully recovered.

All the above measures involve a sound accounting system to permit effective administrative control of funds and operations, costs effectiveness and internal audit appraisal. Internal and Federal Auditors should ensure that the accounts of the different organizations are maintained in ways that will facilitate periodic reviews. ENFORCEMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH FINANCIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC ACCOUNTS COMMITTEE In the past years, the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) was established to compel Accounting Officers to account for their stewardship and explain where non-compliance with the financial regulations has been noticed. INTERNAL AUDIT Internal Audit is part of Internal control which is defined as The whole system of control, financial and otherwise, established by the management in order to: (i) (ii) (iii) (v) carry on the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner; ensure adherence to management policies; safeguard the assets; secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of the records

Establishment of Internal Control is the responsibility of top management hence Financial Regulations 2001 (ii) (2006) says the Accounting Officer of a ministry or Extra-Ministerial Department shall ensure that an Internal Audit Unit is established to provide a complete
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and continuous audit of the Accounting records of revenue and expenditure, plants and stores etc. FEDERATION ACCOUNT It is a distributable pooling (special) account in which all revenues collected by the Federal government are paid except the proceeds of tax under Pay-As-You-Earn system from Armed Forces personnel, Police personnel, Foreign Service officers and FCT-Abuja residents and other prescribed independent revenues. It is distributable among the Federal Government, State Governments, Local Governments and Special Fund. CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND It is the Federal Government Account established by the Constitution which is not distributable but solely for the Federal Government. The sources include: The share from Federation Account Some direct taxes. Licenses, fess and other internal revenue Earnings and sales, Rent on government property, etc. All recurrent expenditure including consolidated salaries of Auditor-General, Chief Justice, President etc. are charged to it. DEVELOPMENT FUND AND CONTINGENCY FUND Development Fund is a capital projects account where all revenue meant for capital projects are paid into, while the contingency funds are meant for unforeseen circumstances like the recent bomb explosion in
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Lagos. Funds are often transferred from the Consolidated Revenue Fund to each of them. RECURRENT EXPENDITURE Recurrent expenditure is disbursed from the Consolidated Revenue fund and no such expenditure will be incurred except on the authority of a warrant duly signed by the Minister of Finance. CAPITAL EXPENDITURE The Capital Expenditure Warrants are called Development Fund Warrants. IMPRESTS Imprest is applicable to all sums advanced to officers of the government to meet expenditure under the current estimates for which vouchers cannot be immediately presented to the Accountant-General or sub-accounting officer for payment. The imprests are issued by the

Accountant-General and the Accounting Officers or self-accounting ministries. The authority for issuing imprest is conveyed in the Annual General Imprest Warrant issued by the Minister of Finance. The Ministry that wants such imprest system should apply in advance so that it can be incorporated in the years budget. TYPES OF IMPREST: i Standing Imprest: It is the imprest that may be replenished from time to time during the financial year by submitting paid vouchers for reimbursement and fully retired at the end of the financial year. Special Imprest: it is granted for a particular purpose which must be retired in full within the period allowed or when the service is completed.
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Every imprest holder must maintain an imprest Cash Book. DEPOSITS Deposit is the money/cash which belong to people, placed under government custody for safe keeping. Deposits may not be accepted except it is in line with the Accountant-Generals requirement. Unclaimed salaries, unspent balances of voted expenditure, as well as sums due to merchants shall not be placed on deposit. Those that can be placed on deposit include those moneys kept for Pensioners, excess revenue discovered of which the source is not immediately known, refundable tenders application fee etc. A deposit ledger book has to be kept and well maintained for deposits and all deposits must be receipted. Except those of prisoners, and deposit that is kept beyond two years should not be paid without clearance from the Accounting Officers. Any deposit beyond 5 years, except for prisoners, should be reported to the Accountant-General by the depositor. GENERAL RULES GOVERNING PAYMENTS The means of paying out government money is the payment vouchers No payment may be made without a voucher Financial Regulations: (FR 601) All payments above N10,000,000 must be made by cheque (Financial Regulations (FR 618) On no occasion should cheques be issued for payment for jobs performed or goods not yet supplied FR 804 (II). The only exception to this is imprest. Then one may ask what of I. O. U.? The truth is that I.O.U. is illegal. It is not provided for in any of our regulations. Payroll must be hand-written FR 1902
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ADVANCES Advances are money given to public officers which are not yet expenditure but may or may not become expenditure in future. There are two type of advances Imprest advance (Non Personal Advances) and Personal advance. IMPREST ADVANCE Imprest advance is defined in Financial Regulations 1101 as sum advanced to an officer of the government to meet expenditure under the current Estimates for which vouchers cannot be presented immediately to the Accountant-General or a sub Accounting Officer for payments. Imprest advances can be categorized into two namely: (i) (ii) Standing imprest Special imprest

Standing imprest is given to an officer to meet expected expenditures and can be reimbursed from time to time and must be retired on or before 31st December of every year. On the other hand Special imprest is granted for a particular purpose which must be retired in full within the period allowed when the service is completed. PERSONAL ADVANCES Personal advances are loans to individual officers in the employment of government which have to be retired by monthly installmental repayment from Salary. Personal advance may only be granted on the authority of these regulations and the Public Service Rules. Some of the personal advances approved by Financial

Regulations & Public Service Rules include: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Salary Advance Motor Vehicle advance Motorcycle Bicycle advance Spectacle advance
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(vi) Correspondence advance (vii) Refurbishing advance Each personal advance has its own conditions for granting it in addition to the general condition that on no account should advance/s be granted in such a way that an officer will be made to refund more that 2/3 of his salary in any month as it could lead to Financial embarrassment which is a serious misconduct under the Public Service Rule. Further more no advance should be given if the previous one has not been retired completely. LOSS OF FUNDS FR 1501 Loss of fund can either be as a result of fraud or occur without fraud. Where a cash loss has occurred without fraud or theft being

involved, the Chief Executives are personally empowered to surcharge the officer responsible up to the full amount of the loss. REALLOCATION AND VIREMENT OF VOTES As earlier mentioned expenditures to be incurred in any financial year are first provided for and approved in the annual estimates (the Budget). In the course of the year there may be need for readjustments of votes. Reallocation is movement from one sub-head to the other while virement is movement from Head to the other especially within capital votes. Virement of Capital Votes without proper approval is now a criminal offence punishable under the anti corruption law. TENDERS AND TENDERING PROCEDURE Government contracts are awarded in accordance with the ordinary law of contract, that is, through offer by one side and acceptance by the other. The only distinction between a Government contract and that of commercial establishment is that the latter can freely
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choose the suppliers with whom it wants to work while the former is obliged to consider the claims of all qualified firms wishing to work for it. Therefore, in the public sector, a contract should be awarded based on competitive tender procedures unless there are specific reasons to the contrary. Current Tendering Procedures as provided in the Financial Regulations with Modifications as contained in Finance Circular No. F15775 of 27th June, 2001, Procurement Act 2007 & related circulars include: (i) Abrogation of Departmental Tenders Board Any procurement; the values of which do not exceed N1 million can be approved by the Accountant officer/Permanent

Secretary without.

Open competitive tendering after having

obtained at least three quotations from suitably qualified contractors/suppliers. All expenditures incurred under this

policy are to be reported to the minister on quarterly basis. (ii) Establishment of Ministerial Tenders Board (a) There shall be established in each Ministry/Extra-Ministerial Department a Ministerial Tenders Board Chairman of which shall be the Permanent Secretary/Chief Executive of the Extra-Ministerial Department. (b) The other members of the Ministerial Tenders Board shall be the Director/heads of Departments in the Ministry/Establishment. (c) Each Ministerial Tenders Board is empowered to award any contract the value of will be in accordance with existing threshold (d) The decisions of the Ministerial Tenders Board shall be confirmed by the Minister. (iii)
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(iv) ESTABLISHMENT OF PARASTALTENDER BOARD There is in existence a parastal tender Board made up of the chief executive/Accounting Officer as Chairman and relevant Heads of Departments as members. The Director of procurement is secretary. ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCUREMENT PLANNING COMMITTEE In accordance with Section 21(1) of the Procurement Act, for each financial year, each procuring entity shall establish a Procurement Planning Committee which shall consist of: (a) The Accounting Officer of th4e procuring entity who shall be the Chairman of the committee; (b) The Director/Head of: i) the Procurement Department of the procuring entity who shall be the Secretary; ii) the Department directly in requirement of the procurement; iii) the Finance & Accounts Department of the procuring entity; iv) the Planning, Research and Statistics Department of the procuring entity; v) a Technical Personnel of the procuring entity with expertise in the subject matter for each particular procurement and; vi) the Legal Unit of the procuring entity. The Procurement Planning Committee in each MDA shall be responsible for issuing a Certificate of No Objection to Contract Award for Contracts above N1 million but below N50 million to enable the Procuring Department to proceed to the Ministerial Tenders Board for approval of the Contract. For all Recurrent and Capital Contracts of N50 million and above, the Procurement Planning Committee shall ensure that all Due process have been followed and shall submit a recommendation to the Bureau of Public Procurement for a Certificate
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of No Objection to Contract Award to be issued to enable the MDAs proceed to the Federal Executive Council (FEC) for the approval of the Contract. ESTABLISHMENT OF TECHNICAL EVALUATION COMMITTEE There shall be a technical Evaluation committee to evaluate bids in order to assist the Tender Board to make informed decision. Federal Executive Council Any contract the value of which exceeds N50,000,000.00 shall be approved by the Federal Executive Council. DUE PROCESS OBLIGATIONS Due process demands that in making procurements on behalf of Government, the process must be: (i) Open (ii) Competitive (v) Cost accurate The process also specifies approval thresholds outlined below: (Circular No. SGF/OP/I/S.3/VIII/57 of 11th March, 2009.)

(a)

Procurement Approval Thresholds for Bureau of Public Procurement, Tenders Boards and Accounting Officers (PSs and CEOs) for All Ministries, Departments and Agencies.

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Approving Authority/ Goods No Objection to award

Works

Non-Consultant Services

Consultant Services

BPP issue No Objection: N100 million and N1.0 billion to award/ FEC approves above above

and N100 million and N100 million and above above

Ministerial Tenders Board N5 million and N1o million and N5 million and N5 million and above but less above but, less than above but less than above but less than than N100 million N1.0 billion N100 million N100 million Parastatal Tenders Board N2.50 million and N5 million and N2.50 million and N2.50 million and above but less above but less than above but less than above but less than than 50 million N250 million N50 million N50 million N5 Less than million N10 Less than million N5 Less than million N5

Accounting Officer: Less than Permanent Secretary million

Accounting Officer: Less than N2.50 Less than N5 million Director-General/CEO million (b) Procurement Methods and Thresholds of Application Procurement/ Selection Goods Works (N) Method and Prequalification International/National N100 million and N1 billion and above Competitive Bidding above National Competitive N2.5 million and N2.5 million and Bidding above nut less above but less than than N100 million N1 billion Shopping (Market Less than N2.25 Less than N2.5 Survey) million million Single Source/Direct Less than N0.25 Less than N0.25 Contracting (Minor Value million million procurements) Prequalification N100 million and N300 million and above above Quality and Cost Based Not Applicable Not Applicable Consultant Qualifications Least Cost Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable 142

Less than N2.50 Less than N2.50 million million

Non-consultant Services (N) N100 million and above N2.5 million and above but less than N100 million Less than N2.5 million Less than N0.26 million N100 million and above Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable

Consultant Services (N) Not Applicable Not Applicable

Not Applicable Less than N0.25 million Not Applicable N25 million and above Less than N25 million Less than N25

MANDATORY TRAINING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS ON GL. 08 10.

million (c) Composition of Tenders Boards

Ministry: Chairman:Members:Parastatals: Chairman:Members:Chief Executive Officers Heads of Departments Permanent Secretary Heads of Departments

Other Due Process Requirements include: (1) Advertisement (2) Pre-Qualification Requirements (3) Invitation to Tender or Bid (4) Opening of Tender (5) Evaluation of Tender (6) Technical Bidding (7) Financial Bidding (8) Determination of the winner e-Payment By Federal Treasury Circular No TRY/A8&B8/2008 OAGF/CAD/026/VOL.II/465 of 22nd October, 2008, the Federal

Government formally abolished the use of cheques to make payments by public offices. All payments are now to be made electronically with effect from 1st January, 2009. Transactions covered by the e-payment include: All payments to Contractors and Consultants All payments to service providers e.g PHCN All payment to Staff All payment to other government agencies e.g FIRS Implication of this is that Financial Regulation 618 which provide for payment by cheque is automatically amended. Similarly the signing of Voucher which is mentioned in Financial Regulation 605 & 606 Is

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thus affected as many people paid by mandate hardly come back to sign PVs. MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT ASSETS Financial Management either in public sector or private sector must include assets management because assets are either directly money or money worth. In recognition of this, the Financial Regulations provide elaborately for the management of both current and fixed assets of government especially as the basis of accounting in the public sector is mainly cash not accrual. Hence chapters 23 28 deal with store matters. As already mentioned above, assets of government consist of Current and Fixed Assets. The Fixed assets can further be categorized into moveable and immovable. The moveable ones are items of store which have been elaborately provided for while the immovable ones are not so much treated perhaps because they are not subject to pilferage or outright theft. However management is expected to ensure their

maintenance to avoid deterioration. STORES Stores include all movable property purchased from public funds or otherwise acquired by Government. (Financial Regulations 2301).

These are categorized into two namely: allocated and unallocated stores for purpose of accounting. They can also be classified according to their attributes as (i) Non expendable stores e.g. plant and machinery, motor vehicles, typewriters, scales and furniture (ii) (iii) Expendable stores e.g Shovels, machetes, brushes, Consumable stores e.g. paint, soap grease and food stuffs.
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Whatever category government asset belongs to, it is the responsibility of Management to make sure they are properly taken care Financial 2501 says every government officer is personally and pecuniarily responsible for government property under his control or in his custody. However a greater responsibility is placed on the

Accounting Officer. The Accounting Officer is responsible for the general supervision and control of stores and stores accounts of his Ministry/Extra-Ministerial Department or agency, and for the due performance by his staff of their duties (Financial Regulations 2502.) This Accounting Officer must do by appointing store inspection officers) and/or Board of Survey. BOARD OF SURVEY Financial Regulations 3423 states that Ministry of Extra ministerial Department will set up Board of Survey for Boarding and disposal of its unserviceable stores, vehicles, plans, and equipment etc. The accounting officer shall appoint a Board of Survey of not less than three members one of who will be chairman. The membership should include the Head of Account Division or his nominee and a professional/Technical Officer. It is this Board or the Accounting Officers that has power to dispose off government Asset. CONCLUSION Financial Regulations in all ramifications are designed to ensure accountability and probity in financial management in the Public Sector. It is an accounting control document which all Treasury Accountants and Auditors must be conversant with in order to succeed in the Public Sector. Government is determined that all financial rules and regulations must be complied with. The controls are designed to promote honesty
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and transparency in all government financial transactions. It is therefore, mandatory for all Public Officials to ensure strict compliance with the provisions of the Financial Regulations. All public officials should acquaint themselves and comply with Financial Regulations, the Finance (Control and Management) Act Cap 144 LFN 1990 as well as the relevant sectors of the Constitution dealing with Public Finance. This is the only guarantee against financial

malpractices and corruption in the Public Sector.

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ETHICS, INTEGRITY AND CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PUBLIC OFFICERS


Learning Objectives At the end of this session , participants should be able to: Define ethics State the rationale of Ethics for the Public Service Highlight the principles of Ethics INTRODUCTION With almost two decades experience in the Federal Civil Service, one is bold to say that little, if any, serious attention is paid to the attitudes of public officials in the conduct of government business. The Public Service Rules which are designed to control the conduct of Nigerian public officials are invariably observed in the breach. Hence, the steady moral decay and rot, which are now being witnessed in the Nigerian public services, at all levels. Ethical issues or moral practices were taken away from Nigerian schools; Nigerian youths are thereby exposed to various forms of unethical practices, such as examination malpractices, armed robbery, kidnapping and looting of government treasures. The need to find solutions to these unethical practices is perhaps, the reason for this lecture.
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What Is Ethics? A generally accepted precise definition of ethical practices has not been found. This is because ethics reflects a societys perspective on human conduct and pronounces actions good or bad with references to some standard or criterion as imposed by or especially relevant to that society. Therefore, all morality is RELATIVE to the varying degrees of recognition communities. Ethics are concerned with moral obligations as distinct from legal obligations. The division between personal ethics and corporate law will always be a fine one, if only because the law is in essence a response to a countrys perceived ethical standards. For practical purposes of of improprieties and aversions by individuals and

considering ethics and obligations that are enforceable under public service regulations and those obligations which are self-imposed and which in the ordinary course could not be used as a basis of disciplinary action in the public service against an officer who might be thought to have transgressed. The oath (or affirmation) that public servants take to uphold the constitution can be seen as the foundation of ethics for public servants (Ikotun, 2004).

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A Tentative Definition of Ethics: According to Dwivedi (1978), a problem of ethics in the public service may be said to exist whenever public servants, individually or collectively, use positions (or give the appearance of doing so) in a way which compromises public confidence and trust because of conflicts of loyalties or values, or as a result of attempts to achieve some form of private gain at the expense of public welfare or common good. Why Ethics in the Public Service: In many countries today, there are increasing expectations from Civil Society, through better focused medial attention and public scrutiny, for higher standards of ethicality and integrity from public officials and governments. There is now a need to concentrate on three areas of concern in particular, which are directly relevant to the problems of internalizing integrity and Ethics in democratic governments and the Civil Service. These concerns are as follows: (a) The need to anticipate specific threats to ethics standards and integrity in the public sector;

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(b)

The

need

to

develop

the

ethical

competence

and

socialization of civil servants, and an ethical culture in Government and the Civil Service; (c) The need to identify or develop specific systems and processes, which promote ethics and integrity, new proethics laws, management techniques, and systems which encourage integrity, accountability and transparency. Most Civil Service regimes, especially in the West, still equate ethics with anti-corruption efforts, and a minimal written Code of Conduct or Code of Ethics, which is usually concerned with prohibiting conflict of interests and self-service. appears to be an insufficient effort. It is now generally recognized that meaningful and enforceable Ethics codes, based on legislation and backed by high-level political commitment, are essential. It is also recognized that any significant degree of success in the fight against corruption will be directly connected with the fight to ensure that high standards of personal ethics and system integrity are effectively institutionalized in the Civil Service. What is becoming better understood is that ethical conduct and corruption
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This, however,

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in the public sector are the two sides of one coin. That said, the problem remains that no Ethics Law or Code of Conduct will be of much value if individual civil servants lack the technical competence to recognize a values-based professional ethics dilemma for what it is, or if they do not know what standards their organization expects of them, or if they consider it to be not in their interests, personally or professionally to take a stand for integrity and against corruption. ETHICS PRINCIPLES: Ethics Principles perform four distinct functions: (a) They set down specific values, which are important to an individual, such as honesty, fairness, integrity, reliability, selfishness. (b) Principles provide general guidance which assists a person to make decisions. (c) Principles invite other people to trust that the person can be relied on to observe the ethical standards implied by the principles. (d) Principles impose a standard for judgment; so that everyone can make judgments about the ethics of the person.

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Ethics Principles, rules and Codes: Here, we look at how a professional ethics code may assist civil servants and public officials to meet complex, and sometimes difficult, standards based on the ethical principles, which are generally expected of public officials. Code of ethics performs four distinct functions: (i) A code sets down specific rules of the game for an organization; (ii) A code provides generalized guiding principles which assist a particular profession or organization to apply the rules, and invite judgment; (iii) A code invites the public to put its trust in the organization, and specifically to trust that its staff, will observe the ethical standards set out in the code; (iv) A code imposes a standard for judgment: everyone, both inside and outside the game, is in a position to make judgments about the ethical conduct of others (Transparency International, 2000). These principles reflect the role of the person who is employed in the civil service, or a person who is elected to a position in government, or someone who is appointed to a public office.
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Examples of such principles include Integrity, Transparency, Confidentiality, Honesty, Accountability, Legitimacy, Impartiality, Lawfulness and Responsiveness (Ikotun, 2004). Ethics Infrastructure: The establishment and maintenance of integrity in public life and public service require a number of elements: legislation, regulations and codes of conduct; professionalism among officials, a society whose religious, political and social values expect honesty from politicians and officials; and political leadership that takes both public and private morality seriously. These elements together can be understood as an Ethics infrastructure, a set of measures, tools and conditions, which either regulate against undesirable conduct or provide support and incentives to encourage good conduct, by public officials. Countries undertaking reforms in ethics in the public service today are beginning to consider the state of their ethics infrastructure in order to determine which elements require improvement. Like any other set of management tools, the effectiveness of a countrys ethics infrastructure depends on whether it is effectively operationalized, comprehensively understood by public civil society, and consistently applied by civil
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service managers, political leaders, regulatory agencies, co-ordination bodies, and the community at large. Based on international experience, eight key building blocks or elements of an Ethics infrastructure may be identified. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) An effective legal framework; Efficient Accountability Mechanisms; Active Civil society; Practicable and Relevant Ethics Code; Ethics Co-ordinating Bodies; Professional Socialization Mechanisms;

(vii) Political Commitment; (viii) Co-ordinating Mechanisms (Ikotun, 2004). CONCLUSION: Effort has been made in this paper to highlight the significance of Ethics principles and codes in the conduct of government business. Since public officials occupy positions of trust, both their public and private conducts are open to public glare and scrutiny. They are

therefore expected to operate under a high standard of integrity, honesty and accountability.

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Although ethics principles are relative, public officials in all countries, including Nigeria, are expected to meet standards which are internationally accepted. In Nigeria where moral suasion appears

ineffective in curtailing unethical conduct of public officials, there is need to apply stringent code of conduct. Corruption, for instance should be regarded as economic sabotage, which requires death penalty.

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OVERVIEW OF CURRENT REFORMS INITIATIVES


SESSIONAL OBJECTIVES At the end of this session, participants should be able: to Explain the purpose of the Current Reform Initiatives to identify the Agenda for the Reforms. to identify the major components of NEEDS, SERVICE DELIVERY AND DUE PROCESS to outline the Institutional arrangements for implementing the Reforms to outline the concrete achievements of the Reforms to explain the new initiatives of the YarAdua Administration 7-Point Agenda; Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); NEEDS 2; and Vision 2020.

to outline the performances of States. INTRODUCTION The former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR, on assumption of office as the second Executive President of Nigeria in May, 1999, did not mince words in recognizing
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the Public Service as an instrument he must work with in the governance of the nation. In order to put that instrument in proper shape for its arduous task, he stressed the need for proper Civil Service Reforms. He however, emphasized that the Reforms will be in phases. The Public Service inherited by Mr. President and perceived by him is best described in the following statement which was part of his address while inaugurating the National Assembly then. Accordingly to him,:

Public Offices are the shopping floors of government business. Regrettably, Nigerians have for too long been feeling short-changed by the quality of public service delivery by which decisions are not made without undue outside influence, and files do not move without being pushed with inducements. Our public offices have for too long been showcases for the combined evils of inefficiency and corruption, whilst being impediments to effective implementation of government policies, Nigerians deserve better. And we will ensure they get what is better. The Reforms will be all encompassing and all embracing .. no community, no individual or group would be left out in the reform.. In the process of that reform, if some people are hurt, we have no apology. We will do what has to be done to make Nigeria move forward, to make it what I believe God has created it to be; a land flowing with milk and honey; a country to be respected within the comity of nations, a land of glory; a land of prosperity, a land of what is right and not a land of any thing can go.
As a consequence of the Federal Governments resolve to reorientate the Public Service for the demands of democratic governance and the challenge of the 21st century, the Federal Executive Council
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(FEC) at its meeting held on the 15th June, 2001 mandated the Office of the Head of Service of the Federation through the Management Service Office (MSO), to design the strategy for a far reaching reform of the Public Service. As a prelude, a service-wide study was conducted by the Management Services Office of the Head of Service of the Federation and the following findings made; Ageing population whereby about 60% of staff are within the age bracket of 40 years and above; The junior (unskilled) staff on Grade Levels 01 - 06 constitute about 70% of the entire workforce;

Grade levels 15 and above constitute7%; Grade levels 01-14 are dominated by the females, who constitute 60% of the staff; Total staff strength of the Federal Civil Service is about 160,000; Estimated 60 - 70 percent of the Federal Government spending has gone towards running the federal bureaucracy; Notwithstanding, a pay rise of 250 - 350% between 1999 and 2000, adequate;
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There is an undetermined number of ghost workers in the system, symptomatic of poor personnel records and payroll control systems; Stagnation, especially at the higher levels of service, leading to loss of morale; Systematic training needs identification and the building and upgrading of staff skills were absent; Training was in most Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) not budgeted for;

The training institutions have themselves been run down; Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) do not have mission and vision statements, work programmes, organisation and individual schedules of functions and

charts, corporate duties;

Virtually all key public institutions are under-resourced, underskilled changes to and lack the capacity to capitalize on technological modernize;

Working tools, required to operate a modern management system for efficient and effective service delivery are inadequate;

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Professionalism, merit and esprit de corps have been significantly eroded; Policy making has become a matter of ad hoc responses to urgent problems without rigorous long-term policy analysis, consultation and monitored control;

Budget system had become characterized by over-estimated revenues, and under-estimated expenditure; and

The procurement system had been abused in many MDAs and was neither transparent to bidders nor to the public. The following eight principles of Public life were subscribed to: Selflessness; Integrity; Objectivity; Accountability; Openness; Honesty; Patriotism; and Leadership.

The reform agenda arising as a consequence could be categorized as follows: National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS); Service Delivery; and Due Process.
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NATIONAL ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: NEEDS focuses on four key areas namely: Macro-economic stability as well as accelerated privatization and Liberalization of the economy; Public Service Reform, including reform of public expenditure, budgeting, Accounting etc; Governance Reforms and Institutional Strengthening; and Transparency, Accountability and Anti-corruption Reforms. SERVICE DELIVERY: This is directly related to the public service reforms. It has the following key elements among others, creating a citizen charter. A good citizens charter should have the following components: Vision & Mission Statements of the organisation. Details of Business transacted by the organization Details of citizens or clients. Statement of services including standards, quality, time frame etc. provided to each citizen/client group separately and how/where to get the services. Details of Grievances Redress mechanism and how to assess it.
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Expectations from the citizens or clients. Additional commitments such as compensation in the event of failure of service delivery.

DUE PROCESS: Is a key element in the management of Public Finance Ensures maintenance of Standards, transparency and

accountability; Guarantees elimination of wastes; Ensures appropriate respect for rules, regulations and procedures as they relate to management of public funds. Institutionalizes all encompassing budget circles drawn by genuine consultations, realistic privatization and steadfast funding of approved budget items. The Institutional arrangement so far undertaken: Establishment of National Council on Reforms with President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as Chairman. Establishment of a Steering Committee on Reforms under the Chairmanship of the Honourable Minister of Finance;

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Establishment of the Bureau of Public Service Reforms to serve as the coordinator as well as serving as Secretariat to both the Steering Committee and the National Council of Reforms; Establishment of a Service Delivery Unit in every MDA; Establishment of a Policy and Programme Monitoring Unit, in the Office of the President, to among others, build a comprehensive Policy Data Base for monitoring the process of implementation of government Policies, Programmes and Projects. CONCRETE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE REFORMS The following significant achievements have been recorded under the Present Initiative: Implementation of the monetization policy in the core Civil Service and extension of the policy to Parastatals within the current year; Introduction of a contributory Pension Scheme which is a radical departure from the hitherto pay-as-you-go-system;

Sensitization of MDAs on the new concept of Service Delivery in order for them to undertake management innovation for enhancing quality Service to the Public;

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Institution of a more transparent and open procurement system as one of the means of curtailing wasteful expenditure and ensuring value for money; Rightsizing the Civil Service, an exercise that has now reached an advanced stage; Review of Public Service Rules, Regulations and Procedures; Review of the Performance Evaluation Management System; Implementation of the National Health Insurance Scheme; and Collaboration with International Development Partners notably the World Bank, Department for International development; United States Agency for International Development. WEALTH CREATION First African country in history to exit Paris Club debt; Macro-economic stability; Foreign exchange stability; Increasing foreign reserve: - US$16 billion in 2003; - US$28 billion in 2005; - US$34 billion by March, 2006 Reduced inflationary rate.
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REORIENTATION OF VALUES: EFCC Reduction in financial crimes ICPC Reduction in financial crimes Due Process Reduction in wastes AREAS NEEDING IMPROVEMENT: Exchange rate of the Naira (N145.32 Official

Market/N183.00 per Parallel Market to $1; Inflation rate 15% per annum; Interest rate of Banks 18.91%; Human Development Index (HDI) 157th in the world.

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PERFORMANCE OF STATES BENCHMARK FOR PERFORMANCE RATING OF SEEDS IN THE STATES IN THE YEAR 2005
S/N State Zone Policy Budget & Fiscal Mgt. 18.45 10.48 16.80 15.65 13.80 14.40 15.65 18.25 13.50 12.95 15.70 16.35 16.35 15.05 14.20 9.50 9.00 14.75 11.67 13.40 15.30 8.50 8.25 15.30 18.80 12.50 9.60 13.40 9.90 12.25 10.90 10.90 5.80 10.50 6.35 6.70 Service Delivery 12.75 13.25 13.30 8.80 10.60 12.25 8.15 9.55 10.30 12.25 9.70 10.20 10.10 10.30 10.20 11.70 12.05 8.05 10.25 11.35 6.40 8.90 8.55 6.30 5.80 12.00 8.40 10.10 9.80 5.85 8.85 8.85 7.45 4.05 8.30 6.25 Communication & Transparency 10.02 12.55 8.62 6.50 9.87 4.10 9.60 6.10 7.50 4.70 4.65 6.40 6.00 5.85 4.45 4.75 4.02 6.65 4.30 4.07 3.80 5.25 5.85 4.00 4.00 2.50 6.60 3.85 3.25 1.50 1.90 1.90 4.62 5.25 3.87 2.50 Total Score 57.22 50.28 45.72 45.45 44.27 43.00 42.65 41.40 40.80 40.60 39.85 38.45 38.45 37.70 37.60 36.95 36.57 36.45 36.22 35.82 33.90 33.65 33.65 33.60 33.60 32.50 31.50 31.35 31.05 29.85 27.65 27.65 26.67 25.80 23.53 22.20

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Enugu SE FCT Osun SW Ekiti SW Ebonyi SE Benue NC Ondo SW Lagos SW Kaduna NW Jigawa NE NW Adamawa NE Anambra SE Cross River SS Delta SS Kano NW Edo SS Kogi NC Yobe NE Rivers SS Bauchi NE Imo SE Kwara NC Plateau NC Gombe NE Akwa Ibom SS Kebbi NW Sokoto NW Ogun SW Zamfara NW Abia SE Niger NC Katsina NW Nasarawa NC Borno NE Oyo SW Taraba NE Bayelsa did not participate

16.00 14.00 7.00 14.50 10.00 12.25 9.25 7.50 9.50 11.50 9.80 8.70 6.00 7.50 8.75 11.00 11.50 7.00 10.00 7.00 8.40 11.00 11.00 8.00 11.50 5.50 6.90 4.00 8.10 10.25 12.50 6.00 8.80 6.00 5.00 6.75

Source: Federal Republic of Nigeria (2005) SEEDS Benchmarking, 2005 Report (Abuja: National Planning Commission).

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SEEDS BENCHMARKING RESULTS 2006


S/N State Zone Policy Budgeting & Mgt. Service Delivery Commu nication & Transpar ency 9.3 6.0 10.55 8.75 6.0 2.3 6.8 7.33 7.8 5.5 5.3 6.8 9.75 5.55 4.0 3.3 4.8 8.05 5.8 4.05 4.8 2.5 4.0 7.2 5.3 3.25 2.75 5.3 4.25 8.5 2.8 3.5 3.55 0.8 Total Score Position

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Ebonyi Anambra FCT Kwara Cross River Jigawa Kaduna Ondo Delta Akwa Ibom Abia Imo Rivers Kebbi Lagos Kano Osun Adamawa Oyo Plateau Sokoto Niger Bayelsa Kogi Benue Gombe Ekiti Katsina Bauchi Yobe Edo Taraba Zamfara Nasarawa

SE SE NC SS NW NW SW SS SS SE SE SS NW SW NW SW NE SW NC NW NC SS NC NC NE SW NW NE NE SS NE NW NC

9.0 8.7 9.7 7.2 6.2 10.7 6.3 6.3 7.3 10.2 9.5 5.5 8.6 7.9 5.4 8.7 4.5 9.0 6.7 6.2 7.4 5.5 4.2 6.3 8.0 5.8 5.5 3.0 6.9 4.0 4.5 6.9 4.7 5.6

10.15 15.95 8.3 14.35 16.75 12.1 15.5 12.25 9.1 12.0 8.85 11.6 7.5 12.0 10.5 9.95 9.05 11.25 9.5 7.75 9.25 10.3 9.0 6.7 3.8 9.75 6.05 6.0 3.0 4.0 3.8 4.2 4.25 4.7

14.0 8.0 9.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 4.25 7.75 9.0 4.5 9.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 10.0 7.0 10.0 0.0 6.0 6.0 2.0 3.5 5.5 1.0 4.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 3.0 7.0 2.0 2.0 3.0

42.18 38.65 37.05 36.30 35.95 34.10 33.85 33.33 33.20 32.20 32.16 31.90 31.85 31.45 30.90 28.95 28.35 28.30 28.0 24.0 23.45 21.80 22.7 21.20 21.1 20.80 20.30 20.30 20.15 19.50 18.10 16.60 14.50 14.10

1 nd 2 rd 3 th 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th 11 th 12 th 13 th 14 th 15 th 16 th 17 th 18 th 19 th 20 st 21 nd 22 rd 23 th 24 th 25 th 26 th 27 th 28 th 29 th 30 st 31 nd 32 rd 33 th 34

st

Note: Three States, Borno, Enugu and Ogun are not included due to unavailability of data Source: Federal Republic of Nigeria (2006) SEEDS Benchmarking Report (Abuja: National Planning Commission).

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BENCHMARKING METHODOLOGY The following benchmarks were developed to measure four key areas of states performance Policy: Is there a SEEDS document? Who was consulted in preparing it? Has it been made public? Budget and Fiscal Management: Is the budget a reliable guide to spending? How is the budget prepared and does it reflect priorities in SEEDS? How is expenditure tracked? How is debt managed? Does the state produce accounts and have them audited? Service Delivery: Is policy based on reliable data? How well does the State cooperate with other tiers and other service providers? Has it taken steps to restructure its Civil Service and curb payroll fraud? Are services responsive to users? Communication and Transparency: How open and transparent is the states procurement? What has it done about corruption? Are there opportunities for people to question their leaders? Can the public obtain information on actual expenditure?

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National Planning Commission (NPC) and States deliberated in a 3 day joint consultative workshop and agreed on the assessment of SEEDS

Framework for the joint

The Workshop proposed a set of key benchmarks by which States were to be assessed

Within each benchmark, a set of measures defined targets which states may have achieved.

There were 17 measures in all. Each measure was allocated a different number of points as its maximum reforms. PERFORMANCE OF STATES BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE BENCHMARKING MEASURES (BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT) Ranking of States were based on the following: Infrastructure and utilities Energy Water supply Access to information Transportation Social Infrastructure Legal and Regulatory Services Business Registration Contract Enforcement
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weight, depending on its importance to the economic

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Land Administration Support and Investment Promotion Enterpreneurship Promotion Access to finance Investment Promotion Public-Private Partnership Security Crime Rates Police Coverage and Perceptions on Security

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PERFORMANCE OF STATES ON BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT REFORMS


S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 STATES Lagos Cross River Kaduna Akwa Ibom Niger Sokoto Kebbi Plateau Gombe Edo Kano Enugu Katsina Oyo Delta Benue Imo Bayelsa Adamawa Ondo Kwara Rivers Bauchi Osun Jigawa Taraba Kogi Ekiti Abia Anambra Ebonyi Yobe Nasarawa Zamfara Borno ZONE SW SS NW SS NC NW NW NC NE SS NW SE NW SW SS NC SE SS NE SW NC SS NE SW NW NE NC SW SE SE SE NE NC NW NE SCORES 60.45 57.85 56.9 55.4 55.35 55.0 54.25 53.15 52.5 52.45 51.5 51.35 51.1 51 50.7 49.15 48.65 48.65 48.3 47.9 47.7 47.45 47.4 47.15 46.05 43.8 43.4 42.65 42.65 41.9 41.8 41.15 39.15 37.95 36.25 POSITION 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th

Note: Ogun State did not participate in the exercise Source: BECANS Business Environment Report: Business Environment Scoreland of Nigerian States National Business Report Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007 p. 116.

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RECOMMENDATIONS AT VARIOUS STATE LEVELS Citizens participation in policy design, project implementation and monitoring should be institutionalized. States should publish budget allocations at State and Local Government levels. Community-based budget monitoring mechanisms should be established at the Local Government Level. Pay up their counterpart fund for Universal Basic Education (UBE) All States should create MDG offices. States to meet the minimum requirements recommended by the MDGs. Need for quarterly open forum for dialogue with the people at LGAs through town hall meetings. State and LGAs should increase budgetary allocation to health. Road network should be improved. Water supply and sanitation should be prioritized. SOURCE: THISDAY NEWSPAPER WEDNESDAY AUGUST 1,2007 THE CHALLENGE TO YARADUAS ADMINISTRATION (i) (ii) Assessment of Millenium Development Goals MDGs by A Governments Organ; and The Civil Society
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(i)

Assessment By a Government Organ: In year 2005, the Presidential Committee on the Assessment and

monitoring of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria returned a verdict titled: Summary of Nigeria MDGs Report Card, 2005 which

is displayed in the table below:


Summary of Nigeria MDGs Report Card, 2005. GOALS Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Achieve Universal Primary Education (UBE) VERDICT Current efforts need to be intensified if Nigeria is to achieve the target by 2015 UBE has achieved marked improvement in enrolment but needs to accelerate action toward completion rates and gender equality. There should be improvement in qualitylearning outcomes to achieve the goal by 2015. Girls and Women are likely to miss 2005 gender parity target, concrete steps and democratic processes of the country to reverse the trends. Unacceptable rates of child mortality prevail and are preventable; urgent actions are required by all tiers of government to put Nigeria back on track. Maternal mortality is now a national emergency, current rates are unacceptable and must be reversed says Mr. President. Scaled up efforts are required to sustain gains made to achieve the targets. On-going concerted efforts to be enhanced towards attaining the environment target by 2015. Global Partnerships showed marked improvement with genuine efforts to assist Nigeria in its quest for Debt Relief. There is need for substantial and urgent scaling up of development assistance to finance the MDGs.

1. 2.

3.

Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

4.

Reduce Child Mortality

5.

Improve Maternal Health

6. 7.

Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases. Ensure Environmental Sustainability Develop a Global Partnership for Development

8.

Source:

Federal Government of Nigeria, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Information Kit, 2006. 173

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Assessment By Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) In its own assessment undertaken under the aegies of Civil Society in year 2007 the non-governmental organizations returned a verdict titled: Civil Society Score-Card, which we articulate here: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 53.6% of Nigerians are still living in abject poverty; 8 million school-aged children are not in school; Over 43% of Nigerians cannot read or write (60% are women); One out of every 100 Nigerian children die before the age of five; 704 out of 100,000 Nigerian women die during child birth; 75 million people in Nigerian have at least one episode of malaria annually; (vii) (viii) 72 million Nigerians have no access to safe drinking water; Nigeria paid back 1.7 billion Pounds Sterling to the U.K. Government debt cancellation deal. This is twice the total aid

amount from the United Kingdom (U.K.) to the whole of Africa. Source: ThisDay Newspaper, Wednesday, August 1, 2007.

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YARADUA ADMINISTRATIONS INITIATIVE The 7 Point Agenda Transport Sector with its poor roads and road networks, it is an inefficient means of mass transit of people and goods. Power and Energy Development of sufficient and adequate power supply are aimed at enhancing Nigerias ability to develop as a modern economy and an industrialized nation by the year 2015. Food Security An agrarian based that would be revolutionalized through modern technology, etc, to lead to a five to ten-fold

increase in yield and production. Wealth Creation Wealth Creation through diversified

production. Land Reforms .. Changes in the land law and the emergence of land reforms will optimize Nigerias growth through the release of lands for commercial farming and other large scale businesses by the private sector. Security Security should be seen as not only a constitutional requirement but also as a necessary infrastructure for the development of modern Nigerian economy.
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Education reforms in educational sector will ensure . Strategic educational development plan, with emphasis on

learning of skills in science and technology so that our nation can breed her own share of future innovators and industrialists. The Vision 2020: To ensure that Nigeria becomes one of the first twenty (20) developed economies in the world.
References Maduabum Chuks (2006): Reforming Government Bureaucracy in Nigeria; The Journey so far.(ASCON Printing Press, Topo Badagry). National Planning Commission (2004): National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) Document. Abuja. Obasanjo, O. (2003): Speech presented by the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR at the inauguration of the National Assembly, National Assembly Complex, Abuja, June 2003. Ogunbambi, R.O. (2004): The Civil Service in the implementation strategies of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) paper presented at the Retreat of HOCSF with Permanent Secretaries, ASCON, Badagry, August 5 8, 2004.

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THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS)


Learning Objectives: At the end of interaction, participants should be able to: trace the historical origin of MDGs enumerate and Explain the 8 MDGs compare and contrast Nigeria and other countries in relation to MDGs identify factors likely to inhibit the achievement of MDGs proffer solutions to the likely factors to inhibit MDGs explain whether Nigeria is likely to achieve the MDGs or not INTRODUCTION Globally, the problem of development has occupied the attention of scholars, activists, politicians, development workers, local and

international organizations for many years with an increased tempo in the last decade. Even though there are different perspectives to development, there is a general consensus that development will lead to good change manifested in increased capacity of people to have control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology; and obtain physical necessities of life (food, clothing & shelter), employment, equality, participation in government, political and economic

independence, adequate education, gender equality, sustainable development and peace. This is why some people have argued that the
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purpose of development is to improve people's lives by expanding their choices, freedom and dignity. However, the reality of the world is that many countries are underdeveloped with precarious development indices. More than 1.2 billion people or about 20 percent of world population live survive on less that US $1 per day. Wealth is concentrated in the hand of a few people. The UNDP in its 1998 report documented that the three richest people in the world have assets that exceed the combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the 48 least developed countries. Similarly, the 1000 richest people in the world have personal wealth greater than 500 million people in the least developed countries. Nigeria, which was one of the richest 50 countries in the early 1970s, has retrogressed to become one of the 25 poorest countries at the threshold of the twenty first century. It is ironic that Nigeria is the sixth largest exporter of oil and at the same time host the third largest number of poor people after China and India. Statistics show that the incidence of poverty using the rate of US $1 per day increased from 28.1 percent in 1980 to 46.3 percent in 1985 and declined to 42.7 percent in 1992 but increased again to 65.6 percent in 1996. The incidence increased to 69.2 percent in 1997. The 2004 report by the National
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Planning Commission indicates that poverty has decreased to 54.4 percent. Nigeria fares very poorly in all development indices. The average annual percentage growth of GDP in Nigeria from 1990 -2000 was 2.4. This is very poor when compared to Ghana (4.3) and Egypt (4.6). Poverty in Nigeria is in the midst of plenty. Although there has been steady economic growth in the last few years, there are doubts whether the benefits are evenly distributed especially to the poor and excluded. Nigeria is among the 20 countries in the world with the widest gap between the rich and the poor. The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or in some cases consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of zero represents perfect equality while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. Nigeria has one of the highest Gini index in the world. The Gini index for Nigeria is 50.6. This compares poorly with other countries such as India (37.8), Jamaica (37.9), Mauritania (37.3) and Rwanda (28.9). THE MDGs Since the Millennium Declaration in September 2000, where 189 world leaders vouched their commitments to meaningful development
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outcomes, there has been a concerted approach to managing sustainable human development with both developing and advanced countries reaching consensus on how best to tackle abject poverty and other human miseries such as illiteracy, gender inequality, infant and maternal mortality, HIV&AIDS, malaria and environmental degradation. In consonance with the Declaration, developed countries renewed their commitment to raise resources for financing development with a promise to ensure that 0.7 percent of their Gross National Income is made available to Official Development Assistance (ODA) to developing countries while the developing countries also vouched their commitment to improve governance. The Millennium Declaration has been translated into eight goals, christened The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs, which uses 1990 as the base year, aim to achieve the following by 2015: Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; Goal 2: achieve universal primary education; Goal 3: promote gender equality; Goal 4: reduce child mortality; Goal 5: improve maternal health; Goal 6: combat HIV&AIDS, malaria and other diseases; Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability; and Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development.

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To ensure effective translation of these goals into concrete development outcomes, the eight-time bound goals have been transformed into 18 targets and 48 indicators. This is to ensure that development activities are better targeted and their implementation is thoroughly monitored and evaluated. Since 2000, the MDGs have

become the global framework for setting development agenda for developing countries. As such countries development aspirations have been built around this framework. Developing countries development plans and strategies have therefore become the building block and tools of implementing the MDGs. Nigeria, as a signatory to the Millennium Declaration, is committed to achieving the MDGs by 2015. A major strategic framework to actualizing these time-bound goals is the development of the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) in 2003 and its counterparts at the state and local government levels (SEEDS) and LEEDS (in a few states), respectively. These development strategy documents span 2004-2007. NEEDS was premised on three pillars: empowering the people in the form of social charter; promoting private enterprise (via creation of competitive private sector, promoting resultoriented sectoral strategy and ensuring regional integration); and changing the way government does its work (by creating an efficient and responsible public sector, promoting transparency and accountability and improving security and administration of justice). As a major component of NEEDS1, many activities were initiated. Serious institutional reforms were initiated in some piloted MDAs complemented by institutional rationalization, outsourcing programme, monetization of fringe benefits and development of Medium Term Sector
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Strategies (MTSS). In addition to other sectoral initiatives, the Federal government embarked upon Special Programme for Food Security, Strategic Grain Reserve, Seed Production Programme, the Fadama II Programme, the Fertilizer Revolving Loan and several Presidential initiatives. The transformation of the National Bureau of Statistics database for poverty monitoring, the strengthening of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) for special interventions on the vulnerable groups in the society also complemented the poverty reduction initiatives of government. The Small and Medium Scale Investment Equity Insurance Scheme (SMIEIS) was meant to The

complement the poverty reduction initiative of government.

implementation of Virtual Poverty Fund through the Debt Relief Gain, the Social Safety Net and Conditional Grant are aimed at reaching the poverty goal. The implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE), the Child Right Act, Education Management Information System and Education Sector Analysis, Girl Child Education Programme and Adult Literacy Programme were initiated to contribute to educational attainment. Special programmes for empowering women as well as participation in politics and management decisions such as the National Policy on Women, Prohibition of Violence Against Women, Strategy for Acceleration of Girls Education in Nigeria and Female Functional Literacy for Health were also initiated. The health Sector Reform Programme, the National Health Insurance Scheme, Integrated Child Survival and Development, the Roll Back Malaria, the decentralization of HIV&AIDS management and the transformation of NACA from a Committee to an Agency status are geared towards reaching the health
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goals. A number of policies, guidelines and action plans have been developed to enhance quality of environmental management in the country; these include National Erosion and Flood Control Policy, National Environmental Sanitation Policy, Policy Guidelines on Solid Waste Management, the National Industrial Effluent Limitations

Regulation and Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Waste, Zero tolerance to Gas Flaring by 2008, etc. As a way of contributing to partnership to global development, the country succeeded in delisting itself from the erstwhile pariah state thereby gaining the largest debt relief in Africa which led to the exit from Paris and London Clubs of Creditors. In spite of these efforts, the journey towards the achievement of the MDGs is still very far. Based

on the current policy environment, the country only has the potential of achieving the goals on universal primary education, ensuring

environmental sustainability and developing global partnership for development. The second phase of NEEDS has been initiated in the form of NEEDS2 which spans 2008-2011. NEEDS2 still relies on the philosophy of empowering the people, promoting private enterprise and changing the way government institutions work. While NEEDS 2 serves as the framework for driving the process of MDGs, the Seven-Point Agenda of government set the sectoral priorities for implementing NEEDS2. The 7Point Agenda refocuses the policy priorities as articulated in NEEDS2 in a way that sustains the gains of economic reforms and fast track the process of achieving higher standard of living and better quality of life of most Nigerians. Areas of policy priorities are: (i) Sustainable growth in the real sector of the economy;
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(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

Physical infrastructure: Power, Energy and Transportation; Agriculture and land reform; Human capital development: Education and Health; Security, Law and Order; Combating Corruption; and Niger Delta Development.

The 7-Point Agenda aims at ensuring that the gains of economic reform touch on the quality of life of Nigerians. As such, this will influence the allocation of public resources through budgetary provisions. The Federal Government has initiated a Vision of making the country the largest 20 economies in the world by 2020 and a vision document is being prepared to articulate strategies of actualizing the this overriding goal. Obviously, MDGs, NEEDS2, 7-Point Agenda and Vision 2020 are all reinforcing and non-contradictory. While the MDGs serves as the framework for achieving sustainable human development, Vision 2020 is the framework for ensuring economic transformation that could further create sustainable condition for financing human development. Both NEEDS2 and &-Point Agenda constitute the how of making MDGs and Vision a reality. They are all mutually reinforcing the desire to achieve sustainable human development in Nigeria by addressing the following goals: poverty reduction, wealth creation, employment generation and value reorientation. The main challenge is whether Nigeria has the requisite human and institutional capacities to deliver on these development aspirations. This hinges on the capacity of each stakeholder to deliver on its
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mandates. Although the central philosophy of the development strategy is to use the private sector as the spring board for economic transformation and development, the role of the public sector is pivotal, essentially where the private sector relies heavily on government. THE SITUATION IN NIGERIA The situation of MDG in Nigeria can be seen from two main sources: the Nigeria MDG report 2004 and the Nigeria MDG report 2005. We can also appraise the situation from MDG office especially the Debt Relief Gains as provided in the 2006 annual budget. The 2004 report which was Nigerias first report on the MDGs states that based on available information it is unlikely that the country will be able to meet most of the goals by 2015 especially the goals related to eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, reducing child and maternal mortality and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases It further states that for most of the other goals (i.e. apart from goal 1) up-to-date data exist which show that if the current trend continues, it will be difficult for the country to achieve the MDG targets by 2015. The Nigeria Millennium Development Goals 2005 report is the second in the series of annual reports on the MDGs in Nigeria. The report which addressed the eight MDGs highlights the current status and trends of each of the MDGs, the challenges and opportunities in attaining the goal, the promising initiatives that are creating a supportive environment and priorities for development assistance. The report concluded that: There is high potential to attain some of the Millennium Development Targets such as Achieving universal primary education
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Ensuring environmental stability Developing a global partnership for development Given the current policy environment and strong political will, there is also the likelihood of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. However, based on available information, there is the need for sustained efforts to ensure that the country meets the following goals by year 2015: Achieving gender equality and women empowerment Reducing child mortality Improving maternal health; and Combating HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases The concluding part of the MDG 2005 report is very remarkable and gives hope that there is possibility for achieving all the MDGs in Nigeria with sustained effort. This conclusion is quite different from the conclusions reached by the first report in 2004. It is intriguing that without providing the basis and reason for the dramatic change, the 2005 states that there is high potential to achieve 3 of the goals (Goals 2, 7 and 8) likelihood to achieve one with strong political will (Goal 1) and the need for sustained efforts to ensure that the country meets the remaining four goals (Goals 3, 4, 5, and 6). The details of the situation in Nigeria as captured in the 2005 MDG report with regard to each of the goals is presented as follows: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger By 2015, the target is to halve proportion of people living on less than $1 a day, and those suffering hunger. The current rate of reduction in poverty is too slow to meet the targets set for 2015. If the current rate of
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poverty reduction is maintained, poverty incidence would reduce to 43 percent as opposed to 21.4 percent by 2015. Achieve Universal Basic Education By 2015, the target is to achieve universal primary completion. The efficiency of primary education has improved over the years, as the primary six completion rate increased steadily from 65 percent in 1998 to 83 percent in 2001. It however declined in 2002 only to shoot up to 94 percent in 2003. Literacy level in the country has steadily and gradually deteriorated, especially within the 15 -24 years group. By 1999, the overall literacy rate had declined to 64.1 percent from 71.9 percent in 1991. The trend was in the same direction for male and female members of the 15-24 years age bracket. Among the male, the rate declined from 81.35 percent in 1991 to 69.8 percent in 1999. The decline among the female was from 62.49 percent to 59.3 percent during the same period. Promote Gender equality By 2015, the target is to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education enrolment by 2005, and achieve equity at all levels by 2015. At the primary school level, enrolment has been consistently higher for boys (56 percent) than for girls (44 percent). Reduce Child Mortality By 2015, the target reduce by two thirds the child mortality rate. Infant mortality rate was 91 per 1000 live births in 1990 which later declined to 75 in 1999 but became worse in 2003. It rose to 100 per 1000 live births in 2003.
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Improve maternal health By 2015, the target is to reduce by three quarters the proportion of women dying in childbirth. The 1999 multiple indicator cluster survey reported a maternal mortality rate of 704 per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality is more than twice as high in the rural areas. The report did not give comparative statistics. Combat AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases By 2015, MDGs target halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of HIV-AIDS, malaria and other major diseases. Since the identification of the first HIV/AIDS case in mid 1980s, the HIV prevalence rate has continually been on the increase from 1.8 to 5.8 percent in the period between 1991 and 2001. In 2003, the rate decreased to 5.0 percent and in 2005, it decreased to 4.4 percent. Ensure Environmental Sustainability Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. By 2015 the target is to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation. By 2020 achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. The country is endowed with abundant environmental resources. However, high population growth rate and increasing demand for these resources threaten environmental

sustainability. The environmental situation is challenged by myriad of problems, which impact negatively on the utilization of the resources for development and poverty alleviation.
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Develop a Global Partnership for Development Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. By 2015 the target is to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation. By 2020 achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. The level of Official Development Assistance is increasing but still very low. The problem of market access for products of developing countries including Nigeria still persists. It is important to point out that there are limitations of utilizing the MDGs as a framework for delivering or measuring development. First, they risk simplifying what development is about, by restricting the goals to what is measurable. Many aspects of development cannot be easily measured. Secondly, some of the goals are very modest e.g. the goal to half the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day by 2015 and the target to achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. Finally, some of the targets do not address the problems holistically. For instance, the MDG on education talks only of a full course of primary schooling with no reference to secondary and tertiary education. Despite its limitations, it is necessary for us to engage the MDGs for many reasons. First, the MDGs draw together in single agenda issues that require priority to address the development question. Secondly, the MDGs have received tremendous endorsement and backing by worlds governments. Thirdly, the MDGs have the advantage being more or less measurable, few in number, concentrated on human
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development and focused almost on a single date-2015. Another advantage of the MDGs is that it adds urgency and transparency to international development. Finally, explicit resource commitments have been made to achieve the MDGs. A review of the Nigeria Millennium Development Goals 2005 report will reveal a number of problems. We shall focus on only three of them. First, there is the challenge of accurate, reliable, credible and believable statistics. The draft of the first Nigeria MDG progress report prepared by NISER stated that at the primary school level by 2002, the gender ratio was 1:04 in favour of girls6. This was seriously criticized by CSOs as not reflecting reality. When the final report came out, it stated that at the primary school level, the gender ratio increased from 0.76 in 1990 to 0.78 in 1995 and 0.96 in 20007 The statistics had changed. In the past two and a half decade, statistics in Nigeria have always indicated increasing levels of poverty over the past two and a half decades from 28.1% in 1980 to 65.6% in 1996 (MDG Report ,2004). In the early 2000s, there were many estimates that poverty rate was above 70%. But President Obasanjo has always insisted without any study that the poverty level was much lower. Expectedly, when the NPC conducted a survey in 2004, the poverty level was put at 54.4%. Before this report was released the 2004 MDG report stated that it is unlikely that the country will be able to meet most of the goals by 2015 especially the goals related to eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. After the release of the report, the 2005 MDG report stated that given the current policy environment and strong political will, there is also the likelihood of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger.
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The second problem with the report is that it is development assistance focused. The 2005 MDG report highlights the status of the MDGs, the challenges, opportunities and priorities for development assistance. This is not surprising for development strategy planning in Nigeria has been essentially external focused. According to the Nigerian draft interim poverty reduction strategy paper prepared in November, 2001 (the precursor of NEEDS), Nigeria has embarked on preparing its own PRSP as a requirement for concessional assistance from its development partners abroad, including the World Bank, the IMF, the bilateral donors and other sources of such assistance. Given the importance of the subject and the tight timetable, the Nigerian authorities fully recognize the need to move forward expeditiously to the timely

completion of the countries PRSP of which this interim PRSP (IPRSP) is the preliminary step.8 The final drawback of the report that we will like to point out is that the report did not indicate the policies and practices that need to change to attain the goals. Meanwhile, scholars and agencies have documented what needs to be done to tackle poverty and achieve the MDGs. In this review, we shall outline the recommendations of three agencies: the World Bank, UNDP and ActionAid International. The World Bank in its 2001 report titled Attacking poverty points out that physical capital was not enough, and that at least as important were health and education and proposed a strategy for attacking poverty in three ways: Promoting Opportunity Encouraging effective private investment Expanding into international markets Building the assets of poor people
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Addressing asset inequalities across gender, ethnic, racial and social divides Getting infrastructure and knowledge to poor area-rural and urban Facilitating Empowerment Laying the political and legal basis for inclusive development Creating public administration that foster growth and equity Promoting inclusive decentralization and community development Promoting gender equity Tracking social barriers Enhancing Security Formulating a modular approach to helping poor people manage risk Developing national programs to prevent, prepare for, and respond to macro shocks-financial and natural Designing national systems of social risk management that are also pro-growth Addressing civil conflict Tackling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic The UNDP in its Human Development report of 2003 titled Millennium Development Goals: A Compact Among Nations to end Human Poverty pointed out that to achieve the MDGs require policy responses to structural constraints on several fronts along with stepped up external support. The report recommended six policy clusters to help countries break out of their poverty traps: 1. Invest early and ambitiously in basic education and health while fostering gender equity. These are preconditions to sustained
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2.

3.

5.

6.

economic growth. Growth in turn can generate employment and raise incomes- feeding back into further gains in education and health gains. Increase the productivity of small farmers in unfavourable environments- that is, the majority of the worlds hungry people. A reliable estimate is that 70 percent of the worlds poorest people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Improve basic infrastructure- such as ports, roads, power and communications- to reduce the costs of doing business and overcome geographic barriers. 4. Develop an industrial development policy that nurtures entrepreneurial activity and helps diversify the economy away from dependence on primary commodity exports- with an active role for small scale and medium size enterprises. Promote democratic governance and human rights to remove discrimination, secure social justice and promote well being of all people. Ensure environmental sustainability and sound urban management so that development improvements are long term. Action Aid International in its report titled Changing Course:

Alternative Approaches to Achieve Millennium Development Goals and Fight HIV/AIDs shows that there is a yawning gap between MGD needs and spending realities in poor countries and that macroeconomic policies enforced by the IMF block poor countries from being able to spend more on education, health and economic development.11 The report argued that for the MDGs to be achieved, the world must start to change course now and adopt at local, national and international levels alternative economic policies that allow for much higher long-term public investments in health, education and development.

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CAN NIGERIA MEET THE GOALS? The question of whether Nigeria can or cannot meet the MDGs is a crucial one that should agitate the minds of politicians, government bureaucrats, civil society activists and development workers. In our view, there is no straightforward answer. It can be answered either in the negative or the affirmative. The NEEDS document clearly states that if present trend continues, the country is not likely to meet the Millennium Development Goals. On the other hand, the 2005 report gives the conditions for meeting the goals: strong political will and sustained efforts. Perhaps, a better way to frame the question is what can Nigeria do to meet the MDGs in 2015? In our view, Nigeria has sufficient resources to meet the MDGs in 2015. But for this to happen, as argued above, the country will have to change course in the conceptualization and implementation of policies and programmes to achieve the MDGs. One good initiative in Nigeria designed to meet the MDGs is the Oversight of Public Expenditure in Nigeria (OPEN) set up to monitor the Debt Relief Gain (DRG). Two issues make this initiative unique. The first is the leadership of the process which has been participatory, open, transparent and all inclusive with participation of private sector and civil society. The second and perhaps most important is that systems have been put in place to track resources. This is perhaps the model that should become the norm in every ministry, department and agency at all levels of government. It must be however be recognized that development is a complex issue and goes beyond allocation of Debt Relief Gains to some MDG Ministries. A scholar once argued that development requires growth and structural change, some measure of distributive equity, modernization in
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social and cultural attitudes, a degree of political transformation and stability, an improvement in health and education so that population growth stabilizes, and an increase in urban living and employment.13 In our view, social transformation will require good change and progress in the following areas: Transparency and Accountability Several analyses of the challenges of development in Nigeria has identified lack of transparency and accountability as a major obstacle. Accountants in Nigeria have a great role to play in this regard. They must change the way auditing is done from financial auditing of certifying payments and receipts to systems auditing and examining the whole concept of value for money. Otherwise, accountants and auditors will just be certifying corruption. Tackling Institutional Constraints Delivering services to the people requires effective and efficient institutions that follow due process and standards. Pro-Poor Growth It is clear that there has been economic growth in Nigeria in the last few years above 5 percent. But economic growth alone cannot lead to achievement of the MDGs unless the growth is pro-poor. As President Obasanjo stated, We must not continue to stress the pursuit of a high growth rate in statistical terms and fail to reduce the social and economic deprivation of a substantial number and group of our people. We must not absolutely pursue wealth and growth at the expense of inner well being, joy, satisfaction, fulfillment and contentment of human beings.14 Structural Change
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To achieve the MDGs in Nigeria, there is the need to change the structure of the economy in such a way that the economy is not dependent on only one product but diversified economy and expanding the industrial sector. Distributive Equity Deliberate efforts and policies must be put in place to redistribute income. The MDGs will be met if the poor and excluded in society are empowered to meet their basic needs. Social and Cultural Re-orientation here is the need for social and cultural re-orientation to meet some of the goals. For instance, the goals on women and girls require a new kind of mindset to achieve them. Political Transformation The political system and the way it engenders commitment, participation and patriotism by the people contributes immensely to national cohesion, peace and stability and development. Human Development Development implies the fulfillment of basic human needs including those for education and health. Urban Development The growth of urbanization is definitely increasing and there will probably be more people in urban areas than rural areas by 2015. There must be urban development process that is inclusive and not based on dislocation of slum dwellers without alternatives. Employment Employment is the surest way of achieving the MDGs because individuals will receive income and will contribute to the economy.
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Transformation of Power Relations Whenever power is concentrated in the hands of a few, they will utilise such powers to accumulate wealth. To achieve the MDGs will require transformation of power relations and challenge of patriarchy. Partnership with development partners It has been documented that in order to make adequate progress towards achieving the MDGs, Nigeria will require additional external financing averaging about US $6.4 billion annually between 2005 and 2008.15 Even if the resources in the country are used effectively there will still be challenges in meeting the MDGs. Meanwhile, Nigeria is seriously under aided. Nigeria receives only US $2 per capita in ODA compared to the average for Africa of US $28 per capita. In addition, meeting the MDGs will require partnership between government, the public sector and the private sector. In particular, it will require transformists from the public sector, civil society, media and private sector to build a critical movement of people advocating for and implementing change. CONCLUSION The problem of development is a global challenge and the MDGs is a response by world leaders. There are limitations to utilizing the MDGs as a framework for delivering or measuring development. But they provide a platform to engage the development process. The situation in Nigeria indicates that there are challenges in meeting the goals by 2015. For Nigeria to meet the goals in 2015, there is the need to formulate and implement policies that will promote transparency and accountability; overcome institutional constraints; promote pro-poor growth; bring about structural change; enhance distributive equity;
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engender

social

and

cultural

re-orientation;

engineer

political

transformation; promote human development; practice inclusive urban development; generate employment and transform power relations.

References Milen, Anneli (2001): What do We Know About Capacity Building? An overview of existing knowledge and good practice, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 2001. Dreesch, Norbert, et al (2005a): An Approach to estimating Human Resource Requirements to Achieve the Millennium development Goals, Oxford University Press, Dreesch, Norbert, et al (2005b): An Approach to estimating Human Resource Requirements to Achieve the Millennium development Goals, Health Policy and Planning Volume 20, No 5, pp. 267276. Maynard, B.K. (2003): Planning Human Resources in Health Care: Towards and Economic Approach, An International Comparative Review: Ottawa: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation. Hall, T. and Mejia Hall (1978): Health Manpower Planning: Principles, Methods, Issues: World Health Organization. Markham, C.D., Stein C. et al (1997): Back to the Future: A Framework for Estimating Health Care Human Resource Requirements. Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration, 10:7-23. WHO (2001): Human Resources for Health: A Toolkit for Planning and Management. Geneva: World Health Organization. Federal Ministry of Finance (2000): National Capacity assessment Report of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in collaboration with the World Bank. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Finance. Federal Government of Nigeria (2007): Landmarks: Achievements of the Olusegun Obasanjo Administration, Federal Ministry of Information and Communication, Abuja. Sambo, B. I. Myths and Realities about Economic Recession in Nigeria. (1998). Kano: State Polytechnic Publishers.

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THE SEVEN-POINT AGENDA


LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the session, participants will be able to: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) explain the concept of 7-point agenda; List the items that constitute the 7-point Agenda; Analyse each of the items so listed; Relate 7-point Agenda to NEEDS; identify the governments efforts so far at implementing the 7-point Agenda through budgetary provisions. INTRODUCTION It should be recalled that an assumption of office, specifically during his inaugural speech on May 29, 2009, the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Alhaji Umaru Musa Yaradua introduced the 7-point Agenda as the policy direction of his administration within its four-year tenure. The President equally introduced Vision 20: 2020 as an ultimate goal of Nigeria. By Vision 20: 2020 is meant that by the year 2020, Nigeria will be among the 20 most developed economies in the World. A relationship established between the 7-point Agenda and

Vision 20: 2020 is that whereas vision 20:2020 is a long term goal, the Seven-point Agenda is a medium term development strategy. By faithful implementation of the 7-point agenda, it is hoped that Nigeria will attain the Vision 20:2020. The 7-point Agenda can equally be identified within the reform of the Yaradua administration which could be traced to the NEEDS I (2003-2007); and NEEDS 2 (2007-2011). All these are guided by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which provides the yardstick for
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assessing the performance of all the countries of the United Nations including Nigeria that appended their signature on the MDGs as a developmental goal of each of them spanning the period 2000-2015. 7point agenda could therefore be seen as an implementable medium for achieving other listed developmental goals. What is 7-point Agenda? 7-point agenda could be referred to as the policy direction of the Yaraduas administration. As a policy, it has a short period of

implementation. Hence, each of the items of the Agenda should feature prominently in Appropriation Bills annually. Their reflection in the Bills and subsequent execution through the budget goes a long way in ascertaining whether the agenda is another government rhetorics, slogan, myth or reality. The points are listed hereunder: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Transport Sector; Power and Energy; Food Security; Wealth creation; Land Reforms; Security; Education

Relating each of the above to the Nigerian situation we find that with regards to the transport sector with its poor road networks, it is an inefficient means of mass-transit of people and goods. For power and energy development of sufficient and adequate power supply are aimed at enhancing Nigerias ability to develop a modern economy and industrialized nation by the year 2015. In the area of Food Security, an
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agrarian-based that will be revolutionalized through modern technology etc, to lead to a 5 10 folds increase in yield and production. For wealth creation, wealth creation through diversified production. In the area of Land Reforms, changes in the land laws and emergency of land reforms that optimize Nigerias growth through the release of lands for commercial farming and other large scale businesses like the private sector. On security - . Security should be seen as not only a Education reforms in

constitutional requirement but also as a necessary infrastructure for the development of modern Nigerian economy educational sector will ensure . Strategic educational development plan with emphasis on learning of skills in science and technology so that our nation can breed her own share of future innovators and industrialists. 3. 7-POINT AGENDA AND NEEDS (1 & 2) It should be recalled that NEEDS was premised on the following pillars: (i) (ii) Empowering the people in form of social charter; Promoting private enterprise (via the creation of a competitive private sector); (iii) promoting result-oriented sectoral strategy and ensuring

regional integration; and (iv) Changing the way government does its work (by creating an efficient and responsible public sector, promoting

transparency and accountability, and improving security and administration of justice). The policy thrusts initiated for achieving MDGs under the auspices of NEEDS are:
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For Goals 1 : Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger - Institutional rationalization; - Outsourcing programmes; - Monetization of fringe benefits; - Special programme for food security; - Strategic Grain Reserve; - Seed Production Programme; - The Fadama II Programme; - The Fertilizer Revolving loan; - Transformation of the National Bureau of Statistics database for poverty monitoring; - The Strengthening of NAPEP; - The Small and Medium Scale Investment Equity Insurance Scheme (SMIEIS). For Goal 2: Achieve Universal Basic Primary Education - Universal Basic Education; - The Child Rights Act; - Education Management Information System and Education Sector Analysis; - Girl Child Education Programme; - Adult Literacy Programme. For Goal 3: Promote Gender Equity - National policy on Women; - Prohibition of violence against women; - Strategy for acceleration of girl education in Nigeria - Female functional literacy for health
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For Goals 4, 5 and 6 on Health - Health sector Reform Programme; - The National Health Insurance Scheme; - Integrated Child survival and Development; - The Roll back Malaria Programme; - The decentralization of HIV and AIDs Management NACA, SACA and LACA; - The transformation of NACA from a Committee to an agency status; - Expanded Programme on Immunization polio, etc. For Goal 7: Environmental Sustainability - National Erosion and Flood Control Policy; - National Environmental Sanitation Policy; - The National Industrial Effluent Limitation Regulation and Pollution abatement in industries and facilities generating waste; - Zero tolerance to gas flaring by 2008, etc. For Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Delisting from the erstwhile pariah state thereby gaining the largest debt in Africa which led to the exist from Paris and London Clubs of Creditors. 7-POINT AGENDA AND NEEDS The 7-Point Agenda undertakes the following: (i) Sets the sectoral priorities for implementing NEEDS. It refocuses the policy priorities as articulated in NEEDS 2 in a way that sustains the gains of economic reforms;
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(ii)

it fast-tracks the process of achieving higher standard of living and better quality of life of most Nigerians;

(iii)

Areas of policy priorities are: Sustainable growth in the real sector of the economy; Physical infrastructure: Power, energy and transportation; Agriculture and Land reforms; Human Capital development: education and health; Security, law and order; Combating corruption; and Niger Delta development.

It must be stated that MDGs, NEEDS (1 and 2), 7-Point Agenda and Vision 20:2020 are all reinforcing and non-contradictory. Whereas, MDGs serve as the framework for achieving sustainable human development, Vision 2020 is the framework for ensuring economic transformation that could further create sustainable condition for financing human development. NEEDS 1 and 2 and 7-Point Agenda constitute the how of making MDGs and Vision 2020 a reality. 4. 7-POINT AGENDA AND 2009 BUDGET Budget generally as conceptualized by Akanni (1987:319) is a summary of statement of plans expressed in quantitative terms, that guides individuals or an accounting entity in reaching financial or operational goals. In addition, budgets are forecasts of future activities and when prepared in numerical terms, they may not necessarily be in Naira and Kobo. It is an instrument for allocating resources. With the foregoing definitions, our concern here is to ascertain how seriously the Government is pursuing implementation of the 7-point agenda.
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As stated by Dr. Tanimu Yakubu, the Chief Economic Adviser to the President, the 2009 Budget as conceived, is a clear demonstration of the Governments determination to achieve its long-term vision objective through faithful implementation of the 7-point Agenda which itself is a medium term development strategy. The budget according to him, was premised on the need to, partly address the historical bottleneck to budget implementation and performance in the country, and also to achieve the well defined deliverables that constitute the 7-Point Agenda. Since the budget was based on the Vision of Mr. President, it necessarily means that the various items of the 7-Point Agenda provide the focal points for assessing the success or failure of the 2009 Budget. Some of the measurable targets and outputs envisaged in the 2009 budget are indicated hereunder: 1. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE (a) Power: The Budget envisages the goal of attaining power generation in 2009 (over 30%

6000mw of

increase). It set aside N200 billion for implementing gas projects, aimed at acquiring capacity to deliver 1.2 billion set of gas to domestic market. Some of the projects here include: National Domestic Gas Projects; Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline projects; Calabar-Umuahia-Ajaokuta Gas Pipeline; Ajaokuta-Abuja-Kano Gas Pipeline; Mambilla hydro-electric power generation; Gas pipeline to PHCN Delta IV;
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Gas

pipeline

to

power

plants

including

Omotosho, Papalanto and Aloji, etc. (b) Transportation Sector Allocations were made to achieve the following sub-sectoral projects: (i) Rail Transport Modernization of locomotives, coaches and wagons; bridges, rehabilitation works on tracks, stations, signaling equipment and and other culverts; railway

procurement of tools, cranes equipment, etc. (ii) -

Marine and Inland Waterways transport completion of Ajaokuta-Warri Line to Delta Steel Jetty;

(iii) -

Dredging of lower River Niger. Road Transport Nationwide works Maintaining 30,000 km of roads (for completion in 3 years);

Construction and rehabilitation of 3,293 km of roads;

Engineering design of 699.05 km of roads; Completion of 2,821m length of bridges etc.

2. FOOD SECURITY AND AGRI-BUSINESS The Federal Government proposed expenditures in the agriculture sector is aimed at raising the sectors contribution to GDP to higher levels through on-going projects and targets over the next three years including:
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(a)

Counterpart funding for FADAMA III, IFAD and AFDB projects, etc; Assistance to States production initiatives through 40% contribution to financing production infrastructures in

(b)

the State to attract agribusiness investments; (c) Rehabilitation and construction of dams to increase irrigated lands and acquire power generation capabilities at

some of the dams. (d) Rehabilitation and expansion of irrigation infrastructure to add N150,000 hectares of irrigation in addition to

optimization of currently N270,000 hectares of irrigation infrastructure. (e) Increasing land under cultivation by 5% in the next season and 15% (f) over a period of 3 years. Increase in yield by 50 250% of different crops, and 20% increase in production of targeted commodity crops. (g) Provision of N200billion credit for commercial agriculture development. (h) 35% increase in domestic agribusiness and 15% increase in export of selected commodities. (i) Increase in fish production by 230% from 650,000 metric tomes to 1.5m metric tones per annum. (j) 40% increase in availability of rural infrastructure (social, energy hectare and landing) (k) Increase in agriculture sectors contribution to GDP by at least 5%.
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In addition, Government has embarked on the amendment of the Land Use Act, in order to remove the obstacles and inconveniences of transacting in land for housing and agriculture and being out the inherent capital in landed assets. 3. WEALTH CREATION AND HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT (a) The 2009 budget has adequate and measurable provision to address the issues of wealth creation, human capital development and guarantee of security to life and property. (b) Under the health sector, government made provisions in the 2009 budget for (i) Completion of ongoing projects for modernization of seven (7) specialist hospitals in Kaduna, Maiduguri, Kano, Calabar, Enugu, Abeokuta and Lagos. (ii) Completion of ongoing projects for modernization of three (3) Teaching Hospitals in Calabar, Awka and Ife. 4. INTERNAL SECURITY Governments prioritization has been reflected in the 2009 budget including allocation for security and community policing in seven (7) cities ( Abuja, Kano, Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Maiduguri and Onitsha) identified as having the highest incidence of criminal activity will a view to reducing this by 40% in 2009. 5. NIGER DELTA Towards implementation of the Administrations Niger Delta Agendum, provisions were made in the 2009 budget for (i) (ii) (iii) New road projects such as the Warri Kaima Road Erosion control projects Forestry Projects
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(iii)

Conservation and Development of Costal Ecosystem Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem)

(v) (vi)

Youth Training and Development Centres in Niger Delta Digital Security Surveillance

(vii) Acquisition of marine boats and equipment (viii) Provision of observation posts along major highways in the country. Overall, there is a determination to shift focus from resource commitment to MDAs, to considering what was actually delivered by the various MDAs. To ensure improved efficiency, effectiveness and

productivity of governments expenditure, the Budget Office of the Federation, working with the National Planning Commission, office of the Chief Economic Adviser and the MDG office, has designed a framework to monitor and evaluate the budget performance quarterly budget monitoring and evaluation reports to be published in line with the provisions of the fiscal responsibility Act, 2007. CONCLUSION Strict pursuit of the 7 point Agenda, we aver, will widen opportunities through provision of functional infrastructure, enhanced human capacity, wealth creation and increased emphasis on food security and affordable housing. Realization of the key Agenda items in the short and medium term namely: addressing the challenges of the critical infrastructure gap, bringing succor to the chronic socio- economic crisis in the Niger Delta, achieving enhanced human capital

development, ameliorating the inadequacies of our food sector,


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implementing land tenure and home ownership refocus aimed at freeing the wealth in our land resources, addressing the challenges of National security and creating a conducive would deliver on the 2020 vision. environment for wealth creation

REFERENCES

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004): National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) NEEDS Secretariat, National Planning Commission Federal Secretariat, Abuja. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007), Nigeria Millennium Goals 2006 Report (Abuja: The National Planning Commission) Maduabum, C. P. (2006), Reforming Government Bureaucracies in Nigeria: The Journey so far (Badagry: ASCON Press) Maduabum C. P. (2008), The Mechanics of Public Administration in Nigeria (Lagos: Concept Publications) Yakubu, T. (2009) YarAduas 7 Point Agenda and Vision 2020: Political Slogans or Economic Growth Mechanisms?, The Nation Newspaper Tuesday, April 7.

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VISION 2020 AND THE PUBLIC SERVICE: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES


Learning Objectives - To remind/upgrade the knowledge of the participants on the Vision : 2020. Specifically: (i) (ii) (iii) To explain the concept of Vision and Visioning. Identify the objectives and processes of the vision 2020. Outline the Institutional arrangement for implementing the vision: 2020. (iv) (v) Highlight the Role of the Public Service in achieving the Vision. Discuss the inhibiting factors and how to overcome them.

INTRODUCTION The Vision 20:2020, the MDGs and the Seven Point Agenda serve as an important roadmap that will help the President Musa Umaru YarAduas Administration to confront the challenges of nation-building. The effective implementation of these comprehensive programmes of government will depend on the availability of competent, efficient, responsive and result-oriented public service machinery. This

underscores the considerable efforts of government in the last five years


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to transform and re-invent the public service through sustained reformed measures. The Vision 20:2020 and the MDGs aims at moving Nigerias economy into the league of the Worlds 20 largest economies by the year 2020 and 2015 respectively. It is also a dream that seeks to ensure collateral development of the country and to put its economy on a fasttrack to self-reliance and raise the peoples standard of living. Given the targets of these programmes, many have expressed skepticism about its realism. While, they see nothing wrong with the concept, however, they point to the nations poor state of infrastructure and a weak public service. Vision 2020 Committee is assigned the task to formulating a strategic agenda for the nation. From policy pronouncements by top functionaries of Government and the various policy reform measures that are being implemented, this strategic agenda is to incorporate policy reform measures that are being implemented in order to strengthen good governance, maintain an enabling policy environment and macroeconomic stability, provide basic social services and infrastructural facilities, protect the vulnerable, and implement human centred development programmes. These policy and economic reform
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measures being implemented by Government constitute a shift in the role of Government from a dominant actor in national development to a partner in development policy management. VISION 2020 Committee is a manifestation of this paradigm shift. For the first time Nigerias development planning process has shifted significantly from an exercise by technocrats in the civil service, the Universities and Research Institutes to a corps of stakeholders from the public service, private sector and civil society. The composition and operational principles of VISION 2020 Committee reflect this new role of Government as a partner in the development process: Thus the new role of Government as a facilitator and catalyst is being concretized with the establishment of VISION 2020 Committee. VISIONING : CONCEPT Vision: the ability to think about or plan the future with great wisdom.

imagination or

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Vision: is about a mental picture of a future state of being which is - Chief Ernest Shonekan. CBE.

superior to the current situation.

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VISIONING: is a kind of long term strategic planning that will enable a nation to fully articulate and judiciously allocate resources towards

economic development and the general advancement of the citizenry. - Prof. A. D. Yahaya

an approach to the Management of an organisation or country strongly rooted in the belief that it is better to focus on the future as we can neither alter the past nor do much about the present. - Shonekan. VISION 2020 The Blueprint for Nigerias successful Development: Economically Socially Politically

*Success measured by improved quality of life of all Nigerians. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR NIGERIA VISION 2020 1. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON VISION 2020 The National Council on Vision is at the Apex, providing Leadership and direction to galvanize the whole nation, with the president as the Chairman.

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2.

NATIONAL STEERING COMMITTEE This Committee consists of about 70 persons drawn from the public and private sectors with responsibility for developing the Vision Implementation Guidelines, Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy, ensuring a bottom-up approach by which all key stakeholders, Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) as well as States, Local Government Areas (LGAs) are encouraged to prepare and implement their Component of the Vision: 2020.

3.

NATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP Each NTWG will comprise 20-25 experts in specific thematic areas drawn from both public and private sectors with expertise and passion for the area. They will undertake specific studies or research work to provide data necessary for the working group report.

4.

STAKEHOLDER DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE This Committee includes Federal Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) State Governments and other Key Institutions. Each Stakeholder group will prepare its Vision 2020 thoughts and ideas based on the guidelines approved by the National Council.
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WHY VISION 2020 (a) (b) Breaking out of our development inertia. Fashioning out an effective development programme for the country. (c) Expanding national development planning beyond public sector bureaucrats, by including leaders of thought and professionals from the other spheres of our national life. (d) (e) Preparing the country for the dawn of the 21st Century; and Working out an achievable National Vision to guide our collective efforts to realise the countrys future prosperity, such that, by the Year 2020, the country will be enroute to being an economically prosperous, politically stable and socially

harmonious nation. OBJECTIVES/TERMS OF REFERENCE Implementation Plan - Goals and Targets. - Strategies - Institutional arrangements - Action Plan/Time-Table

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BENEFITS OF VISION 2020 What will Nigeria gain from such a programme? Some of the expected benefits will include: (i) A national consensus, as a result of which all Nigerians will share a common focus for development and voluntarily work towards the achievement of the vision and national cohesion. (ii) A sustainable and rapid socio-economic development of the country. (iii) The restructuring of our society in such a way as to reduce any socio-economic injustices and eradicate extremes levels of poverty. (iv) A more open economy that is export oriented and which has the whole world as the market for its industrial products. (v) An industrial sector that can produce goods that are competitive in the most advanced segments of the World market. (vi) A nation at peace with itself and a United Nigerian nation with a sense of common and shared destiny. (vii) A nation that is ethnically integrated living in harmony and in full and fair partnership with its component peoples.

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(viii)

A scientifically innovative society that will not only be a consumer of technology, but also a contributor to the scientific and technological civilization of the future.

(ix)

A fully caring society in which the welfare of individuals, particularly the handicapped and the disabled will be of concern to all.

(x)

A society with high moral and ethical standards and whose citizens value and observe international norms and standards.

(xi)

A liberal and tolerant society in which all Nigerians will be free to practice and profess their customs, culture and religious beliefs, and yet feel that they belong to one nation.

(xii)

A prosperous country with a dynamic, robust and resilient economy; and

(xiii)

A country in which the present generation of Nigerians will become inspired to do things which they believed could only be dreamed about but not achievable in their own life-time.

VISION 2020 AND CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC SERVICE OBSERVATIONS - The Civil Service is the main instrument through which government carries out its business.

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- The Public Service plays a vital role in the formulation and implementation of Government policies. - It also provides a facilitative and lead role for the performance of other sectors of the economy. - Therefore, a Public Service that is modern, efficient, and effective is critical to the success and performance of government and its

programme i.e. Vision: 2020. - The achievement of the countrys set targets for Vision: 2020 will depend on the efficiency and capacity of the Public Service. ROLE OF THE CIVIL/PUBLIC SERVICE The 1995 Review Panel on the Civil Service in its Report identified the following functions of the Civil Service; these are; (i) To assist the Government in the formulation and Implementation of its policies. (ii) To operate an administrative system that is development conscious, performance oriented, efficient and effective. (iii) To promote and assist the growth, dynamism and the social responsibility of private enterprises within the framework of national economic objectives. (iv) To assist in promoting national Unity and Integration.
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(v)

To assist Government in the generation and mobilization of revenue and judicious expenditure of public funds.

POSITIONING THE PUBLIC SERVICE AND CHALLENGES The fundamental question which easily comes to mind is How well prepared are the various public service organisations to respond to and implement these changes. INHIBITING FACTORS Ayida Review Panel on the Civil Service Reforms of 1995 identified the following as some of the factors inhibiting the effective performance of the Civil Service. (i) (ii) Political Instability Interference with the work of Civil Servants and the nonobservance of the laid down rules and procedures. (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Inadequate provision of financial and material resources. Politicisation of the public service Poor remuneration Slow response to Technological changes and improved

procedures necessary in running a modern organization. (vii) (viii) Insecurity of tenure. Corruption.
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Current Diagnostic studies (2001) described the Nigerian Public Service as: - Lethargic and slow in official decisions and actions. - Insensitive to the value of time. - Irregular attendance at work. - Nepotic - Wastefull with government resources. - Slow to change. - Unresponsive and discourteous to the public. - MDAs role ambiguity i.e. unclear definition of roles. - Breakdown of disciplinary System and Code of Ethics. RE-INVENTING THE PUBLIC SERVICE FOR THE CHALLENGES OF VISION:2020 Arising from the above background, the role of the public service must therefore be refined and refocused to meet the challenges of the Vision:2020. The effective implementation of this programme will

depend on the availability of competent, efficient, responsive and results-oriented public service machinery. This underscores the

considerable efforts of government in the last five years to transform and re-invent the public service through sustained reform measures. To fast-track the achievements of the Vision:2020 efforts geared towards building a robust public service for Nigeria is very necessary
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through the introduction of new management practices while the training of public servants should be given more attention. Other measures necessary to revitalize, re-orient and strengthen the capacity of the public service for efficient and effective performance and the achievement of the Vision : 2020 include: (i) enhancing the capacity of the public service in the areas of policy analysis, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review. (ii) Adoption of private sector management systems and techniques. (iii) Adoption of best practices in governance and public sector management through the application of techniques such as those targeting Total Quality Management (TQM) performance management and customer service orientation. (iv) Inculcating the values of integrity, accountability and transparency. (v) Encouraging and building Partnership with the Private Sector (PPP) for the management of the economy. (vi) Promoting investor/customer friendly orientation in the public service performance. (vii) Financial Management Improvement measures. (viii) Inculcating a management culture which will change the values and attitudes of the public servant to search for and contribute to continuous improvement. (ix) Introduction of ICT as a tool for Management of Change and the Modernization of the public service.

(x) Training and Capacity Building (xi) Improved Incentives and Motivation. (xii) Anti-corruption measures and accountability etc.
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REFERENCES Adamolekun, Kunle (2008) The NESG and Vision:2020 in Thisday Newspapers of 29th October 2008. Ida, Ibrahim M. (1997) Positioning the Civil Service for Challenges of Vision 2010. A presentation delivered in ASCON Forum on 27 th May, 1997, Badagry. Improving the Performance of the Civil Service through the New Public Management System in the Civil Service News. Quarterly Publication of the Federal Civil Service, OHOSF, Abuja.

Musa Ahmadu (2006)

Shonekan, Ernest A. O. (1999) The Public and Private Sector Partnership for Vision:2010 in proceedings of ASCON 25th Anniversary Conference (Ed) Ali Yahaya and Ayodele Fagbemi, ASCON Press, Badagry. Yahaya, A. D. (2000) Human Capacity Building in the Nigerian Public Service: Current Challenges and Future Challenges in Africa Journal of Public Administration and Management Vol. XII, No. 2, December 2000. Yar-Adua Seven Point Agenda and Vision 2020: Political Slogans or Economic Growth Mechanisms? Paper delivered during the Nigerian Guild of Editors Conference in Kaduna in The Punch Newspaper of April, 16th 2009.

Yakubu, Tanimu (2009)

Review Panel on the Civil Service Reforms: Main Report. Federal Government Press (1995) Abuja.

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SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA


Learning Objectives At the end of the session, participants should be able to define some relevant terms explain the background to SDI in Nigeria describe progress made as well as the Challenges suggest the way forward Agenda To enable us achieve the objectives, the following will be discussed. Definition of basic terms Background to Service Delivery Initiative in Nigeria Implementation of the initiative/ Success story Challenges in driving the process The way forward Definitions There are several definitions of service as there are authors. However, a few definitions shall suffice starting with the definition of service. According to Microsoft Encarta 2008, Service refers to work done by somebody for somebody else. It also means providing people with what they want (Oxford Advanced Leaners). The following examples will serve as illustrations Customers in a restaurant want more than a meal Guests in hotels want more than a room
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Customer want more than just the product or service that is offered they also want to be treated well Service failures occur whenever any product or service fails to meet the customers expectations The Government and service delivery The primary purpose of Government is to improve quality of life of citizens. However, to do this, Ministries, Departments and Agencies are established to provide services to the people. In fact, the public service is the only contact that most people have with Government. Arising from this, public institutions have a social obligation to render service to the citizens and therefore the citizens have legitimate expectation to be provided with good services without a commercial motive. However, more often than not, because of the nature of services they are meant to provide, public institutions have no real competitor and the citizens have no choice but to use government services. This notwithstanding, it must be noted that Service is what we (public servants) offer ourselves for. And service is what the people are entitled to expect from us. Background to the Service Delivery Initiative The Government recognised that no reform process will be credible or sustainable without demonstrable service delivery. Therefore, service delivery is the object and subject of all reform efforts (Famro, 2008). In December 2003, a team of experts was commissioned to: review the state of service delivery in Nigeria; examine institutional environment for service delivery;
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reflect on peoples views and experiences; and draw a road map for service delivery programme. Before then, the President had declared that our public offices have for too long been showcases for the combined evils of inefficiency and corruption, whilst being impediments to effective implementation of government policies. Nigerians deserve better. And we will ensure they get what is better! The team submitted its report titled Service Delivery in Nigeria: A Roadmap. The highlights of the report as published in February 2004 are as follows: Services are not serving people, they are inaccessible, poor in quality and indifferent to customers needs Public confidence is poor, inequality high, and institutional arrangement confusing and wasteful There is need for a far reaching transformation of Nigerian society through a service delivery programme as a step in the process of moving to a government that is more in touch with the people Following the submission, a special Presidential retreat was convened in March 2004, to deliberate on the report. At the end of the retreat, the body came to a conclusion to enter into a Service Compact With All Nigerians. The Compact states that: We dedicate ourselves to providing the basic services to which each citizen is entitled in a timely, fair, honest, effective and transparent manner
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The implications of the compact include the following: Establishment of a SERVICOM Office within the Presidency to operationalize governments commitment to service delivery. Every Ministry, Department and Agency is required to produce a service charter derived from their mission statements, create a SERVICOM Unit, and appoint a Nodal Officer (a deputy director) to head the unit with a complement of 3 other staff to drive service delivery and improvements in the MDA. The main functions of the SERVICOM Office are to: Co-ordinate the formulation and operation of SERVICOM Charters and Service Improvement Plans in MDAs Monitor and report progress and performance of MDAs under SERVICOM obligations through Compliance Evaluations using the SERRVICOM Index Carry out surveys of services and customers satisfaction Publicize charters and sensitize the citizenry to demand quality service as a right at all times Five Elements of Quality Service According to Aribisala (2009), there are five elements of Quality Service as discussed below. Reliability The ability to provide what was promised, dependably and accurately

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Action strategy: make sure that you correctly identify customer needs, promise only what you can deliver, and follow through to ensure that the product or service was received as promised Assurance The knowledge and courtesy of employees, and their ability to convey trust and confidence Action strategy: take the time to serve customers one at a time. Provide service assertively by using positive communication techniques and describing products and services accurately Tangible The physical facilities and equipment and the appearance of personnel Action strategy: maintain workspaces in a neat, orderly manner, dress professionally, and maintain excellent grooming and hygiene standards Empathy The degree of caring and individual attention provided to customers Action strategy: listen for emotions in your customers messages. Put yourself in their place and respond compassionately by offering service to address their needs and concerns Responsiveness The willingness to help customers and provide prompt services

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Action strategy: project a positive, can-do attitude. Take immediate steps to help customers and satisfy their needs Five Drivers of Customer Satisfaction In its book SERVICOM Story, the SERVICOM Office writes that customer satisfaction is the overriding consideration of service delivery. Extensive research consultations and surveys in Nigeria some few years ago showed that customer satisfaction is broadly driven by the followings: Service delivery Timeliness Information Professionalism Staff attitude Implementation/ Success story The implementation of service delivery can be pinned down to the following activities and or programmes. Setting up of structures Posting of staff to the Ministerial SERVICOM Unit (MSU) Inauguration of the MSU Formation of National Council of Nodal Officers Annual General Meeting of Nodal Officers Resource Centre interaction Charter formulation Formulation of local and integrated Charters by MDAs
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Publishing and displaying the Charters

Capacity building Establishment of SERVICOM Institute Mounting of various training programmes Sensitization programmes Networking seminars Compliance evaluation and reporting Identification of the MDA Scoping Communicating with the MDA Mystery shopping Actual evaluation Presentation and publishing of report Service improvement programme Helping evaluated MDAs to develop Service Improvement Plan (SIP) Assisting MDAs with good SIP to get funding Monitoring implementation of SIP Establishing Pilots The SERVICOM Institute Cross-River state
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Road safety Passport Office Out-Patients Department Police Communication Success Stories The successes recorded are pronounced in the pilots established ab initio to demonstrate the practicability of service delivery to the people. Specific achievements are therefore listed under each pilot. General Out-Patient Department, Federal Medical Centre, Keffi Reduction of waiting time from 3hrs to 30mins Attitudinal change of staff to be customer- centric Display of Charter Elimination of hidden cost Wearing of name tags Road safety (OSCAR) Increased public awareness of motor insurance requirements and compensation rights Reduction in uninsured driving through detection and enforcement from over 91% to less than 20% in Abuja Increased commitment to road safety Passport Office Elimination of bottlenecks in the issuance of passport
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Transformation of the reception experience of passport seekers Police Communication Improved crime reporting and effective response through modern communication equipment Establishing user friendly service windows in some locations in Abuja Cross-River State Developing Charters for MDAs Improved complaints handling Customer sensitization Developing SIPs SERVICOM Institute Enhanced the capacity of over 3000 public servants to drive the Service Delivery Initiative in their MDAs Assisted MDAs to develop their SIPs Assisted some MDAs to develop their Complaints Policy and Procedures Key Challenges Of course, there are challenges. Eniaiyejuni (2009) identifies a number of key challenges which include Low Management support in many organisations Ineffective Charters Lack of monitoring of performance
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Frequent transfer of MSU staff Attitude of Nigerians generally The way forward The only way forward is to entrenching service culture in our various organizations in particular and the nation in general. To achieve that, the followings must be done. Service delivery policies and procedures must be put in place Employee roles and expectations must be clearly spelt out Service Charters must be published and made effective Training in all areas of service delivery is important to align the behavior of employees with the service culture Delivery system must also be aligned Performance at all levels must be effectively monitored to ensure compliance with service standard In all cases of good performance, reward must be given while poor performance should attract sanctions For the foregoing to be implemented, there must be Management support. Conclusion In conclusion, rebranding Nigeria implies service delivery. Public servants must recognise that they have customers. They should also note that Service is what they offer themselves for. And service is what the people are entitled to expect from them. What service delivery and SERVICOM are saying is that all public servants should do what they are employed to do and being paid for.

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References Aribisala, F. (2008). Managing Customer Service. A powerpoint presentation. Eniaiyejuni, B.O. (2009). Service delivery in Nigeria: The way forward. A lecture delivered on a Regular Programme at the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON), Topo-Badagry. Famro, C. (2008). SERVICOM and the Nigerian Public Service. A lecture delivered on the Ministerial SERVICOM Unit Training held in Jos. Microsoft Encarta (2008). SERVICOM Office (2009). SERVICOM Story. Abuja: SERVICOM Office

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BUDGETING IN GOVERNMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the session, participants will be able to: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Define budget in their own words State the purpose of a budget List at least three approaches to budgeting State the requirements for a good budget preparation Mention some factors that affect both budget preparation and implementation in Nigeria. INTRODUCTION: The attainment of the socio-economic objectives of any nation depends to a large extent on how well its finances are managed. Cases abound where good policies and programmes were formulated, but because of poor deployment of funds and lack of accountability, such programmes never materialized. This explains why most government efforts at revamping the economy focus more on entrenching a sound financial management system. Thus, the public sector Reforms Programme of government touches significantly on sound financial management and accountability. Financial Management in the public sector
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encompasses such major functions as Planning and Programming; Budgeting; Budget Execution and Accounting as well as Audit and Review. Although budgeting is a subset of financial management, its importance is such that most economic activities tend to be influenced by the our performance score card of on each years budget.

Unfortunately,

budget

formulation,

implementation and evaluation has not been very impressive. It is either the formulation is faulty or the implementation is not effectively monitored. This certainly, would lead to a situation,

where the objectives of the budget would not be achieved, consequently the attainment of laudable economic objectives of government continues to be a mirage. In view of the importance of good budgeting practice to economic management as articulated above, this paper intends to discuss the definition and purpose of budget; approaches to budgeting; the budgeting process and calendar of government; and factors affecting both budget preparation and implementation in Nigeria.

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DEFINITION OF BUDGET Budget can be defined as follows: (i) A statement of intention regarding activities to be

undertaken, the resources to be committed to those activities and benefits or results expected to be achieved over a given period of time, usually one fiscal year (Ariyo, 1997); (ii) An estimate of income and expenditure covering a specified period of time with some pre-determined objectives. (Collins Business Dictionary). (iii) A financial plan for a period (usually one year) which explains how a government intends to mobilize and allocate the anticipated resources that would accrue to it during the period. Essentially, the budget document spells out the

anticipated revenue and expenditure of the government for the fiscal year (Ajiboye, 2004). PURPOSE OF BUDGET Principally, budget is intended to serve as: (i) (ii) a forecast of what expenditure will be necessary or desirable; a plan to secure the right relationship between income and expenditure;
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(iii)

a means of controlling expenditure in particular and other activities of government in general. The purpose of a budget is further captured by Oshisami

(1992) as uses of a budget, some of which are presented below: (i) (ii) An aid to making and coordinating short-range plans; a device for communicating these plans to various responsibility centres; (iii) (iv) (v) a way to motivating managers to achieve goals a benchmark for controlling on-going activities; a basis of evaluating performance.

TYPES OF BUDGET The following are common types of budget in government. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Revenue Budget Recurrent Budget Capital Budget Surplus Budget Balanced Budget Deficit Budget

(vii) Annual Budget (viii) Supplementary Budget


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(ix) (x)

Cash Budget Materials Budget, etc.

ISSUES OF FOCUS IN THE PREPARATION OF ANNUAL BUDGET In Nigeria, the public sector budget is composed of the following: A review of performance of previous year=s budget and highlights of the policy focus of government in the current year Revenue Estimates Expenditure Estimates A set of policy measures such as fiscal and monetary policies aimed at achieving the various objectives of government and at directing the economy to the desired state. REVENUE ESTIMATES These are based mainly on forecasts and previous performance government. of various sources of revenue available to

There are two major categories of revenue

estimates: Current revenue and Capital receipts.


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Current revenue includes tax and non-tax incomes earned by government during a given fiscal year. In Nigeria current

revenue of government is classified into oil revenue and non oil due to the significant contribution of crude oil to government revenue. Capital receipts include income realised from loans, aid and grants as well as sale of government property. Expenditure Estimates These are also classified into two broad groups recurrent and capital expenditures. Each class is further subdivided

according to a function or sector such as Administration, Economic Services; Social and Community Services; and Transfer. Administration: General administration, Defence and Internal security Economic Services: Agriculture; Construction, Transport and Communication, among others. Social & Community Services: Education, health, housing and others. Transfer: Public debt charges, grants and subventions

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A functional category is normally the Head or an aggregation of similar Heads of expenditures. The Recurrent Expenditure: These include: Specially classified recurrent expenditures that must be met before any other charges such as interest payments on loans, pensions and gratuities, as well as provisions for certain statutory offices; Personnel emoluments which include salaries and wages of public officials; and Overhead costs and servicing of debts. APPROACHES TO BUDGETING (BUDGETING SYSTEMS) The orientation of government budgeting has evolved in three phases, namely: Control, Management and Planning. These have influenced the introduction of a number of budgetary techniques such as: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Traditional or line--item budgeting system Planning Programming budgeting system Zero-base budgeting Performance Budget System Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF)
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Line Item Budgeting: The traditional or line item budgeting is control oriented, and hence lays emphasis on an efficient system of accountability for resource input to achieve a given goal. The main aims of the technique are to keep expenditure in check and prevent improper use of public money. Some of the characteristics of the line item budgeting system are listed below: (i) It does not define the objectives of the organisation and its programme of activities. (ii) It emphasises organisational units and their objects of expenditure. (iii) It lacks criteria for measuring performance against inputs, objectives and targets of the organisation. (iv) It emphasises the principles of control but does not help much in establishing the objectives of efficiency and effectives. Planning Programming Budgeting System (PPBS) In Nigeria, PPBS was first introduced and operated in the old Western Region from 1972 and was formally adopted by the
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Federal Government as the instrument for the Countrys Financial Management in 1981. The PPBS aims at defining the objectives of the functional areas of government and their programme of activities for which criteria will be established for measuring performance against inputs, objectives, and set targets. linkages between planning, The system strengthens the budgeting and

programming,

performance evaluation through feed back. characteristics of PPBS are listed below: (i) (ii) The setting of specific objectives.

Some of the

The systematic analysis to clarify objectives and to assess alternative ways of meeting them.

(iii)

The

framing

of

budgeting

proposals

in

terms

of

programme(s) directed toward the achievement of the objective. (iv) The formulation of plan for each programme. year by year achievement of

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Zero - Based Budgeting (ZBB) Although the PPBS appears to be the best example of the planning oriented budget, the zero-base budgeting is another approach for achieving the same goal. The ZBB is a management tool which complements and links existing planning, budgeting and review processes wherein all programmes both new and old, rank and compete to achieve the proper allocation of limited resources to the most deserving programmes. Some of its characteristics are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) Low priority programmes are eliminated or reduced. Programme effectiveness is dramatically improved. High impact programmes can obtain increased funding by shifting resources within the agency. Performance Budgeting System It is a budgeting system which focuses mainly on the workload and unit cost of activities of organisations. Simply put, it relates costs to the volume of work required to achieve defined objectives and targets of the organisations or departments. It is very similar to a line-budget with or performance statistics.

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Performance budgeting system is not system oriented and therefore it is subjective in nature. For example, detailed programme needs are not identified before costs are allocated to achieve an assignment or objective. Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) Although the different budgeting approaches discussed above achieved some level of success, the modern demands of economic management which focuses on transparency and greater

predictability of government policy direction and resources called for a paradigm shift in the budgeting approach. Thus in 2004, the

Federal Executive Council approved a major fiscal strategy for the country budgeting system shifting from one year budgetary framework to three years. The proposal tagged MTEF took effect from 2005 Budget. MTEF is an integrated top-down and bottom-up system of public expenditure management designed to achieve macroeconomic stability without compromising economic development. It directs that bulk of public spending to the nations strategic priorities as articulated in National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) and for the attainment of the Millenium

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Development goals (MDGs).

MTEF assures the predictability of It is a

funding as it goes beyond the current years budget.

framework of budgeting which provides spending estimates for the next three years and gives rationale for decision in terms of macroeconomic context and assumptions. MTEF is a three stage process, comprising a Medium Term Fiscal Framework (MTFF) which documents fiscal policy objectives plus fiscal targets and projections of available resources. Secondly, a Medium Term Budget Framework (MTBF) designed to document Medium term budget based on the nations strategic priorities in a manner consistent with overall fiscal objectives and Medium term Sector Strategy (MTSS), which involves getting the spending agencies to articulate their medium Term goals and objectives in line with the economic objectives of government as captured in NEEDs, MDGs, 7-Point Agenda and Vision 20:2020 documents. Lastly, there is the Medium Term Budget Framework Statement (MTBFS) which summarises the assumptions and predictions under-pricing the government fiscal policy. It also provides the key parameters the government is basing its three year estimates upon.

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Nigeria is not the only country in Africa that has introduced a budget of three year regime, Malawi and Ghana have all introduced MTEF based budget due to its appeal of looking beyond one fiscal year. It must, however be mentioned here that the MTEF based budget goes along with budget envelop system where a ceiling of expenditure is given to each organisation expenditure estimates proposal. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD BUDGET It must be goal oriented. The goals and objectives of each Ministry and Agency must be clearly stated and identified with the goals set by the government. There should be a means of evaluating the objectives, achievement and methods adopted in achieving them. The Budget must be seen in the context of the national economy, so that measures taken can increase the welfare of citizens in general. The Budget must be cost-effective. The Budget must stimulate the economy so as to prevent unemployment. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD BUDGET PREPARATION to guide them in their

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The following are some of the requirements for a good budget preparation. (i) Clear identification of all the activities to be carried out within the budget period. (ii) Accurate estimate of the resources required to carry out the activities identified. (iii) Accurate estimate of the revenue expected within the budget period. (iv) Allocation of funds amongst competing departments, and activities along pre-determined priorities. (v) Formulation of appropriate policies to guide and support the implementation of the budget.

THE BUDGETING PROCESS AND CALENDAR OF GOVERNMENT The budgeting process and calendar of government as articulated by Oshisami and Dean (1985) are presented below: 1. The President decides upon broad budget strategy on the basis of his own policies and a view of the macroeconomic environment. He

provides the Budget Office with a plan of action for implementing the strategy.

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2.

The Budget Office devises a more detailed version of the plan and issues a call circular to Ministries requesting estimates to be prepared according to budget guidelines.

3.

The Ministries submit their estimates to the Budget Office which reviews them and adjusts them where necessary.

4.

The Budget Office aggregates the budgets in the form of a Consolidated Estimate of Revenue and Expenditure (CERE) which is passed to the President for his approval.

5.

The President lays the CERE before the National Assembly in the form of an Appropriation Bill.

6.

The Houses of the National Assembly debate the bill and invite Ministries and other Agencies to defend their budget proposals where necessary, modifications are made before passing the budget, and returning it to the President for his approval.

7.

The President gives his assent to the Appropriation bill which becomes an Act.

8.

The Minister of Finance is now empowered to issue funds to the Ministries. This is done by the issue of warrants.

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The Budget Calendar of Government No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.. 9. Activities Issuance of Call Circular Preparation of Estimates Letter of Reminder Submission of Proposals/Estimates Consideration of Proposals by the Approving Authority Issuance of Provisional Warrant Issuance of General Warrant (Authorisation) Implementation of the Budget Review and Audit Timing July/August August - October September September/October November December January February/March January - December After Implementation

FACTORS AFFECTING BUDGET PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA The consensus among economic analysts is that the following factors affect both the budget preparation and implementation in Nigeria. A. Preparation Lack of accurate data Late issuance of call circular Lack of materials

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Lack of trained personnel Lack of proper review of previous year=s budget Lack of incentives to Budget Officers Poor coordination Political influence in the area of project selection. B. Implementation Lateness in the release of General Warrant Political differences between The President and the National Assembly leading to late approval. Lack of proper monitoring mechanisms Late/Irregular releases of funds Partial releases of funds leading to insufficient funds for projects Lack of political will Lack of correlation between monitoring reports and fund disbursement. CONCLUSION Budget is an important economic management tool. In fact the success or failure of any economy is strongly tied to the manner its yearly budget is managed. In view of the fact that budget influences
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all economic activities and affect directly or indirectly every individual in the country, every public servant should infact take interest in understanding the nitty-gritty of budgeting. This is with a view to discovering area(s) he/she can contribute to the effective

management of the budget, especially in the area of implementation and monitoring.

REFERENCES 1. Ajiboye, L. (2004), A Guide to Public Sector Budgeting, Abuja, Aflon Books. Ariyo, A. (1997), Nigerias Budget 1997: an Overview. NCEMA Policy Analysis Series Vol. 3 No. 1 Jones, R. and Pendlebury, M. (1988), Public Sector Accounting; London, Pitman Publishing. Mckenna, B. and Fleming, A. M. (1975), Business Dictionary, London, Collins Gem. Olajide Bukky, (2009), Medium Term Expenditure Framework: Other Countries Experiences in The Guardian Newspaper of th 8 July. Oshisami, K. (1992), Government Accounting and Financial Control, Ibadan, Spectrums Book Limited http://www.budget office gov.ng

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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GUIDELINES ON PROCUREMENT IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE


SESSIONAL OBJECTIVES The session of this discussion shall guarantee that participants are able to: define public procurement Identify the economic role of procurement describe how efficient procurement can guarantee fairness. explain how efficient procurement can ensure competition, transparency and accountability and value for money. state the spending thresholds for Permanent Secretary, Director-General and Chief Executives of Government Agency. list the step-by-step required for good procurement to fit into the due process principles. 2. INTRODUCTION The clamour for good governance in every society around the world is hinged on the fact that good governance ensures fair play, guarantees human right, judicious use of scarce resources, transparency and accountability and maintenance of sustainable economy where life is in abundance.

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In this connection, sound public procurement has been identified as one of the virile ingredients with which the strive for good governance can be achieved. Through sound procurement policies, costs are reduced, waste minimized, projects results are timely, and protests over corruption and government inefficiency are minimized. 3. DEFINITION OF CONCEPT Procurement means acquisition of needs whether goods, works or services. Procurement and purchasing are often

interchangeably used as terms describing the process of acquiring, or leasing what is required for operations or services. Public procurement is the ways and means by which an interlink is created between a buyer and a seller, using public financial resource to provide goods and services for the benefit of the public. Public procurement is the process established by law, through which there are guidance as regards the acquisition of the right quality goods, in the right quantity, from the right source, at the right time and price. Unlike purchasing public procurement is regimented to such an extent that procurement does not take place except based on appropriation or subvention. The purpose is often well spelt out, and

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cannot be varied. In purchasing, the buyer is at liberty to use his discretion to ensure he gets the best for his organization following systematic procedure and employing scientific approach that will engender profit and cost savings. 4. ECONOMIC ROLE OF PROCUREMENT Procurement as an acquisition activity is intended to provide value for money by ensuring that what is procured fulfils the procurement purpose whether goods, works, services or consultancy services. It means more than negotiating for the least price. It always must be the least responsive price which gives value for money not only in terms of quality but also in terms of quantity and timeliness. It must be noted, that an item particularly equipment can be purchased at a very low price initially and later costs more to maintain. The basic objective of economic purchase is to ensure that maximum value is obtained for money spent in the long run. 5. EFFICIENCY Efficiency implies practicality in terms of compatibility with purpose. The amount expended should be at tune with the result obtained. Items of works, goods and services must be obtained with

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obvious gains, timely, and from sources free from encumbrances. Efficiency in public procurement also implies competence and professionalism on the part of the Procurement Officer such that his processes and procedures are well documented and can be defended in case of enquiry. 6. FAIRNESS IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT A good public procurement must exhibit impartiality,

consistence and reliability. It must be capable of producing positive result with little or no delay in attending to suppliers/contractors. A good public procurement is regarded as fair when in drafting its Bills of Quantities it does not take care only the interest of its organization but also the interest of Suppliers/Contractors either in terms of stringent unattainable specification, pricing, or delivery conditions. It is fair where the specification is detailed and not ambiguous and where Contractors and Suppliers are well and objectively guided. It is fair where failed Contractors/Suppliers are made to know the causes of their failure to enable them make amend and brace up for the future.

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7.

TRANSPARENCY, COMPETITION, AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT A good and internationally recognized public procurement system must combine all the attributes of transparency, competition, and accountability. These are the hallmark of good public

procurement which inspire the confidence and willingness of Suppliers/Contractors to develop interest in dealing with public organizations. Transparency in procurement means making contractors accessible to all details about a contract. The rules of the game are known and clear to them, the procedures are well understood and these elements are not just as advocated but seen to be so by the stakeholders. Competition in public procurement is sine-qua-non.

The space must be made wide open enough for every interested party to show-case his capability and not luck. Qualified Contractors must be given the opportunity to display their competence by exposing procurement information to them. They must see it, not just hear about it. The details must be as it is advertized. There must be a level playing field and the goal post must not be shifted in favour of anyone.
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Accountability is simply the rendering of stewardship for resources entrusted in the hands of public officers. However,

accountability is hard to achieve under a regime or in a situation where ethical standard is lacking. A good public procurement should be capable of holding its operators responsible for enforcing and obeying the rules. Operators of public procurement must be prepared to be subjected to challenges and sanctions. Accountability in public

procurement remains a key deterrent to collusion and corruption and an imperative for credibility in the procurement process. Where public procurement practitioners fail to imbibe the culture of fairness, competition and accountability, they encourage public reluctance to compete and spur them into submitting inflated tenders imbued with risks or the tendency to submit deflated tenders which are often accompanied with delays, and defective

performance. Other possibilities are collusion, bribery, or use of African magic by unscrupulous contractors who are frustrated and yet hell-bent to get the job. The consequences of all of these are bad value for

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expected performance, betrayal and abuse of public trust for personal gain. Public procurement is a very sensitive and delicate assignment. It is easier to describe in principle but very hard to actualize in practice except for those who are professionals and sufficiently disciplined with determination to maintain the practice code of conduct. 8. GUIDELINES IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT In an attempt to meet the guideline process in public procurement, the first requirement is to build the institutional framework. Part three section I5 of the Procurement Act states that all entities which derive at least 35% of the fund appropriated or

proposed to be appropriated for any type of procurement from the Federation share of Consolidated Revenue Fund are bound to obey the Act.

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SPENDING LIMITS OR APPROVAL THRESHOLDS FOR THE BUREAU OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT [BPP] MINISTERIAL AND PARASTATAL TENDERS BOARDS AND PERMANENT SECRETARIES/CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF PARASTATALS AND AGENCIES:
Approving Authority to award
Goods

Works

Non-Consultant Services

Consultant Services N100 million and above

BPP issues No Objection to award/FEC approves Ministerial Tenders Board

N100 million and above

N1.0 billion and above

N100 million and above

N50 million and above but less than N100 million N2.50 million and above but less than N50million Less than N5 million

N10 million and above but less than N1.0 billion


N5million and above but less than N250 million

N5million and above but less than N100 million


N2.50 million and above but less than N50million

N5million and above but less than N100 million N2.50 million and above but less than N50million Less than N5 million

Parastatal Tenders Board

Permanent Secretary

Less than N10 million

Less than N5 million

DirectorGeneral/CEO

Less than N2.50 million

Less than N5 million

Less than N2.50 million

Less than N2.50 million

The step by step as spelt out by the Act and enunciated by government circulars are that: i. There must be a Procurement Unit {Department} to be manned by procurement Officer cadre with career progression up to the level of Director. ii. There must be a Procurement Planning Committee [PPC] made up of: The Accounting Officer as the Chairman A representative of the Procurement Unit.

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A representative of the User. A representative of the Finance Unit. A representative of the Planning, Research and Statistics Unit.

iii.

A representative of the Legal Unit. A technical personnel in the area of the requirement.

There must be a Tender Board comprising of the Accounting Officer as the Chairman. All Heads of Departments in the organization.

The Head of Procurement Unit serving as the Secretary.

iv.

There must be a Technical Evaluation Committee to be headed by the Head of the Procurement Unit. Other members should be individuals with relevant technical background to assess and evaluate Tenders.

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The Steps are illustrated in the diagram below:


Procurement Planning Committee receives, collate, analyze and approves of items to be procured by issuing a Certificate of No Objection at Parastatal level.

Procurement Department synthesizes the approved requirements and advertized as the case may be.

Tenders/Bids or Quotations are received and closed at the stipulated date.

Tenders Board opens the bids.

Bids are assessed and evaluated by the Technical Evaluation Committee [TEC]. TEC Recommendations are submitted to the Tenders Board.
Tenders Board Awards the contracts

Procurement department monitors the contractors performance and timely delivery.

CONCLUSION The step-by-step process illustrated by the foregoing diagram is what is called the due process. These processes have minute details which have been explained in the course of discussion and compliance with every detail is very compulsory as spelt out by the procurement Act. It should be noted that the least of the sanctions for contravention of any aspects of the Act is five years imprisonment without an option of fine.

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All procurement practitioners in government are therefore enjoined to be very careful and be an observer of the Law. REFERENCES 1. Adegbola M.F [2004]: Purchasing and Materials Management An Introductory Text, Badagry, Administrative Staff College of Nigeria [ASCON]. 2. Adegbola et al [2006]: The Problems of Effective Procurement and Contract Management in the Nigerian Public Sector, Badagry,

Administrative Staff College of Nigeria [ASCON]. 3. Bureau of Public Procurement [2006]: Procurement Procedures Manual for Public Procurement in Nigeria, Abuja, Federal Republic of Nigeria. 4. Federal Republic of Nigeria [2008]: Procurement Act 2007, Abuja, Federal Ministry of Information.

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THE CONCEPT OF VALUE FOR MONEY


LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the session, participants should be able to: Define value for money. Relate efficiency, effectiveness and economy to the usefulness of value for money. State the role of value for money in national development. Explain the contributions of value for money to transparency, accountability and fair dealings. Draw the model of value for money and relate the concept to the role of individual and organization to nation building. State the role of competition in the pursuit of value for money. INTRODUCTION We live in a world where resources are scarce. As a result, we have to strive to optimize output from available resources. In some cases, it is a straight trade-off between output and the quality of output obtainable. However, we can strive to maximize the quantity and quality of output at the same time. This can be done by making efforts to utilize reduced input which in combination with improved processes can achieve the same or even higher output/result.
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Hence, the alternative between trading off quantity with quality is to strive to do more with little resources. This is because resources are finite, we never can obtain all that we want and therefore, have to make choices. If you buy a new car that you have been saving money for, you will not be able to afford a summer holiday. If the company invests in a new assembly line, it will not be able to build the much-needed housing estate for its senior staff. If government builds the new highway, there will be no funds for the ultra modern hospital. We are faced with the problem of scarcity and choice on a daily basis be it as individuals, industry or government. In order to be able to make choices on the basis of what we can afford, we need information on prices, quantity and quality of what we are buying. A choice where we are happy about the price, quantity and quality of the item purchased will give us satisfaction and value. Value for money, therefore, is a requirement to maximize the use of scarce resources. A successful commercial product will provide

satisfaction within the attributes of price, quantity and quality value for money otherwise no one will buy it. A practical description of value for money with respect to the public sector is given by P.C. Jones and J.G. Bates in the book, Public Sector Auditing as follows:

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Value for money is achieved when a public body carries out its duties to high standard at low cost. This can be summarized colloquially by

saying that a good job is being done. Slightly more technically, value for money is achieved when administration and service provision is economical, efficient and effective Just as a commercial product should provide satisfaction to be successful, so public goods should be successful in meeting the real needs they are designed for at reasonable cost. DEFINITION OF CONCEPT Value for money is an economic concept dealing with benefits and satisfaction derivable from resources deployed in the course of transactions. Value for money explains why and how people purchase transactions on a regular basis with the aim of getting the best deal thereby obtaining value for the sums expended. However, not many people give a thought to value for money beyond the drive for a good deal on a particular purchase. Fewer people even know that the pursuit of value for money is a collection of structured set of techniques applied in modern management to reduce cost, improve processes and enhance productivity. An insight into value for money becomes more interesting when it is realized that it is a

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potent tool for instituting and enhancing transparency and accountability. In this regard, value for money automatically becomes a forceful arrow in the quest to combat corruption and fraud. Elements of Value for Money Value for money is generally accepted as covering three basic elements: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. These are defined as follows: Economy: The practice of management with the virtues of thrift and good housekeeping. An economic operation acquires resources in appropriate quality and quantity at the lowest cost. Lack of economy could occur where there is overstaffing or the acquisition and use of overpriced facilities. Efficiency: This is making sure that there is maximum use of output from the resources devoted to each activity, or, alternatively, that only the minimum level of resources are devoted to achieving a given level of output. An operation could be said to have increased in efficiency if either lower costs were used to produce a given amount of output, or a given level of cost resulted in increased output. Inefficiency would be revealed by identifying the performance of work with no useful purpose, or the accumulation of surplus materials that are not needed to support operations.

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Effectiveness is ensuring that the output from any given activity or the impact that services have on a community is achieving the desired results. To evaluate effectiveness, we need to establish that the desired goals are being achieved. A goal as an operating objective should be defined as a concrete expression of a policy objective. The three elements of value for money are interrelated and resonate for better result. Economy and efficiency are similar as both relate to saving resources. Economy ensures that input costs are minimized. Efficiency ensures that maximum output is achieved with minimum level of input cost. Efficiency, therefore, subsumes economy. An entity cannot be efficient and uneconomical, but it can be both economic [cheap] and efficient. Effectiveness means that a service provided properly meets the real need. The three elements economy, efficiency and effectiveness, have been ranked in order of scope and ease of measurement. The view about the interrelationship between the elements is shared by the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountant [CIPFA] in the United Kingdom which emphasizes that the attainment of economy and efficiency is of little practical use if effectiveness is disregarded. Up till recently, there were three shining plants sited in Lagos State of Nigeria that serve to buttress the point that economy and efficiency are of

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small relevance if effectiveness is not attained.

The three plants are

incinerators that were planned to anchor the Lagos State Waste Disposal Programme in the late seventies. It was trumpeted that the incinerators were state-of-the-art, latest technology facilities built in record time and well under budget. The snag was that on commissioning the plants did not work and still remain a testimony of the irrelevance of everything else where effectiveness is not achieved. The 3E Model Economy To establish economy of operation, management should establish internal policies for the creation of standards. There are three aspects to establishing economic services in terms of quantity, quality and cost. Quantity of materials required for an optimum operation are set out using

standards in the scope of works.

Quality of materials are set out in technical specifications or professional guidelines. Quality of staff may also be provided by Once quality of resources has been that they are obtained conditions of

professional guidelines.

established, management needs to ensure

at minimum or acceptable cost in relation to local operation.

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Quality and acceptable or minimum cost is best obtained by competitive tendering where technical and economic parameters are thoroughly evaluated against set standards and the best in the circumstances selected. Economy as explained earlier, is simplified into the ratio between planned input and actual and actual inputs in terms of unit costs.
ACTUAL INPUTS [Efficiency] [the ratio of actual inputs to actual outputs] ACTUAL OUTPUTS

ratio between planned input

[Economy] [the ratio between planned inputs and actual inputs in terms of unit] PLANNED INPUTS

[Effectiveness] [the ratio of actual outputs to planned outputs]

PLANNED OUTPUTS [objectives, goals etc]

Fig. . The three Es of economy, efficiency and effectiveness

Efficiency Efficiency, which is making sure that the maximum useful output is obtained from the resources devoted to an activity is relatively difficult to verify. It is the ratio of actual inputs to actual outputs. The definition

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implies that output per unit of input can be measured. This may not be easily quantifiable in practice. The Canadian Audit Guide explained the importance of efficiency measurements expressed in standards and performance data that are used for different purposes in various information and control systems as follows: demonstrate achievement of results by comparing performance data to standards, targets and goals; plan operations and budget resource requirement providing data for comparing present and proposed procedures; provide a rational basis for pricing goods and services; make trade-off decisions between efficiency and the level of service; and indicate to employees and supervisors what results are expected. It can be seen from this analogy that standards are useful tools both in appraising the performance of managers and groups of employees and in motivating them. The key elements that therefore, arise from management adopting efficiency measures are: i. an awareness of desired goals and the determination to accomplish them in the most economical and efficient manner; a need to plan operations as efficiently as possible for a given level of resources; iii. the need for a structured organization whose administration should follow prescribed work systems and procedures in order to avoid

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duplication of effort, unnecessary tasks, idle time; and the provision of work instructions in sufficient details to employees who are suitably qualified and trained for the duties they are required to perform. The measurement of efficiency is not an end in itself. The objective

should be to continuously improve efficiency. The development of efficiency measures by management contributes to improving efficiency. Specifying the expected gains from suggested

improvements will further assist the improvement of the process. Management should be encouraged to monitor efficiency on a regular basis rather than as an ad hoc exercise. There is need for research to be carried out particularly in the public sector to establish a range of comparative statistics for government departments, local governments etc. to assist in the creation of standards for the measurement of efficiency of similar activities. Effectiveness Whatever the level of resources applied to an activity, management should primarily be concerned with the results obtained and continuously ask the question how effective is the activity? On the other hand, despite all efforts put into a particular activity it could still be ineffective.

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For example a government adult education programme could be efficiently administered but its effectiveness could be questionable if there is no appreciable reduction in the communitys adult illiteracy level after the programme has run for some time. The importance of effectiveness in value for money is underscored by the fact that value is obtained when you get what you need at the least cost. However, the three key dimensions which all who pursue value for money have to grapple within deciding: what is needed; how to measure in some ways whether it is being obtained; and whether the cost is right.

THE IMPERATIVES OF VALUE FOR MONEY Value for money is important in our personal lives. It is also a vital necessity of focus by profit and non-profit organizations. It is even more important in the public sector because of the sheer size of expenditure and its propensity to waste. In an era when we have to adjust to limits in resources, we must strive to squeeze more out of every kobo of expenditure.

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Governments all over the world are facing serious challenges occasioned by increasing demand for services and programmes due to economic and social trends while at the same time the resources to meet these needs are limited. In Third World countries, disposable resources have been considerably curtailed by recession, declining government revenue, the debt burden, high cost of borrowing etc. These problems are further compounded by poor management of resources, corruption and fraud. The consequence of this is that amongst others: economic growth is stunted and standard of living continues to fall; movements in real incomes cannot be sustained without an inflationary spiral being ignited; abundant natural resources and other efficiently and endowments are not

effectively harnessed; and threatened as there is over

national self-sufficiency and survival is dependence on imports. CONCLUSION

There is no doubt that the establishment of systems and procedures for achieving value for money will contribute tremendously to the attainment of laudable goals.

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In particular, value for money can be applied to set up a framework for action and in the evaluation of questions like the following: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Is the organization getting what it is paying for? Are there more economical ways of meeting required service? Are there areas of waste that need to be eliminated? Is the organization managed well? Are there performance measures to provide policy makers with adequate and timely information to achieve value for money? All these are questions which can readily be resolved through practical commitment to the pursuit of value for money. References 1. Afemikhe S.O [2003]: The Pursuit of Value for Money, Ibadan, Spectrum Books Limited. 2. Donald J. Bowerson et al [2002]: Supply Chain, New York, McGrawHill Irwin. 3. Irving Fisher[1977]: The Theory of Interest, New York, Porcupine Press Inc. 4. John M. Ivancevich et al [2008]: Organizational Behaviour and Management. USA, McGraw-Hill Irwin.

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ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the discussion, participant should be able to: (i) (ii) (iii) Define/explain what management is Explain the management/administrative principles Differentiate between the various basic functions of management. Every organization, irrespective of size and nature has objective(s) for which reason it is established. To achieve the objective(s) certain type of resources must be made available in the right quantity and quality. These resources include: human resource, money materials, machine, technology, time and information. The process that starts with the

acquisition at competitive cost and utilization of same in order to get the end products called the output is what is known as management. What makes significant difference between a successful organization and a failed one is in the way they have been able to manage the relationship between the inputs and the output. The two organizations may have the same amount of resource at their disposal, yet may not have the same output. If the two of them achieve their objectives, they are

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said to be effective. Efficiency comes in when they are able to achieve their objectives with minimal resources.
INPUT OUTPUT MODEL

INPUTS

PROCESS

OUTPUTS

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

It is important to note that the environment, especially the external environment, impacts seriously on organizations. The organization gets inputs from the environment, processes them into end products and send the end products back into the environment. From the above explanation Management can then be formally defined as the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich (2000:4). Management can also be defined as the process of achieving the organisations aims through the activities of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling (Orr(1998:111).

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Management can be defined as a set of activities directed at the efficient and effective utilization of resources in the pursuit of one or more goals. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Management scholars over a long while have come up with certain related discernable activities they called functions of management or functions that managers carry out. From Henri Fayols fourteen principles of administration, the practitioners have come to accept what are now known as the basic functions of management. The fourteen principles are as follows: (i) Division of Work: Jobs are broken down to tasks that are then manned by some individuals. Over a long while during which individuals does the same small bit of the job, comes to master his bit very well and improves the productivity. (ii) Authority and Responsibility: Every office has certain

responsibilities that it should carry out and to do so, some level of authority is required. The authority should be commensurate with the responsibilities attached to the office. (iii) Discipline: There are certain level of compliance to laid down procedures, law and norms that are required for the smooth performance of certain duties. (iv) Unity of Command: Each subordinate office should take

directive from one superior office only. (v) Unity of direction: All the efforts and energy of members of the same organization are geared towards only one set of objectives. (vi) Subordination of Individual interest to
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the general interest of the Organisation: The interest of the organization is superior to the interest of any one member. If the organization achieves its objectives, it will not be too difficult for the individual to achieve his own. (vii) Remuneration of Workers: When workers are paid for the quality and quantity of effort put in, higher productivity is encouraged as against and when a flat rate is paid out. (viii) Centralization: For easy and effective coordination, the

activities and efforts of the various units of the organization will have to be centralized. For example the units report to the department while the departments report to the Chief Executive Officers Office. (ix) Scalar Chain: Every organization has an administrative

structure which the organogram represent. Authority flows from up downward; it does not from down upward. (x) Order: In an organization where there is orderliness, there will be harmony which leads to higher productivity. (xi) Equity: Equals should be treated equally. Fairness and equity encourage more loyalty and productivity. (xii) Stability of Tenure of Workers: All things being equal, a

worker will have to put in 35 years into the service or he is 60 years of age before he can retire or be retired. He tends to be happy and more productive if he can take the guaranteed tenure for granted.

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(xiii) Initiative: Employees are to be encouraged to do the same thing differently. He should be allowed to introduce innovation that does not run foul of the procedure. (xiv) Esprit de Corps: Employees of the same organization should be encouraged to develop team spirit and work together.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT From the above principles, seven functions of Management were developed which was later collapsed to four. The seven functions of

management are commonly known by the acronym POSDCORB. These initials stand for Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. Planning: The objectives, the mission and the vision of the organization are thought out very clearly even before it is established. The actions to

achieve these activities are also mapped out. A plan is a blueprint used to describe how an organization expects to achieve its objectives. Organizing: Organization has a formal structure that would allow it achieve its objectives. For example, is the organization to be divided into departments or sections where activities that are similar are grouped together or will it be centrally administered where every member of staff are reporting directly to the Chief Executive Officer? Staffing: The various positions or post laid out above will need to be filled in order to accomplish the objectives of the organization. The staffing

functions include recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising,


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planning the careers of, compensating and training the workers to accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently. Directing: On a continuous basis, decisions will be made in an organization in order to develop the organization. Coordinating: The various departments, units, or branches of an organization must all work in harmony in order to achieve its overall objectives. Reporting: Communication is of essence in any organization. Instructions and directives are given and feed back expected. Budgeting: In any organization, resources are needed and utilized. management of finance is an important functions in any organization. The

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TIME MANAGEMENT AND TEAM BUILDING


TIME MANAGEMENT
Learning Objectives At the end of the Session Participants will be able: to define Time Management; state the benefit of Time Management; Identify Time Wasters and Time Savers; rank Tasks in the order of importance; and design and implement their own action programme on Time Management. Introduction The greatest single problem today that people have is Time Poverty. There is so much to do but little time is available for personal lives. Consequently, life has become a never-ending treadmill; managers fall into the reactive/responsive mode of living and loss of all sense of control. To be effective, one must master ones time rather than being slave to the constant flow of events and demands of ones time. Time Management is a core skill upon which everything depends. Many problems revolve round time; not enough time, too much time, misuse of time and conflicts of time. What is Time? Certain cultures see and use time differently. In America time is

money, the past is history and the present a moment to be lived and worked at to produce a better tomorrow Lan Fleming. English or Anglo Saxon cultures also emphasize efficiency, doing one thing at a time with an

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agreed time scale. African and Middle Eastern cultures cherish the quality of relationship more than arriving on time. Meaning of Time Generally, time is our perception of duration. Time is life and precious gift from God. Life is simply a span of time that God has given to everyone a segment of moment carved out of eternity in which one is to live on the earth and fulfills the plan and purposes of ones life. Time is a way of measuring life. Some Characteristics of Time Time is a gift and unknown quantity. We do not know the fullness of time span allotted to us. Time is perishable. Time is the most equitable resource. Rulers and the ruled all have the same number of hours per day. Time cannot be increased, decreased, delegated, saved, borrowed or lent. We cannot capture hours that are lost and relieve them in a way that is meaningful. An Urgency About Time We have so little a time. Consider the following; Know where you are going If you are 20 yrs 25 yrs 30 yrs youve spent before age 65 7,300 days 9,125 days 10, 950 days
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35 yrs 40 yrs 45 yrs 50 yrs 55 yrs 60 yrs 65 yrs

12,7775 day 14,600 days 16,425 days 18,250 days 20,075 days 21,900 days 23,725 days

10,950 days left 9,125 days left 7,300 days left 5,475 days left 3,650 days left 1,825 days left

Are you spending them wisely? You decide. Action Point Take one hundred men at age of 25. Fate says that by age 65: 36 have died 54 are financially dependent 5 are still working 4 are financially independent for life 1 is rich Know where you want to be (Source: Power to win by Staples (1994). A study carried out recently showed that the average Nigerian public servant who lives to be sixty would spend his life as follows: 20 years in sleeping 5 years in eating 6 years in traveling 6 years in dressing and personal care 2.5 years in worshiping and praying 9 years in social amusement, TV watching and partying . Etc
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33.3% 8.3% 10% 10% 4.2%

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11.5 years in working Learning Points

19.2%

Rather than be discouraged about the brevity of life, you need to be challenged to come to grips with time. You cannot extend your days but you can determine to a great extent the quality and productivity of life. You can determine your attitude towards time and make decisions related to your use of it. The erratic dimension of time implies that you cannot fully control time. Concept of Time Management Time cannot be managed; but you can manage yourself. Time

management is self management as we relate to our priorities. It requires investment in thoughts, courage, self discipline and change. Time

management refers to a set of related common sense skills that help you to use your time in the most effective and productive way possible. Time management is the development of processes and tools that enhance an organization's time efficiency. It involves the use of some techniques that aimed at increasing the effectiveness of a person in getting results. Issues Involved in Time Management What has to be done? How much of it has to be done? How fast does it have to be done? How much does it cost to do it? Doing the right things in the best possible ways means we can use our time to our best advantage. Time management is about effectiveness.

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Why is Time Precious? Time is short The end time is uncertain Time is a wasting asset. It is perishable. All productive things require time Good or bad life depends on the effective use of time It is one of the few things money cannot buy. It has no substitute. Why is there Never Enough Time? Failure to plan Interruptions Laziness Worry Forgetfulness Dont want to do? Benefits of Time Management Time management provides a structure to ones life and in turn, peace of mind. Specifically, Time management ensures: Better results; Improved quality of work;

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Faster work; Lower stress levels; Reduced number of crisis faced; Increased income; Improved satisfaction; Improved quality of our non-working life. Reasons for Poor Time Management Poor time management is caused by many factors which include: Ignorance; many people fail to see how intimately time is connected with life and other aspects of what we do. Use of time seldom forms a part of measured part of appraisal. Love for pleasure; sound management techniques take effort and application which are not always associated with pleasure. Overconfidence; common practice of managers to use techniques which used to work in smaller projects to bigger ones. Peoples attitude towards time is also affected. By the fact that time is free, one does not have to buy it. As usual people do not put much value on things that cost nothing The Four Categories of all Lifes Activities i. Urgent and important: relates to your core values and needs immediate attention. ii. Important but not urgent: no sense of immediacy.
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iii. iv.

Urgent but not important: doesnt touch core values. Neither important nor urgent: all other things in life. Time Worth Exercise How much is your time worth? 1.5 x annual salary No of working hours = Hourly Rate In a year.

Include in your salary, payroll taxes, the cost of office space you occupy, equipment and facilities used, expenses/ Administrative support e.t.c. To this figure, add a guesstimate of the amount of profit you should generate by your activity.

The Value of One Minute I have only one minute Only sixty seconds in it. Didnt seek it, didnt choose it But its up to me to use it. I must suffer if I lose it. Give account if I abuse it. Just a tiny little minute. But eternity is in it. Time Wasters Meaning: Waste of time can be defined as anything that does not contribute to the attainment of life, personal, career and personal development goals. Do it yourself

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Which of the following is a time waster and why? Recreation, play or to be a workaholic. With a given list identify your own time wasters. Rule Nothing is a waste of time if it is a part of balanced plan for time - Plan developed for the attainment of life goals and for maximum usefulness, productivity and efficiency in the use of resources. Time Management Tools Analysis of time usage. -Log activities. -Classified activities. Time budget (future). Allocate time to specific tasks. Plan a weekly time schedule. Guidelines for Effective Time Management Personal time management begins with you. It begins with your thinking through what is really important to you in life. Plan ahead. Schedule leisure activities. Under-promise and over-deliver. Break big jobs into manageable chunks. Keep track of your progress. Delegate whatever you can.

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Establish parameters for saying NO. Make and follow a list of priorities. Group task according to skills required. Keep eyes open for short cuts. Watch. When prioritizing and planning your time, consider the following points: KEY QUESTIONS What is the highest value-added I can do? VALUES. Decide what is important to you and in what order. CONSEQUENCES. Every action has consequences-good bad. THE PARETO PRINCIPLE. 20% of what you do accounts for 80% of the value. URGENCY VS IMPORTANCE. The urgent is other oriented, while important things are self directed. THE LIMITING STEP. Every action has consequences- good or bad. WRITTEN PLAN.
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List of goals, task and objectives are of no help unless they are written. VISUALIZATION. See yourself doing what you need to get done. Recap You cannot separate success from wise use of time. You have to adapt time management techniques to fit your personality and your life. To manage your time better, youve got to start to manage yourself. Most of what constitutes the time management technique is common sense though not always common practice. Take action which move theory from the niceties of the page to the needs of the people. Three interrelated factors direct our lives, they are thoughts, actions and surroundings. The final responsibility rests with internal dynamics. It is how we process information into thoughts that determines action. Knowledge precede thought. Conclusion To say that time is money is an insult to the power of time. Effective leaders lord over time, they make minutes and seconds their slaves in order to accomplish their purpose. STAN TOLER (2002).

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TEAM BUILDING
Learning Objectives At the end of the session, participants will be able to: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Define team Distinguish between a Team and a Group State the benefits of teams to individuals and organisation Identify the roles of team members Explore the basic elements that make up a successful team and how to build on them. Introduction Management is getting results through other peoples performance. Thus, human performance is a collection of capabilities of the organization and people to deliver measurable results. It is not the individual but the team that is the instrument of sustained and enduring success in management. Effective team work is key to the success of all types of organizations. The team approach for organizing work depends on

empowerment, trust and how well teammates have developed an understanding of each others strength and weaknesses. Therefore team is required for greater organizational effectiveness. Key Concepts A group is a collection of individuals each with their own thoughts ideas, abilities and objectives, the sort of gathering that you might encounter on a social occasion or a bus stop.

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A team is also a collection of individuals, each with their own thoughts, ideas, and abilities but with a common objective and their willingness to share their abilities to help their colleagues to achieve set objectives.

A team is a relatively small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

Team work is the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals.

Team building is any planned event with a relationships and/or

goals which are designed to improve the way in which work gets done by them in some way or the other. Differences between Group and Team GROUP 1. People work together 2. Information is given sparingly 3. Feelings are suppressed 4. Conflict is accepted 5. Trust is guided 6. People work for themselves 7. Objectives may be unclear 8. Failure is often blamed on others 9. Goals may be personal TEAM 1. People work for each other 2. Information is shared openly 3. Feelings are expressed 4. Conflict is worked through 5. Trust is shared 6. People help each other 7. Objectives are always clear 8. Success and failure are shared 9. Goals are common to all

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10.

Leadership may not be

10.

Good leadership

personal

prevails

Benefits Derived from Team Work as Individuals Greater involvement and empowerment. The chance to play a real part in decision-making and implementation. Enhanced motivation and greater job satisfaction. More interesting work. The social and emotional benefits.

How Teams Help Organization Increasing resources for problems solving Fostering creativity and innovation Improving quality of decision making Enhancing members commitment to tasks Raising motivation through collective action Helping control and discipline members Satisfying individual needs as organsations grow in size. Teams are needed when: You are experiencing rapid changes You are dealing with a problem that is uncertain
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There is uncertainty about task and need to share the problems with others. There is a real need for people to work closely together. Team Formation know the team know why forming a team know who you are adding know how the team will be evaluated know where the team fits within the structure or the organisation Factors to Consider when Building a Team Goals and objectives The right sort of leadership Complementary skills and roles in the team An atmosphere of honesty and openness Communication Working methods that flourish in this atmosphere Taking stock of how well individuals and teams are doing

How Individuals Play in the Team Each member of a team will have two roles. The technical/specialist role i.e. what people do as a specialist
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The team role: How team members operate to add value to the team. Action Point If you had the chance to appoint someone as your assistant, would you choose someone exactly like you or someone different? Why? Team Effectiveness An effective team is one that achieves and maintains high levels of task, performance and human resources maintenance. Human Resources Maintenance is the teams ability to maintain its social fabric so that members will work well together. Stages of Team Development Forming: A stage of initial orientation and interpersonal testing Storming: A stage of conflict over tasks and ways of operating as a team. Norming: agenda. Norming: agenda. Performing stage: performance. Adjourning stage: A stage or task accomplishment and A stage of team work and focused task A stage of consolidation around tasks and operating A stage of consolidation around tasks and operating

eventual disengagement

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Handling Negative Conflict in Work Teams Direct Approach: it involves the leader to confront the issue head-on Bargaining: an excellent approach to adopt when both parties have ideas with the solution yet cannot find common ground Enforcement of Team ruler Retreat However, no approach of resolving conflict will work without mutual respect and willingness to disagree and resolve disagreements. Factors that Influence Team Motivation Purpose Challenge Comradeship Responsibility Growth Leadership Common Team Problems Floundering Overbearing participants Reluctant participants Unquestioned acceptance of opinions as facts Rush to accomplishment

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Feuding members The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork by J. Maxwell 1. THE LAW OF SIGNIFICANCE One is too small to achieve greatness 2. THE LAW OF THE BIG PICTURE The goal is more important than the role 3. THE LAW OF THE NICHE All players have a place where they add value 4. THE LAW OF MOUNT EVEREST As the challenges escalate, the need for teamwork elevates 5. THE LAW OF THE CHAIN The strength of the team is impacted by its weakest links 6. THE LAW OF THE CATALYST Winning teams have players who make things happen 7. THE LAW OF THE COMPASS Vision gives team members direction and confidence 8. THE LAW OF BAD APPLE Rotten attitudes ruin a team 9. THE LAW OF COUNTABILITY Teammates must be able to count on each other when it counts 10. THE LAW OF THE PRICE TAG The team fails to reach its potential when it fails to pay the price 11. THE LAW OF THE SCOREBOARD The team can make adjustments when it knows where it stands
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12. THE LAW OF THE BENCH Great teams have great depth 13. THE LAW OF IDENTITY Shared values define the team 14. THE LAW OF COMMUNICATION Interaction fuels action 15. THE LAW OF THE EDGE The Difference between two equally talented teams is leadership 16. THE LAW OF HIGH MORALE When you are winning, nothing hurts 17.THE LAW OF DIVIDENDS Investing in the team compounds over time. Conclusion T - Together E Everyone A - Achieves M Much

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PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: IMPERATIVES AND MEASUREMENT


Learning Objectives Performance Management Process Objectives: Define the concept performance management Outline the principles of performance management Identify elements of performance

CONCEPT,

Explore specific issues to concentrate on when managing performance Outline process to undertake in managing performance Discuss factors required for effective performance management Introduction Every organisation, whether serving private or public interest, has a corporate mission or purpose. Since it is the attainment of this purpose that guarantees its survival, growth and acceptability to its shareholders or stakeholders, the organization is expected to move concertedly towards realizing it. Towards this end each organization is structured into departments, each of which makes contributions in its functional specialization towards the attainment of the corporate objectives. The work of each department or units is further segmented into skill areas or tasks and entrusted to an official to discharge. The effective execution of that

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responsibility is crucially important if that unit, and indeed the organization, is to achieve its purpose. 2. It is for this reason that it has been argued that the quality of human

resources in an organization is frequently the most important factor that determines whether or not the organization is going to be successful, realise a satisfactory return on its investment and whether it will reach its basic objective. This point is emphasized by Rensis Likert, in his BookThe Human Organisation when he says: All activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons that make up that institution. Plants, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm uses are unproductive expect for human effort and direction. Human beings design or order the equipment; they decide where and how to use computers; they modernise or fail to modernize the technology employed, they secure the capital needed and decide on the accounting and fiscal procedures to be used. Every aspect of firms activities is determined by the competence motivation and general effectiveness of its human organization. The Meaning and Scope of Performance 3. A truism in management is that no matter how efficient his equipment

and no matter how great his technical competence, a supervising officer relies principally on other people to get things done for him. Therefore, two of the prime tasks of any manager, whether operating in the public or private sector, must always be (a) obtaining the highest possible

performance, from all those reporting to him, and (b) developing his subordinates either for improved capability in their present jobs or for greater responsibilities through promotion. For us to devise appropriate performance-inducing strategies and to objectively assess the contributions

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of an officer to the attainment of corporate objectives, we need an adequate understanding of what constitutes performance. 4. Performance is a multidimensional phenomenon whose elements

include effectiveness, efficiency, economy, productivity, equality and behaviour. Performance can thus be tangible or behavioural. We will

attempt a brief explanation of each of these sub-concepts. (i) Effectiveness measures the extent to which an employee achieves the output requirements of his position, with the emphasis not so much on how it is achieved but on what is to be achieved. An employee or organization is therefore

effective when the results attained are the same as those initially intended. In determining effectiveness, actual

achievement has to be compared with target or planned achievement during a given period. The concept therefore

measures the ratio of actual output or results to target output or results, and the higher the ratio, the greater the degree of effectiveness is presumed to be. (ii) Economy refers to the actual cost of achieving a particular output or result compared with the least possible cost of achieving the same output or result, during a given period. Results are met with economy when the appropriate quantity and quality have been attained at the right price. It is measured by ratio of actual possible cost. The least possible cost can be identified by reference to inter-institutional, inter-sectoral or international experience. The lower the ratio, the more

economical the activity or operation has been.

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(iii)

Efficiency is a measure of how well resources are being used to produce output or results. It is a comparison of actual

achievement with the cost of that achievement during a given period. The higher the ratio, the greater the degree of

efficiency is accepted to be. (iv) Productivity is the actual achievement (or input) of a factor of production (e.g., an employee, an amount of financial capital, a given equipment, a piece of land; etc) during a given period compared with the other co-operating factors remaining constant. It is the ratio of the output of a factor of production in one period to the output of that same factor in a previous period. The higher the ratio, the higher the productivity. (v) Quality refers to the desired characteristics of the achieved output or result. timeliness, These characteristics could relate to accuracy, frequency, accessibility, If we use a

reliablility,

convenience, waiting time, response time, etc.

corporate example, an electricity corporation may produce all the megawatts of power which government intends (i.e., effectiveness) but if the distribution to consumers is irregular and spasmodic (i.e., quality in terms of reliability), then the corporations performance cannot be said to be altogether satisfactory or acceptable. (vi) Behavioural performance refers to the behavior of the employee whose effectiveness, economy, efficiency and productivity are being evaluated. As employee whose tangible performance is rated high but who achieved such good results through bad manners or unethical professional strategies,
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insensitive

handling

of

other

employees

and/or

client,

misinformation, etc, cannot be said to have performed altogether creditably. Such an employee may therefore have breached the ethnological objectives of his organization and detracted from the corporate goodwill amassed over time. Infact, the behavioural aspects of his performance may be such as to fully neutralize his tangible performance. 5. It will be seen from the foregoing explanation of the several aspects

of performance that it may not be an easy phenomenon to pin down. The assessor of the performance therefore has to make up his mind about which particular aspects he wants to emphasise or focus on. One thing however, is clear: an individual or institution may be effective but may not be efficient or economic, and vice versa. This is why it is definitely

preferable not to settle for just one aspect of performance; a composite index is much more realistic. 6. Another pertinent observation from the foregoing is that a specific

time horizon is a sine-qua-non of any attempt to assess performance, whatever the indicator of performance may be, effectiveness, efficiency, etc. Without specifying the time period to which performance relates, it will be impracticable to measure the phenomenon and all references to it will be meaningless. The time frame is critical. 7. Finally, it will be observed from the foregoing that performance is a

measurable concept and should ideally be measured by attempting to quantify achievement/result/output and cost input. Measurement should be done both in financial terms as well as in physical terms in order to get a full picture of the situation. The need for both financial and physical

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measures is dictated by the fact that either by itself may give an erroneous or incomplete picture. Where financial quantification is impracticable, the focus should be on physical measures such as quantity, length, weight, time, number, etc, achieved during the specified period. For example, one of the measures of the output of the Personnel Management Department could be the number of union issues resolved, size of personnel wages and welfare services provided over a given period of time. 8. Managing Performance It seems obvious from our discussions so far that if an officer is to perform at anything like his full potential, he needs to know three things, namely (a) what his job is, (b) what standard of achievement is expected of his and (c) how he is getting on. Unless an officer has a clear

understanding of what he is trying to achieve (which may be different from what in fact he spends most of his time doing), of what standards he is expected to maintain, and how well he is measuring up to these requirements, his performance will be significantly lower than it could be. Performance Management is therefore a management tool designed to improve the results-delivery capacity of the individual officer and the organization as an entity. It is a systematic way of seeing how we are doing; checking the mixture of resources asking how effective we are (1) asking these questions assist in clarifying corporate purpose as well as managerial responsibility for achieving and improving on the anticipated results. Thus, performance management helps both the manager and his organization to change, adjust and improve on their activities and results. A number of activities can assist us in managing performance. include: These

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a) Target Setting: One of the most effective ways of stimulating results attainment is target setting. Target or Goal Setting is a process of improving performance by planned and output directed activities which delineate specific signposts for the goal-seeker within a given time horizon. It is a guide to action and decisions by a job holder which help him to plan and to realise what is to be done in a job within the framework of available resources and time. It is therefore not unusual for such measurement terms like how much, how well, when, etc; to be used when goals are being set... They are used in relation (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) expected quantity of output or product expected quality of output, service or product; amount of resources to be used; time span of output, service or product; and method or process to be used.

In other words, goals should be set in terms of quantity/volume, quality, time, cost-benefit, efficiency, etc. It is in recognition of its potency in inducing performance that the 1988 reforms made target setting an obligatory management practice in the Civil Service. In this connection, the reforms specified that in consultation with the Director-General and the Directors of Departments in the Ministry shall aim at, even in routine matters (repealed Decree 43 of 1988: A796, Sec.20). Before the reforms, the practice was for supervising officers merely to draw up schedules of duty or major areas of responsibility for their subordinate officers without bordering to set targets round each of these key result areas. The results

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therefore reminded us that in setting targets, it shall be noted that targets are different from functions or job description (and that) targets shall be set in terms of Time, Cost, Quantity and/or Quality, (repealed Decree 43 of 1988: A796, Section 21). In order to relate target to planned objectives, that same section warns that in setting targets for civil servants, Chief Executives shall first take into account the relevant government policies, the development plan and annual budgets. If we accept that target setting is a veritable instrument for stimulating performance, the challenge for all of us as Directors is (i) to ensure that working in concert with the relevant Director (e.g., Director of Planning, Research and Statistics for Civil Service) we establish performance standards or targets for every position in our departments, and (ii) expose every officer in our department to the techniques of target setting. A very potent management technique for setting managerial targets is management by Objectives (MBO). The technique was introduced by a well known management expert. advocated that: What the business enterprises need is a principle of management that will give full scope to individual strength and responsibility and at the same time give common direction of vision and effort, establish team work and harmonise the goals of the individual with the common wealth. The only principle that can do this is Management by Objectives and Self Control.(2) Peter Drucker in 1954 when he

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PUBLIC POLICY MAKING PROCESS


1.0 Learning Objectives At the end of the presentation, participants will be able to: 2.0 explain the policy cycle; determine ways of deriving acceptable policies; monitor policy implementation; and determine why policies fail. Introduction Policy making is an activity which provides the necessary framework for major decisions that lead to concrete action aimed at solving specific problems or improving an existing situation. In the context of governance, policy-making serves as the instrument for authoritative allocation of resources and values to various sectors and activities towards achieving specific socio-political and economic objectives of the Government. Furthermore, this all important activity involves a systematic approach which entails a thorough and sustained research, determination of a particular direction and a clear focus on specific goals and objectives or desirable outcomes.

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3.0

The Policy Cycle Policy-making involves the policy cycle which indicates the main

phases of this exercise which could be systematically undertaken. These phases are: policy initiation, policy formulation, policy implementation, policy monitoring and evaluation; and policy re-formation. 3.1 POLICY INITIATION This involves intensive research effort on the nature and substance and purpose of the policy. This phase is sometimes undertaken by a group of multi-disciplinary experts or think-tank by generating relevant ideas and providing facts and figures to appraise a proposed policy in terms of its chances of success or otherwise. At the initiation stage, the degree of public acceptability or reception, possible anticipated problems, costs and benefits, enabling and inhibiting environmental factors and resource availability are identified and thoroughly examined in order to facilitate policy formulation and enhance the success of a policy. The desirability or otherwise of a proposed policy should be determined at this stage before any further action is undertaken. 3.2 Policy Formulation This phase embraces features such as clear and unambiguous definition, statement and articulation of the policy content indicating clearly

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stated implementable policy objectives, plans, programmes, key activities involved, policy priorities and strategies. Other important features of this phase include resource availability, identification of relevant and core agencies and their roles, and an enabling environment to facilitate policy implementation. Sound policy formulation should involve proper research and systematic approach that will ensure the aggregation and articulation of various interest groups of the society who may be affected by a policy in one manner or the other. In order to ensure policy sustainability and

positive impact, short-term or immediate, medium and long-term interests should be accommodated in policy formulation. A good example is the national socio-economic development which covers such areas as health, education, transportation, communication, agriculture, housing, industrial and other sectors. Although the public servant plays a very active role in policy formulation using his wealth of knowledge, professional competence and experience in government business and the environment in which it operates, the responsibility for formulating any policy rests squarely with the politician or political decision-makers.

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3.3

Policy Implementation This phase is critical to the success of any policy since it constitutes

the epicenter of the policy process. This stage involves the identification of policy plans, programmes, projects, activities, clear definition of distinct roles of implementing organization or agencies, details of strategies and necessary linkages and coordinating mechanisms, resources (human, financial, material, technological, information), acquisition, allocation and utilization. Efficient and effective policy implementation would require inputs of sound managerial and administrative capabilities in terms of proper activity scheduling, resource mobilization and rationalization, network anlaysis, budgeting, supervision, problem solving and decision making and costbenefit analysis. We should also determine at this stage, policy performance standards and targets. Implementation of policies must be guided by clearly stated policy objectives and in accordance with specified guidelines, plans and time-frame in order to avoid the policy

implementation gap which is a common feature of even well formulated public policies in Nigeria. This gap is the difference between well-stated and articulated policy objectives as expected outcomes and the actual

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outcome

which

is

consequence

of

inefficient

or

poor

policy

implementation. 3.4 Policy Monitoring and Evaluation The monitoring of policy performance should permeate all phases of the policy cycle and especially all activities planned, programmed and undertaken at various stages of policy implementation. This approach

allows for necessary corrections, modifications and adjustments to be effected towards ensuring the success of a policy in terms of the achievement of desirable results. Policy monitoring therefore focuses on compliance with policy implementation specifications, resource

rationalization and adherence to activity planning and time schedule for all aspects of a policy. Policy Evaluation should provide clear indications for the successful implementation of a policy on the basis of well-defined criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, impact and innovation. This takes various forms such as appraisal, ex-ante, and ex-post evaluation. 3.5 Policy-Reformulation The information emerging from evaluation will dictate possible policy reformulation. For instance, where a given policy fails to meet the objective of its enunciation, this may call for the reformulation of that policy.

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Public Policy Cycle


Policy Initiation

Reformulation

Policy Formulation

Monitoring and Evaluation

Policy Implementation

3.6

Linkages in the Policy Cycle For the achievement of policy objectives to be optimized, there must

be meaningful and feasible linkages and symbolic relationship between all phases of the policy cycle. In other words, policy initiation, policy formulation, policy implementation, policy monitoring and evaluation, as well as policy reformulation (if need be) must be inter-woven and made mutually reinforcing by dove-tailing into each other. Thus, shortsightedness, dissipation of effort, waste of scarce resources and inability to create effective linkages between all activities for optimal policy performance can be eliminated or minimized.

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (T.Q.M.)


SESSION OBJECTIVES: At the end of the discussion, participants should be able to: Define the concept of Total Quality Management List and describe Basic concepts of T.Q.M. Discuss the levels and measurements of quality service Apply T.Q.M. principles to service.

LEARNING POINTS: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 1. Definition of T.Q.M. Fathers of T.Q.M. Basic concepts of T.Q.M. Levels of quality Measurement of Service quality How to monitor quality progress Benefits of T.Q.M. to an organization Application of T.Q.M. principles to Service.

INTRODUCTION: Total Quality Management, often regarded as T.Q.M. is a form of management geared towards producing and distributing goods and services in such a manner as to provide maximum satisfaction to consumers constantly. It is a customer-driven management. The T.Q.M. philosophy requires participation of every one in the organization in the development of shared mission, vision, plans and in the quest for continuous improvement. Employees must, therefore,

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become more managements partners in meeting the ultimate goal of delighting the customers. Such partnerships will require concerted efforts towards the acquisition of knowledge, skills and right attitudes in meeting day to day problems and making fast but low risk decisions. DEFINITION OF TQM Total Quality Management has no generally accepted definition. There is even some disagreement about the principles, methods and tools that ought to be associated with the term. However, for some people it is more on objective than specific method of doing things. For others, it is an attitude or philosophy of management. And yet for others, it has become not only a way of viewing the world, but a new way of living. However, the following definitions are relevant: (a) It is the combination of people and systems working harmoniously together for the ultimate benefit of the customer. (b) A management discipline concerned with preventing

problems from occurring by creating the attitude and controls that make prevention possible.

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(c)

Building a philosophy of continuous improvement, efficiency, productivity and long term success.

(d) (e) 2.

All about GOOD MANAGEMENT. About achieving success through people.

FATHERS OF T.Q.M.: The philosophy of improving quality in production was first masted by the American manufacturers in the early 1930s. However in the 1950s the desire to constantly improve on quality production gave rise to some notable experts whose work expanded to Japan. Among these are: (a) Arm and V. Feigenbaum. He first coined the term Total

Quality Control in 1954 after carrying out series of experiments in Western Electric Company in Illinois, U.S.A. (b) Other notable proponents of the philosophy from U.S.A. and who made waves in Japan include: (i) Dr. W. Edward Deming. He revolutionized quality and productivity in the Japanese economy. He later became an internationally renowned consultant in T.Q.M.

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(ii)

Dr. Joseph M. Juran.

Founder and Chairman He became a

Emeritus of Juran Institute.

consultant to various industrial companies and government agencies. (iii) Phil B. Croshby. An expert quality consultant and was recognized as one of the leaders in Quality Management. He was known for his best selling book, Quality is free.

3.

BASIC CONCEPTS OF T.Q.M. a. b. c. d. e. f. Every one has customers. Adopt a partnering philosophy with suppliers. Everyone is responsible for quality. Focus is on preventing problems, not fixing them. Team Work. Process fail, not people. (Note the view that 85% of the problems are caused by the system, and that only management can correct system problems). Top Management must lead. Middle Management must support. Focus on Processes and systems.

g. h. i. 4.

THE QUALITY ASSURANCE TRIANGLE (PROCESS)

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Quality Design

Quality Improvement

Quality Control

(a)

Quality Design:

This is Planning process.

The design

process defines the organizations mission, including its clients and services. It allocates resources and sets the standards for service delivery. (b) Quality Control: It consists of the monitoring, supervision and evaluation that ensure every worker and every work unit meet those standards and consistently deliver good quality services. The importance of control in an organization is shown by a shift from traditional management to that of Total Quality Management. Control. This is depicted by the Inverted Pyramid of

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Senior Manager Rank & File Workers Customers (I) Traditional Management Source: Level of Importance

Customers Rank & File Workers Senior Manager

(II) Total Quality Management

Morgan & Murgatroyd (1994: 262).

(d)

Quality Improvement:

Aims to increase quality and raise

standards by continually solving problems and improving processes. 5. LEVELS OF QUALITY: There are basically three levels of quality: a. Requirements - Those things that are basic in the provision of goods and services. b. Expectations - this level of quality, which if not provided, can cause deep dissatisfaction. c. Exciters this level of quality excites because it is unexpected. However, once experienced, an exciting quality becomes expectation; and new

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challenges must be evolved in order to remain exciters. 6. MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY: All organization that are interested in delivering superior quality must be prepared to develop their systems and standards for measuring quality. This they can do through noting: (a) (b) (c) (d) 7. Frequency of task: How often should it be done? Accuracy: Is it correct? Turn around: How long will it take to accomplish a task? Timing: Did you do it when I needed it?

MONITORING PROGRESS: It is pertinent to regularly monitor the quality of service rendered in order to ascertain that customers are consistently satisfied with our services. However, more often, this area of activity is not given the attention it deserves. The failure on the part of

managers to put in place an effective monitoring system, results in failure to maintain standard performance. Under the T.Q.M. philosophy, progress can be monitored through. (a) (b) (c) (d) Setting standards. Without setting standards, it might be difficult to effectively monitor and evaluate quality service. Using the Quality Score Card. Using Critical indicators: Timeliness to work place.

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(e) (f) (g) 8.

Timeliness in service delivery Promptness in addressing complaints. The monthly Review.

BENEFITS OF T.Q.M. (a) Establishment of more scientific approach to problem solving by asking: (i) (ii) (b) (c) (d) (e) what is wrong? how wrong is it?

What can be done to rectify it? Improved attitude to Customers (internal and external). Greater Commitment to corporate goal. Fostering a collective interest in organizational goals and dedication to implement them.

(f) (g) (h) (i)

More efficient use of resources. Improved service quality. Greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Better corporate image and growing market share.

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9.

APPLYING GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF T.Q.M. TO SERVICE Deming proposed 14 principles which can be adapted in improving quality service: (j) Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service. (ii) (iii) (iv) Adopt the new philosophy. Stop depending on mass inspection. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. (v) (vi) Constantly improve the system of production and service. Institute modern methods of training.

(vii) Institute Leadership. (viii) Drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively for the organization. (ix) (x) (xi) Breakdown barriers between staff areas. Eliminate arbitrary numerical goals, slogans and targets. Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas.

(xii) Remove barriers that deprive job employees of their pride in workmanship. (xiii) Institute a vigorous programme of education and retraining.

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(xiv) Take actions to accomplish the transformation. 10. CONCLUSION: There is no single right way to approach T.Q.M. Organizatyions have different needs, priorities and problems. Culture and

management style also affect approaches to implementing T.Q.M. What is most important is the degree of management

commitment. SUGGESTED READING LIST Bates. J. G. (1993), Managing Value for money in the Public Sector. London, Chapman/Hall. Carpinettil L. C. R. et al human Resources and Total Quality Management Case Studies in Bragatian Companies The T.Q.M. Magazine Vol, 10,No. 2, 1998, Pp. 109 114. Cohen, Steven et al. Total Quality Management on the U.S. Environment Protection Agency Public Productivity and Management Review Vol., 14, No. 1, 1990, Pp. 99 114. Dale, B. G. & Lascelles, D. M. Total Quality Management Adoption: revisiting the levels The TQM Magazine Vol. 9(6) 1997, Pp. 418 428. Sustaining Total Quality Management what are the key isues. T.Q.M. Magazine Vol. 9, No. 5 1997, Pp. 372 350. Edosomwan, J. A. (1996): Organizational Transformation and Process reengineering, London, Kagan Page. (1988) productivity and quality improvement Bedford, I.Fs. Fadeyi, Bode. Total Quality and result Oriented Management. WAMDEVIN Newsletter Vol. 6, No. 1, June, 1998, Pp 6 8.
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Feidnberg Samuel. Why managers appose T.Q.M. Magazine. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1998, Pp. 16- 19.

The T.Q.M.

Gatchalian, M. M. People empowerment: the Key to T.Q.M. success. T.Q.M. Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 6,1997, Pp. 429 433. Lo, Wai-Kwok, Application of Demangs principles in the management of change- a Hong Kong experience The T.Q.M. Magazine Vol. 9, No. 5, 1997, Pp. 336 343. Malaysia. The government of Strengthening the implementation of Total Quality Management in the Civil Service of Malaysia: Towards efficiency and effectiveness. Kuala Lumpur, 1995, Pp. 23 45. Milakovich, M. E. Total Quality Management for public Sector Productivity improvement. Public Productivity and Management Review. Vol. 14, No. 1, 1990, Pp. 19 32. Qakland, J. s. (1993). Total Quality Management: The route to improving performance. Oxford, Buttersworths. Okolie, Eugene. Total Quality Management Implemntation in Nigerian Companies Lagos Business School Management Review. Vol. 1, No. 2, July Dec.,1996, Pp. 93 99.

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RECORDS MANAGEMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES explain the purpose of records management outline the theories and principles of records outline the importance of managing records for government accountability and the value of seeing records as a strategic resource outline the key organisational and administrative issues necessary to understanding government INTRODUCTION This module, examines the importance of good record keeping, particularly within the public sector, and discusses the need to manage information as a strategic resource. It also presents a rationale for developing an integrated records management programme. It discusses the processes involved in restructuring existing information and records systems and then outlines the key activities undertaken in records and archives management. The information presented can be used in government, corporate, organisational or personal settings; the principles apply equally the agency whether public or private. Records care in terms of best practice is also discussed, offering information and proposing actions that would result in the ideal information management programme. However, it is recognised that the development and implementation of new systems and procedures is a time-consuming process and Records Managers should learn what actions could be taken. and restructuring records management within

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As you read through, remember that it offers an introduction to an overview of information described in more detail in other books. In order to gain a clear overview of the steps involved in the ideal records management programme, you are encouraged to read other texts and consult other literature for more information on specific topics such as managing current records, electronic records management, preservation etc. WHAT ARE RECORDS? The term records includes all documents that institutions or individuals create or receive in the course of administrative and executive transactions. The records themselves form part of or provide evidence of such transactions. As evidence, they are subsequently maintained by or on behalf of those responsible for the transactions, who keep the records for their own future use or for the use of their successors or others with legitimate interest in the records. Although records may ultimately have significant research value, they are not created in the interests of or for the information of archivists or future researchers. All of these items are records if they were created by individuals or agencies in the course of their business or activities. Nature of Records While all records convey information, not all sources of information are necessarily records. For example, a published book or an externally provided database (on- or offline) will not be a record, although information selected from it and reused in a new context may itself become a record. Records arise from actual happenings; they are a snapshot of an action or event. They offer a picture of something that happened. Records have four important qualities or characteristics. They are static in form; they
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have authority; they are unique; and they are authentic. Records are Static During the process of creating a record, a document will go through a phase of development and change. For example, minutes of a meeting will be produced in draft form and reviewed by the members of the committee before being approved. Once this process of creation, or drafting, is finished and the document is considered complete, it may be regarded as a record. In order to provide evidence, the record must now be fixed and must not be susceptible to change. If a record is changed or manipulated in some way, it no longer provides evidence of the transaction it originally documented. If someone alters the minutes of a meeting after they have been approved, the minutes can no longer be considered an accurate record of the meeting. However, drafts themselves, such as the draft minutes, may be considered records, since they can be considered completed documents at a certain stage of development; that is, as draft minutes. Records have Authority Records provide the official evidence of the activity or transaction they document. Records must be reliable and trustworthy. The reliability of a record is linked to its creation. Who generated or issued the record? Under what authority? Can this authority be proved? Consider again the case of the draft and final minutes. The committee has the authority to confirm that the minutes represent accurately the events of the meeting. If someone changed the minutes after the committee had approved them, he or she perhaps did not have the authority; those revised minutes may be evidence of that persons view of the meeting but they are not the official record of the meeting, as authorised by the committee.
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Signatures, letterheads, seals and office stamps are obvious indicators of the official nature of records. However, not all records have official stamps or seals. The continuous safekeeping of records can also protect their reliability. If the official version of the minutes is filed by the records manager and thus protected from change, the unauthorised version will not form part of the official record. The authority of the official version will remain intact. Records are Unique Records are unique in the sense that, maintained in their appropriate context, they are a component in a unique compilation or sequence of transactions. Records are not isolated bits of information. They have meaning because they were generated during a particular transaction or business process. The records make sense within the context of the overall functions and activities of the individual or organisation that created or used them. They have a relationship with other records that make them unique. The minutes may not be unique in that there may be ten copies made available to all members of the committee. But the minutes are unique within the context of that organisation, because the official copy represents one event the meeting that only took place with those committee members on that day at that place. Copies of a record may be unique within another context. For example, if one member of the committee gives his copy of the minutes to a colleague, with a cover note suggesting that the format used for minutetaking may be of value to the colleagues organisation, those minutes become a new record. They are part of a separate set of transactions between that one member and his colleague. For this reason, the context
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of the record (the activity and authority that gave rise to it) is vital and must be preserved. Only by knowing how and why a record was created and used can its contents be fully understood. Records are Authentic It must be possible to prove that records are what they say they are. The authenticity of a record is derived from the record-keeping system in which it was created or received, maintained and used. A record is authentic if it can be verified that it is now exactly as it was when first transmitted or set aside for retention. For example, a letter received in an office may be date-stamped, registered and placed on a file. The file containing the letter is tracked throughout its use and stored when not in use in a records office. Think again of the minutes. In order to prove that the official minutes are in fact authentic, it is necessary to be able to show that they were produced, approved and then filed appropriately in the organisations record-keeping system. Without this process for authenticating records, the unofficial version produced by that one member after the fact could be mistaken for the official record. Records today may be produced in a range of systems and stored in a range of media, including paper and electronic forms; different versions may be stored in different media in different locations. One of the dangers today, with the advent of sophisticated information technologies such as computers, is that information can be extracted from the record that originally conveyed it and taken out of its context. An electronic version of the minutes can be altered and could replace the original version without anyone noticing the difference. Similarly, new versions of the minutes could be made using electronic technologies, just
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as in the examples earlier, and as a result no copy can be guaranteed to be authentic. Consider another example. A government department may be responsible for buildings and physical plant maintenance; as part of its responsibilities, it might create architectural plans for a new building. It might also take photographs of that building as it is built and it might create minutes and reports of various stages of construction. Each type of material is a record. The architectural drawings, photographs, and minutes gain meaning as records by being retained as part of the entirety of records relating to the construction of that particular building. The materials would lose their meaning if they were removed from the whole body of records relating to the work of that government department and kept as single items, without information about their origins or context. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RECORDS Records are created by all sorts of people and institutions. Individuals, families, businesses, associations and groups, political parties and governments all create and use records every day. Records created by government agencies or other institutions within the public sector are usually specifically designated as public records; their management is or ought to be governed by legislation, which determines how they are to be managed throughout their life. It is a primary responsibility of government to care for its own public records, particularly when those records are needed for the administration of government services. However, it is often the case that central archival institutions, such as National Archives, Provincial or State Archives or University Archives, acquire and preserve private records for use by members of the public.
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When acquiring privately created records, repositories may have to consider issues of confidentiality or privacy. In general, whether the repository cares only for its own government or corporate records or acquires a broader range of materials, the agency must adhere to principles of access and codes of ethics laid down in legislation or in corporate or professional guidelines.

Records and Archives Many records are kept by an organisation for only a short time, to provide evidence or information for the creating agency. Other records have a longer value, as evidence of or information about the actions or functions of an agency over time. Those records worth preserving for their enduring value are called archives. Archives are normally preserved in an archival institution. Records can be identified as archival at the time of their creation, indeed even before their creation, but they are usually not transferred to an archival repository for permanent preservation until they have ceased to be of immediate administrative use to the creating agency. Who Uses Records? Within both government and the private sector, records are created and used on a daily basis to document actions, confirm decisions, identify rights and responsibilities and communicate information. Without records, governments and businesses today could not operate. It is no longer possible to remember vast quantities of information without creating an independent account: a record. Governments use records for such wide-ranging purposes as documenting the work of employees
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confirming pensions, leave and health benefits confirming or reviewing policies and procedures confirming citizens rights, such as benefits or land ownership providing information about past actions or decisions. On behalf of the citizens of a country, government employees rely on records to provide core information for conducting their public business. While many of those records do not need to be kept permanently, a small but significant portion has enduring value. It is this portion of a governments records that are preserved within public archival institutions. Together with a countrys National Library, National Museum and other national institutions, the National Archives is one of the countrys essential research resources. Users come to it from all sectors. Other government archival facilities, such as state or provincial archival institutions, or privatesector archival facilities in businesses or associations, are equally important research resources. Equally, corporate, organisational or local archival institutions hold records of research use to a wide variety of people. PRINCIPLES OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT Records should be well managed in order to ensure they are protected for both administrative purposes and to serve as evidence of the organisations work. The process of caring for records is known as records management. The management of records and archives is governed by four important concepts.. These are (1) that records must be kept together according to the agency responsible for their creation or accumulation, in the original order established at the time of their creation; (2) that records follow a life cycle; (3) that the care of records should follow a continuum;
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and (4) that records can be organised according to hierarchical levels in order to reflect the nature of their creation. These principles require that archivists and records managers observe the following guidelines. The records of separate agencies or organisations must be managed separately, even if the agencies in question were involved with similar activities or were managed by the same people. Do not combine the records of two agencies or organisations. Similarly, the private

records of individuals must not be integrated, even if the individuals were related or experienced the same events. Records must be maintained according to their original order: that is according to the filing, classification and retrieval methods

established by the organisation as part of an efficient records management programme. Records offices and records centres must create, maintain and store records according to logical and well-structured records management procedures. Archival

institutions must not change the original order in which records were received, as that order reflects the way in which the records were created and used. Public archival repositories that receive government records through functioning registry systems often receive records in a clear and usable original order. The registry process ensures that the creating agency and the contents of the files are clearly identified. When records are received in an identifiable order, the archival institution should not reorganise records by subject, date or medium of material. If registry systems cease to function adequately, there is a grave danger that, as records build up in storage rooms, cupboards or hallways,
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information about their creating agency and original order may be lost. This is one of the reasons records management is so important in ensuring the preservation of a valuable, identifiable record. Organisations today are creating electronic and paper records in greater and greater quantities; record-keeping systems often do not manage this material as well as one would like. In order to ensure records retain their administrative use and archival value, records and archives managers must be significantly involved with the record-creating process itself, rather than be passive recipients of records that may no longer be authentic or reliable. Records and archives managers must also become more involved with and understand the processes that lead to the creation of records. It is not sufficient to study the records and its physical nature and characteristics. Records professionals must understand the business functions, activities and working practices that cause documents to be made, used and maintained. Records and archives managers must be involved from the beginning. For example, it is no use designing a classification scheme that does not match the business processes that give rise to the records to be classified. Records and archives management must be concerned with all the processes relating to records throughout their existence. Records follow a life cycle, which records managers and archivists must understand, and records and archives management must follow a continuum of care. THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE RECORDS The life-cycle concept of the record is an analogy from the life of a biological organism, which is born, lives and dies. In the same way, a
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record is created, is used for so long as it has continuing value and is then disposed of by destruction or by transfer to an archival institution. Figure 1 illustrates the life-cycle concept of records. The effective management of records throughout their life cycle is a key issue in the public service reform. Without it, vast quantities of inactive records clog up expensive office space, and it is virtually impossible to retrieve important administrative, financial and legal information. Such a situation undermines the accountability of the state and endangers the rights of the citizen. Without a management programme that controls records through the earlier phases of their life cycle, those of archival value cannot readily be identified and safeguarded so that they can take their place in due course as part of the nations historical and cultural heritage. Phases of the Life Cycle of Records In the simplest version of the life-cycle concept, three biological ages are seen as the equivalents of the three phases of the life of a record. In the current phase, records are regularly used in the conduct of current business and are maintained in their place of origin or in the file store of an associated records office or registry. In the semi-current phase, records are still used, but only infrequently, in the conduct of current business and are maintained in a records centre. In the non-current phase, records are no longer used for the conduct of current business and are therefore destroyed unless they have a continuing value for other purposes, which merits their preservation as archives in an archival institution. Some records management systems recognise only two phases: current
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and non-current. Figure 1 outlines the life-cycle concept of records.

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Archives Archival Repository

Current Office or File Store Registrar Appraisal and Disposal

Archivist
Appraisal and Disposal

Secondary Value

Primary Value

Semi-current
Records Centre

Records Manager

Figure 1: The Life Cycle Concept of Records

Source: Tolani, A.A., Management of Public Sector Records (2008)

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REFERENCES TOLANI, A.A. READINGS IN RECORDS MANAGEMENT,LAGOS, 2007 TOLANI, A.A. RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR:PRINCIPLES AND CONTEXT, TOPO-BADAGRY, 2008 TOLANI, AA PROCEDURAL MANUAL FOR RECORDS CENTRE OPERATIOS, ASCON, TOPO-BADAGRY,2000 TOLANI, A.A RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT,ASCON RECORDS MANAGEMENT SERIES (28), ASCON TOPO-BADAGRY, 1999 ENWERE, J.C. THE ACQUISITION OF RECORDS: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHIVES, 1980 FISHBEIN, M.A. A VIEW POINT ON APPRAISAL OF NATIONAL RECORDS, AA, XXX111, 11, 1970 TOLANI, A.A. THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES OF RECORDS AND ARCHIVES MANAGEMENT ASCON RECORDS MANAGEMENT SERIES (45), ASCON, TOPO-BADAGRY, 2001 TOLANI, A.A. REVIEWING EXISTING RECORDS SERVICES ASCON RECORDS MANAGEMENT SERIES (49), ASCON, TOPO-BADAGRY, 2003

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PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION


Learning Objectives At the end of this session, participants will be able to: Define the monitoring and evaluation ( M & E); Identify the distinction between monitoring and evaluation; Mention the purposes of monitoring and evaluation; List some tools used for monitoring and evaluation; Identify the steps required in developing an M & E system 1. Introduction A Project is a vehicle that is used for bringing a desired change in a rational and structured manner. Projects are thus regarded as building blocks of development. Public Sector projects are faced with certain

challenges in that public sector projects are people-oriented. Globally, the performances of public sector organisations are coming under more scrutiny from the citizenry. Citizens are demanding that governments demonstrate value for money in the utilisation of limited resources for the provision of public goods and services. Within this context, the need to achieve results from public development interventions has become extremely important. Therefore, the need for planned and systematic monitoring and evaluation of public sector policies, projects and

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programmes takes on new meaning. A project by definition is a planned undertaken of interrelated activities designed to achieve specific objectives within a given budget and a period of time. A good project design with a clear definition of the problem, clear identification of the targeted beneficiaries, precise statement of objectives and results, well spelt out activities for achieving the stated objectives etc. is essential for project success. The ultimate test for success, however, is the translation of this design or plan into reality with the project providing the intended benefits to the intended beneficiaries as envisaged in the design. This can be an onerous task given that we operate in an unstable and uncertain environment. To achieve project success, therefore, there is need for close supervision and control during and after project implementation to ensure that actual project activities conform to plans or design specifications and that the completed project provides the desired benefits. Monitoring and evaluation are management tools that aid this process - the process of achieving the projects outputs and objectives. Often times, however, monitoring and evaluation are aspects of project management that are either neglected or taken for granted with the result that we are today surrounded by a myriad of abandoned and failed

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projects, in most of the cases, situations that could have been saved through proper and effective monitoring and evaluation. 2. Overview of Project Management Project management entails a systematic and highly integrated approach which tailors the various components and activities on a project towads the achievement of the project goals/objectives. Project

management is therefore about managing for impact. Impact is the change a project output/result makes on the life and conditions of the targeted beneficiaries. The process through which a project achieves this is

depicted in figure 1 below.

FIGURE 1: PROJECT/PROGRAMME LOGIC

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The project is implemented according to plan.

This involves a

process of inputs being used to undertake activities that lead to actual results. The results should lead to a set of impacts that will improve the original situation. 3. The Place of Monitoring and Evaluation Within the Project Cycle Projects are managed through the use of the project cycle which depicts the various stages of their relationship within the project life cycle . The project cycle are presented in different ways by different authors and project related agencies. Figure 2 present a simple project management cycle consisting of four phases.

FIGURE 2: PROJECT MANAGEMET CYCLE

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Each of the phases in the project cycle is critical to the success of a project. The special place of monitoring and evaluation (M & E) be

particularly noted. While M & E has been shown as the last phase in the cycle, in reality it is an activity that transcends all the stages as illustrated by the inner cycle. At the first stage of the project, i.e. Need Assessment and Identification stage, the key task of M & E is to establish baseline information (i.e. the current situation before the project is implemented). This information will be used in assessing the impact of the project , i.e. the changes brought about by the project after implementation. At the

formulation and design phase, the M & E task will be basically to establish the M & E strategy and plan. This will involve a number of things including establishing the scope and purpose of the M & E system, identifying the key performance questions/indicators, monitoring mechanism and

organizational arrangements for the M & E, establishing and indicative budget, etc. At the project implementation phase, actual M & E is carried out. The key tasks involve training of staff an partners, gathering and

management of data and communicating the result to stakeholders. At the review phase, the M & E system is assessed with a view to identifying weaknesses/problems and rectifying these to make the M & E system to be more robust and sustainable. It is important to note that the review or

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assessment of the M & E system can, and it should really, be a continuous activity throughout the project cycle. This is because of the possibility of unplanned needs and requests for information on specific issues for which the M & E system need to be adjusted to provide or accommodate. Monitoring and evaluation terms have often been used as if they are a single function. Even though there is a close relationship between the two terms, they are in actual fact distinct functions. This paper will, therefore, treat them separately. 4 Project Monitoring (a) Definition

Monitoring is the continuous oversight of the implementation of an activity (or project) which seeks to establish the extent to which input deliveries, work schedules, other required actions and targeted outputs are proceeding according to plan, so that timely action can be taken to correct deficiencies or deviations detected. The purpose of monitoring is to ensure the efficient and effective implementation of the project by providing timely and accurate information (fast feedback) on actual project activities as compared with planned activities so that adjustments can be made while the process is still on.

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The aim is to achieve a target result at the end of the process. By continuous or periodic monitoring of the process, input variables as well as the activities, which affect the results (outputs) can be changed in order to keep the process on track towards the results. It follows, therefore, that monitoring information is only meaningful when the process is on. At the most basic level, monitoring is thus primarily concerned with input and output, i.e: (vi) the actual flow of resources (personnel, materials, equipment,

etc.) into the project compared with the designed or planned flow; (vii) the activities of the project (the conversion or transformation of

inputs to output); and (viii) the flow of output (quantity and quality) from the project to the

target beneficiaries (the delivery system). (b) Steps

A general sequence of steps used in monitoring includes: (iv) recording and comparing actual and planned performance

(input delivery, performance of activities, output delivery) with respect to time, cost and standard (quantity and quality); (v) identifying any variations/deviations or differences between the two and the root causes; and

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(vi) (c)

taking corrective action. Types

On the basis of the focus of monitoring, the following types of monitoring can be identified: (xi) Start-up and structures monitoring, e.g. - Putting up appropriate management structures; - Prior obligations (Cost sharing etc.) - Coordinating structures; - Staff assigned; - Work plan; - Monitoring strategy and plan. (xii) Financial monitoring - Entails tracking of the actual expenditure made by the implementing agency, etc. - Adequacy of allocations; - Disbursement of funds; - Actual expenditure; - Compliance with procedures. (xiii) Input/output monitoring - Financial resources are translated into inputs;

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- Involves follow up on whether procured inputs materials, equipment etc are adequate in quantity and quality and if delivered on time; - Determine bottleneck; - Staffing in terms of appropriateness (xiv) impact monitoring - Has the project result brought about the desired changes? (xv) sustainability monitoring - Can the changes experienced sustained over a long period of time? (d) MONITORING TOOLS

Some tools (or instruments) that can be used for monitoring are: The Work plan This indicates: the outputs and activities described in a scheduled sequence in relation to each immediate objective their planned starting and completion dates the person(s), organizations and/or institutions

responsible for carrying out the work -

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The Project Budget This indicates: the resources available for the project and their sources the cost of inputs the cost of overheads the unit cost of output the income from project (where applicable)

Progress Review Examines periodically work actually done. Seeks to answer the following questions, among others: are inputs being made available as planned? are activities being carried out as scheduled? are outputs being produced as scheduled? what changes have taken place, particularly if any additions or deletions were made? what remedial actions have been taken or are planned? Logical Framework Network Analysis

From the above, it is worthwhile to note that a meaningful monitoring system requires standards, or bench marks or indicators against which the

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actual performance of the project can be measured. These should be spelt out at the design stage in the Work plan and budget. 5. Project Evaluation The ultimate success of a project is measured by the extent to which it has achieved its intended objectives (both short-term or immediate objectives and long-term or developmental objectives). The need to

ascertain whether projects are achieving their objectives or not is becoming crucial now that concern for people-centered development is growing in the face of dwindling resources. Evaluation is therefore becoming increasingly recognized. (a) Definition Evaluation is the assessment of the performance of a project in relation to its stated objectives. It is an assessment of the extent to which a project has achieved the predetermined objectives. Evaluation is useful in two major ways: for enhancing the management of current projects; and for improving the preparations of new projects by providing feedback on the basis of the experience and lessons learned in previous project implementations.

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(b) PURPOSE Evaluation can be undertaken for one or more of the following purposes: to review the results of the project activity with a view to determining the degree of achievement of the project objectives. to determine problems associated with project implementation to determine the viability of projects to facilitate decisions on further resource commitments. for reformulating objectives, strategies, and projects in the light of new or emerging needs to determine the lessons learned for future

programmes/projects for reinforcing discipline (accountability and transparency) for resolving non-project issues (political, institutional conflicts, etc.)

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(c)

CONCERNS

Evaluation is concerned with the following aspects of project performance: Effectiveness To what extent has the project achieved its objectives and reached the target group(s) Efficiency Do the project results or benefits justify the costs incurred? Relevance Does the project continue to make sense? Do the needs being addressed by the project still exist? Validity of Design Is the project design logical and coherent? Is the scope adequate to address the problem? Has the issue of co-ordination between various agencies been addressed? sustainability of project results? Causality What specific factors or events have affected the project results? Have any factors affected the achievement of project objectives, the production of output, the performance of activities, or the Is provision made for

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participation of intended beneficiaries in planning, design, implementation, etc? Unanticipated Effects Is the project having any significant (positive and/or negative) effects which were not foreseen? Is the project operation

unpopular? Is the project causing damage to the environment? Are the project benefits accruing to others, other than the targeted beneficiaries? Alternative Strategies: Is there, or would there have been, a more effective way to address the problem(s) and achieve the objective(s). Sustainability What is the likelihood that project benefits will be sustained for a long time? What will happen if external support is withdrawn? Are institutional, management, budgetary, and personnel measures put in place to ensure sustainability? These and many more questions are addressed by evaluation depending on the purpose of the exercise.

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(d) Types Evaluation can be classified in several ways, depending on the criteria used for such classification. The two most common criteria used are timing and responsibility. On the basis of these criteria the following types of evaluation can be identified: (e) Timing Interim evaluation - takes place at one point during the life of a project, usually mid-term, and assesses progress made towards achieving objective(s). Terminal evaluation - takes place at the end of a project. Ex-post evaluation - takes place sometime (usually 3 - 5 years) after project completion. (f) RESPONSIBILITY (WHO EVALUATES) Self-evaluation - conducted by project management i.e. persons directly involved in project execution. advantages are that: it benefits from insiders knowledge it facilitates immediate feedback it is cost-effective Some of its

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Independent evaluation - can either be: internal - when conducted by executing agency, but not by people directly involved in project execution; or External - when an outside consultant or expert is brought to conduct the evaluation.

6.

Performance Indicators (i) What are they? Performance indicators are measures of inputs, processes, outputs,

outcomes, and impacts for development projects, programs, or strategies. When supported with sound data collectionperhaps involving formal surveysanalysis and reporting, indicators enable managers to track progress, demonstrate results, and take corrective action to improve service delivery. Participation of key stakeholders in defining indicators is important because they are then more likely to understand and use indicators for management decision-making. (ii) What can we use them for? Setting performance targets and assessing progress towards achieving them. Identifying problems via an early warning system to allow corrective action to be taken.

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Indicating whether an in-depth evaluation or review is needed.

Advantages: Effective means to measure progress toward objectives. Facilitates benchmarking comparisons between different organizational units, districts, and over time. Disadvantages Poorly defined indicators are not good measures of success. Tendency to define too many indicators, or those without accessible data sources, making system costly, impractical, and likely to be underutilized. Often a trade-off between picking the optimal or desired indicators and having to accept the indicators which can be measured using existing data. (7) Designing and Setting up an M & E System In designing and setting up an M & E system, it may help to follow these steps: Step 1. Establish the purpose and scope of M & E: Why is M & E needed and how comprehensive should the system be? It is important to review the purpose and scope of M & E with key

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stakeholders. Step 2. Identify performance Questions, Information Needs and Indicators: What do we need to know to monitor and evaluate the project in order to manage it well|? This involves: - Assessing the information needs and interest of all key stakeholders. - Precisely defining all key performance questions, indicators and information needs for all levels of the objective hierarchy. - Checking each bit of information for relevance and end-use. Step 3. Plan Information Gathering and Organization: How will the required or data be gathered and organized? This entails: - Selecting what data collection methods to use, by whom and how often. There are many options: more quantitative or more qualitative method, more or less participatory methods, or more or less intensive methods. - Develop formats for data collection and synthesis. Step 4. Plan Critical Reflection Processes and Events: How will we make use of the information gathered and use it to

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make improvement? This will involve: - Detailing which methods/approaches to be used with which stakeholder groups and for what purpose. - Making a schedule that integrates all the key events. Step 5. Plan for Communication and Reporting: How and whom do we want to communicate what in terms of project activities and processes. This will entail: - Listing all the audiences, what information they need, when they need it and in which format. - Defining what is to be done with the information simply send, provide discussion for analysis, seek relevant feedback for verification etc. Step 6. Plan fro Necessary Condition and Capacities: What is needed to ensure that the M & E system will work? There is need to define: - Number of M & E staff required, their responsibilities and the resources and incentives needed to make M & E work. - Organizational stakeholders. - A detailed budget relationships between key M & E

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It is important to note that careful thought and thoroughness are needed in designing and setting up the M & E system for it to be effective and serve the purpose of the project. (7) Key Success Factors For M & E to be successful and contribute meaningfully in the management of projects or any activity, it it is suggested that the following factors should be in place; Management/Political support. Clear definition of purpose of M & E. Buy-in by all stakeholders. Development and use of relevant performance indicators. Appropriate personnel/staffing Requisite capacity development institutional and human. Strong coordination mechanism. Adequate resources. Good reporting system supported by appropriate responsibility and authority. Timely decision making. Using of Lessons Learned Principle of need-to-know

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8.

Conclusion Projects play a significant role in helping nations in attaining

development status.

Institutionalisation of project management into the

nations socio economic fabric would ensure that governments projects are delivered within budget, on time and with full quality specification. An

essential management tool in project management is monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation enhance the effectiveness of development interventions by establishing clear links between past, present and future interventions and results. Monitoring and evaluation can help an organization to extract, from past and ongoing activities, relevant information that can subsequently be used as the basis for programmatic fine-tuning, reorientation and planning . Without monitoring and evaluation, it would be impossible to judge if work was going in the right direction, whether progress and success could be claimed, and how future efforts might be improved. Todays managers are therefore required to actively apply the information gained through monitoring and evaluation to improve strategies, programmes and other activities.

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REFERENCES Dr. Bernice N. Harris (2000), Project and Programme Management For Communicable Disease Coordinators: Module 7, Project Evaluation and Monitoring. www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/PHTM/salinks/ppm7.doc Capturing Experience Monitoring and Evaluation; http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/issues-tools/tools/monitoringeval.html Rebekka E. Grun (2006), Monitoring and Evaluating Projects: A step-bystep Primer on Monitoring, Benchmarking, and Impact Evaluation, The World Bank, Washington DC 2000, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/HEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION /Resources/2816271095698140167/GrunImpactEvaluationManualDraft.pdf Managing For Impact in Rural Development,: A Guide For Project M & E, http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/guide/ Designing Project Monitoring http://preval.org/documentos/00546.pdf and Evaluation,

Monitoring and Evaluation: Some Tools, Methods & Approaches(2004), World Bank http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/OED/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSe arch/A5EFBB5D776B67D285256B1E0079C9A3/$file/MandE_tools_metho ds_approaches.pdf Woodhill Jim (2000), Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating Programmes and Projects: Introduction to key concepts, Approaches and Terms, IUCN: The World Conservation Union. Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; UNDP Handbook on Monitoring For Results

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