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TEACHERS'

SOURCEBOOK

VOCATIONAL HIGHER SECONDARY

PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
SECOND YEAR

GOVERNMENT OF KERALA

Department of Education
2006

State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)


Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thriuvananthapuram-12, Kerala

Prepared by: State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT) Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram -12 Kerala
E-mail:scertkerala@asianetindia.com

Type setting by: SCERT Computer Lab.

Government of Kerala Education Department 2006

Foreword
Dear Teachers,

This Teachers Sourcebook on Printing Technology

introduces the teacher to the main principles and practices of the revised pedagogy which is activity-based, process-oriented and learner-centred. The realisation that learning is not mere storing information in memory and that real learning is construction of knowledge through observation, comparison, classification and analysis has led us to give a new thrust to the teaching-learning process at Vocational Higher Secondary level to make it more meaningful and learner-friendly. This sourcebook has been developed primarily for the benefit of teachers who teach Printing Technology at Vocational Higher Secondary level. The subject matter has been dealt with utmost care, in tune with the revised curriculum and pedagogic principles. It is hoped that this book will enable the teacher to provide suitable learning activities for effective learning. The success of the approach depends upon the vision and commitment of the teacher. They are expected to make use of this sourcebook at all stages of their teaching process. It is also expected that the teacher would seek help and guidance from other sources like libraries and websites. Hope that this sourcebook will help the teacher to develop the skills and experience required for effective classroom transaction. Creative criticism and suggestions for improvement are most welcome. With regards, Thiruvananthapuram July, 2006 Dr E. Valsala Kumar Director SCERT, Kerala

PART

CONTENTS

GENERAL APPROACH ................................................................. 6 LEARNING STRATEGIES ......................................................... 23 CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES ....................................................33 S Y L L A B U S ....................................................................................... 39 P L A N N I N G .....................................................................................4 5 E V A L U A T I O N ................................................................................ 50 MONITORING AND SUPPORTING SYSTEM ...................... 6 1

PART II
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. P A P E R ................................................................................... 6 4 I N K .......................................................................................... 7 5 PRESS DEVELOPMENTS ................................................. 81 OFFSET PRESS OPERATION ..........................................9 2 ROLLER AND BLANKET PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS ........................................................... 9 8 MULTI COLOUR SHEET FED OFFSET PRESSES .. 106 PRINTING PROCESS-COLOUR ON SHEET FED ... 1 1 2 WEB OFFSET PRESSES ....................................................1 1 7 TROUBLE SHOOTING .................................................... 123 SCREEN PRINTING .........................................................130 OTHER PRINTING PROCESS ......................................1 4 2 FINISHING OPERATIONS ............................................. 1 4 8 PRINTING AND PACKAGING ...................................... 1 6 1 BASIC ENGINEERING .................................................... 170

PART III
A P P E N D I X............................................................................................. 1 7 7

About this Book


This book is intended to help the Vocational Higher Secondary School teachers in Printing technology ( Second year)

Syllabus The Syllabus helps to go through the modern printing techniques. Activites If necessary, innovative and better activities may be used instead of suggested activities. Lab work Certain units have wide scope to link Lab work with theory. Experiment in lab is not a mere mechanical work, it must be done as a part of investigatory learning. The cycle of experiments for practicals should be arranged in a such a way that theory and practical go parallel to each other. Activities suggested in the lab are meant for 25-30 students at a time. The number of groups formed should be according to the lab facilities of the school. Periods In the activity based approach, the periods suggested for each unit is slightly different from that given in the syllabus. The total periods required to transact cos may be varied with the level of students and school facilities. After preparing the year plan, it is found that all the cos can be transacted within the stipulated time. Questions Certain sample questions are given for TE at the end of each unit. CE Items CE items suggested for each unit are given at the end.

Printing Technology

GENERAL APPROACH
SIGNIFICANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. Education should enable the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well. The attitude and potential to work has determined the destiny, progress and cultural development of the human race. As we all are aware, the objective of education is to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. The educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate upon inculcating concepts, abilities, attitudes and values in tune with these work culture. Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream of education. In another sense, every educational process should be vocationalised. However due to our inability to utilize the resources wisely, scarcity of job opportunities is a severe issue of the present society. For overcoming this deep crisis, emergent techniques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have to be seriously carried out. It is in the sense that the content and methodology of Vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached. The need for meaningful linkages between the world of work and world of education is well recognized. The essence of the recommendations made by various commissions and committees is that the vocationalisation should be the main feature of the future system of education at the higher secondary stage, it can be extended to school level also. Vocational education is system of education which intends to prepare students for identified occupations , opening several areas of activities. The Vocational Higher Secondary course was envisaged as a part of the National Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. The relevance of vocational education is very great in this age of unemployment. This education system, which ensures a job along with higher education stands aloof from other systems of education. This education imparts the life skills required by the youth to enter the world of work and assuming the responsibilities of adulthood. As per the expert meeting report 2001 of UNESCO, the life skills are grouped under 4 categories. They are 1. Skills for personal fulfillment

2. 3. 4.

Skills for living in society Skills for dealing with changing economies Skills for dealing with changing work patterns.

Vocational Education ensures fulfillment of manpower requirement or national development and for social security for the citizens through self-employment. It also helps to reduce the migration of rural youth to urban areas and thus helps in rural development. The learners of Vocational Education get an opportunity to avail one year apprenticeship training in industries to improve their practical skill. During the course of study, on the job training (OJT) for 10 days in a year is arranged to improve the skill and efficiency of the learner. This education system motivates the attitude towards self employment through Production Cum Service Training Centres. (PSTC) OBJECTIVE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION The National policy on education has accorded very high priority to the program of vocationalisation of education, considering the following objectives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. To fulfill national goals of development and the removal of unemployment and poverty. To impart education relevant to increased production and productivity, economic development and individual prosperity. To make available skilled work force at all levels to alleviate the rural unemployment and for the development of nation. To develop environmental awareness to ensure sustainable development. To develop vocational aptitude, work culture, values and attitudes of the learners so as to enrich the productivity of the nation. To develop entrepreneurial competencies and skills of learners for self reliance and to undertake gainful self employment. To facilitate the expansion of higher education and explore future opportunities through innovative guidance and programmes. To develop vocational competencies, creative thinking in the related areas and facilitate training. To create awareness on mental, physical and social health. To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide backgrounds for accruing higher level training in subjects concerned.

Printing Technology Learning Learning is construction of knowledge through a continuous mental process. It is an advancement through adding and correcting in the light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts. Learning is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorization of facts. Learning is a conglomeration of a variety of activities like problem solving, finding out co-relations, prediction, arriving at conclusions, rational as well as critical thinking, finding applications, grouping for other possibilities and extracting the crux when opportunities are provided for intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get strengthened. Theoretical foundations of learning Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. It should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice. There should be conscious programme of action to develop nationality, humanness and love against the encroachment of sectarianism of caste and religion. The learner should become cognisent of the implications of privatisation, liberalisation, globalisation etc. They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a liberative weapon. They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well being. A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life is essential for all students. The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence our educational philosophy. The solution to the present day perplexities of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life. It is high time that education was recognized on the basis of the philosophy of human education. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content, learning process and outlook. The perspective of learning to be and learning to live together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existential, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence. The basis of new approaches on curriculum and teaching- learning process are derived from the developments tookplace in the east and west of the world. When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process, the teaching process has to be changed timely. It is the result of the rapid growth and development of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. If we want to undergo the changing process, we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner that they have

w w w w w w w w w w

great curiosity good imagination numerous other qualities and interests independent individuality interest in free thinking and working In a fearless atmosphere. interest in enquiring and questioning. ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking. ability for manifest arid establish freely the conclusions arrived at. interest for recognition in the society. determination to face the interference of society and make components which is a part of social life. .When we consider the learning system, the domains to be stressed in education according to the modern development becomes relevant. The knowledge domain consists of w Facts w w w Ideas Laws The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists.

The learning is a process. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal is process. The skills which are parts of the process to analyze the collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills. Some important process skills are, The skills; w To observe w w w w w w w To collect data and record To classify To measure and prepare charts To experiment To predict To recognize and control the variables To raise questions

Printing Technology w w w w w w To generalize To form a hypothesis and check. To conclude To communicate To predict arid infer To use tools.

Observation is the process of acquiring knowledge through the senses. It is purely objective oriented. Learning experiences which provide the use all the sense may be used. The process of grouping is known as classifying. Starting from simple groupings of data, it can extend to the level of classification into minute sub-groups. In addition to this, consider the skills related to creative domain also, they are skills: w w w w w w To visualize To connect facts and ideas in new ways. To find out new and uncommon uses of objects To fantasize To dream To develop creative isolated thoughts

Creativity is an essential component of process and activities. The element of creativity is involved in finding out problems, formation of hypothesis, finding solutions to problems etc. Through activity oriented learning experiences, opportunities to express creativity can be created. Again, the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important as; w Self confidence w w Love for scientific knowledge Attitude to know and value history

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w w w

Respect human emotions Decide with reasonable present problems Take logical decisions regarding personal values

Hypothesis is a temporary conclusion drawn using insight. Based on knowledge and experiences relating to the problems the causes and solutions can be guessed. As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to: w observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired. w w w w take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life. choose a scientific life style connect the ideas acquired with other subjects. integrate the subjects with other subjects.

Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes are required in the following factors. w The vision, approach, structure and content of the curriculum. w w w The vision, approach, structure and content of the textbooks. Role of the teacher and the learner. Learner atmosphere, learning materials and learning techniques.

Some scientific perspectives accepted by modem world in educational psychology are given below. Constructivism This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge. New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. That is assimilated into the cognitive structure of ones knowledge. This method which gives priority to critical thinking and problem solving provides opportunity for self motivated learning. Social Constructivism Social constructivism is a sub section of constructivism. Knowledge is formed, spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social environment. Interactive learning, group learning, co-operative participatory learning, all these are concepts put forward by social constructivism.

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Printing Technology The main propounders of constructivism are piaget, vygotsky and Bruner. Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. Learning takes place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. The activities of a learner who confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome it leads to the renewal of cognitive structure. It is through this process construction of new knowledge and the assimilation of them take place. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. The learner advances towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing concepts. Learning is a live mental process. Rather than the ability for memorization of facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. The process of problem analysis, elucidation, critical thinking, rational thinking, finding out co-relation, prediction, hypothesis formation, application, probing for other possibilities, extracting the crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning. Constructivism gives greater predominance to co-operative learning. Social and cultural factors influence learning. Sharing of knowledge and experience ntong learners, collective enquiry, assessment and improvement, group activity and collaborative learning by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity, provide opportunity for effective learning. In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. The learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Learning situation should be capable of forming a sense of ownership in the learner regarding the learning process. Learning is not a linear process. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper and wider. New concepts of Learning 1.. Discovery Learning The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts and facts, instead of listening always. Creating occasion to progress towards discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate the models, situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves. 2. Learning by discussion Discussion leads to learn is Burners theory. Here discussion is not opposing each other. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. New ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations, by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving. 3. Problem solving and learning Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes the responsibility of learning it. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. It is also needed to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. The problems

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are to be presented in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner. 4. Collaborative learning This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members of the group keeping common learning objectives. The common responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning, equally through the activity with mutual understanding. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilities to be discharged. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. Collaborative learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole group. 5. Co-operative learning This is the learning in which the learners help one another. Those who have more knowledge, experience and competency, will help others. By this exchange of resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. As there are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask the fellow students doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It should be on the basis of actual needs. So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas, among the members of the group cautious acceptance is to be observed as a convention. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members 6. Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky observes that there is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers and peers and elders. Even though some can fulfil the learning activity by themselves there is the possibility Of a higher excellence. If appropriate help is forth covering every learner can better himself. 7. Scaffolding It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get support at the proper-time-The learner may require the help of the teacher in several learning activities. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity taking responsibility by himself. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful. 8. Learning an active mental process Learning being a cognitive process, the teacher needs to know cognitive processes to facilitate the creation of learning opportunities. Learning can be made effective by providing learning experiences involving mental processes like
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Printing Technology w w Retrieves/recollects/retells information Readily makes connections to new information based on past experiences and formulates initial ideas /concepts. w Detects similarities and differences w Classifies/categories/organizes information approximately. w Translates/transfer knowledge or understanding and applies them in a new situation. w Establishes cause-effect relationships w Makes connections/relates prior knowledge to new information/applies reasoning and draw inferences w Communicates knowledge/understanding through different media. w Imagines/fantasises/designs/predicts based on received information w Judges /appraises/evaluates the merits or demerits of an idea/develops own solutions to a problem. 9. Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is given more importance than extrinsic motivation. The teacher has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner. A person internally motivated alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. developing this area of intelligence 10 . Multiple intelligence The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created a turning point in the field of education. The National curriculum documents has recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of this theory. Main factors of the intellect: 1. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence Ability to read and write, making linguistic creations, ability to lecture competence to effective communication, all these come under this. This can be developed by engaging in language games and by teaching others. 2. Logical/mathematical Intelligence Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and relations come under this area. Finding out relations, explaining things, sequential and arithmetical calculations etc. are capable of developing this area of intelligence. 3. Visual/spatial Intelligence In those who are able to visualize models and bringing what is in the imagination into visual form and in philosophers, designers and sculptors this area of intelligence is developed. The activities like

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modeling using clay and pulp, making of art equipments, sculpture, and giving illustrations to stories can help the development of this ability. 4. Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence The activities using body language come under this. This area of intelligence is more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through body movements and in experts in sports, gymnastics etc. 5. Musical Intelligence This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to recognize the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here and enjoy songs. Playing musical instruments, imitating the songs of musicians, listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing this area of intelligence. 6. Interpersonal Intelligence Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership and behave with others in a noble manner. They are capable of understanding the thought or others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognize their own abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analyzing way and assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of intelligence 8. Naturalistic Intelligence A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area. 9. Existential Intelligence The ability to see and distinguish ours own existence as a part of the universe, ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realize the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these re the peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence. 10. Emotional Quotient The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman was used in framing the new curriculum. The fact that ones Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate on the following. i) Ability to take decisions

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Printing Technology Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities, the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated. ii) Ability to reach consensus w When different opinions, ideas and positions arise, the students may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. w Imagining what would be the course of action in some situations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals. iii) Problem solving w Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem. w w w w Training in finding reasons for problems. Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. Discussing social problems. Analyzing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.

Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem. Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems which can influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute Solution need to be posed w Self criticism, evaluation w Ability to face problem-situation in life w Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one would respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence. iv) Life skills Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed : skills required forsuccess in life. w Self awareness w w w w Empathy Inter personal relations Communication Critical thinking

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w w w w w

Creative thinking Decision making Problem solving Coping with emotion Coping with stress

The new curriculum addresses these areas. Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning activities. Role of a Teacher In the earlier approach the teacher was mainly depending on the lecture method for teaching. But in the new method of education the student centered approach in given more importance than the teacher centered approach. Under this changed scenario the teacher has to perform the following roles in the classroom. The teacher should be w w w w w w w w w w w A facilitator of learning A guide to the overall development of the student A good observer and motivator Able to consider the activities, needs, special features and age group of students at higher secondary level. Able to understand the limitations of learner and their learning problems. An instructional material developers A good communicator An innovator Able to raise leadership qualities and self confidence of the learner An authoritarian in the concerned subject Able to arrest and sustain the attention of the learner

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Printing Technology w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Able to bring out and encourage the inborn talents. A resource manger to ensure the optimum utilization of resources. A systematic record keeper A controller to issue guidance to the students A person with high level of practical competency Able to correlate area of study with familiar environmental situations A self evaluator and good listener Able to create awareness in social problems A person with democratic and humanitarian approach A professionalist as well as philosopher A good evaluator A good organizer and a friend. A co-learner as well as co-researcher Able to give assistance and advice in placement needs and self employment by giving moral and technical support Able to keep moral values A person equipped with skill for using new techniques of learning Optimistic and impartial

Child friendly Class Room Atmosphere Learning can be effective and enjoyable only when the class atmosphere is according to the new conception of learning and the characteristics of higher secondary teacher. w w w w w w Class and seating are arranged in an attractive way Democratic nature is upheld Always active Students interact with teachers without fear Opportunity for a variety of activities Students allowed to involve interesting group activities

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Learning speed, learning style and differencing levels of attitudes are considered. Help is extended whenever needed. w Sufficient instructional materials are available w These is freedom of expression, students share their ideas and experiences w Students are given acceptance and encouragement w Healthy atmosphere w Needs of each students is given consideration. Happy and energetic atmosphere w Teachers work considering the rights of students w Problems handled in a patient way w Teachers work at all events from the students view point These will be students of various ability levels in any class because learning style, learning speed, varying exposure to language experiences, physical ad psychological problems and varying sociocultural background. The learning experiences provided must help to bring the low activities to an expected level and extended the breadth and depth of the skills of the high activities. By repeating experiences, introducing variations in a learning experience to suit different levels and if needed, formulating additional experiences the problem of varying ability levels can be tackled Role of Learner The learner in second year has undergone a learner centered and process oriented learning experience up to first year. The learner at this age is in awakening stage and he is enthusiastic about environment. He needs recognition and encouragement from environment and also recognize as a grown up man. He is adequately competent to select vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interact and to acquire higher education and profession as he wishes. The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular age for seeming national and international job opportunities. Some of the peculiarities of learner at this stage are; w Physical, intellectual and emotional planer are intensive changes during the age and their reflections can be observed

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Printing Technology w w w w w w w Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena Headiness to undertake challenges Capacity to shoulder leadership roles Attempt to interpret oneself Susceptibility to different pressures Doubts, anxieties and eagerness about sex Imaging for social recognition

Needs of Learner w To make acquaintance with a job or self employment through vocational education w w w To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education To recognize and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent period To enable him to defined against the unfavorable circumstances without any help

Role of learner w Active participant in the learning process w w w w w w w w w w w Act as a researcher Sharer of information Sharer of responsibilities Collect information Jakes leadership Involves in group work Act as a co-participant Observes his environment Experiments and realize Make interpretations and draw inferences Mould himself in to an active contributor for the welfare of the society

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EVALUATION In vocational higher secondary education, a new approach to education and evaluation should be made. Evaluation must be a systematic and continuous process. As the curriculum is based on vocational stream, capacity building is a most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. The technical skills, interest in the particular field, communication skill, analysis organizing and presentation skills etc have to be evaluated. The personal and social qualities also have to be evaluated. Therefore, evaluation should be transparent, continuous and comprehensive. SUBJECT APPROACH -APPROACH TO LEARNING PRINTING TECHNOLOGY I. Introduction The art of preserving all arts, printing has since the eighties undergone a complete transformation with the application of electronics, computers and microprocessors and advanced science and technology. This technology has developed by incorporating the advancements from other disciplines and adopting the latest technical information from commercial art, photography, applied science, computer, mechanical and electronic engineering etc. The diversity of language and the multitude of literate population, which is roughly 1000 million, create an ever increasing demand for printed materials in social, cultural, educational, artistic and scientific fields. Achievement of full literacy and higher levels of education mainly depend upon the availability of printed materials in the form of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, research papers, reports and so on. Printed material is the main medium of communication and dissemination of knowledge, but more than this, the medium of print is improving its position in todays multimedia society. The trend is towards approaching target groups directly, faster production, more and more colour and even higher quality The methods of print production are also changing, in the direction of environmentally compatible, highly automated and easily operated printing systems integrated in a digital data environment. There is a dearth of technical man-power operators, technicians and supervisors with broad based science, engineering background combined with a knowledge of Business Administration to manage modern printing and allied establishments. Packaging is an integral part of Printing Industry. The printing and packaging industries in India have assumed growing significance during the last decade. This has become a dynamic and key area for manufactures and trading companies all over the country with the element of aesthetics, hygienic and cost effectiveness receiving increasing importance in commercial operations. The exterior looks and presentability of marketable goods leave a lasting impression on the minds of consumers and in this context packaging occupies the centre stage. New packaging machines and technologies have been introduced to meet the challenges. Today, the Indian Packaging Industry is growing at a rate of 1520 percent per annum.
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Printing Technology The printing industry is one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in India More than one lakh printing presses are in operation all over the country with a capital investment of over Rs. 80,000 million. This industry provides direct and indirect employment to another two million people. It is natural that along-side the growth of literacy, there is a commensurate rise in demand for various inputs for the printing industry. Training and Manpower Requirements The Indian Printing Industry today requires trained and technically qualified personnel at the following levels. 1. Operators 2. Technicians 3. Supervisors 4. Managers and Production Executives 5. Sales Executives 6. Machine manufacturing and Machine maintenance personal 7. Personnel for research and development. In order to meet the above demands for supplying required manpower to the printing industry, the entire system of printing education in India has lately been restructured and summed up into three tiers. At the lowest level ie. first - tier, there are I.T.Is offering certificate courses in the concerned specialised trades of Printing Technology mostly covering the categories (1) and (2) given above. Vocational Higher Secondary courses in printing technology has also been categorised under this group. The categories (3), (4) and (5) are being covered by the middle level (second tier) Diploma institutions. The categories (6) and (7) and also category (4) to a certain extent, are being covered by the higher level institutions (third-tier) offering degree in printing technology The present syllabus (VHSE) has been designed to produce operators and technicians in the first group as mentioned above. The computer has entered every aspects of print production and has become the overriding element that guided all changes. Hence, the most current procedures and state-of-the-art materials in each phase of the printing process. We have discussed about the pre press produces in first year. The second year mainly deals with press work, post work operation and materials. The press work generally starts with print job on machine. The completion of printing job is said to be with it is designed, printed and despatched.

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LEARNING STRATEGIES
In the modern era of globalization the introduction of new technologies ensure only the survival of the fittest. So it becomes a necessity to equip the leanness to face the growing challenges in the competitive world. Hence the traditional approach to learning is no more relevant in the present context. The teacher should use instructional techniques that motivate the student to construct his own knowledge. Now the learners are not passive listeners , but they are the active participants in the construction of knowledge. Here the teacher student interaction should be given much importance. In the new instructional strategy while selecting the methods of teaching, the social and psychological aspects of the learner is to be taken into consideration. The given activities for learning are only suggested one. It can be altered according to the discretion of the teacher. To obtain the objectives, the new system of education is introduced in the Vocational Higher Secondary Education for attaining the objectives of the courses in this system, we can adopt the following strategies. 1. Assignment Assignment is some specific work assigned to the students as a part of their academic enrichment. There are learning activities undertaken as a continuation of class room activities to realize the curriculum objectives to a broader extent . They should be completed in time bound manner. They help to lead learner to higher level of learning from the present status. Challenging assignment can motivate the students to involve in group dynamics and achieve fruitful results . The teachers may at as a guide. Assignment may be given on individuals or group basics. Assignment includes preparation of notes, preparation of charts, models, collection, of materials from institutions etc. Assignment develop skills of reference, observation, enquire reporting etc. It ensure the effective utilization of leisure time of the students. 2. Seminar Seminar is a learning strategy involving an in-depth analysis of specific topic, preparation of a paper and presentation . The paper is presented by either one students or a group of students. After the presentation, there will be a discussion/ interaction in which all the students can participate . The students get an opportunity to clear their doubts and make clarification. Seminar helps to develop communication skill and overcome stage fright.

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Printing Technology Stages 1. Selection of Topic The topic of seminar should be relevant to the subject of study 2. Assignment of topic to individuals students or team The topic may be assigned to one students may be given to a group of students 3. Collection of relevant information Information required for seminar can be collected from various sources namely books, magazines, internet, institutions, place and persons. 4. Preparation of draft paper Based on the information collected the student may prepare a draft paper and submit it to the teachers for comments. Revise the draft paper based on the comments of the teachers. The required drafts is submitted for approval. 5. Program Scheduling The date, time and venue of the seminar is fixed. A seminar leader may be selected from the students 6. Seminar paper presentation The student/ students shall present the paper in the seminar. The teacher may function as the moderator during the initial stages. 7. Discussion / Interaction A number of respondents from the students make comments on the topic. This will be followed by a general discussion. All the group members should actively participate in discussion. 8. Summing up deliberation The moderator sums up the deliberation 9. Evaluation / Feed back Both teachers and students evaluate the programme. 10. Preparation of final report A final seminar report is prepared covering all the additional points discussed and consolidated 3. Panel Discussion It is a learning strategy in which a panel of experts are allowed to discuss a specific subjects under the control and direction of a moderator. Subjects can be divided according to the number of panel members. Number of panel members are fixed according to subdivision of points in the

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subject. Relevant materials and hand out may be given in advance to the learners. The monitor or moderator introduces the subject of discussion and invite a panel member to start the discussion. Each panel member is invited for discussion afterwards. After briefing by the panel members the question are raised from the audience and the panel members give suitable answer to them. A report should be submitted by each learner to the moderator . 4. Project Project is a self-learning strategy which can exert great influence on the overall development of the learner. Project as learning strategy is to be selected where a problem arises in any part of the curriculum. The students may be divided into groups and assigned different aspects of the problem. Each group works independently .Specific aspects of the problem such as data collection, classification, analysis, report preparation and presentation is to be undertaken by each of the members. Even though the work is divided among the members, it must be ensured that the execution of each and every activity is done with the active participation of all. After analyzing data collected from different sources, the learner arrives at a conclusion that can help to solve the problem. There by learner learns the topic though his own activity. The other advantage of this learning activities is that it helps the learner to scientifically handle any problematic situation. It helps in the development of scientific thinking and thereby builds up the students aptitude for the subject. Stages of the project 1. Selection of a topic The project selected should be related to the curriculum and it should not be a project for projects sake. The topic or problem should arise from the curriculum. 2. Planning of the Project (A) Hypothesizing: Hypothesizing means making assumptions based on the available primary information. (B) Methods and Technique : The methods and Technique should be based on the aim and Hypothesizing of the Project. The nature of the project, suitability of the tools, and the methods of learning should be related to each other. 3. Collection and Tabulation of Data The data may be primary, Secondary or territory. Either census or sampling method can be used based on the objective of the project. Suitable questionnaires are to be prepared for the collection of primary data. The collected data is to be classified and tabulated so as to make it easily understandable.

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Printing Technology 4. Analysis of data and formulation of conclusion By analyzing the data, the reliability of the hypotheses can be examined. Preparation of graphs and diagrams and maps will positively help the analysis. The similarities relations and differences gathered from the analyzed information would tell whether the hypotheses should be accepted or rejected. 5. Preparation of Report The cover page should have the title of the project, the period of study, name (s) of investigator / group, and the address of the school. The report should be structured in the following order. 1. Title 2. Preface 3. Hypotheses and aim 4. Methodology 5. Sources of data 6. Analysis and conclusion 7. Suggestions (if any) 8. References 9. Appendices (Questionnaire, Observation schedule, check list Etc.) 6. Presentation of the Project When the project is presented , the learner is being evaluated and accepted. It is through this presentation that ideas are shared with others in the class and society. The project methods promotes scientific self learning and makes him capable of solving the problem arising in real life situations. 5. Debate Debate is a hot and interesting learning activities. A debate can be organized only on a topic on which there is difference of opinion. Therefore a topic suitable for debate has to be found. Debate can be on relevant topic that is different and interesting to the students and relevant to society. Students with different opinion have to be identified for discussion. Those who have similar opinion should join together to form a side . Those who hold the opposite view with form the other side. It would be good to write down the topic of the debate and displayed in advance. There should also a person to control debate. Students should be given opportunity to absorb the ideas obtained from discussion and debate, develop the idea through reading and study, and to express them through writing or other means

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Stages of Debate 1. Topic Selection 2. Selection of panels keeping in balance with intelligence, gender etc. 3. Selection of moderator 4. Collection of information guided by the teacher 5. Conducting the debate under the control of moderator by avoiding any sort of personal conflicts 6. Conclusion by the moderator expressing his final version or verdict. 6. Case Study A case may be a person, institution or a community case study is an in depth analysis of an actual event or situation. It presents real pictures of situation with facts, objective information or data : learners analyse the case to interpret, predict and resolve issues associated with it. The case study provides the learner an opportunity to analyse and apply concepts, data and theory taught from the class. Learners can work individually or in groups. By studying realistic cases in the classroom, students develop new insights into the solution of specific on the job problem and also acquire knowledge of the latest concepts and principles used in problem solving. Case may be presented by the teachers or may be provided in print form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A simple case study may have the following steps Collection of data Conversion of data into information Analysis of the case in groups Presentation of the finding by each group leader. Evaluation

In addition to the above mentioned learning strategy there are many other learning strategies which can be used in appropriate situations to enrich leaning process such as problem solving, Role play, brain storming, debate etc. 7. Brain Storming This is the best method for solving creative problems. It facilitates generation of ideas quickly. Rules for conducting Brain storming. 1. No response is wrong. So welcome every response. 2. Welcome as many responses as possible 3. No criticism is allowed

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Printing Technology 4. Allow to work on others idea Steps in Brain storming 1. Presentation of the problem 2. Provide relevant information 3. Record the ideas put forth by the participants 4. Combine similar ideas 5. Evaluate each idea and solution 6. Selection of the best solution If brainstorming is used as an instruction strategy, the last step is not essential 8. Discussion Discussion is essential for the student to share new finding, idea and conclusion at each stage of learning with follow students and teachers. In general discussion the teachers should guide the discussion though questioning and summarizing. The major steps involved are 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction initiated by the teacher Development of discussion by giving lead points and follow up interactions Transaction stage in which the key points are reviewed by the teacher and Summarizing stage in which teacher provides additional support materials to ensure the achievement of the objectives

9.Group Discussion Group discussion is an ideal method to develop Co-operation, democratic attitude, friendliness and compromising attitude which are the ultimate aims of education. During group discussion the teacher may observe each group and it needed help them to Channel the discussion towards the common objectives. All students may be given opportunity to take part and express their ideas within a time limit. The conclusion reached may be entered by each students. A group representative must present this during consolidation in which the teacher may correct or add informations to ensure that all the relevant ideas have been covered 10. Collection Collection is a continuous learning activity, which ensure complete participation of students. The Collected item may be materials, pictures, charts, ideas, data etc. Collection provides direct experience to learn. An exhibition of collected materials will help to strengthen the concept.

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11. Practical works Experimentation contains the process skill in an integrated way. In the new approach of curriculum the student forms idea and comes to conclusion though process. The term Practical when associated with a science subject usually means an experiment. The objective of doing a experiment is to explore new ideas though investigation only. Its main purpose is to verify some principles associated with theory. The Subjects ends here. But this is not the case with Vocational Practical The ultimate goal of a Vocational Education is to generate skill through continuous practice along with investigation and invention. Continuous practice transforms the unskilled to the skilled. This is the significance and importance of practicals in the Vocational stream. Hence it is very crucial that Vocational teachers as well as instructor should understand the importance of vocational practical and act accordingly. 12. Quiz Quiz programmes can be used as an interesting class room tool for transaction of curriculum objectives as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of transaction and achievement of students. For conducting a quiz programme a topic should be selected based on the above objective The students are asked to prepare question based on the topic individually. The next day / next hour the students are grouped into 3-4 groups randomly. A question is raised by a particular team and the other teams to answer them if they can answer the question they get points for that if all other teams fail to answer the question raised by the 1St team the 1st team answer the question and explain the background if necessary. All the teams get equal number of chance to ask the question . Time limit is also prescribed for the conduction of the programme. The team who scores maximum points wins All the participants can make notes on the questions asked answer and their explanation which help them in learning 13. Models Models are used in learning process. It enhanced the leaning experience. This is based on the seeing is believing. It helps the learner a chance to see feel the model presented . Still models and working models help the students to understand the structure , working principles, actual operation etc. Several steps are involved 1. Feeling the problem 2. The teacher should plan the type of model according to cos

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Printing Technology 3. 4. Grouping the students Briefing the tasks - Aim - Need - Material required - Source & Materials - Cost of materials - Division of Labour - Guidance - Fixing of a time limit

5. Presentation y each group about (A) How the models were prepared (B) Details of - Expenses working and principles Finally Documentation of the process 6. Evaluation - By the other groups later a consolidation by teachers are to be done. 14. Games Class rooms can be made attractive by introducing different types of games. Games should be interesting as well as informative some of suitable games are 1. Odd man out 2. Cross word puzzles 3. Match the following 4. Aswamedham 5. Link game Answer using clues. 15. Survey This strategy involves collection of data from the group under study (book, person, materials etc.) It develop the social interaction and communication ability of the learner. It also provide a scope for discovery learning.

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Step involved in survey Objective of survey Selection of area for survey/sampling frame Selection of survey method wDirect method wWith help of questionnaire/schedule Tabulation and analysis Consolidation and Presentation 16. Exhibition It is a learning strategy by which the learner can get a chance to show the skill developed. It provides the intrinsic motivation and exposure. Exhibition item can be conducted either individually or as a group task. It can be conducted at school / Regional/State/National Level. Necessary publicity and other arrangement can be provided. Presentation, documentation participation and innovative skills of the learner can be evaluated. 17. Interview Interview is one of the important learning strategy taking the help of a resource person. Interview is an interview. It provide opinion and information about a topic. An interview is conducted by the following steps 1. How to introduce a problem? 2. Invite a resource person 3. Decide the questions by learners 4. Decide the time, place etc. 5. How to discuss 6. How many students to participate 7. Implementation of the interview 8. Conclusion (Facilitator) Items required 1. Interview Schedule List of question prepared by learners Selection of students, selected names sequence of question 18. Field Visit Field visit is an inevitable vocational tool to be implemented in vocational Higher Secondary Education. This helps the students to familarise with the modern technologies and new situation in a different atmosphere. It provides learning though viewing. It is based on the principle that seeing is better than having. It enables the learning to retain the learned informations longer and to make the subject more interesting. It motivates and give more confidence in his/her particular vocation.
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Printing Technology The facilitation should identify suitable center/ institution/site. Get prior permission from the authorities before conducting the field visit. Give instructions to the learners for collection datas/ informations/materials/Specimens. Teacher may assign different duties to learners by working them different groups. Each learner should take utmost care and interest during the visit. He/She should observe and interact at the center/ institution where the field visit is conducted After the visit, learner should acquire the ability to apply the ideas/concepts in his future carrier. Each learner should submit a detailed report about the field visit. 19. Demonstration Though demonstration we can present an item/product and emphasis its features very effectively Eg:- To understand the functioning of a computer 1. Material/Item/Process 2. Demonstration 3. Venue 4. Additional requirements depending upon the nature of the item Demonstration Process 1. Introduction about the item/Material 2. Principles Working 3. Operation 4. Components 5. Merits of the item 20. Chart display It is also one of the important teaching aid. It can be used in every activities of a learning process. Chart display is a written or pictorial representation of idea or concept. It is abbreviate brief and clear. It is prepared by study Benefits 1. A learner gets clear idea about the concept 2. The leaner can retain the ideas in his mind for longer periods 3. A complicated idea can be simplified though a chart 4. Cheap method of teaching aid.

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CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES
UNIT 1 PAPER 1. 2. To understand the items paper, board etc and their classification through discussion, sample collection and prepare note. To acquire knowledge about International and Indian standard paper sizes and its nomenclature through discussion, chart presentation, demonstration, collection of data, lab work and prepare note, Lab diary / or Record book/. To understand paper calculations and wastage through discussion calculation, chart, presentation, and prepare note, To acquire knowledge about paper making process through discussion, field visit; prepare field visit report and note. To understand properties affecting paper through discussion, sample collection and prepare note. To understand handling of paper in the press room through discussion, field visit; prepare field visit report and note.

3. 4. 5. 6.

UNIT 2 INK 1. To understand printing ink and its ingredients and colour mixing through discussion, sample presentation, labwork and prepare note, record book. 2. To understand properties of ink through discussion , sample presentation and prepare note. 3. To acquire knowledge about new generation of inks and their chemical properties through discussion, ink sample presentation and prepare note. 4. To understand various ink drying methods through discussion, sample presentation of ink, printed products and prepare note. UNIT 3 PRESS DEVELOPMENTS 1. 2. 3. To understand the development of printing presses through discussion, chart , field visit, prepare field visit report and note. To understand principles and classification of offset presses through discussion, chart presentation, field visit; prepare field visit report and note. To understand operation of feeder unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart , lab work; prepare field visit report , note and record book.

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Printing Technology 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. To understand and apply the function and importance of registration unit through discussion demonstration, chart presentation, lab work ; prepare note and record book. To understand printing unit and cylinder configuration through discussion lab demonstration, chart presentation field visit, lab work, prepare field visit report and note, record book. To understand the inking unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart, lab work, and ; prepare note and record book To understand and apply the function of damping unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart; lab work and; prepare note and record. To understand delivery unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart, lab work and prepare note and record book

UNIT 4 OFFSET PRESS OPERATION 1. 2. 3. 4. To understand feeding of paper through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, and Record book. To acquire knowledge about preparing the printing unit through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, record book To apply starting up and proofing through discussion, demonstration lab work and prepare note and record book. To understand the cleanup procedures through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, record book.

UNIT 5 ROLLER AND BLANKET -PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To familiarise the function of roller and blanket problems through discussion, prepare note.. To understand plate and blanket adjustments and packing through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note record book. To understand inking and damping roller unit adjustment through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, record book. To acquire knowledge about common press concerns with damping solution and its pH value through discussion, demonstration lab work, prepare note,record book. To understand ink and paper considerations for offset printing through seminar and prepare report.

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UNIT 6 MULTICOLOUR SHEET FED PRESSES 1. 2. 3. 4. To understand multicolour sheet-fed presses through discussion, chart, demonstration, field visit, slide presentation, Lab work; prepare field visit report and note, record book. To make awareness about perfecting presses through discussion, chart, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. To understand multicolour presses monitoring and control system through discussion, field visit, demonstration, lab work; prepare field visit report and note and record book To familiarise the press console through discussion, field visit, demonstration, lab work; prepare field visit report and note and record book. To apply press concerns and colour on sheet-fed through discussion demonstration charts, lab work and prepare note, record book. To understand sequence of colours and registration control for multi-colour printing through discussion, sample collection, progressive proof, field visit, demonstration , lab work; prepare field visit report and note and record book To acquire knowledge about quality control devices through discussion sample collection, field visit, prepare demonstration, labwork, field visit report, note and record book.

UNIT 7 PRINTING PROCESS COLOUR ON SHEET FED OFFSET PRESSES 1. 2.

3.

UNIT - 8 WEB OFFSET PRESSES 1. To understand web-offset presses and different types through discussion, chart, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. 2. To acquire knowledge about components of web presses through discussion, chart, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. 3. To familiarise press console through discussion, chart, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. UNIT - 9 TROUBLE SHOOTING 1. 2. 3. To understand defects in paper and its remedy through discussion, sample presentation, lab work; prepare note, b diary . To understand defects in ink and its remedy through discussion, sample, presentation , lab work and prepare note and record book. To understand defects and remedies of printing through discussion, sample presentation, lab work, and prepare note and record book.

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Printing Technology 4. To understand and apply press maintenance and lubrication through discussion, demonstration, field visit, lab work, and prepare note and record book.

UNIT - 10 SCREEN PRINTING 1. 2. 3. To understand the basic concepts, classification type of stencils, fabric and frame preparation through discussion demonstration labwork and prepare note record book. To acquire knowledge about photographic stencil through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record book. To get awareness about squeegee, substrates, ink consideration and basic registration techniques in screen printing through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record book. To acquire knowledge about masking the stencil through discussion demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record book. To understand idea about multicolour printing in screen printing through discussion demonstration, lab work, and prepare note and record book To understand half tone reproduction through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record book To familiarize high speed production presses through discussion and chart presentation and prepare note. To acquire knowledge about machine configuration through discussion, field visit and chart presentation and prepare note.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

UNIT- 11 OTHER PRINTING PROCESS 1. 2. To understand, flexography printing through discussion, chart, sample collection, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. To understand and apply xerography printing through discussion, chart, sample presentation, field visit, lab work; prepare field visit report, note and record book.

UNIT -12 FINISHING OPERATIONS 1. 2. To understand binding and its classification through discussion, sample, chart and prepare note To acquire knowledge about warehouse and its functions through discussion, field visit and prepare field visit report and note

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

To familiarise tools and equipments used in binding through discussion, presentations and prepare note. To understand materials, its selection, care and use through discussion, presentation and prepare note. To understand different types of sewing through discussion, sample, chart, demonstration and lab work prepare note and record book. To understand and apply automation in binding through discussion, chart, demonstration, lab work, field visit, prepare field visit report, note and record book. To acquire knowledge about account book binding through discussion, sample, lab work prepare note and record book. To understand and apply publishers binding through discussion, sample, lab work and prepare note, record book. To understand different styles of binding through discussion, sample, lab work and prepare note. To understand and apply repairing works of book through discussion, demonstration, lab work ; prepare note and record book. To acquire knowledge about estimating the materials required for particular work through an assignment and present in the form of a report

UNIT - 13 PRINTING AND PACKAGING


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To understand the materials, properties application and advantageous of packaging through sample collection, discussion, field visit, prepare field visit report and note. To understand about flexible packaging and flexible laminates through sample collection, field visit, discussion, prepare field visit report and note. To understand ink and solvent used in packaging industry through sample collection discussion, and prepare note. To acquire idea about special packages through sample collection discussion, and prepare note. To understand various processes of paper and aboard package through a seminar. To acquire idea about forme making, cutting, creasing and make ready operations through field visit, discussion, demonstration, practical work; prepare field visit report note and record book. To understand corrugated, fibre, board and rigid boxes through sample collection, chart and prepare note.

7.

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Printing Technology 8. To understand selection of materials used for packing through sample collection, and discussion and prepare note. UNIT 14 BASIC ENGINEERING 1. To understand the characteristics of direct current and alternative through discussion, chart and prepare note. 2. To familiarise motors and transformers through discussion, chart and prepare note 3. To understand basic electronic circuits through discussion, chart and prepare note. 4. To get an idea about the characteristics of principles of mechanical components through discussion chart and prepare note. 5. To familiarise the characteristics of hydraulics and pneumatics through discussion, chart and prepare note. 6. To understand the electrical, electronics, mechanical and pneumatic parts of a printing machine through an assignment.

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SYLLABUS - THEORY
UNIT 1 PAPER Paper and board-different classification appearance-thickness-size-Ream Basis weight-M weight-durability-types of papers-International and Indian paper sizes-cutting machine, paper calculation and wastage-quantity of paper-wastage of paper-paper making process-properties affecting paper-printability-Runnability-Handling of paper (9 hours) UNIT 2 INK Ingredients of ink-its nature-pigment vehicle-Additives-Ink mixing-Properties of ink-Tackviscosity-colour-hue-drying characteristics-methods of measuring-new generation of ink and chemical properties-New trends and developments-water based ink for flexography -Ink drying methods(9 hours) UNIT 3 PRESS DEVELOPMENTS Development of Printing Presses, Platen press to Rotary Press-Lithography to offset-Basic and working principle of offset-classification-hydrophilic and oleophilic nature, Feeder unit-partsloading system, Type of feeder-feeder control-sheet dictators-Registration unit-Feed board equipments-lay adjustments- grippers printing unit- Impression cylinder adjustment-cylinder configuration-impression control-cylinder gears-inking unit-classification-configuration-Roller cleaning-Damping unit-conventional and non conventional-Damping roller covering-Damper roller cleaning Delivery unit-pile control-Types-Skeleton wheel-Ancillary operation (10 hours)

UNIT 4 OFFSET PRESS OPERATION


Feeding of paper-fanning-wedges Adjusting pile height-Adjusting the air blats-Adjustingregistration system-delivery side guides-make ready procedures preparing the printing unit-Adjusting

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Printing Technology ink feed-Adjusting ink fountain-Adjusting water feed Attaching the plate-starting up inking the plate-press proofing-lays and cylinder adjustment clean up procedure of plate, blanket, Damping, inking and impression cylinder (10 hours) UNIT 5 ROLLER AND BLANKET -PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS Roller and Blanket problems-Roller and Blanket caring-various blankets-hardness of Blanketplate packing Blanket packing-under cut-Depression gap-cylinder bearers-Adjustment of plate cylinder to Blanket cylinder-inking rollers arrangements-its settings-Damping roller arrangementits setting-setting of forme roller to the plate cylinder-fountain solution for damping-pH of damping solution-alcoholic Damping-Ink and paper consideration (12 hours) UNIT 6 MULTICOLOUR SHEET FED PRESSES Two colour machine-Four colour machine working-blanket-to-blanket-press monitoring-control system-Density values Dot gain- Ink trapping-print contrast console computer (8 hours) UNIT 7 PRINTING PROCESS COLOUR ON SHEET FED OFFSET PRESSES Process colour-Multi colour printing press concerns-process inks-Transparent and opaque inksequence of colour Registration and its importance-checking and controlling-Registration-quality control-devices-star target-control strip-Dot gain scale- slur gangue Densitometer (10 hours) UNIT 8 WEB OFFSET PRESSES Working principle-general features parts-paper feeding, infeed registration-printing unit-delivery units-Blanket-to-Blanket-CIC-Inline Reel stand-splicer-web tension-Drier-Chiller-Folder-cutterAuxiliary equipments-press console (10 hours) UNIT 9 TROUBLE SHOOTING

Paper defects-curl paper tail end hook-picking-linting-dusting show through-Geasing-strike

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through static electricity-ink defects-poor drying mottle-grain ness-emulsification-set off printing defects-image wear-image blinding-dot gain-catch up-scum-tinting slur-ghosting-doubling-hickiesmaintenance preventive-periodical-lubrication-types characteristics and application-press room chemicals (9 hours) UNIT - 10 SCREEN PRINTING Porous printing process-Basic concept classification-stencil-fabrics-frame preparation-frame stitching technique, stencil preparation-direct and indirect-exposure-developer-drying-squeegee inksubstrate-basic registration techniques on and off contract printing-printing the stencil-maskingliquid block out mask steps and procedures for multi colour printing troubles and trouble shooting of dogged screens half tone reproduction-moir pattern-high speed presses-semi automatic and automatic presses-configuration (10 hours) UNIT - 11 OTHER PRINTING PROCESS Flexography-in feed-printing unit out feed unit-plates-rubber and photo polymer plates-steps and procedure xerography-charring -exposure-development transfer-fixing cleaning (6 hours) UNIT - 12 FINISHING OPERATIONS Binding-stages-letter press binding stationary binding-ware house and its functions-tool and equipments-material and its selection care and use type of sewing-automation in binding-guillotine folding machine-perforator-creasers-slitter Binding machine-gathering machine-perfect binding machine ,case making machine, lamination machine, account book binding-publishers binding styles of binding-book repairing-overcast sewing procedures-estimating the materials (13 hours) UNIT - 13 PRINTING AND PACKAGING Materials, properties, application-advantages of packaging flexible packaging-flexible laminatesadvantages-different materials-characteristics-ink and solvent used ink storage and handling-special properties of ink-special packages, paper and board packages-carton styles design-form makingcutting-creasing-make ready-corrugated-fibre board-rigid box-selection of materials (12 hours)

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Printing Technology UNIT - 14 BASIC ENGINEERING Emf-current-potential difference-resistance-ohms law-electric power and energy electro magnetism and magnetic flux-Faradays laws of electro magnetism-fundamentals of alternate current and its circuit-three phase induction motor-transformer-intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductors-semi conductor diode-bi-polar Junction transistor. Nuts bolts, screws, studs, keys, cotters lever shaft, gears, cam and follower, plane bush, ball and roller bearings, chain and sprockets, soldering, rivetted joints cultches and brake, lubrication, maintenance, viscosity demulsibility and stability, mechanical , electrical, electronics and pneumatic parts of a printing machine. (12 hours)

SYLLABUS - PRACTICALS
UNIT-1 PAPER Operation of cutting machine -Parts of cutting machine -Precaution to handle the machine -Cutting procedures (15 hours) UNIT-2 INK Ink mixing-primary colour-secondary colour- tertiary colour- opaque ink transparent ink (15 hours) UNIT-3 PRESS DEVELOPMENTS Operation of feeder unit-pile height governor, blowers, suckers, forwarding roller loading systemsheet separation-sheet dictator Operation of registration unit-conveyor tapes-conveyor assemblies-rotary brush wheels-trailing brushes-ball control assemblies-front lay-side lay-gripper-operation of printing unit-plate cylinder blanket cylinder-impression cylinder -impression control-cylinder gears Inking unit-ink duct-fountain roller set of screw- distribution roller-forme rollers Damping unit-fountain roller feed roller-forme roller-rider roller fountain solution Delivery unit-delivery pile control, skeleton wheels-joggers-anti-set-off spray-perforation-settingnumbering (40 hours)
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UNIT-4 OFFSET PRESS OPERATION Feeding the paper-blind feeding fanning-using wedges-adjust pile height, adjust air blast; adjust registration grippers-adjust delivery side guides Preparing the printing unit-adjusting ink feed-adjusting ink fountain-water feed-attaching plate Starting up and proofing-inking, press proofing-paper ink balance-lays cylinder arrangements Cleaning up procedures of plate, blanket impression, inking and damping-automatic wash up mechanical clean up (45 hours) UNIT-5 ROLLER AND BLANKET- PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS Roller and blanket caring-roller and blanket problems-plate packing-blanket packing-setting of plate cylinder adjustment of plate cylinder to blanket cylinder-roller settings inking unit Roller setting in damping unit-preparing damping solution (40 hours) UNIT-6 MULTI COLOUR SHEET FED PRESSES Press monitoring-control system-register-dot gain-doubling-console computer (45 hours) UNIT-7 PRINTING PROCESS-COLOUR ON SHEET FED PRESSES Multi colour printing-press, concerns for a multi colour-sequence of colours-registration quality control (45 hours) UNIT-8 WEB-OFFSET PRESSES Adopt Industrial Training (20 hours)

UNIT-9 TROUBLE SHOOTING Paper defects and remedies, ink defects and remedies, printing defects and remedies, press maintenance and lubrication, press room chemicals. (20 hours)

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Printing Technology UNIT-10 SCREEN PRINTING Frame preparation-direct and indirect stenciling method-stencil exposure stencil developer-printing stencil-registration techniques-masking-multi colour printing-half tone printing (30 hours) UNIT-11 OTHER PRINTING PROCESS Components of flexography-flexographic plate-steps and procedures-xerography steps and procedures (15 hours) UNIT-12 FINISHING OPERATIONS Binding operation-wire stitching-thread sewing (flexible and double flexible)-tape sewing-sawn in sewing-folding machine-perforator creaser-slitter-gathering machine-perfect binding machinelamination machine-bundling machine- account book binding publishers binding-styles-cut flesh turned in-quarter cloth leather, half cloth , leather full cloth and leather overcast sewing procedures-calculation of paper, board, calico, fancy paper, leather, tape etc. (70 hours) UNIT-13 PRINTING AND PACKAGING

Forme making-cutting-creasing-make ready-rigid box-corrugated-board (20 hours)

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PLANNING
To make Printing Technology Education activity based, we have to provide learning experiences that would help to develop process skills and components of multiple intelligence. Whether the activities are conducted in the class or outside, they are to be completed in a time bound manner. The facilitator has to plan the activities necessary to make learning effective time required, evaluation methods and all other aspects. Facilitator must prepare at least three planning documents. Year plan Unit plan Daily plan

1. Y plan ear The year plan will include the total number of units to be transacted through the academic year i.e. the three terms, units to be covered during each month and the number of period required for each unit. A model of year plan is given below

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YEAR PLAN

Ist TERM

II nd TERM

IIIrd TERM

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Terms
Theory Practical

Month

Unit

Name of unit

Periods

Total

June 2
July 4 August September October 7 6 8 5 Roller and blanket problems and its adjustment Multi colour sheet fed presses 12 Offset press operation 10 45 40 45 3 Press developments 10 40

1 Ink 9 15

Paper

15

24 24
50 55 52 53

Printing Technology

November December January February 12 13 14 Total

8 9 10 11 Finishing operations Printing and packaging Basic engineering

Printing process - colour on sheet fed offset presses Web-offset process Troubleshooting Screen printing Other printing process

10 10 9 10 6 13 12 12 140

45 20 20 30 15 70 20

55 30 29 40 21 83 32 12 420 560

2. UNIT PLAN Facilitator may prepare unit plan before actual transaction of the unit in the classroom. This plan must make clear the curriculum objective, intended, periods required for transaction of these objectives, instructional strategies to be used and materials required. How the output is to be evaluated may also be spelt out. Unit analysis for each unit given in the source book may be utilized for preparing unit plan. A model of unit plan is given below:-

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UNIT PLAN 1- PAPER Activities Learning materials Various types of papers Learners participation on collection Subject diary Skill to cut paper Sample collection Subject diary Lab diary/ Record books Subject diary 1 hr 2 hrs Evaluation Time

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Curriculum objective Group discussion based on samples of various papers collected Discussion Sample collection Chart presentation Lab works Different paper sizes Reference books Various sizes of paper Cahrt, Referencebooks Hand made and ,achine made papers, Reference books, Internet Specimen papers, Reference books RH meter PH meter Reference books Internet

Printing Technology

1.To understand paper, boards and different classification

2. To acquireknowledge about Intrnational and Indian standard paper sizes and its nomenclature

3 hrs

Field visit

1 hr

3. To understand paper Discussion calculation and wastage Calculation Chart presentation 4. To Acquire knowledge Discussion Field visit about paper making process Discussion 5. To understand properties affecting paper

Subject diary

1 hr

6. To understand Handling Discussion of paper in pressroom Field visit

Field visit report, Subject diary

1 hr

3. DAILY PLAN

The daily plan help to transact the curriculum objectives during class period, learning activities, learning aids and feedback. Daily plan for unit 1. Paper: Date CO: to understand paper, board and different classifications Learning Materials: Various types of papers, reference books Activity Response Class:.......

Discussion Sample collections

Signature of Principal

Signature of Teacher

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Printing Technology

EVALUATION
Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, synthesizing and interpreting evidences of students progress and achievements both in cognitive and non-cognitive areas of learning. Evaluation has to play significant role in making the learning process more effective. It provides diverse experiences to the learners, keeping in view the skill to be attained continuously by them. As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation in the selected stream is the most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. Technical skills, interest and devotion in the field, communication skills, organizational and presentation skills are to be evaluated. Evaluation of the personal and social qualities also should be done. So the evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive. Terminal or Term End Evaluation (TE) It is the written form of evaluation aimed at evaluating the facts, concepts and ideas gained by the learner. The test should not be aimed to evaluate the memory alone. Questions are framed in such a way that the learners are able to apply different mental process while answering. The Terminal Evaluation questions give more emphasis on application, analysis and synthesis level. The maximum scores for TE is 80 and the minimum is 24 (30%). The questions should be formulated taking into consideration the time required to read, think, understands and write answers. These aspects should be considered while fixing the scores also. To avoid blind guessing, multiple choice and application level questions may be mixed. The total number of questions may vary from time to time. All the questions should be based on the curricular objectives. Open ended questions but the choice questions also should be based on the same curricular objectives. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) Our traditional evaluation method measures only the memory and recollection capacity of the learner. To eliminate/ overcome the limitation the evaluation should be done on multi dimensional ways by measuring multiple intellectual capacities of the learner. So it is better to evaluate the learner in a continuous and comprehensive manner. CCE helps the learner to understand and develop adequate his own progress and to develop adequate strategies for further improvement.

50

Merits Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis through a variety of activities. Effective feed back is possible Remedial diagnostic teaching is possible Process as well as products are assessed. A series of learning activities are grouped into five major thrust areas as follows 1) Investigative activities

Activities which create a spirit of enquiry, investigation and a mind for research in the learner belongs to this group for example. 2) Study project Case study Field study Interactive activities Activities which improve the communication skill, activities of sharing ideas, etc. For eg: 3) Seminar Panel discussion Debate Group discussion Assigned task Activities assigned to the learners to enrich/ strengthen the concept and ideas.

For eg: Assignment Collections

51

Printing Technology 4) Performance task (Tests)

Activities related to the achievements of the learner. For eg: Class test (oral/ written/ performance test) Quiz Open book examination Interview Group testing 5) Practical based activities Preparation of working model Album Improvisation

From the above five group of activities, the teacher has the freedom to choose any four areas for evaluation purpose. 1. Investigative Activities

52

1. STUDY PROJECT

53

Printing Technology

2. CASE STUDY
Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6. Debate 1 2 3 4 5 Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify the stand Presentation 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 Criteria Identifying the problem Approach to the problem Time bound Action Analysis of the problem Problem solving / Reporting Attitude and readiness towards the task Capacity for Observation Data collection Application of ideas Documentation / Recording Awareness of the content Comprehensiveness of the content Systematic and sequential arrangement Observation/suggestion/views/judgment/evaluation Timely Submission Planning and Organization Collection and data / content Observation / appraisal and clarity Content knowledge Presentation Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 Total Scores

20

3. Field study

20

4. Assignment

20

5. Seminar

20

20

54

7. Group discussion 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 9. Quiz 1 2 3 4 5 Preparation of Questions Relavance of Questions Presentation Active participation Time management 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify in a democratic way Leadership quality Planning Preparation of Questions Communication skill Participation Report preparation 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1

20

8. Interview

20

20

10. Collection 1 2 3 4 5 collecion of materials/ Documents Relavance and comprehensive uses Presentation Awareness of the content Time bound progress of work at each stage 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1

20

55

Printing Technology

Practical Evaluation (PE)


The goal of vocational Education is to generate skills through continuous practices along with investigation and innovations. Continues and comprehensive practice transforms the unskilled learner to a skilled one. This is the importance and significance of vocational practicals. PE is done to evaluate the practical skills achieved by the learner in the concerned vocational subject Total Scores for PE is 150 and minimum is 60 score ie 40%. Practical Examination is conducted for a batch of 8 learners having 6 hours duration. Practical evaluation should be done taking into account the whole practicals included in the curriculum since Learning of practical skills is a continuous process through out the period of study. The scholastic area includes those area in which the learner attains the knowledge and skill based on curriculum.This leads to create more interest on areas of subject. Emphasis should be given to each topic for learning activity and to develop skills.In practical examination, the external examiners should be able to evaluate the skills that are attained by learning experiences.The practical examination question paper also activity based.

In practical examination , the student capability on basic skills in printing technology to be examined.Questions are to be framed in such a way that it should evaluate the practical skills and knowledge in Print production techniques.The teacher / examiner prepares a bunch of question papers covering the syllabus and each student should be given a question randomly to write the steps/procedures for making models / experiments in the questions.The procedures and tools required are to be verified and students are allowed to do it in the laboratory. Once the student has completed the work, the teacher checks for its correctness and clarity of output and scores are awarded.A proper record of the work done in the laboratory should be maintained in the lab diary or lab record.Separate Lab diary should be used for recording the first year and second year works.Valuation of the Lab diary will be done at the time of PE

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No Evaluation Indicators 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Identifying Tools/ Materials, Instruments Preparation of layout and handling of tools and equipments

Percentage 10% 15%

Score 15 22.5 22.5 30 22.5 22.5 15 150

Estimating Material, Study of parts Equipments and Procedure 15% Accuracy / Working skills Calculation/ Result Viva-voce Record / Lab dairy Total 20% 15% 15% 10% 100%

Vocational Competency Evaluation (VCE)


Vocational Competency Evaluation is to evaluates the vocational skill and aptitude developed by the students during the learning process. This is a system to judiciously evaluate the required value addition and consequent capacity building in the concerned vocational curriculum. The vocational education is aimed at developing interest, skills and devotion in specific vocational fields. As other evaluation components like CE. PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competence and professional skills, acquired by the students an internship evaluation (IE) components has been introduced to meet this requirement. Internship evaluation should be done based on the following components like regularity and punctuality, value addition and capacity building. 1. Regularity and punctuality Regularity and punctuality has vital role in vocational education learning continuous process, the regular presence of the Learner is must for attaining maximum efficency. 2. Value Addition Value addition is the qualitative measure of the learners interest, devotion perseverance and efficiency. Value addition can be evaluated through conducting field visits/ vocational survey. The experiences gained through field visit / vocational survey increases the level of intrinsic motivation and positive attitude towards the vocational field and thereby increase his value as a semiprofessional. 3. Capacity Building It gives a quantitative measure of the students skill in graded area exposure. Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following activities. 1. OJT / Simulated experiment

57

Printing Technology Performance camp/exhibition/clinic Performance PCT/Service cum Training center. These components help the learner to practice the acquired skills in the real situation and thereby increasing self-confidence and promoting self reliance. Vocational Competency Evaluation Indicators No 1. 2. 3. Items Regularity and punctuality Field visit / survey (anyone) vocational project OJT/Simulated experiment performance Camp/exhibition/clinicPerformance PSCTC (anyone)/Practical skills TOTAL Scores 10 20 2. 3.

20 50

1.

Regularity and punctuality can be assessed by using attendance of the learner and time bound completion of tasks. It is evaluated by using 5 point grading system. Rating Scale

Sl.No 1.

Items Regularity

1 Never regular Never punctual

2 After regular Often punctual

3 Equally regular Usually punctual

2.

Puntuality

4 Most of the time regular Most of the time punctual

5 Always regular Always punctual

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Iitem Regularity and punctuality Value addition

Evaluation indicators

Scores

Score 10

Field visit 1.Attitude and readiness towards the task 2. Capacity for observation 3.Data collection 4.Application of ideas 5. Documentation/recording Or Survey 1.Planning 2.Data collection 3.Consolidation of data and analysis 4.Drawing inference 5.Reporting OJT/Simulated experiment 1.Involvement/participation 2.Skills in doing work/ communication skills 3.Time bound action 4.Capacity for observation, analysis and innovation 5.Documentation, recording and display Or Performance in camp/exhibition/clinic 1.Ability for planning and organizing 2.Mastery of subject 3.Ability for communication 4.Innovation 5.Involvement/social commitment Or Performance in production/service cum training center (PSCTC) 1.Mastery of vocational skills 2.Managerial capacity 3.Promoting self confidence 4.Innovation approach Promoting self reliance

4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1

Capacity Building

4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1

20

4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1


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Printing Technology

CRITERIA FOR PROMOTION


A minimum of 80% attendance is required to register for the public examination. Those who are having at least 65% can apply for condo nation from higher authorities. Those who have shortage of attendance below 65% should repeat the second year. The students should obtain minimum 30% score in all subjects separately in TE. In first year if the student failed to obtain 30% minimum score in any subject he will be promoted and will be given chance for improvement. The students should obtain a minimum of 40% score in the vocational practical Evaluation (PE) that is 60 out 150 score. If a student fails to attain the minimum required score for TE and secure minimum score for pass in TE, he need not reappear for practical examination and vice versa. A minimum of 30% is required forVCE. The component other than regularity and punctuality can be improved before the end of academic year for those who fail to attain this minimum. Chances will be given for improvement of the TE, PE,VCE for those who fail to attain the minimum even after formal completion of course. Course certificate will be issued to students who have successfully completed part-I and II . A learner is eligible for higher studies provided they secure minimum scores in all subjects including part III

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MONITORING AND SUPPORTING SYSTEM


Supporting System In learner centered vocational education, a learning methodology has to be organized and a proper learning atmosphere is to be provided. Many organizations can support the learning activity. They are:1) School Resource Group (SRG) Comprising all teachers (vocational and non vocational) instructors, and lab assistants with academic head as the group leader. 2) School support Group (SSG) Comprising PTA president, members of local bodies, members of social clubs, subject experts etc who can contribute guidance /technology /infrastructure /financial assistance etc. 3) Parent Teacher Association (PTA) Can provide adequate funds for field trips, production cum training centers (PCTC), exhibition, On Job training (OJT) etc. 4) Local bodies Grama Panchayat, District Panchayat and Block Panchayat can provide infrastructure ie, class rooms, laboratory, library, seminar hall, audiovisual equipment etc. 5) Subject club All vocational teachers handling same vocational subjects should form a subject at regional level or district level. This will helps to share the knowledge and practical facilities, production and marketing of materials, service etc. 6) Based on the excellency, district wise nodal schools may be selected to provide facilities like central library, museums, video conferencing etc. 7) Institution Industry Interaction Project (III P) This should be implemented in every institution to update knowledge. This also helps for OJT , PSTC and field visit. Monitoring system Education is a kind of journey from darkness to light satisfying the needs and the wants of the individual and the society. The modernization of education through activity oriented system enhances

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Printing Technology free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. It is a qualitative process not a quantitative one this necessitates a proper monitoring system. The system of monitoring should have the following features. 1) It must be transparent 2) It must enrich the ideas of the facilitator through innovative process 3) It must be time bound and rational 4) It must motive the facilitator to adopt new strategies 5) It must be recordable and ensure effective feedback for the effective monitoring of the system, three levels of the mechanism should be setup. 1. School level monitoring group 2. Regional level monitoring group 3. State level monitoring group Moreover a social auditing system is advisable to attain the objective effectively. Features of learning process in the new system of education In the new system of education the learning process should be modified in such a way as to enable the learner to construct the knowledge of his own through observation, co-operation, problem solving, social interaction etc. The learning process should consider the nature ability, social setup, inborn talents and subject selected by the learner. Therefore the learning process should be, A continuous mental process Simple learner must feel that he is able to undertake the task Enable the learner to attain the curriculum objective Interesting Suitable to the age and attitude of the learner Future possibilities Enable group activity Challenging Time bound Constructive and curiosity developing Possibilities for evaluation Capacity to generate independent thinking Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena.

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Learning Aids To make the teaching and learning process simple and effective , certain learning aids and necessary use of such aids are transacting a complex idea makes the class room live and students get more and more involved. The advances in science and technology may be effectively utilized for this purpose. Some of the learning aids listed below. Multimedia Over Head Projector Computer Internet Liquid Crystal display Projector TV, VCD, DVD and tape recorders Working models Charts Slides Video Conferencing facility Library Text book Source book SOCIETY The new educational policy uplifts the social commitment of the learner. Therefore the society can also give some valuable contributions in this changing situation. The new system also ensures that the learner can perform certain useful services for the betterment of society. The social obligations can be illustrated as follows. To enrich social values, aptitude and ability in learner To develop entrepreneurial aptitude and ability which helps social welfare and self employment New system of education adopts OJT, PSTC etc is a part of vocational curriculum which helps to make close contact with the society. The resources available from our society can be positively utilized to convene seminars, interview etc. Social organisations can help learners to make their education socially committed. The social clubs like NSS, Tourism club, CDO club, energy club etc functioning in schools can make direct link with the society.

63

Printing Technology

UNIT-1 PAPER
Introduction Paper is a substrate used to print, write, wrap etc. It is made from cellulose fibres of plants and is hygroscopic in nature i.e. affinity for water. Paper is a main raw material for printing, hence it has vital role in the field. Now-a-days different types of papers are available in colour and textures. Hand made and machine made papers are in the market to satisfy the customers needs. The Printing and Paper Industry accepted International paper sizes to standardize the measurements. This unit gives an awareness about paper and its properties like runnability and printability. The facilitator adopts strategies like discussion, demonstration, sample collection, field visit, chart presentation and lab work. Curriculum Objectives To understand the items paper board etc and their classification through discussion, sample collection and prepare note (Subject diary ) To acquire knowledge about International and Indian standard paper sizes and its nomenclature through discussion chart, demonstration and collection of data lab work and prepare note and record. To understand paper calculation and wastage through discussion, calculation, chart presentation and prepare note. To acquire knowledge about paper making process through discussion and field visit prepare field visit report and note. To understand properties affecting paper through discussion and prepare note To understand handling of paper in the press room through discussion field visit; prepare field visit report and note

64

1.1 Paper, board and classification Activities : Sample collection of different papers, boards, group discussion Learning materials Various types of papers, boards, reference books Divide the learners into small groups and introduce the collected sample Let them observe and identify Invite the learners awareness about the collected samples. Group discussion Discussion points - Appearance - colour and beauty - Thickness - Size - Ream - Basis- weight - M-weight - Life (durability) - Boards - Types of papers (news print, map litho, art paper etc.) Hand Out Basis Weight :Weight in pounds of one ream (500 Sheets) of the basic sheet size of a particular paper type. M weight:Weight of 1000 sheets of the basic sheet size of a particular paper type. A paper's M weight is twice its basis weight. Consolidation Paper, boards and its classification, weight etc. Product: Subject diary (class note) 1.2.Paper sizes Activities : Discussion, demonstration, sample collection, paper cutting Learning materials Different paper sizes, Reference books,

65

Printing Technology Discussion Points International and Indian paper sizes - Use cutting machine to sub divide the paper sizes Consolidation points National and international classification of papers Product: Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 1.3 Paper calculation and wastage Activities : Discussion, calculation Learning materials Various sizes of papers, chart, Reference books Discuss paper sizes in the learners groups Introduce quantity of papers for a particular job Wastage of paper for colour and black and white job Give example to calculate quantity of paper for a job Divide the learners into groups and discussion based on the collected samples Let them analyse dimensions of paper and identify Introduce paper cutting Observe and demonstrate

Discussion Points - Quantity of paper - Wastage of paper

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HandOut Paper Spoilage Allowances (Percentage Represents Press Size Sheets, Not Impressions)
Lithographic 1000 2500 5000 10,000 and over 5% 8% 3% 4% 8% 3% --3% 2% 4% 4% 6% 2% 3% 6% 2% 6% 8% 2% 2% 3% 3% 5% 2%
25,000

Single colour equipment One Colour one side 8% 6% One Colour, work-and- turn or work-and - tumble 13% 10% Each additional colour (per side) 5% 4% Two colour equipment Two colours, one side Two colours, two sides or work- and -turn Each additional Two colours ( Perside) Four colours equipment Four- Colours, One side only Four colours , two sides or work- and - turn Bindery Spoilage Folding,Stitching,Trimming Cutting, punching, or drilling Varnishing and gumming
Use the next higher percentage for the following papers. 1. Coated papers when plant does not usually run coates 2. Papers that caliper: 0025 and less 3. difficult papers such as foil, cloth,plastic etc..

------

5% -----

5% 2% 5% 7% 2% 2% 3%

4% 3% 2% 2% 7% 5%

Paper Calculation The quantity of paper required for any job can be calculated by using the following formula: Quantity of paper required In order to calculate the quantity of paper required for the production of a complete job in a particular size. , the following formula may be used.
No of pages in a copy X No of copies to be printed

Paper required in reams =


Section X 500

Where section = No.of pages obtained from one sheet of the required size of paper. For example : To find out the total quantity of paper required in 61 cm x 88cm size for the printing of 20,000 booklets in 210 mm x 297 mm size assuming that each booklet contains 24 pages? Since 16 pages of size 210 x 297 mm are obtained from one sheet of 61 x 88 cm size, the value of a section shall be 16. 24 x 20,000 Thereforre Paper required = = 60 Reams without wastage. 16
67

68
97.5-99.5% WATER 8 3 %WATER 6 7 %WATER 6 7 %WATER 2 0 %WATER 5 - 5 . 5 %WATER

Printing Technology

Head

WATER LINE

SCREENS

FIG: PAPER MANUFACTURING PLANT

FIG: STEPS OF PAPER MAKING Consolidation Paper calculation for a particular job Product: Subject diary 1.4 Paper making process Activities : Discussion, field visit Learning materials Hand made and machine made papers, reference books, Internet Discuss paper making process and its procedures Presentation of charts

69

Printing Technology Discussion Points Field visit Raw materials Pulping Stock preparation Paper making operations After treatments

Consolidation Paper making process Products: Subject diary , field visit report 1.5.Properties affecting paper Activity Discussion LearningMaterials Specimen of papers, Reference books Divide the learner into groups and discuss the runnability and printability of paper Discussion points - Runnability - Grain direction - Two sideness - Density - Moisture content - Flatness - Dimensional stability - Curling - Piling tendency - Paper dust - Smoothness - Brightness - Opacity - Gloss - Tensile strength - Bursting strength - Folding endurance

70

Tearing resistance Pick resistance Stiffness Internal bond strength Ink absorbency

Consolidation Properties affecting runnability and printability Product Subject diary 1.6. Handling of paper Activities Discussion, field visit Learning materials RH Meter , pH meter, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss handling of paper in the pressroom Conduct field visit and observe the warehouse room Discussion points - Temperature - Moisture conditioning of pressroom - Static electricity - RH of Pressroom - pH of paper - Handling of paper in the pressroom Consolidation Handling of paper Product Subject diary CE ITEMS Collection: collection of papers and boards. Field visit: 1 2 Field visit toapaper manufacturing unit Conduct field visit to see warehouse and its arrangements

71

Printing Technology TE ITEMS Sample questions 1 Identify the basic material of paper from the following a) b) c) 2 Plastic Cellulose fibre Fibre glass (1 score)

You visited Hindustan News Print factory Velloore, Kottayam to observe the paper manufacturing process. Introduce your ideas about the visit (6 scores) Your school anniversary is to be conducted in the next month. For this purpose an invitation notice of A4 size is needed with single colour printing of 1000 copies. Size of machine is dummy. Calculate the quantity of paper required in reams with wastage (6 scores) Paper is hygroscopic material in nature. Express your views about this opinion (3 scores)

3.

4.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. Operation of cutting machine

72

UNIT ANALYSIS 1 - PAPER


Theory Practical

Sl No

1 Observing Discussion, sample classifying comparing collection analyzing measuring raising questions Different paper sizes, reference books Subject diary Lab diary Record book/ Various types Collection, of papers, Subject diary boards, reference books

To understand Learn paper paper and their and its classifications classifications weight

Participation 2 in collection, hrs Subject diary (class note)

To acquire International Observing Discussion, and national classifying sample knowledge about Interna- paper sizes comparing collection tional and analyzing raising demonIndian standard questions stration, paper sizes and chart, paper cutting by its nomenclature machine To understand Identifying paper measuring calculations classifying and wastage analyzing raising questions Discussion Various sizes calculation of papers ,chart, charts presentation reference books

Sample 1 collection, hr Skill to cut paper Subject diary Lab diary Recordbook. International Participation 3 and national in collection, hrs sizes of Subject diary paper, Subject diary

15 hrs

To understand paper calculations and wastage

73

Theory

Printing Technology

To acquire knowledge about paper making process

Field visit Field visit 1 report , report, hr Subject diary Subject diary

SubjectDiary SubjectDiary 1 hr

Raw Identifying Discussion materials, Field visit pulping stock observing preparation, raising questions paper making operations, after treatments To understand Runnability Observing Discussion grain properties identifying affecting paper direction, two classifying sideness density, piling comparing measuring tendency moisture raising content, questions flatness, dimensional Inferring stability curling, picking, Hand made and machine made papers Reference books Internet Specimen of papers reference books, Handling of Observing paper in press room, identifying moisture measuring conditioning raising static electricity RH questions of press H room, P of paper Discussion, RH meter Field visit pH meter Reference books internet

To understand handling of paper in press room

Field visit Field visit 1 report, report, hr Subject diary Subject Diary

Practical

74

UNIT ANALYSIS
1- PAPER

Sl No

UNIT-2 INK
Introduction Ink forms images on the substrate while printing. Whatever may be the printing process, ink is transferred to the substrate from image carrier. All printing inks are made from three basic ingredients: pigment, vehicle and additives (driers) etc. This unit gives an over all idea on printing ink and it properties. The facilitator upholds various strategies like discussion, sample presentation, collection and lab work to the learners. Curriculum objectives To understand printing ink ingredients and colour mixing through discussion, sample presentation demonstration , lab work and prepare note and record. To understand properties of ink through discussion, sample presentation and prepare note. To acquire knowledge about new generation of inks and their chemical properties through discussion, ink sample presentation, and prepare note. To understand various ink drying methods through discussion, sample presentation, printed products and prepare note. 2.1 Printing ink and ingredients Activities: Discussion, sample presentation, demonstration lab works Learning materials Ink Samples, Reference books, Internet Divide the learns into groups and present ink samples. Observe the sample and let them discuss the ingredients . Introduce ink mixing procedure. Observe and do in the lab. Discussion points - Ink and its nature - Ingredients - Pigments

75

Printing Technology Vehicle Additives Characteristics Ink mixing procedures.

Hand Out The Pantone Matching System (PMS) Pantone Matching System (PMS) is a method universally accepted for specifyingand mixing colours. Using this technique, artists and customers can select any of the more than 500 hues from a swatch book. The printer can then mix the desired colour by us ing the swatch number and referring to to a formula guide. The guide gives the formula for making the colour. It identifies the basic colours involved and indicates how much of each to mix together. The ten basic colours in the PAN-TONE MATCHING SYSTEM are rhodamine red, purple, reflex blue, yellow, warm red rubine red, process blue, green, black, and transparent white. Consolidation points Printing ink, ingredients, ink mixing procedures. Product Subject diary, Lab diary / Record book. 2.2 Properties of ink Activities Sample presentation, discussion Learning materials Ink sample, measuring instruments, reference books, internet. Discussion points Properties of ink Viscosity Tack Drying quality Colour brilliance Hue of pigments Rub resistance Drying characteristics Present ink sample in the learners group Ask to observe and discuss the properties of printing ink

76

- Methods of measuring Consolidation Properties of ink Product Subject diary 2.3 New generation of ink and chemical properties Activities Ink sample presentation, Discussion Learning materials Ink sample, reference books,internet Discussion points Gloss inks Quick set Heat set Moisture set(cold set) Magnetic Fugitive Ultra violet Infra red Electron beam drying. Chemically reactive ink Water based ink for flexography New trends and developments Divide learners into groups and present the ink sample Observe and discuss the features of new generation of ink and its chemical properties

Consolidation New generation ink, chemical properties Product: Subject diary 2.4 Ink drying methods Activitis : Discussion, sample presentation of ink and printed products Learning matrials Ink Sample, Printed products, reference books, Internet
77

Printing Technology Divide the learners into groups and present ink sample and printed products Discuss the ink drying methods Let them identify the different ink drying methods Discussion points - Absorption - Penetration - Evaporation - Polymerisation - Precipitation etc. Consolidation Ink drying methods Product: Subject diary CE ITEMS Sample collection TE ITEMS Sample questions 1. Ink has colour in nature. This colour is obtained by adding ingredients. Select the ingredient that gives colour from the following a) Vehicle b) Drier c) Pigment (1score) 2. As a printer you are familiar with printing ink. Assess the properties of printing ink in experience. (6scores) 3. You have conducted a field visit to a printing press, where printing works are being done on substrates like paper, metal foil, plastic and boards. Discuss the ink drying methods in the press. (6scores) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1 2 3 4 5
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Primary colour Secondary colour Tertiary colour Opaque ink Transparent ink

UNIT ANALYSIS 2- INK

Theory

1 Pigments vehicles additives, colour mixing Observing Identifying Classifying Comparing Analysing Rraising Questions Discussion sample presentation Demonstration Lab works Different paper sizes, reference books Subject diary Lab diary Record book/ Printing ink samples, Reference books Internet Observing Discussion, classifying sample comparing collection analyzing raising demonquestions stration, chart, paper cutting by machine

To understand printing ink, and its ingredients, colour mixing

Subject diary, Subject diary 2 Lab diary / Lab diary / hrs Record book. Record book

15 hrs

To understand properties of ink

Viscosity TackDrying Quality Colour BrillianceHue of pigments,Rub Resistance, Drying Characteristics, Method of measuring

Sample 1 collection, hr Skill to cut paper Subject diary Lab diary Recordbook.

3 Gloss Ink Quickest Heat Set, Moisture Set, Magnetic Fugitive Etc .. Identifying Observing Classifying Analysing Raising Questions Predicting

Subject Diary Subject Diary 2 hrs

To acquire knowledge about new generation of Inks and chemical properties

Discussion, Ink Samples Ink Sample Reference presentation Books, Internet

Practical

Sl No

15 hrs

79

Theory

Practical

80

UNIT ANALYSIS 2- INK


Printing Technology

Sl No

4 To understand Absorption Identifying various ink penetration observing drying methods evaporation Classifying polymerisation raising precipitation Questions Discussion sample presentation of ink and printed products

Ink sample Subject diary Identify the 2 ink drying printed hrs methods products, Subject diary reference books, internet

UNIT-3 PRESS DEVELOPMENTS


Introduction The development of press in the later half of this century has been the result of extensive research in this field. This unit mainly deals with the press developments and comes to a detailed study of the sheetfed offset printing machine such as feeding unit, registration unit, printing unit, inking unit, damping unit and the delivery unit. The facilitator can adopt various strategies like discussion, field visit demonstration, chart presentation and lab work. Curriculum objectives To understand the development of printing presses through discussion chart, field visit , prepare field visit report and note. To understand principles and classification of offset presses through discussion chart demonstration, field visit, prepare field visit, report and note. To understand operation of feeder unit through lab discussion, demonstration, chart, lab work, prepare field visit report and note and record book.. To understand and apply the function and importance of registration unit through discussion, demonstration, chart presentation, lab work and prepare note, record book. To understand printing unit and cylinder configuration through discussion lab demonstration, chart presentation, field visit, lab work; prepare field visit report and note, recordbook. To understand the inking unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart, lab work and prepare note and record.

81

Printing Technology To understand and apply damping unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart presentation, lab work and prepare note and record. To understand delivery unit through discussion, lab demonstration, chart, lab work and prepare note and record book. 3.1. Develepoments of printing presses Activities Discussion, field visit to different presses, chart presentation Learningmaterials Chart, Plates machine, Cylinder machine, Rotary machine, Offset machine, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners in to groups and discuss the topic Present chart Conduct field visit to learn the latest developments of printing presses Discussion points - Press developments from its initial stage - Platen press to rotary press - Litho press to offset press Consolidation Press developments Product - Subject diary - Field visit report 3.2 Principles and classification of offset pressess Activities Discussion, chart, field visit Learning materials Chart, sheet fed, Offset machine, web offset machine reference books, Internet. Discussion points Divide the learners into groups and discuss about the field visit Present chart Observe and identify the classification of presses - Basic principle - Hydrophilic and oleophilic nature - Working principle
82

- Classification of offset presses Consolidation Principle and classification of offset press Product Subject diary Field visit report 3.3.Feeder unit Activities Discussion, lab demonstration chart, lab work. Learning materials Sheet fed machine, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups Discuss feeder unit Lab demonstration Chart presentation Give lab work to learn the feeder unit and its working Observe and do in the lab Discussion points - Parts of feeder unit (pile height governor, blower, sucker, forwarding roller etc.) - Loading system - Types of feeder- single sheet and stream feeder. - Automatic feeder control - Sheet separation - Sheet dictators Consolidation Parts, types and setting of feeder unit Product -

Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

83

Printing Technology 3.4. Registration Unit Activities Discussion, lab demonstration, chart, lab work. Learning materials Chart, Sheet fed offset machine, Reference books, Internet Discussion points Divide the learners into groups Discuss about registration unit Chart presentation Lab demonstration to learn the parts of registration unit Give labwork to operate the registration unit Importance of registration Feed board equipments Conveyor tapes Conveyor assemblies Rotary brush wheels Training brushes Ball control assemblies Front lay Side lay lay adjustments Grippers

Consolidation The function and importance of registration unit Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 3.5. Printing Unit and Cylinder configuration Activities Discussion, chart presentation, Lab demonstration, , field visit, lab work. Learning materials Chart , sheet fed offset machine, reference books, Internet

84

Discuss printing unit

Chart presentation Lab demonstration Lab work to learn the printing unit, Cylinder configuration and gears. Field visit Discussion point Plate cylinder and its adjustments Blanket cylinder and its adjustments Impression cylinder and its adjustments Cylinder configuration Impression control Cylinder gears Cylinder bearers Consolidation Printing unit and cylinder configuration Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 3.6. Inking Unit Activities Discussion, lab demonstration, chart presentation, lab work Learning materials Chart, sheet fed offset machine, reference books, Internet Discussion points Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic. Present chart Lab demonstration Lab work to operate inking unit Inking unit configuration Classification of inking system Ink duct

85

Printing Technology Fountain roller Set of screws Dwell time Ink distribution rollers Ink forme roller Inking unit operation Roller coverings Roller cleaning

Consolidation Inking Unit Products Subject diary Lab diary Record book 3.7. Damping Unit Activities Discussion, lab demonstration, chart presentation, lab work Learning materials Chart, Sheet fed offset machine , reference books, Internet Divide the learners and discuss delivery unit Present chart Demonstration Lab work to learn damping unit working, observe and do Discussion points Damping unit configuration Fountain solution Conventional and non conventional damping unit Fountain roller Feed roller (vibrator) Rider roller Forme roller Damping roller coverings

86

Damper roller cleaning Consolidation points Damping Unit Products Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 3.8.The Delivery Unit Activities Discussion, lab demonstration chart presentation, lab work Learning materials Chart, sheet fed offset machine, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss delivery unit Lab demonstration Lab work to learn delivery unit setting Discussion points Delivery unit Delivery pile control Types of delivery system Skeleton wheels Joggers Ancillary operation (anti-set-off spray, perforation, slitting, numbering) Consolidation points Delivery unit Products Subject diary Lab diary / Record book CE ITEMS Field Visit : Conduct field visit to printing press to understand different offset machines and it developments

87

Printing Technology TE ITEMS Sample questions 1. Ink and water do not mix together Express your opinion related to offset printing process about this statement. (3 scores) 2. Name the roller which touches the plate cylinder for applying ink during printing (1 score) 3. Comment about the feeding system of an offset machine which you have seen during field visit to a press. (4 scores) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 Feeder unit Registration unit Printing unit Inking unit Damping unit Delivery unit

88

UNIT ANALYSIS 3- PRESS DEVELOPMENTS


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand the development of printing presses Field Visit Discussion Presenting Charts

Observing Press development Classifying from platen to Analysing Raising offset Questions Identifying

To understand Different principles and classification classification Of of offset offset presses presses

Observing Classifying Analysing Identifying Raising Questions

Field Visit Discussion Presenting Charts

2 Chart,Platen Field visit Field Visit hrs Machine, Report report Cylinder Subject Diary Subject Diary Machine, Rotary Machine, Offset Machine, Reference Books,Internet. 1 Chart, Field visit Field visit hr Sheet Fed Subject diary report Offset Subject diary Machine, Web Offset Machine, Reference Books,Internet 1 hr 9 hrs

To understand Working of operations of the feeder feeder unit unit

Observing Identifying Measuring Classifying Analysing Raising Questions

Demonstration Sheet Fed Subject Diary Skills Discussion Offset Lab Diary / Subject diary, Presenting Machine Record Book Lab diary/ Record book Charts Reference Lab Work Books,Internet

89

Theory

Printing Technology

4 Working and setting of registration unit Observing Identifying Analyzing Raising Questions Discussion, Lab Demonstration Presenting Charts Lab Work Discussion Lab Demonstration Presenting Charts Lab work Chart Sheet Fed Offset Machine Reference Books, Internet Subject diary Skills, Lab diary Subject diary Record book Lab diary/ Record book Chart Sheet Fed Offset Machine, Reference Books, Interent

To understand and apply the function and importance of registration unit

2 Subject diary Skills, hrs Subject diary Lab diary, Record Book Lab diary/ Record book

9 hrs

To understand printing unit and cylinder configuration

Working of printing unit, cylinder configuration

Observing Identifying Analysing Raising Questions

1 hr

4 hrs

To understand Working of Observing inking unit an inking unit Identifying and its parts Analysing Raising Questions

Discussion Demonstration Presenting Chart,Lab Work

Chart Sheet Fed Offset Machine Referencebooks Internet

Subject diary Skills, Lab diary Subject diary Record book lab diary/ Record book

1 hr

7 hrs

Practical

90

UNIT ANALYSIS 3- PRESS DEVELOPMENTS

Sl No

UNIT ANALYSIS 3- PRESS DEVELOPMENTS


Theory Practical

Sl No

7 To understand and apply damping unit

Working of Observing damping unit Identifying and its parts Analysing Raising Questions

Discussion Demonstration Presenting Chart,Lab Work Discussion Demonstration Presenting Chart Lab Work Chart Sheet Fed Offset Machine, ReferenceBooks Internet

Chart Sheet Fed Offset Machine ReferenceBooks Internet

1 hr 6 Subject diary Skills, hrs Lab diary/ Subject diary Record book Labdiary/ Record book

8 To understand Working of printing unit and delivery unit cylinder and its parts. configuration Observing Identifying Analysing Raising Questions

1 Subject diary, Skills, Lab diary/ Subject diary hr Record book Lab diary/ Record book

5 hrs

91

Printing Technology

UNIT-4 OFFSET PRESS OPERATION


Introduction At present there are different kinds of offset presses on the market with so many minute operational differences. It is easy to learn the press operation by the switch-does-what method. The problems with this approach is that the operator is lost if moved to another type of machine This unit reveals the information necessary to run any sheet fed offset press and its general operational steps. The facilitator introduces different tactics like discussion, demonstration and lab work Curriculum objectives To understand feeding of paper through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record. To acquire knowledge about preparing the printing unit through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record. To apply starting up and proofing through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record. To understand the clean up procedures through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note and record.

4.1 Feeding of paper Activities Discussion, demonstration, lab work Learning materials Machine, Paper, wedges , reference books, Internet Group the learners and discuss about paper feeding Introduce paper feeding in lab

92

Let them observe and do the working procedures in the lab Blind feeding Discussion points Fanning the press sheet Adding paper to the feeder Using wedges to level the paper Adjusting the pile height Adjusting the air blast Adjusting the registration system Adjusting the delivery side guides Make ready procedures Consolidation Feeding of paper Product -

Subject diary, Lab diary / Record book

4.2.Preparing the printing unit Activities Discussion, demonstration, lab work Learning materials Machine, Tools, Ink, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners into small groups and discuss the topic Introduce printing unit preparation in lab Observe and demonstrate. Discussion points Adjusting the ink feed Adjusting the ink fountain Adjusting the water feed Attaching the plate

Consolidation Preparing the printing unit

93

Printing Technology Product -

Subject diary Lab diary Record book

4.3.Starting up and proofing Activities Discussion, demonstration, lab work Learning materials Machine, paper, Progressive proof book, reference books, Internet Group the learners and discuss about starting up and proofing Demonstrate starting up and proofing in the lab Observe and do Discussion points Inking the plate Press proofing Achieving proper ink water balance Lays and cylinder adjustments Consolidation Starting up and proofing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 4.4.Clean up procedures Activities Discussion, demonstration, lab work Learning materials Machine, automatic wash up device, mechanical clean up system, Ink cleaning solution, reference books. Divide the learners into groups and discuss about clean up procedures Introduce clean up procedures in the lab Observe and do

94

Discussion points Clean up procedures of plate, blanket, damping, inking and impression cylinder. Automatic wash up devices Mechanical clean up system Consolidation Clean up procedures Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book CE ITEMS Nil TE ITEMS Sample Questions 1. Introduce the steps to feed paper in a printing lab in your words (6 scores) 2. In a printing press the cleaning of machine is very important. Write your ideas about cleaning up procedures (6 scores)

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1 2 3 4 Feeding of paper Preparing the printing unit Starting up and proofing Cleaning up procedures

95

Theory

Printing Technology

Machine Subject diary Paper, wedgeslab diary/ Reference Record book books, Internet

Feeding skills 3 14 hrs hrs Subject diary Lab diary/ Record book

To understand Fanning Observing Discussion Adding paper identifying feeding of paper Demonto the feeder stration Raising wedges Lab work Adjusting the questions pile height air Inferring blast, Measuring registration system, delivery side guides using make ready sheets To acquire Adjusting the Observing Discussion knowledge Demonstink feed, ink classifying about preparing fountain ration analysing the printing unit water feed identifying Lab work attaching the raising questions plate Measuring Subject diary Skill to 3 Lab diary/ prepare hrs Record book Printing unit Subject diary Lab diary/ Record book

13 hrs

To apply Inking the starting up and plate, press proofing ink proofing water balance

Observing identifying Raising questions Inferring Measuring

Machine, Tools, ink, fountain solution referencebooks internet Discussion Machine, DemonsPaper, tration progressive Lab work proof book Referencebooks Internet

Subject diary Skill to 2 Lab diary / starting up Record book and proofing hrs Subject diary Lab diary/ Record book

9 hrs

Practical

96

UNIT ANALYSIS 4- OFFSET PRESS OPERATION

Sl No

UNIT ANALYSIS 4- OFFSET PRESS OPERATION


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand Automatic clean up proce- wash up dures device, mechanical cleaning system

Observing Identifying Inferring

Discussion Demonstration Lab work

Machine, automatic wash up device mechanical clean up system, ink cleaning solution

2 9 hrs Subject diary Cleaning hrs Lab diary / skills Record book/Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

97

Printing Technology

UNIT-5 ROLLER AND BLANKET- PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS


Introduction

An offset press, consists of plate cylinder, blanket cylinder, impression cylinder inking unit and damping unit. When the three cylinders are in contact sufficient pressure must be produced to effect good transfer of the inked image from the plate cylinder to the blanket and from there to the stock which is carried on the surface of the impression cylinder In this chapter we deal with the roller and blanket problems, plate-to-blanket packing and its adjustments,.ink unit rollers and its setting, damping unit rollers and its setting, damping solution, ink and paper consideration for an offset printing and its trouble shooting; The facilitator can adopt various learning strategies like field visit, sample collection, group discussion, demonstration, chart preparation and lab work. Curriculum objectives To familiarise of roller and blanket problems through discussion and prepare note. To understand plate and blanket adjustment and packing through discussion, demonstration, lab work; prepare note and record book. To understand inking and damping roller unit adjustment through discussion, demonstration lab work and prepare note, record book To acquire knowledge about common paper concerns with damping solution and its pH values through discussion, demonstration, lab work; prepare note and record book. To understand ink and paper consideration for offset printing through seminar and prepare report

5.1.Roller and Blanket Problems Activity Discussion

98

Lerning materials Single colour offset machine, reference books, Internet Group the learners and discuss about roller and blanket problems. Let them identify the problems. Discussion points Blanket and roller caring Various blankets Hardness of blanket Problems affecting rollers Problems affecting blankets Consolidation points Roller and blanket problems Product Subject diary 5.2. Plate Blanket, impression cylinder adjustment and packing Activities Demonstration, Discussion, Lab work. Learning materials Single colour offset machine, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss. Introduce plate, blanket, impression cylinder adjustment and packing. Ask them to observe and demonstrate. Lab works Discussion points Plate packing Blanket packing Impression packing Under cut Depression gap Cylinder bearers Setting of plate cylinder Setting of blanket cylinder Setting of impression cylinder

99

Printing Technology Consolidation points Plate, blanket, impression cylinders adjustments and packing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 5.3. Inking and damping roller adjustments Activities Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Single colour offset machine, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic. Introduce the inking and damping rollers adjustments Demonstration Ask them to observe and do. Discussion points Inking unit rollers structure and adjustments Damping unit rollers structure ans adjustments Consolidation points Inking and Damping rollers adjustments Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 5.4. Damping solution and pH Activities Discussion, Lab work, demonstration. Learning materials Single colour offset machine, pH meter, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss about damping solution and pH Measure pH value of damping solution in the lab Ask the learners to observe and demonstrate.

100

Discussion points Hand out

Fountain solution for damping pH of damping solution Alcoholic Damping

Damping solution and pH The moisture applied to the surface of a lithographic plate actually serves two functions. First , the presence of water in the nonimage areas reples ink. The second purpose of the moisture, is to ensure that the nonimage areas of the plate remain water- receptive. AloisSenefelder recoganised the dual role of the moisture layer on the stone and used a solution made from a combination of water, acid and gum arabic. Damping solutions are avialable ready-mixed from a commerical supplier or can be purchased as separate components and mixed by the printer . Most solutions are now made from an acid concentrate, gum , arabic, and a gum preservative.

The pH value for various substances

101

Printing Technology For the lithographers, the most meaningful measure of damping solution usabilityis the level of acidity of the liquid. The numeric scale that measures acidity in a range from 0 (veryacid) to 14 ( very alkaline, or a base)is called a pH scale. The midpoint 7 is consideredneutral. Plate manufactuers specify a recommanded pH level to be used with their plates.A reading between5.5 and 4.5 is acceptable for most plates. The printer can measure pH in several ways .Litmus paper pH indicators are avialable from printing suppliers and givean acceptable reading of the level of acidity for most productionsituations. To make a test, remove a small piece of litmus paper from the roll and dip it into the fountain solution. The wet paperwill change colour and can be matched to colour patches supplied with the roll. A pH number will be identified next to each colour patch. If the pH is not in the recommended range, remix the fountain solution. Some presses have built-in sensors that continually monitor the pH level of the dampening solution. With such sensors the required pH is dialed into the unit and the device automatically compensates for any variation by adding water or acid concentrate. A veriety of problems can occur as a result of too acid a fountain solution (pH reading from 1 to 3) A strongly acidic solution can greatly shorten plate life. The acid tends to deteriorate the image area of all surface plates and can eventually make the image walk off the plate. When the press room humidity is high the action of acid with ink will cause drying problems on the press sheets ( especially when runninghigh acid content papers).A high acid bath will also break down the ink. The ink is attacked by the high acid content of the fountain solution, and ink becomes paste like or emulsified. The rollers will appear glazed , and no quantity of ink that is added to the system will correct the problem. The rollers must be cleaned and the unit rinked. If the acid level of the dampening solution is too low(pH readings from 7 to 14), theaction of the moisture layer on the nonimage areas will decrease water receptivity and the plate will scum with ink. Consolidation points Damping solution and pH Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 5.5. Ink and paper consideration for offset printing Activities: Seminar

102

Learning materials Reference books Conduct a seminar and present report Discussion points Give points Consolidation points Ink and paper consideration Product Seminar report CE ITEMS Seminar: Conduct seminar on Ink paper consideration for offset printing TE ITEMS 1. write the factors you are considering while selecting paper, ink and damping solution. (3Scroes) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. Plate, blanket, impression cylinder adjustments and packing 2. Inking and damping roller adjustment 3. Damping solution and pH.

103

Theory

Printing Technology

1 To familiarise the function of roller and blanket problems Kind of blankets, hardness, problems affecting rollers and blanket Observing Discussion identifying Demonraising questions stration Measuring Lab work Observing identifying Raising questions Discussion

Single color Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs offset machine Reference books internet

To understand Plate, blanket plate and adjustments blanket adjust- and packing ments and its packing

Single colour Subject diary Skills to Lab diary/ adjust plate, 2 Offset machine Record book blanket and hrs packing Reference books Subject diary Internet Lab diary/ Record book Single colour Subject diary Skills for 3 Lab diary/ adjusting Offset hrs machine Record book inking and ReferenceDamping books rollers Internet Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

19 hrs

3 Inking unit roller adjustments Damping unit roller adjustment Observing identifying Raising questions Comparing Measuring Discussion Demonstration Lab work

To understand inking and damping roller adjustment

19 hrs

Practical

104

UNIT ANALYSIS 5- ROLLER AND BLANKET-PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS

Sl No

UNIT ANALYSIS 5-ROLLER AND BLANKET-PROBLEMS AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS


Theory Practical

Sl No Fountain solution and its pH alcoholic Damping Observing Identifying Raising Questions Discussion Lab work

To acquire knowledge about common press concern with Damping solution and its pH value

Single color Subject diary Subject diary 2 2 hrs hrs Lab diary / Offset machineLab diary/ Ph meter Record book Record book Reference books Internet.

To understand Ink and Communicating Seminar ink and paper paper for Inferring considerations offset printing Interpreting data for offset printing

Hand outs Ink, paper Reference books

Participation Seminar in the seminar report and its report

3 hrs

105

Printing Technology

UNIT 6 MULTI COLOUR SHEET FED PRESS


Introduction The demand for multi colour printing is constantly increasing. To meet this demand, manufacturers have developed many types of multi colour printing machines. Multi colour sheet fed presses operate in the same manner as single colour sheet fed presses, but they are equipped with two or more printing units. This unit explains multi colour sheet fed presses, perfecting transfer, multi colour press monitoring control system and the press console. The facilitator adopts various learning strategies like discussion, chart presentation, field visit, demonstration and lab work in the class Curriculum objectives To understand multi colour sheet fed presses through discussion, chart, demonstration, field visit, slide presentation, lab work; prepare field visit report and note, lab diary / record book. To make an awareness about perfecting presses through discussion chart, field visit, slide presentation; prepare field visit report and note To understand multi colour presses monitoring and control system through discussion, field visit, demonstration, lab work; prepare field visit report and note To familiarise the press console through discussion, field visit; prepare field visit report and note

6.1 Multi color sheet fed presses Activities: Discussion, chart presentation, slides show, field visit , lab work Learning materials Chart, visual aids, Machine, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic.

106

Field Visit, Slideshow. Use chart and machine to learn the working procedures Let them observe the working procedures and demonstrate.

Discussion points Two colour presses Four colour presses Five colour presses etc Consolidation Multi colour presses Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record diary 6.2.Perfecting presses Activities Discussion, chart presentation, slideshow, field visit Learning materials Chart, visual aids, machine, reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic. Use chart and perfecting machine Slide show Let them observe and identify the working procedures Field visit Discussion points Blanket-to-blanket Consolidation Perfecting presses Product Subject diary Field visit report

107

Printing Technology 6.3 Multi color presses, monitoring and control system Activities : Discussion, field visit , demonstration, lab work Learning materials Chart, Visual aids, Machine , reference books, Internet Divide the learners into small groups . Introduce monitoring and control system and discuss Let them observe control and monitoring system and do in the lab Field visit Discussion points Press monitoring Control system Consolidation Press monitoring and control system Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record book 6.4. Press console Activities Discussion, field visit . Learning materials Visual aids, Machine, console computer scanner, densic to meter, reference books, Internet Group the learners and discuss the topic. Start a job and collect a sample press sheet and check with scanning densitometer Use console computer to correct press problems Discussion points Density values Register Dot gain

108

Consolidation

Doubling Ink trapping Print contrast Console computer Scanning densitometer

Press console Product Subject diary Field visit report CE ITEMS Field visit : conduct field visit TE ITEMS Sample questions 1. Blanket -to -blanket means printing both sides of a sheet at a time in one pass through the machine. Write another name for this printing machine (1 score) 2. 3. Demand for multi colour printing is increasing. Explain (6scores)

You are working on a multi colour sheet fed offset machine as a printer. Write the ways to get an OK sheet (6 cores)

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1) 2) Multi colour sheet fed presses Multi colour press monitoring and control systems

109

Theory

Printing Technology

To understand multi colour sheet fed presses

Multi colour sheet fed pressesTwo color Four color Five color presses etc Discussion, Chart presentation slide show Chart, visual aids, machine Reference books, internet

Observing Analysing Comparing Classifying Identifying Communicating Raising Questions Discussion chart presentation field visit, slide show, lab work Chart, visual aids, machine Reference books, internet

Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs Field visit Field visit report, report Lab diary Lab diary / Record book Record book

To make an awareness about perfecting presses

Field visit Subject diary 2 report Field visit hrs Subject diary report

Blanket- to- Observing Analysing blanket Comparing Classifying Identifying Raising Questions Communicating Predicting To understand Press Observing multi colour monitoring Analyzing control presses Comparing system Classifying monitoring and Identifying control system Raising Questions Inferring Discussion Demonstration field visit Lab work Chart, visual aids, machine Reference books, internet

Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary Record book

Subject diary 2 Field visit hrs report Lab diary Record book

18 hrs

Practical

110

UNIT ANALYSIS 6- MULTI COLOUR SHEET PRESSES

Sl No 27 hrs

UNIT ANALYSIS 6-MULTI COLOUR SHEET PRESSES


Theory Practical

Sl No

To familiarise the press console

Density values, register dot gain, doubling, Ink trapping contrast console computer

Observing Discussion Analysing on, field visit Comparing Classifying Identifying Raising Questions Communicating Measuring

2 Visual aids, Subject diary Field visit hrs machine, field visit report, console report Subject diary computer, scanning, Densitometer Reference books, internet

111

Printing Technology

UNIT-7 PRINTING PROCESS COLOUR ON SHEET FED OFFSET PRESSES


Introduction Process colour is a system of producing a full variety of colours by printing a set of three standard colour inks in various combinations and proportions, usually along with a fourth colour ink. The initial discussion will deal largely with idealized conditions, making it possible to explain more clearly the basic concepts involved. In other cases the practical differences from the ideal are sufficient to require special techniques to compensate for them as explained that on colour. In this chapter we mainly deal with colour printing, method of registration, press concerns and quality control devices The facilitator can adopt different strategies such as group discussion, sample collection, demonstration, field visit ,chart presentation and lab work. Curriculum objectives To apply press concerns and colour on sheet fed presses through discussion, demonstration, chart presentation, lab work and prepare note, lab dairy/ record book. To understand sequences of colours and registration control for multi colour printing through discussion, sample collection, progressive proof book, field visit, lab work; prepare field visit report and note, lab diary/ record book. To acquire knowledge about quality control devices through discussion, sample collection, progressive proof book, field visit, demonstration, lab work; prepare field visit report and note , lab dairy/ record book. 7.1 Press concerns colour on sheet fed offset presses Activities: Group discussion, demonstration, chart presentation, Field visit, Lab work Learning materials Single colour offset press, Progressive proof book, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss about colour on sheet fed presses. Field visit.

112

Discussion point Consolidation point

Demonstration Give lab work Observe and do. Process colour Multi colour printing press Press concerns for multicolour printing

Press concerns -colour on a sheet fed offset press Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record book 7.2. Sequences of colours and registration control for multicolour printing Activities: Group discussion, Field visit, Demonstration, Sample collection, chart presentation, Lab work Learning materials Single colour offset press, Star target, dot gain scale, slur gauge, densic meter, Reference books, Internet. Divide the learners into groups and discuss about the topic Present collected samples and identify the colour sequence and registration Field visit. Demonstrate sequence of colours and registration controls Observe and demonstrate in the lab Discussion points Process inks Transparent and opaque inks Sequence of colour (ink) for a multi colour printing Registration and its importance Method of checking registration Controlling registration -

113

Printing Technology Consolidation point Sequence ofcolours and registration control Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record book 7.3. Quality control devices in multi colour printing Activities: Sample collection, Field visit, Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Single colour offset press, star target, dot gain scale, slur gauge, densoto meter, reference books, internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic. Present the collected samples and assess the quality of products Demonstrate quality control devices. Give lab work to access quality control in multi colour printing. Discussion points Quality control and its importance Quality control devices Star target Quality control strip Dot gain scale Slur gauge Densitometer Consolidation point Quality control devices Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record book

114

CE ITEMS Sample collection: Collect Sample materials Field Visit: Conduct field visit to printing press TE ITEMS Sample Questions 1. In a printing house a four colour work prints out of registration. Comment your points to rectify this problem. (6scores) In printing a four colour quality work, give your opinion to control quality (4scores) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. 2. 3. Press concerns and colours on sheet fed presses Sequence of colours and registration control Quality control devices.

2.

115

Theory

Printing Technology

To apply press Process Observing concerns and colour, Multi Analysing colour on sheet colourPrinting Classifying fed presses Identifying Raising Questions Process inks sequence of colours, and its registration Observing Analyzing Classifying Identifying Raising Questions Field visit, group discussion demonstration sample collection lab work Field visit group discussion demonstration sample collection, lab work

Field visit group discussion demonstration presenting chart, sample collection, lab work. 2 hrs 4 hrs

To understand sequence of colour and registration control for a multi colour printing Observing Analysing Classifying Identifying Raising Questions

To acquire idea Quality about quality control and control devices its importance in colour printing

Multi colour Field visit Field visit offset press, report report single colour Subject diary Subject diary offset press, Lab diary / progressive Lab diary/ proof book Record book, Record book Reference Field visit books report Internet Multi colour Subject Field visit offset press diary report, Subject diary or single Lab diary colour offset Field visit Lab diary / press report Record book Reference Record book books. Internet Multi colour offset press Subject diary Field visit report, or single Field visit colour offset report Subject diary machine, Star target, Lab diary / Lab diary / Dot gain scale, Record book Record book. Slur gauge Denistometer Reference books Internet

4 hrs

13 hrs

Practical

116

UNIT ANALYSIS 7- MULTI COLOUR SHEET PRESSES

Sl No 9 hrs

23 hrs

UNIT-8 WEB OFFSET PRESSES


Introduction A web offset is a press that prints on roll of paper. The growth of web offset printing particularly for printing books, newspapers, business forms, magazines, directories and packaging has made the process a major part to the commercial Printing Industry This unit explains the basic structure of web offset machine and its general features including types of web presses, auxiliary equipments in feed, registration and delivery etc. The facilitator adopts various learning strategies like discussion, chart, field visit, demonstration (As we know it is difficult to have web offset machine in each vocational higher secondary school for training it is advisable to have field visit/ Industrial training till the machine is available) Curriculum objectives To understand web offset presses, and different types through discussion, chart, field visit, prepare field visit and report and note To acquire knowledge about components of web press through discussion, chart, field visit and prepare field visit report and note To familiarize press console through discussion, chart, field visit and prepare field visit report and note 8.1. Web offset presses and different types Activities: Discussion, chart, field visit Learning materials Chart, Web machine, Visual aids, Reference books, Internet Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic. Present chart Conduct field visit and observe and identify the general features. Discussion points Working principle General features Parts of machine Paper feeding, in feed, registration

117

Printing Technology Hand out Printing and delivery units Different types Blanket- to- blanket Common impression cylinder (CIC) In- line and other types

Consolidation Web offset presses, types and general features Product Subject diary Field visit report 8.2. Components of web press Activities: Discussion, visual aids presentation, chart, field visit. Learning materials Chart, web machine, Visual aids reference books, Internet Divide the learners into small groups and discuss the topic. Present chart Visual aids presentation

118

Conduct field visit and observe and identify web press components Discussion points Plate cylinder Blanket cylinder Impression cylinder ink and water systems Reel stand Splicer Web tensioner Drier Chill rolls Folding and cutting Dancer roller Auxiliary equipments Consolidation Components of web press Product Subject diary Field visit report 8.3.Press console Activities: Discussion, chart, visual aids presentation, field visit Learning materials Chart, offset machine, reference books, Internet Discussion points Consolidation Press console Product Divide the learners into small groups and discuss the topic Present chart Use visuals Conduct field visit and observe Press console

Subject diary Field visit report

119

Printing Technology CE ITEMS Field Visit: Conduct field visit to a printing press observe and identify the general features of web- offset machine TE ITEMS 1 If you are conducting field visit to a news paper printing unit, you will observe a web offset machine in the unit. Write components of the machine (6 score) Discuss different types of web offset machine in your class room. (6 score)

2 3

In web offset machine the feeding of substrate entirely is different from that of a sheet fed offset machine. Name the form of feeding (1 score)

LIST OF EXEPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. Adopt industrial training (20hours)

120

UNIT ANALYSIS 8-WEB-OFFSET PRESSES


Theory Practical

Sl No Working principle, general features, parts of machine paper feeding, Blanket to blanket, Common impression cylinder (CIC) in line Observing Analysing Classifying Identifying Raising Questions Discussion, chart presentation, Field visit, Chart, Field visit Field visit 3 hrs report web machine, report, visual aids, Subject diary Subject diary reference books, internet Plate cylinder, blanket cylinder,Ink and water systems reel stand, splicer, web tensioner drier, chill rolls, folding and cutting dancer rollerAuxilary equipments Observing Analysing Classifying Identifying communicating Raising Questions Discussion, chart presentation, Field visit, Chart, web machine, visual aids, reference books, internet Field visit Field visit 3 report, report, hrs Subject diary Subject diary

To understand web offset presses and differenet types

To acquire idea about components of web press

121

Theory

Printing Technology

3 Press consol Observing Analysing Classifying Identifying communicating Raising Questions Discussion chart presentation Field visit Chart, Field visit report web machine, visual aids, Subject diary reference books, internet

To familiarise press console

Field visit 2 hrs report Subject diary .

Practical

122

UNIT ANALYSIS 8- WEB-OFFSET PRESSES

Sl No

UNIT -9 TROUBLE SHOOTING


Introduction In theory , press set and operations are simple. Unfortunately, difficulties may develop in every situations and prevent a quality emage from printing on the final press sheets. The true draft of the printer is to identify and the correct the problems. This process is called trouble shooting. In this chapter we deal with the defects related to paper, ink and printing and its remedies, press maintenance and lubrication. The facilitator can adopt various learning stratgies such as discussion, sample collection, demonstration, lab work. Curriculum objectives To understand paper defects and remedies through discussion, sample, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, lab diary/ record book. To understand ink defects and remedies through discussion, sample, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, lab diary/ record book. To understand printing defects and remedies through discussion, sample, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, lab diary/ record book. To understand and apply press maintenance, lubrication and press room chemicals through discussion, sample, lab work and prepare note, lab diary/ record book.

9.1 Paper defects and remedies Activities: Discussion, Sample collection , Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Samples, offset machine, Reference books Group the learners and discuss the topic. Present the samples and identify the defects.

123

Printing Technology Find remedies Ask them to observe and do. Discussion points Paper curling Picking Linting, fluffing and dusting Show through Creasing Strike through Static electricity Remedies Consolidation point Paper defects and remedies Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 9.2.Ink defects and remedies Activities: Discussion, Sample, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Samples, offset machine, reference books Discussion points Group the learners and discuss the topic Present the samples and identify the defects. Remedies Observe and do. Poor drying Mottle Grain ness Chalking Emulsification and bleeding Set off

124

Remedies Consolidation point Ink defects and remedies Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 9.3.Printing defects and remedies Activities: Discussion, Sample, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Samples, offset machine, reference books Discussion points Group the learners and discuss the topic Present samples to identify the defect. Remedies Observe and do. Image wears Image blinding Dot gain Catch up Scum Tinting Poor image sharpness Poor image contrast Moir patterns Poor trapping Ghosting Slur Doubling Embossing Hickies Tail end hooks Remedies
125

Printing Technology Consolidation point Printing defects and remedies Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 9.4 .Maintenance, lubrication and press room chemicals Activities: Discussion, Samples, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Machineries, press chemicals, reference books Discussion points Group the learners and discuss the topic Present samples of lubricants and chemicals Observe and do Preventive maintenance Type and application of preventive maintenance Periodical maintenance Maintenance shop equipments and machines required for maintenance Methods of lubrication Types of lubricants Characteristics and application Pressroom chemicals

Consolidation point Maintenance, lubrication and press room chemicals Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book CE ITEMS Sample collection: Collect samples of paper, ink, printing defect materials toshow

126

TE ITEMS Sample question 1. The print on one side of the sheet is visible from the reverse side. Comment and identify the problem and its remedies (3 scores) Ink on printed sheet spreads to the back of the following sheet. Comment ideas. (1 score) 3. Match the following information from A with B A Paper ik Ink Printing B Dot gain Dusting Mottle (3 score)

2.

1 2 3

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1 2 3 4 Paper defects and remedies Ink defects and remedies Printing defects and remedies Maintenance, lubrication and press room chemicals

127

Theory

Printing Technology

To understand paper defects and remedies.

Discussion, Sample, collection presentation Demonstration, Lab work Discussion, Sample, collection Demonstration, Lab work Field visit group discussion demonstration sample collection, lab work

Samples, Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs offset machine,Lab diary / Lab diary / Reference Record book Record book books

To understand ink defects and remedies

To understand printing defects and remedies

Curl,Picking, Observing Linting, Analysing Fluffing, Identifying Dusting, Show through, Classifying Creasing, Comparing Strike thorugh Inferring Poor drying, Observing Mottle, Analysing Grainess, Identifying Chalking Emulsification, Classifying Comparing Set off, Bleeding Inferring Image wear, Observing Image blinding, Dot Analysing gain, Catch Classifying up, Scum, Identifying Tinting, Poor image Raising Sharpness, Questions Contrast, Moir patterns, Poor trapping, Ghosting, Slur, Doubling, Embossing, Hickies Tail end hooks

Samples, Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs Offset Lab diary / Lab diary / machine, Record book Record book Referencebooks 3 Multi colour Subject diary Field visit offset press Lab diary / report, hrs or single Subject diary colour offset Field visit machine, report Lab diary / Star target, Record Record Dot gain scale, books books. Slur gauge Denistometer Reference books Internet

5 hrs

Practical

128

UNIT ANALYSIS 9- TROULE SHOOTING

Sl No 5 hrs

5 hrs

UNITANALYSIS 9-TROULE SHOOTING


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand Priventive and apply press maintenance maintenance, Type and lubrication and application, periodical press room maintenance, chemicals lubrication method, type, characteristics and application Observing Analysing Identifying Comparing Classifying Measuring Sample collection Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work

Machineries, Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs Press Lab diary / Lab diary / chemicals, Record book Record book Referencebooks

5 hrs

129

Printing Technology

Unit 10 SCREEN PRINTING


Introduction The dominant method of porous printing is screen process printing which is also known as silk screen in the trade. Screen- process printing is at least in its contemporary form, is the oldest of all printing arts. The screen in screen process printing is a cloth stretched and attached to a frame, the prepared frame serves as the printing image carrier of this printing method. In this chapter we deal with the basic concept, classification of materials, multi colour printing, half tone printing, high speed production etc . The facilitator can adopt different learning strategies like group discussion, demonstration, field visit and lab work. Curriculum objectives To understand the basic concept, classification, types of stencils, fabric and frame preparation through, demonstration, discussion, lab work and prepare note lab diary/ record book. To acquire knowledge about photographic stencil, through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, lab dairy/ record book. To get awareness about squeegee, substrate, ink, consideration and basic registration techniques in screen printing through discussion, demonstration, lab work and prepare note, lab dairy/ record book. To acquire knowledge about masking the stencil through demonstration, discussion, lab work; and prepare note, lab dairy/ record book. To understand idea about multi colour printing in screen-printing through discussion, demonstration, lab work; prepare note lab dairy/ record book. To understand half tone reproduction through discussion, demonstration lab work, prepare note lab dairy/ record book.

130

To familiarise high-speed production presses through discussion, field visit and prepare field visit report and note . To acquire knowledge about machine configuration through discussion, field visit, chart presentation and prepare field visit report and note.

10.1.Basic concept, classification, type of stencil, fabric and frame preparation Activities: Discussion, Demonstration, lab work Learning materials screen frames, Fabric of different grades, nails , Tape hammer, scissors etc, reference books Group the learners and discuss the topic Present materials used for screen Introduce frame preparation Let them to observe and demonstrate. Discussion points Porous printing process Basic concept Classification of screen printing Stencil and its classification Types of stencils Materials used to attach image Screen fabrics Fabric treatment Frame preparation Frame stitching techniques Consolidation points Basic concept, classification, types of stencils, fabric and frame preparation Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

131

Printing Technology 10.2 Photographic stencil Activities: Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Screened frames, film, red star, sensitizer, exporting unit, reference books Divide learners in to groups and discuss the topic. Present stencil preparation. Let them observe and do. Discussion points Photographic stencil Preparation of stencil Direct and indirect method Stencil exposure Stencil developer Main requirement and steps of photographic stencil. Drying techniques Handout

132

Consolidation points Photographic stencil Product Subject diary Lab diary/ Record book 10.3. Squeegee, substrate, ink and basic registration Activities: Discussion, Demonstration , Lab work Learning materials Inks, substrates, squeegees glass plate, fevicol Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic Present squeegee, ink, substrate Introduce basic registration technique
133

Printing Technology Ask them to observe and do. Discussion points Factors considering squeegee and ink Selecting proper squeegee Substrate selection Ink selection Ink preparation Basic process Basic registration techniques On and off contact printing Printing the stencil

Consolidation points Squeegee, substrate, ink and basic registration technique Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

10.4 Making of stencil Activities: Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Red star, blue star, Mark, Tapes, paper pieces, reference books Discussion points Masking the stencil Preparing paper mask Liquid block - out masks Divide the learners into groups. Introduce masking the stencil Ask them to observe and demonstrate.

134

Consolidation points Masking of stencil Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 10.5.Multi colour printing Activities: Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Screen printing unit, reference books Discussion points Divide the learners into groups Introduce multicolour printing, trouble shooting, cleaning the screen, removing stencil. Observe and do. Printing using different colours Steps and procedures for multi colour printing Drying the image. Cleaning the screen Removing the stencil

Troubleshooting clogged screen Consolidation points Multicolour printing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 10.6.Half tone reproduction Activities: Discussion, Demonstration, Lab work Learning materials Screen printing unit, reference books

135

Printing Technology Discussion points Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topic Introduce half tone reproduction. Let them observe and demonstrate Half tone reproductions Method of half tone preparation Fabric selection Moire patterns Printing consideration

Consolidation points Half tone reproduction. Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 10.7 High-speed production presses Activities: Discussion, Field visit Learning materials Screen printing machines, reference books Group the learners and discuss the topic Conduct field visit to understand high speed presses Discussion points General idea about screen printing presses High speed presses Features of lever action & hand operated. Semi automatic presses Automatic presses. Consolidation points High speed production press Product Subject diary Field visit report

136

10.8 Machine configuration Activities Discussion, Field visit, Chart presentation Learning materials Screen printing machine, reference books Conduct a field visit . Group the learners and discuss the topic Present chart Discussion points Configuration of screen-printing machines. Screening cylindrical surfaces Cylindrical screen Operation of semi automatic screen press Advantages of a cylindrical screen. Wet-on-wet printing Consolidation points Machine configuration Product Subject diary Field visit report CE items Field visit: Conduct field visit to different firms Project: Give project work based on screen printing. TE ITEMS 1. 2 For printing a double colour visiting card, describe the procedures for doing the job. (6 scores) You went to print on cylindrical surface. identify method of printing you can adopt (1 score)

137

Printing Technology 3. If you are going to start a screen printing unit as a small scale industry, explain your approach to start the unit (6 scores)

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fabric and frame preparation Photographic stencil Registration Masking the stencil Multicolour printing Half-tone reproduction

138

UNIT ANALYSIS 10- TROULE SHOOTING


Theory Practical

Sl No 1 hr

1 Basic Observing concept, Classifying classification, Identifyin types of graising stencils, Question materials used analyzing for screen, comparing frame Measuring preparation Discussion demonstration, Lab work Screen frames,Subject diary Subject diary fabric of Lab diary/ Lab diary /, different Record book Record book grades,Nails .tape, harmmer, scissors etc. Referencebooks

To under stand the basic concept, classification, types of stencils, fabric and frame preparation

6 hrs

2 Various steps Observing for stencil Identifying preparation Raising questions Time and space relation Classifying Analyzing Measuring Discussion Demonstration, Lab work, water sprayer, Positive or butter image

To acquire knowledge about photographic stencil

Screened frame, film, red star sensitizer, exposing unit Reference books

SSubject Subject diary diary , Lab diary / Lab diary / Record book Record book

1 hr

5 hrs

139

Theory

Printing Technology

3 Factors and selections of squeegee, ink and preparation. Basic registration techniques Masking, Observing preparation of Identifying different types Measuring of masks Discussion Demonstration, lab work Red star, Subject diary Subject diary Blue star, Lab diary/ Lab diary/ Masks, Record book Record book Tapes, Paper pieces, Referencebooks Screen printing unit Reference books Observing Identifying Raising questions, Classifying, Analysing Measuring Discussion Demonstration, Lab work Inks, subsrates, squeegees, glass plate, Fevicol etc, Reference books Subject diary Subject diary Lab diary, Lab diary/ Record book Record book

To get awareness squeegee, substrate, ink and basic registration

1 hr

3 hrs

To acquire knowledge about masking the stencil

1 hr

4 hrs

5 ObservingI dentifying Raising questions Measuring, Classifying, Analysing, Inferring

To understand Steps and idea about multi procedures colour printing for multi colour printing, trouble shooting

Discussion Demonstration, lab work

Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs Lab diary Lab diary Record book Record book

7 hrs

Practical

140

UNIT ANALYSIS 10-TROBULE SHOOTING

Sl No

UNIT ANALYSIS 10-TROUBLE SHOOTING


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand Method of half tone half tone reproduction reproduction, fabric selection, moir pattern

Discussion, Field visit Demonstration Lab work

Screen printing unit Referencebooks

Subject diary Lab diary Record book field visit report

Field visit report, Subject diary Lab diary Record book

1 hr

5 hrs

To familiarise high speed production presses

Observing Identifying Raising questionsTime and space relation, measuring , Classifying, Analysing Screen Observing printing entifying presses, semi- Classifying automatic Analysing presses, Raising automatic questions presses Measuring Field visit, discussion, screen printing Subject diary Subject diary machine Reference books Field visit, discussion Screen printing machine Reference books Subject diary Subject diary

1 hr

5 hrs

To acquire idea Configuration Observing about machine of screen Identifying configuration printing Classifying machine, Analysing operation of Comparing semi Measuring automatic screen press

1 hr

141

Printing Technology

UNIT-11 OTHER PRINTING PROCESS


Introduction All modern printing processes have been developed to meet a human quest for information .The effect of Guttenbergs invention was to expand knowledge. This expansion of knowledge quickly to an increasing demand for more printed materials ie to produce printed information faster and faster. This unit introduces printing process which are becoming increasingly important in the Printing Industry Flexography and Xerography. The facilitator adopts various learning strategies like discussion, chart, sample presentation, field visit, lab work etc. Curriculum Objectives To understand flexography printing through discussion, chart, sample collection, field visit, prepare field visit and report and note. To understand and apply Xerographic printing through discussion, chart, sample presentation, field visit, labwork; prepare field visit report and note, lab dairy/ record books. 11.1 Fexography Printing Activities: Discussion , Sample collection, Chart presentation, Field visit Learning materials Sample, Chart, flexography, printing machine, reference books, Internet Discussion Points Divide the learners into groups and discuss the topics. Field visit.to understand flexographic machine Observe the samples and flexography machine. Components of flexography Press. Infeed Unit. Printing Unit. Outfeed Unit.

142

Hand out

Flexographic Plates. Rubber Plates Photo Polymer Plates and the developments. Steps in producing rubber, Polymer, Liquid Polymer and Liquid Polymer plate. Future.

Flexographic printing Flexographic printing, commonly referred to as flexo printing, is a rotaryrelief printing process in which the image carrier is a flexible rubber or photopolymer plate with raised image areas .The process was first introduced in the early 1900s, at which time it was called aniline printing because the inks used were made from synthetic, organic aniline dyes. A variety of packaging products including foil, tissue, paper, paperboard, corrugated board and plastic film can be printed with flexo. A flexographic press consists of three major units the infeed, printing,and outfeed .

Consolidation Flexography Printing Product Subject diary Field visit report

143

Printing Technology 11.2. Xerography Printing Activities : Discussion, Chart, Sample collection, Lab work. Learning materials Chart, Xerography machine, Sample, reference books , Internet Discussion Points Hand Out Xerographic Printing The word xerography comes from a com-bination of two Greek words: xeros. which means dry, and graphos, which means writing. The invention of the xerographicprocess was a response to the need for printing on demand. The process, commonly known as photocopying, was developed in 1937 by Chester Carlson, a patent attorney and physicist who was seeking a method for copying patent drawings without using photography. All xerographic processes in use today rely on the fundamental principle that Carlson applied in his original device: Unlike electrical charges attract; like electrical charges repel. Many developments have occurred in xerography since Carlsons original invention, but all common xerographic processes involve six steps: charging, exposure, development, transfer, fixing, and cleaning. Group the learners and discuss the topic. Observe the samples, chart and xerography machine Do lab work Charging Exposure Development Transfer Fixing Cleaning Importance of Xerography

144

SIX STEPS IN THE XEROGRAPHIC PROCESS Consolidation Xerography Printing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

145

Printing Technology C.E. ITEMS Sample Collection: Collect samplesof flexography products and xerography products Field visit. Conduct field visit T.E ITEMS Sample Questions 1. Printing on plastic covers is familiar in our daily life. Name the type of printing process more relevant from the following for the plastic printing 1) Ink-jet printing 2) Laser printing 3) Flexography (1score) 1. Xerox copy of a certificate is to be produced. Write your views about Xerox printing.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. Xerography Printing.

146

UNIT ANALYSIS 11- OTHER PRINTING PROCESS


Theory Practical

Sl No

1 Discussion Sample collection, chart presentation, Field visit,

To understand Flexography Printing

Components Observing of Flexography Identifying press, infeed Commuunit, Printing nicating unit, Out feed unit, Measuring Flexographic Raising plate, Rubber questions, plate, Comparing Photo polymer plate and the developments, Rubber, Polymer, Liquid polymer, Liquid polymer plate, Future. Charging, exposure, developments, transfer, fixing, Cleaning, importance of Xerography Observing Identifying Communicating Measuring Control of variables Space time relation Inferring Analysing Sample collection, chart, discussion Lab work Chart, Xerography machine, sample, Reference books, Internet Subject Diary Lab diary / Record book

Samples, Field visit Participation 3 hrs chart, Report, in collection Flexography Subject diary Subject, Printing Diary, machine, Field visit, Reference Report. books, Internet

To understand and apply Xerography printing

3 Collection, hrs Subject, Diary Lab diary / Record book

15 hrs

147

Printing Technology

UNIT 12 FINISHING OPERATIONS


Introduction Vast majority printed products require some sort of additional processing in order to meet the job requirements. Those operations performed after printing are called finishing .In the present senario finishing operations are more important in Printing Industry. This unit deals the main finishing operations like folding, gathering, cutting and binding. The facilitator introduces various learning strategies like discussion, sample, chart, demonstration and lab work. Curriculum Objectives To understand binding and its classification through discussion, sample, chart, and prepare note. To acquire knowledge about ware house and its functions through discussion, field visit and prepare field visit report and note. To familiarise tools and equipments used in binding through discussion presentation and prepare note. To understand materials, its selection, care and use through discussion, presentation and prepare note. To understand different types of sewing through discussion, demonstration sample chart and lab work and prepare note, record book. To understand and apply automation in binding through discussion, chart, demonstration lab work, field visit; prepare field visit report and note lab diary/ record book. To acquire knowledge about account bookbinding through discussion sample, lab work; prepare note lab diary/ record book.

148

To understand and apply publishers binding through discussion, sample, lab work and prepare note lab diary/ record book. To understand different styles of binding through discussion, sample, lab work and prepare note lab diary/ record book To understand and apply repairing works of book through discussion, demonstrate lab work and prepare note lab diary/ record book. To acquire knowledge about estimating the materials required for particular work through an assignment and present in the form of a report.

12.1. Binding and its classification Activities: Discussion, Sample presentation, Chart. Learning materials Samples, Chart, reference books, Group the learners and discuss the topic. Present chart and Samples. Discussions Points Definition of binding Stages of binding Letterpress binding Stationary binding Consolidation Binding and its classification Product Subject diary 12.2 Ware house and its functions Activities: Discussion, Field visit

149

Printing Technology Learning materials Reference books Group discussion to learn about ware house andits functions Field visit Discussions Points What is warehouse? Functions of warehouse Consolidation Warehouse functions Product Subject diary Field visit report 12.3 Tools and equipments in binding Activities: Discussion, Presentation Learning materials Tools, equipments, reference books Group discussion about tools and equipements in binding Present tools and equipments Discussions Points Tools Equipments Consolidation Tools and equipments Product Subject diary 12.4.Materials & its selection, care and use Activities: Discussion, Presentation Group the learners and discuss the topic. Present materials

150

Discussions Points -

Different materials Selection Care Use

Consolidation Materials, Selection, Care, Use Product Subject diary 12.5. Different Types of Sewing Activities: Discussion, demonstration, Sample, Chart, lab work. Learning materials Samples, reference books Group the learners and discuss the topic Present chart and samples Let them observe and demonstrate the sewing procedure in the lab. Discussions Points Purpose of sewing Kinds of sewing Wire stitching Thread sewing Types of sewing Flexible sewing Double flexible Tape sewing Saw-in sewing etc Consolidation Different types of sewing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

151

Printing Technology 12.6. Automation in Binding Activities Discussion, Demonstration, Field visit, lab work Learning materials Chart, machines, reference books, Internet Group discussion Demonstration Conduct field visit Introduce binding machines and its operations; observe and do Discussions Points Suitability of machine Maintenance Adjustments Operation Guillotine Folding machine Perforator Creasers Slitter Bundling machine Gathering machine Adhesive binding machine Automatic case making machine Laminating machine etc Consolidation Automation in Binding Product Subject diary Field visit report Lab diary / Record book

152

12.7.Account bookbinding Activities: Discussion, Sample presentation, lab work. Learning materials Sample book, Reference books Discussion Points Consolidation Account Book Binding Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book 12.8 .Publishers Binding Activities: Discussion, Sample presentation, lab work. Group learners and discuss the topic Present sample Account book Let them observe and do in the lab. End paper Sewing Pasting Spine gluing Split boards Tacketting Spring back Cutting, attaching boards Covering full leather Banding Laces

153

Printing Technology Learning materials Sample book, Reference books Discussion Points Group discussion about publishers binding Present sample book Observe and do the publishers binding procedures in the lab. Folding Bundling Gathering Sewing Nipping Spine gluing Trimming Edge decoration Rounding, backing Alternative forwarding techniques Cutting Cover decoration Casing- in- pressing Loose-leaf binding

Consolidation Publishers Binding

Product:
Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

12.9.Styles of binding Activities: Discussion, Sample presentation, lab work. Learning materials Sample book, Reference books

154

Discussion Points Consolidation Styles of Binding Product 12.10. Book Repairing

Group the learners and discuss the topic. Present sample books of different styles. Observe and do the work in the lab. Cut flesh Turned in Quarter cloth- leather Half cloth- leather Full cloth- leather

Subject diary Lab diary/ Record book

Activties: Discussion, Presentation, lab work. Group discussion about book repairing Present book repairing. Observe and do the book repairing work in the lab. Discussion Points Cutting Glueing Separating sections Over cast sewing procedures. Consolidation Book Repairing Product Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

155

Printing Technology 12.11.Estimating the Materials Activities: Discussion, Calculation, assignment. Group discussion. Introduce calculation Give assignment Discussion Points Calculation of paper, Board, calico, fancy paper, leather,tape Cord, wire Adhesive etc Consolidation Estimating the materials Products Subject diary Assignment CE ITEMS Assignment: Give assignment on estimating the materials T E ITEMS Sample Questions 1. List out the tools and equipments used in binding 2. Paper storing is very important. Write your ideas. 3. Introduce different styles of binding you know. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION

(6 scores) (4 scores) (6 scores)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Different types of sewing Automation in binding Account book binding Publisher binding Styles of binding Repairing works of book

156

UNIT ANALYSIS 12-FINISHING OPERATIONS


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand Definition, Classifying binding and its Stages of Identifying classification binding, Letter press, Stationery binding What is Observing warehouse? Classifying Functions of Identifying ware house Observing Identifying Classifying Discussion Tools equipments Reference books Discussion Field visit Reference books Subjectdiary Subjectdiary Field visit Field visit report report SubjectDiary Subjectdiary

Discussion sample and Chart presentation

Samples Chart Reference books

Subject diary SubjectDiary

1 hr

To acquire knowledge about ware house functions

1 hr

To familiarise Tools, tools and equipments equipments used in binding

1 hr

4 Observing Identifying, Comparing Classifying

To understand Materials, materials, Selection, selection, care care, use and use

Discussion, Materials Presentation samples Reference books

SubjectDiary Subjectdiary

1 hr

157

Theory

Printing Technology

5 Discussion Samples, Reference demonstration books sample chart presentation ,lab work Discussion, Chart presentation, Demonstration, Field visit, Lab work Chart, Machines, Reference books, Internet Field visit report, Result, Subject diary Lab diary / Record book Subjectdiary Skill to sew Lab diary Subject Record book Diary Record book/ Lab diary

To understand different types of sewing

Purpose of Observing sewing, kinds Identifying of sewing, Measuring wire stitching, thread sewing, Comparing types of sewing Suitability of machine, Maintenance, Adjustments, Operation, Guillotine folding machine, Perforator, Creasers, Slitter, Bunding machine, Gathering machine, Adhesive binding machine, Automatic case making machine, Laminating machine Observing Classifying Identifying Measuring Communicating Raising questions

1 hr

To understand and apply automation in bindery

Subject diary 2 hrs Field visit reportLab diary /Record book

Practical

158

UNIT ANALYSIS 12- FINISHING OPERATIONS

Sl No

10 hrs

10 hrs

UNIT ANALYSIS 12- FINISHING OPERATIONS


Theory Practical

Sl No 1 hr

7 To acquire Operational Observing knowledge about steps Identifying account book Measuring binding Raising questions Communicating Operational Observing steps Identifying Classifying Raising questions Measuring Discussion, Sample book Reference Sample presentabook tion, Practical work Discussion, Sample book Reference Sample book, books Presentation, Lab work Subject diary Lab diary/ Record books/

Discussion Sample book Sample Reference presentation books Lab work

Participation, Result, Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

Skills Subject diary , Lab diary /, Record book

10 hrs

To understand and apply publishers binding

Subject diary 1 hrs Lab diary/ Record books

10 hrs

9 To understand Cut flesh Observing different styles of turned in Identifying quarter cloth Classifying binding and Leather Comparing half cloth, Communicating Leather full Measuring cloth, Leather

Lab Result, Subject diary Lab diary /, Record book

1 Skills, Subhrs ject diary , Lab diary /, Record book

20 hrs

159

Theory

Printing Technology

10 To understand Repairing procedures and apply repairing works of book

Observing Identifying Measuring Raising questions

Demonstra- Reference books tion Discussion, Presentation, lab work

Lab Result, Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

Skills, Subject diary Lab diary / Record book

1 hr

Estimation 11 To acquire knowledge about estimating materials Observing Discussion Reference Identifying Calculation book Calculating Assignment Communicating Raising questions Measuring

1 Subject diary Assignment hrs Assignment ,Subject diary

Practical

160

UNIT ANALYSIS 12- FINISHING OPERATIONS

Sl No

10 hrs

UNIT-13 PRINTING AND PACKAGING


Introduction Package is defined as the outer cover or packing the material, which helps to protect, to preserve, to identify, to give a brand image etc to the product .A product in order to be sold has to be conserved and preserved, effectively to the satisfaction of the customer. In this chapter we deal with materials used for packaging, classification of packages, special type of packages etc.. Facilitator can adopt various learning strategies such as field visit, sample collection, demonstration, group discussion, seminar and lab work. Curriculum objectives To understand the materials, their properties, application and advantages of packing through discussion, sample collection, field visit prepare field visit report and note. To get awareness idea about flexible packaging and laminates through discussion, sample collection, field visit and prepare field visit report and note. To understand ink and solvent used in package industry through discussion, sample collection demonstration and prepare note. To acquire idea about special packages through discussion sample collection and prepare note. To understand various processes of paper and board packages through a seminar and prepare seminar report. To acquire idea about forme making, cutting, creasing and make ready through discussion, field visit demonstration, lab work and prepare field visit report and note and record book. To understand corrugated, fiberboard and rigid boxes through discussion, sample collection, chart and prepare note.
161

Printing Technology

To understand selection of materials used for packing through discussion, sample collection, and prepare note.

13.1.The materials, properties, application and advantages of packaging. Activities: Sample collection , Discussion, Field visit Learning materials Samples, reference books, Internet Discussion Point Field visit to a packaging centre to study about the materials used in packages. Group the learners and introduce collected samples Group discussion based on the collected samples to learn about materials, application and its advantagees. Paperboard, metal, glass, plastic, Timber and textiles, properties of plastic based packaging Characteristics and principles Cellulose film Properties of film Application and limitation. Application and advantages of polyfins, poly vinyls, polymer, nylon

Consolidation point Materials, properties, application and advantages Product Subject diary Field visit report 13.2. Flexible packaging and flexible laminates-materials and advantages Activities: Field visit, Sample collection, Discussion Learning materials Reference books, Internet Field visit to study about flexible packaging and laminations

162

Group discussion based on the collected samples. Discussion points Flexible packaging, flexible laminates Advantages Different material used for it Character of flexible packages and laminates Consolidation points Flexible packaging and Flexible laminates materials and advantages Product Subject diary Field visit report 13.3.Inks and solvents used in packages industry Activities: Sample collection, Discussion Learning materials Reference books, Internet Group the learners and introduce the collected samples and discuss

Discussion Points Solvent Based vehicles Water soluble inks Coating lacquers Ink storage and handling Special properties of inks for flexography, gravure andscreen printing Consolidation points Inks and solvents used in packages 13.4 Special packages and its machinery Activities: Discussion, Sample collection Learning materials Reference books, Internet Collect different types of packages.
163

Printing Technology Discussion points Group the learners and have discussion based on the collected samples. Familiarise machinery Different types of packages Strip packages Shrink packages Blister packages Skin package Stretch wrapping Machinery used in packaging

Consolidation points Special packages and its machinery Product Subject diary 13.5. Various processes of paper and board packages Activity: Seminar Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion point Paperboard packages Cartons styles purposes Principles of carton design Methods of containing Protecting and displaying the product-using carton. Consolidation points Various processes of paper and board packages Product Seminar report 13.6. Forme making, cutting and creasing Activities: Field visit, Discussion, Demonstration Lab work

164

Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion point Type of forme, wood block, rotary and caser formes Advantages and sequence of operations involved in forme making Make ready procedures, cutting and creasing Filed visit Group the learners and discuss Introduce forme making, cutting and creasing Observe and demonstrate in the lab.

Consolidation points Forme making, cutting and creasing Product Subject diary Field visit report Record book 13.7.Corrugated, fibre board and rigid box in packaging Activities: Discussion, Sample collection Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion points Conversion of corrugated boards in to boxes Equipments used for conversion Manufacture of corrugated and fibre- board cases, rigid boxes Styles, classification and purpose, conversion of board into boxes Group the learners and discuss the topic. Introduce collected samples, corrugated, fiber board and rigid box Observe and identify

Consolidation Point Corrugated, fibre board and rigid box

165

Printing Technology Product Subject diary 13.8.Selection of materials Activities: Sample collection, Discussion Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion points Selection of board, Lining covering papers and adhesives Introduce the collected samples in the learners group and discuss. Observe and identify.

Consolidation Points Selection of materials Product Subject diary CE ITEMS Sample collection: Collect the samples of packages and laminates Seminar: Conduct seminar on various process of paper and board packages TE ITEMS Sample question 1. Comment your ideas about packaging (6Scores) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR PRACTICAL EVALUATION 1. Forme making, cutting, creasing and make ready

166

UNIT ANALYSIS 13-PRINTING AND PACKAGING


Theory Practical

Sl No

To under stand the materials, properties application, and advantages of packaging. Observing Identifying Analysing Raising Questions Sample collection discussion Reference books Internet Subject diary field visit field visit report, Subject diary report .

Characteristics Observing Identifying of various material used Analysing properties Raising application Questions

Sample collection, discussion

2 Samples Subject diary Field visit hrs Reference field visit report, book Internet report Subject diary

To acquire idea Materials about different characteristics materials and Advantages, advantages of Flexible flexible packag- packaging, ing and lami- Flexible laminates nates Solvent- ink Observing special Identifying properties Analysing different types Raising Questions Sample collection, discussion, Reference books Internet

1 hr

To understand ink and solvent used in package industry

Subject diary Field visit field visit report report Subject diary

1 hr

167

Theory

Printing Technology

To acquire idea Different about special types of special packages. packages plastic corrugated boxes, lined carton, polyethelene, woven sack Observing Comparing Seminar Reference books Internet Subject diary Subject diary field visit Seminar report Report

Observing Analyzing comparing Identifying

Sample collection discussion

Reference books, Internet

2 Subject diary Sample hrs Seminar collection Discussion, report Subject diary

To understand Process of various process packages of paper and board packages Operations of Observing forme making Identifying cutting, Compairing creasing make Raising ready Questions

1 hr

To acquire knowledge about forme making, cutting creasing and make ready

2 Discussion Reference Subject diary Skills, hrs Subject diary Demonstra- booksInternet Lab diary tion, Record book Lab diary Field visit, Record book lab work

20 hrs

Practical

168

UNIT ANALYSIS 13-PRINTING AND PACKAGING

Sl No

UNIT ANALYSIS 13-PRINTING AND PACKAGING


Theory Practical

Sl No

7 Equipment used for corrugated conversion, rigid boxes

To understand conversion and manufacture of corrugated, fibreboard and rigid boxes.

Observing analysing identifying

Discussion Sample collection

Reference book Internet

2 Subject diary Sample hrs collections and in group discussion, Subject diary

8 Selection of Observing board lining, Analysing lowering identifying papers and adhesives Discussion Sample collection Reference books Internet

To understand selection of material used for packaging

Subject diary Sample collection, Subject diary

1 hr

169

Printing Technology

UNIT -14 BASIC ENGINEERING


Introduction Electrical, electronics and mechanical which are the basic engineering subjects have a vital role in the Printing Industry. The parts of printing machine work according to these principles. This unit deals with direct and alternate current, motors and transformers, basic electronics, mechanical components, hydraulics and pneumatics not in details but only basics of it. The facilitator can adopt various strategies such as discussion, assignment, chart preparation etc. Curriculum Objectives To understand the characteristics of direct current and alternate current through discussion, chart presentation and prepare note. To familiarize motors and transformers through discussion, chart presentation and prepare note. To understand basic electronics circuit through discussion, chart presentation and prepare note. To get an idea about the characteristics of mechanical principles of mechanical components through discussion, chart presentation and prepare note. To familiarize the characteristics of hydraulics and pneumatics through discussion, chart presentation and prepare note. To understand electrical, electronics, mechanical and pneumatic parts of a printing machine through an assignment.

14.1.Direct current and Alternate current Activities: Discussion, Chart presentation

170

Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion points Emf, current, potential difference and resistance Ohms law Electric power and energy Electromagnetism and magnetic flux Faradays laws of electromagnetism. Fundamentals of alternate current and its circuit Group the learners and discuss direct and alternative current Present chart

Consolidation points Direct current and alternative current current Product Subject diary 14.2.Motors and transformers Activities: Discussion, Chart presentation Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion Points Construction and working principle of three-phase induction motor. Construction and working principle of transformer. Group the learners and discuss motors and transformers. Present chart

Consolidation Point Basic concepts and working principles of motors and transformers Product Subject diary 14.3. Basic electronic circuit Activities: Discussion, Chart presentation

171

Printing Technology Learning materials Reference books, Internet Discussion point Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors Semiconductor diode(P-N junction) Construction and operation of bi-polar junction transistor Group the learners and discuss basic electronic circuit. Present chart

Consolidation points Electronic circuit Product Subject diary 14.4. Mechanical components Activities: Discussion, Chart presentation Learning materials Reference books, Internet Group the learners and discuss about mechanical components Present chart Discussion point Nuts, bolts, screws, studs, keys, cotters, pin, lever and shaftsidentify. Function of spur, helical and Bevel gear Cams and followers application Plain bush, ball and roller bearings Chain and sprockets, soldering, riveted joints Clutches and brakes, feeler Types of lubrication and lubricant Maintenance Consolidation point Mechanical components Product Subject diary
172

14.5.Hydraulics and pneumatics Activities: Discussion, Chart presentation Group the learners and discuss about hydraulics and pneumatics Discussion points Viscosity, Demulsibility and stability Working, use of single stage air compressor Present chart

Consolidation point Hydraulics and Pneumatics Product Subject diary 14.6.Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics and Pneumatic parts of a printing machine Activities: Discussion, Assignment Discussion Points Mechanical parts Electrical parts Electronic parts Pneumatic parts Group the learners and discuss the topic Give assignment

Consolidation Points Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics and pneumatic parts Product Subject diary : Assignment CE ITEMS Assignment: Give assignment on mechanical, electrical electronics and pneumatic parts of printing machine

173

Printing Technology TE ITEMS Sample Questions 1. Identify the electrical, electronics, mechanical and pneumatics parts of a single colour off set machine (6scores)

174

UNIT ANALYSIS 14- BASIC ENGINEERING


Theory Practical

Sl No

To understand Fundamental the characteris- of direct tics of direct current and current and alternate alternate current current and its circuit Fundamental of motors and transformers Discussion Reference chart books presentation Observing analysing comparing measuring Discussion Reference chart books presentation Subject diary Subject diary

Observing analysing comparing measuring

Discussion Reference chart books presentation

Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs ability to analyse different circuits

To familiarise motors and transformers

2 hrs

To understand Fundamentals Observing analysing basic electron- of Basic ics circuit Electronics comparing measuring Fundamental of mechanical principle of mechanical components Observing analysing comparing measuring

Subject diary Subject diary

2 hrs

To get an idea about the characteristics of mechanical, principle of mechanical components

Discussion Reference chart books presentation

Subject diary Subject diary

3 hrs

175

Theory

Printing Technology

5 Fundamental of hydraulics and pneumatics Observing analysing comparing measuring Discussion Reference chart books presentation

To familiarise about the characteristics of hydraulics and pneumatics

Subject diary Subject diary 2 hrs ability to analyse different circuits

6 Parts of an offset printing machine Identifying Observing Analysing Classifying Comparing Measuring

To understand mechanical, electrical, electronics and pneumatic parts of a printing machine

Assignment Single colour Report of offset assignment machine

Report of assignment

1 hr

Practical

176

UNIT ANALYSIS 14- BASIC ENGINEERING

Sl No

APPENDIX

177

CE TE Total Grade CE TE Total Grade

CE CE TE TE Total Grade Total Grade PE Total VCE Grade CE TE PE Total Grade CE TE PE Total Grade CE TE Total Grade

178

Printing Technology

Sl no: Name

STUDENTS EVALUATIONPROFILE

English General Foundation Course Vocational Subjects Physics Chemistry Mathematics

FORMA FOR VOCATIONAL COMPETENCY EVALUATION T

Sl no: CCE
3 (20) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Capacity Value Total Grade Regularity and Addition building Punctuality (20) (20) (10) Total (50) 4 Total (20) (80) Total out of 20

Name PE

TE Total Grade (80) (100) Vocational Competency Evaluation

1 (20)

2 (20)

Grade

179

Printing Technology

BOOKS FOR REFERENCE


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 T.M.Adams,; D.D.Faux, L.T.Ricber, Printing Technology, Delmar Publishers Inc. 1990. V.S.Krishnamurthy, Basics of Modern Printing Process, Maxseltype, 1989. A.G.Martin, Finishing process in printing, Facal Press Ltd. Britain, 1972. Arthur W.Johnson, The Thames and Hudson Manual of Book Binding, Thames and Hudson, London 1989. Arthur W.Johnson, Craft Book Binding, Thames and Hudson, Herbert P.Home, The Binding of Books, Haskell House Publishers Ltd., New York, 1970. Handbook of Modern Halftone photography, Perfect graphic arts, Demarset, U.S.A. Jack Eggleston, Sensitometry for Photographer, Focal Press, London, 1984. Woodlief Thomas, J.R.SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, John Wiley and sons. J.Michael Adams David, D.Foux, Llyod, J.Ricber, Printing Technology, 3rd Edition, Delmar Publishers, 1988. R.H.Leach, The Printing Ink Manual, Fifth Edition, Chopman and Holl, London, 1993. Robert F.Reed-What the Printer should know about Inks; GATF, 1984. C.G.Roffey. Photo polymerization of Surface Coatings, John Wiley & Sons, London 1985. Eagle Charles. V. Hand Book of Adhesive bonding, M.C.Graw Hill Book Company, New York, 1978. Alan Holmes, Electronic Composition, Emblem Books Ltd. 1984. Les Heath and Ian Faux, Photo type setting, SITA Ltd. 1983. J.Michael Adman, David D Foux, and Lyods J.Reiber; Printing Technology, Delmer (Pub), III Edition. PIRA guide, Standardised Lithographic Colour Printing 1984/85 Mills, South Worth, Colour Seperation Techniques, Graphic Arts Publishing Co. Newyork, 1981. R.W.G Aunt, Reproduction, Colour, Fountain Press, 1981. Principles of Colour Reproduction applied to photomechanical Reproduction, Colour

180

Photography and the Ink, Paper and other Related Industries, John Wiley & Sons U.K. 22 P.C.Pocket Guide 101. Page Maker Tips, Graham Jones Galgotia Publications Pvt.Ltd 5, Ansari Road, New Delhi 110002 23 Offset Printing Blankets Technical Manual by John M.Smith (Tecl.Director) BTR Graphic Products Ltd. Prepared for the 26th India Printer Conference 24 Offset Printing by Misra Lecturer Institute of Printing Technology Allahabad, New Delhi Web sites 1 2 3 4 5 www. manu graph.com www. heidelberg.com www. hmt.org www. print_ packaging .com www. bindingmeachinery.com

181