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Arizona Debate Institute 2009


1 Queer Sex the Bomb

Queer Theory K Index
Queer Theory K Index .........................................................1 Queering Shell .....................................................................2 Link: Liberal State Politics ..................................................7 Link: Social Construction ....................................................8 Link: Feminism ....................................................................9 Link: Nationalism .............................................................. 10 Link: Future Orientation .................................................... 11 Link: Face of the Child ...................................................... 15 Link: Nuclear Family ......................................................... 18 Link: Hetero/Homo Binary ................................................ 19 Link: Military ..................................................................... 23 Link: War on Terror ........................................................... 26 Link: Penetration Language ............................................... 27 Link: Gay Identity .............................................................. 28 Link: Feminism .................................................................. 29 Link: Ecofeminism............................................................. 30 Internal Link: Naturalizing the Hetero ............................... 31 Impact: Soul Murder .......................................................... 32 Impact: Dehumanization .................................................... 33 Impact: Colonization .......................................................... 34 Impact: Root of Oppression ............................................... 35 Impact: Violence ................................................................ 36 Impact: Violence to Women .............................................. 38 Impact: Violence to Men.................................................... 40 Alternative: Queer Performance ........................................ 41 Alternative: Liberating the Erotic ...................................... 42 Alternative: Do Nothing .................................................... 43 Alternative: Fuck the Future .............................................. 45 Alternative: S&M............................................................... 47 Alternative Solves: Heterosexism ...................................... 48 Alternative Solves: Racism ................................................ 49 Alternative Solves: Dichotomies/Binaries ......................... 50 Alternative Solves: Inclusivity .......................................... 51 Alternative Solves: Oppression ......................................... 53 Role of the Ballot .............................................................. 54 Framework ........................................................................ 55 Language Matters .............................................................. 57 Kritik Comes 1st................................................................. 59 Answer To: Case Outweighs ............................................. 60 Answers To: Prevents Political Change ............................ 61 Answers To: Historical Critique of Queer ......................... 64 Answer To: Obligation to Help Others.............................. 65 Answer To: Identity Politics Bad ...................................... 67 Answer To: Totalizing Heterosexuality ............................ 69 Answers To: Race/Culture K‘s of Queer Theory ............. 70 Answer To: Must Stabilize Queer for X Reason ............... 72 Answer To: Perm .............................................................. 73 Aff Answer: Historical Critique of ―Queer‖ ...................... 74 Aff Answer: Must Deal With The Future .......................... 74 Aff Answer: Queer Families Perm .................................... 76 Aff Answer: Race Kritik of Queer Theory ........................ 77 Aff Answer: Capitalism Turn ............................................ 79 Aff Answer: Alt doesn‘t Solve .......................................... 80 Aff Answer: Queer Theory Not Inclusive ......................... 84 Aff Answer: Identity Politics Good ................................... 86 Aff Answers: Perm - Intersectionality ............................... 87 Aff Answer: Perm – Identity Politics ................................ 88 Aff Answer: Perm – Resistance with the System .............. 89 Aff Answer: Perm – Coalitions ......................................... 91 Aff Answer: Perm – Ecofeminism .................................... 92

Arizona Debate Institute 2009

2 Queer Sex the Bomb

Queering Shell
The affirmative‘s obsession with life is a symptom of futurist compulsory reproduction. This type of thinking is heterosexist and fascist, leading to the idea that queers are not worthy of being part of society. Edelman, Professor of English Literature , 2004.
(Lee, No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive, pp. 74-76, JCE) This conflation of homosexuality with the radical negativity of sinthomosexuality continues to shape our social reality despite the well intentioned efforts of many, gay and straight alike, to normalize queer sexualities within a logic of meaning that finds realization only in and as the future. When the New York Times Magazine, for example, published in 1998 an issue devoted to the status items specific to various demographic groups, Dan Savage found in a baby's gurgle the music to soothe the gay male beast: "Gay parents," he wrote, "are not only making a commitment to our political future, but to the future, period.... And many of us have decided that we want to fill our time with something more meaningful than sit-ups, circuit parties and designer drugs. For me and my boyfriend, bringing up a child is a commitment to having a future. And considering what the last I5 years were like, perhaps that future is the ultimate status item for gay men." The messenger here may be a gay man, but the message is that of compulsory reproduction as inscribed on the anti-abortion billboard I mentioned in chapter I: choose life, for life and the baby and meaning hang together in the balance, confronting the lethal counterweight of narcissism, AIDS, and death, all of which spring from commitment to the meaningless eruptions of jouissance associated with the "circuit parties" that gesture toward the circuit of the drive. This fascism of the baby's face, which encourages parents, whether gay or straight, to join in a rousing chorus of "Tomorrow Belongs to Me," suggests that if few can bring up a child without constantly bringing it up-as if the future secured by the Child, the one true access to social security, could only be claimed for the other's sake, and never for one's own- then that future can only belong to those who purport to feel for the other (with all the appropriative implications that such a "feeling far" suggests). It can only belong to those who accede to the fantasy of a compassion by which they shelter the infant future from sinthomosexuals, who offer it none, seeming, instead, to literalize one of Blake's queerest Proverbs of Hell: "Sooner murder an infant in its cradle than nurse unacted desires." 13 Who would side with such "gravediggers of society" over the guardians of its future? Who would opt for the voiding of meaning over Savage's "something more meaningful"? What might Leonard teach us about turning our back on what hangs in the balance and deciding-despite the rhetoric of compassion, futurity, and life-to topple the scales that are always skewed, to put one's foot down at last, even if doing so costs us the ground on which we, like all others, must stand? To figure out how we might answer that question, let's think about Leonard as a figure, one metonymically figured in North by Northwest by the terra-cotta figurine ("a pre-Columbian figure ofa Tarascan warrior" [90], according to the screenplay, that is referred to throughout the Mount Rushmore episode simply as "the figure" [e.g., 138]), which contains, like a secret meaning, the secrets on the microfilm hidden inside it. In Leonard, to be sure, the figure of the sinthomosexual is writ large-screen, never more so than during what constitutes his anti-Sermon on the Mount, when by lowering the sole of his shoe he manages to show that he has no soul, thus showing as well that the shoe of sinthomosexualiry fits him and that he's wearing it-insofar as he scorns the injunction to put himself in the other's shoes. But the gesture by which he puts his stamp on sinthomosexuality-by stamping on the fingers with which Thornhill holds fast to the monument's ledge with one hand while he holds fast to Eve with the other-constitutes, as the film makes clear, a response to an appeal, even if his mode of response is intended to strike us as unappealing.

Arizona Debate Institute 2009

3 Queer Sex the Bomb

Heteronormativity is a powerful form of normalization which is the site of all violence. Yep, Lovaas, and Elia, Professors @ San Francisco University, 2003.
(Gust, Karen, and John, Journal of Homosexual Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2/3/4,, pp. 18, JCE) In this passage, Simmons vividly describes the devastating pervasiveness of hatred and violence in her daily life based on being seen, perceived, labeled, and treated as an ―Other.‖ This process of othering creates individuals, groups, and communities that are deemed to be less important, less worthwhile, less consequential, less authorized, and less human based on historically situated markers of social formation such as race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, and nationality. Othering and marginalization are results of an ―invisible center‖ (Ferguson, 1990, p. 3). The authority, position, and power of such a center are attained through normalization in an ongoing circular movement. Normalization is the process of constructing, establishing, producing, and reproducing a taken-for-granted and allencompassing standard used to measure goodness, desirability, morality, rationality, superiority, and a host of other dominant cultural values. As such, normalization becomes one of the primary instruments of power in modern society (Foucault, 1978/1990). Normalization is a symbolically, discursively, psychically, psychologically, and materially violent form of social regulation and control, or as Warner (1993) more simply puts it, normalization is ―the site of violence‖ (p. xxvi). Perhaps one of the most powerful forms of normalization in Western social systems is heteronormativity. Through heteronormative discourses, abject and abominable bodies, souls, persons, and life forms are created, examined, and disciplined through current regimes of knowledge and power (Foucault, 1978/1990). Heteronormativity, as the invisible center and the presumed bedrock of society, is the quintessential force creating, sustaining, and perpetuating the erasure, marginalization, disempowerment, and oppression of sexual others.

Compulsory Heterosexuality is the logic of discrimination which materializes into violence against everyone who is incompatible with their world view. Everyone is at risk. Gómez, Political theorist on Hate Crimes, 2005 (María Mercedes, On Prejudice, Violence, and
Democracy,, ongoing project from 2005 until 2008, pp. 2-3, JAR) The logic of discrimination seeks to maintain ―the other‖ as inferior while the logic of exclusion seeks to liquidate or erase ―the other‖ from the social world.7 These logics materialize in two uses of violence, which I call hierarchical and exclusionary. In the hierarchical use of violence, perpetrators maintain and enjoy difference as a mark of inferiority. In contrast, the exclusionary use of violence attempts to eliminate differences because they are understood to be incompatible with the perpetrator(s)‘ world-view. In a compulsory heterosexual system of domination, non-heterosexual practices and identifications are a threat to the system. Keeping them as inferior is, in some cases, instrumental to heterosexual supremacy. But non-heterosexual identities are overall targets for exclusion although such exclusion takes place in different degrees for individuals perceived or defined as gay, lesbian, and transgender.

Such a rearticulation. is also. on the internal limit to signification and the impossibility of turning Real loss to meaningful profit in the Symbolic without its persistent remainder: the inescapable Real of the drive. anti-Promethean. released by the cut that articulates meaning. something radically different: that sex. Though bound therefore to be. sinthomosexuals all. a steady stream of figures that mean to embody-and thus to fill-that lack. along with all those doomed to ontological suspension on account of their unrecognizable and.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 4 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative: Queering must embrace unintelligibility. the lack that launches the living being into the empty arms of futurity. This. toward the ongoing legitimation of social form through the recognition that is said to afford "ontological certainty and durability. Edelman. in abjection. Unlike Butler's Antigone. Alenka Zupancic. Demeaned. the Symbolic order constantly must exert itself to bind." For that horror itself survives the fungible figures that flesh it out insofar as it responds to something in sex that's inherently unspeakable: the Real of sexual difference. would proceed through "the repeated scandal by which the unspeakable nevertheless makes itself heard through borrowing and exploiting the very terms that are meant to enforce its silence" (78). like blood from an open wound. of course. as figures for it. to bear the burden of embodying such a "moralized sexual horror." 54 From that limit of intelligibility. to be claimed for intelligibility. encrusting it in. which always attempts to impose. catachrestically. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. demeaning ourselves and embracing the inhuman suffering that has been projected onto the singled out queer. into the ambit of future meaning. in fact. in opposing itself to sense.or declined. (Lee. symptomatically. on the model of Whitman. consents to the logic that makes it figure for what meaning can never grasp. when all is said and done. more exactly. 106-109. "is the meaning. 2004. of course." That "never. JCE) But what if it didn't? What if Antigone. the laws responsible for what she aptly calls our "moralized sexual horror" (71). This. assumes that "the unspeakable" intends. as Copjec reminds us. "unlivable" loves. though. But that redistribution of social roles doesn't stop the cultural production of figures. from that lack in communication. a limit that we cling to. of Lacan's notorious assertion that 'there is no sexual relation': sex. sinthomosexuals. to quote from Copjec again." 53 No doubt. But where Butler's Antigone conduces to futurism's logic of intelligibility by seeking no more than to widen the reach of what it allows us to grasp. the unfamiliar. As embodiments of unintelligibility." sinthomosexuality. persists as the figure for such a generalized unbinding by which the death drive expresses at once the impossible excess and the absolute limit both of and within the Symbolic. to metaphorize and enact the traumatic violence of signification whose meaning-effacing energies. to speak. in Ethic of the Real. though destined. Imaginary form. the norms of the social order do. above all else. unbound. Or rather. 'out-of-place' effect of an act) is immediately linked in this ideological gesture to an image. performs the law's instantiation. like the clotting factor in blood. unbinds us all. where she moves. that would stanch intelligibility's wound. which is then displayed to the public alongside this question: Is this what you want? And this question . and for that absolute limit. as the final defeat of our own power" (21). the binder of wounds. the sinthomosexual. as he faces the void to which he himself offers a face. notes that what Kant called the ethical act "is denounced as 'radically evil' in every ideology. by definition. On the face of Mount Rushmore. to support the emergence of Symbolic form. there flows. "a limit to the social. by means of catachresis. Leonard gestures toward such an unbinding by committing himself to the sinthomosexual's impossible ethical act: by standing resolutely at. by binding it to. whereas Lacan maintains. opposed to relation.. and on. that which marks the subject as unknowable. as Butler helps us to see." and then describes how ideology typically manages to defend against it: The gap opened by an act (i. in consequence. This alone prevents the violence of signification. Committed as she is to intelligibility as the expanding horizon of social justice. as she puts it. could not bring the Symbolic order to crisis since they only emerge. declined intelligibility. the possibility of agency and change. Professor of English Literature . declined to bring herself. the means of its apparent subjection to meaning. and those who once were persecuted as figures of "moralized sexual horror" may trade their chill and silent tombs for a place on the public stage. by way of the future. pp. As a rule this is an image of suffering. to cast off the meaning that dings to those social identities that intelligibility abjects: their meaning as names for the meaninglessness the Symbolic order requires as a result of the catachresis that posits meaning to begin with. they must veil what they expose. to communication. We must prevent ourselves from being known.e. she claims. it embraces de-meaning as the endless insistence of the Real that the Symbolic can never master for meaning now or in the "future. becoming. of course. the subversive. Those figures. such sinthomosexuals would insist on the unintelligible's unintelligibility." Butler would argue. change through catachresis. Butler would affirm "our own power" to rearticulate. as "the structural incompleteness of language" is "that which does not communicate itself.

his act. beyond desire. He leaves us. toward a jouissance from which everything "human. must also lose the face by which we (think we) know ourselves. as one from whom we could learn how to act and in whom we could find the sinthomosexual's essential concretization: the formalization of a resistance to the constant conservation of forms. who shatters the lure of the future and.e. by virtue of losing it. in short. "at one with everything that depends on the image of the other as our fellow man. I suggest." to have one. To embrace the impossibility. in effect. as impossible and inhuman as Leonard." To those on whom his ethical stance. . against our own self-interest and in spite of our own desire. must turn its face. but that lead us. as impossible and inhuman as the sinthomosexual. Leonard affords us no lesson in how to follow in his footsteps." 56 To be anything else-to refuse the constraint. who responds to Thornhill by crushing his hand. but calls us. For "we are. is the ethical task for which queers are singled out. the impossible task of trying to fill his shoes -shoes that were empty of anything human even while he was wearing them.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 5 Queer Sex the Bomb already implies the answer: It would be impossible. as Zupancic rightly says. "impossible. inhuman. Leonard bequeaths the irony of trying to read him as an allegory. of the ego as form would be." as Lacan ventriloquizes the normative understanding of the self. inhuman. to a sinthomosexuality of our own-one we assume at the price of the very identity named by "our own. for refusing the call to compassion. exerts a compulsion. finally merits none himself. for you to want this!" 55 The image of suffering adduced here is always the threatened suffering of an image: an image onto which the face of the human has coercively been projected such that "I. the inertia. the inhumanity of the sinthomosexual: that. the substantialization of a negativity that dismantles every substance." As impossible and inhuman as a shivering beggar who asks that we kill him or fuck him. on the similarity we have to our ego and to everything that situates us in the imaginary register.

noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley. 93 (Dr. and masculine and feminine occupy these oppositional positions. For if the copies speak. without mastering. for every oppositional discourse will produce its outside. it will come from many quarters. and those resignifying practices will converge in ways that scramble the self-replicating presumptions of reason's mastery. In this sense. Judith. illuminating the violent and contingent boundaries of that normative regime precisely through the inability of that regime to represent that which might pose a fundamental threat to its continuity. without ending. . But of equal importance is the preservation of the outside. the scenography of reason is rocked by the crisis on which it was always built. and compulsory heterosexuality. masculinism. they will not be the same as each other. There is no singular outside. The result is a disruptive site which rocks the reason of the master‘s discourse. Radical inclusivity is NOT the goal. to own—and yet never fully to own—the exclusions by which we proceed. through not being the animal. And whereas this can appear as the necessary and founding violence of any truth-regime. radical and inclusive representability is not precisely the goal: to include. But this is a matter that is defined not only against reason. of what will occupy the site of inscriptional space. not being the slave. If there is a violence necessary to the language of politics. they are and replicate themselves through what they exclude. to bring in every marginal and excluded position within a given discourse is to claim that a singular discourse meets its limits nowhere. The task is to refigure this necessary "outside" as a future horizon. if there is an occupation and reversal of the master's discourse. 52-53 LRP The regulation of sexuality at work in the articulation of the Forms suggests that sexual difference operates in the very formulation of matter. one in which the violence of exclusion is perpetually in the process of being overcome. then the risk of that violation might well be followed by another in which we begin. an outside that risks becoming installed as its non-signifying inscriptional space. for the Forms require a number of exclusions. national and racial boundary. The excluded is a future horizon of unending. where the opacity of what is not included in a given regime of truth acts as a disruptive site of linguistic impropriety and unrepresentability. as what must remain outside these oppositional positions as their supporting condition. where reason is understood as that which acts on and through a countervailing materiali¬ty. Sexual difference also operates in the formulation. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp. to speak as. To the extent that a set of reverse-mimes emerge from those quarters. not being the woman. the staging. it is important to resist that theoretical gesture of pathos in which exclusions are simply affirmed as sad necessities of signification.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 6 Queer Sex the Bomb And put away your perms. that it can and will domesticate all signs of difference. or if what is merely material begins to signify. unrepresentability. whose propriety is purchased through property. that is. the site where discourse meets its limits. And there will be no way finally to delimit the elsewhere of Irigaray's elsewhere. Butler.

Foucault attempts to show that the separation of public and private. in any case. 7 Modern forms of governmentality actually require citizens to be free. queer theory. truth. of power and knowledge. the various rights assigned by the state's civil institutions exclusively to law-abiding citizens possessed of sound minds and bodies. is quite alien to Foucault's thinking--but something resembling its opposite: namely." Foucault is not talking about power in the sense of coercive and irresistible force (which in his lexicon goes by the name not of "power" but of "determination").." and disciplines. because within that sphere they freely and spontaneously police both their own conduct and the conduct of others--and so "earn. what most of them are likely to have reacted against in his political theorizing is not a totalitarian concept of power that would deny the possibility of resisting domination--a concept of power that. "power is everywhere. 1995. so as to invest them all the more completely. and of progressive. then. . which takes as its objects "free subjects" and defines itself wholly in relation to them and to their freedom. "responsibilizes. rather. Enlightenment-era values (such as freedom. it has championed an ethic and an ideal of personal freedom while making the exercise of that freedom conditional upon personal submission to new and insidious forms of authority.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 7 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Liberal State Politics Traditional liberalism extends the power of the state by requiring citizens to be free which normalizes responsibilities leading to self policing and submission Halperin 95 (David M. It normalizes." to imply that contemporary forms of social domination are so total in their operations and so overwhelming in their effects as to leave no possibility for individual or collective resistance. but most of all in The History of Sexuality. scientific research. far from enslaving its objects. then. Volume I. and personal life are not in fact free zones from which power has progressively retreated since the Enlightenment but colonized spaces into which it has steadily expanded. For according to Foucault's analysis. material culture and visual culture." by demonstrating a capacity to exercise them. What shocked traditional liberals about Foucault's dictum that power is everywhere. DES) ALTHOUGH SOME of Foucault's critics on the Left may simply have misunderstood his claim. civil society. In one book after another. so that citizens can assume from the state the burden of some of its former regulatory functions and impose on themselves--of their own accord--rules of conduct and mechanisms of control. it does not directly terrorize. which is characteristic of modern liberal societies. Modern liberalism has eliminated certain modes of domination only to produce many others (which do not present themselves as modes of domination and are all the more difficult to challenge or oppose). proliferated. The kind of power Foucault is interested in. is the dark vision of modernity. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. he is referring to what might be called liberal power-that is. has not limited (as it is often supposed to have done) the operative field of power but instead has functioned strategically to extend the reach of power and to multiply techniques of social control. The state no longer needs to frighten or coerce its subjects into proper behavior: it can safely leave them to make their own choices in the allegedly sacrosanct private sphere of personal freedom which they now inhabit. and rationality) that it expresses. When he says that "power is everywhere. Liberal power does not simply prohibit. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. and diffused itself. Foucault's reversal of the standard liberal critique of totalitarianism. " New York Oxford University Press. constructs them as subjective agents and preserves them in their autonomy. pg. intellectual activity. 18-19. critical theory. of the liberal state. to ever more deeply internalized mechanisms of constraint. to the kind of power typically at work in the modern liberal state.

constraint is not necessarily that which sets a limit to performativity. Sexuality is a performance. a ritualized production." A construction is. after all. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp. I will insist. rather. especially by those who have insisted on the constructed status of sexuality. Moreover. 94-97. Here. nor can it be simply equated with performance. And this repetition is not performed fa a subject. Performativity is neither free play nor theatrical self-presentation. the repetitive compulsion of others. it is not only that there are constraints to per-formativity. This iterability implies that "performance'' is not a singular "act" or event. but a ritualized production. the abiding repudiation of some sexual possibilities. The construction/determinism dualism fails to grasp the complexity of sexuality. but what remains radically unthinkable: in the domain of sexuality these constraints include the radical unthinkability of desiring otherwise. In this sense. For sexuality cannot be summarily made or unmade. the absence of certain desires. constraint is. noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley. and it would be a mistake to associate "constructivism" with "the freedom of a subject to form her/his sexuality as s/he pleases. constraint calls to be rethought as the very condition of performativity. constructivism needs to take account of the domain of constraints without which a certain living and desiring being cannot make its way. . And every such being is constrained by not only what is difficult to imagine.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 8 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Social Construction Sexuality is not socially constructed. with the threat of ostracism and even death controlling and compelling the shape of the production. then. existing within constraints that make the very conditions of the performance. Butler. it is in some sense free. and the nexus of sexuality and pain. the radical unendurability of desiring otherwise. it is in some sense fixed. under and through the force of prohibition and taboo. Judith. LRP Such efforts to underscore the fixed and constrained character of sexuality. There is a tendency to think that sexuality is either constructed or determined. a regularized and constrained repetition of norms. 93 (Dr. however. These oppositions do not describe the complexity of what is at stake in any effort to take account of the conditions under which sex and sexuality are assumed. to think that if it is constructed. this repetition is what enables a subject and constitutes the temporal condition for the subject. need to be read carefully. that which impels and sustains performativity. not the same as an artifice. a ritual reiterated under and through constraint. at the risk of repeating myself. panic. determining it fully in advance. but not. I would suggest that performativity cannot be understood outside of a process of iterability. The "performative" dimension of construction is precisely the forced reiteration of norms. and if it is determined. rather. obsessional pull. On the contrary.

Judith Butler is a noted for her studies on gender. such that "men" are those defined in a sexually dominating social position and "women" are those defined in subordination.. LRP In theories such as Catharine MacKinnon's. sexual relations of subordination are understood to establish differential gender categories. in assuming a homogeneity in voices. but the destabilizing of the heterosexual presumption of that very structuralism still requires a way to think the two in a dynamic relation to one another. documented by Raymond (she did not invent it single handedly) reproduces the power relations that are themselves inherent in radical feminist separatist theory. Butler. My sense is that now this very opposition needs to be rethought in order to muddle the lines between queer theory and feminism. because the patriarchy is always involved in the treacherous act of building the Trojan Horse [containing the transsexual woman] (and liberal feminism and Marxist feminism will always open the gate to the horse). It allows women to become dominant in telling their narrative about their past in order to justify and promote the use of sex-role theory. early feminist theory and from it emerged a construction of the transsexual person in which they are no longer merely a medicolegal construction. The relation between sexual practice and gender is surely not a structurally determined one. and mechanism. she teaches composition and rhetoric at U. it promotes radical separatism as the only viable alternative to the patriarchal hegemony. . consensual homosexuality). Stryker & Whittle. It assumes that biology is destiny.e. Gayle Rubin's influential distinction between the domains of sexuality and gender in "Thinking Sex" and Sedgwick's reformulation of that position have constituted important theoretical opposition to MacKinnon's deterministic form of structuralism. In this way the transsexual person's story of gender oppression and a search for identity is silenced. of patriarchal oppression. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘).. Radical feminism is an example of Heteronormativity par excellence.C. public sex. pp.2' For surely it is as unacceptable to insist that relations of sexual subordination determine gender position as it is to separate radically forms of sexuality from the workings of gender norms. despite all that feminism seems to say in opposition to this in terms of the pre-determination of sex and gender roles..the possession of a penis or a vagina at the birth of a child—what is viewed as 'natural' becomes the dictator of the socially constructed gender role. and. it supports the notion of separatism in that it sanctions an "invisible" oppression of transsexual people by women. What is anatomically observable . Separatist feminism is based on biological homogeneity that silences queer populations. Berkeley. Hence. 238-239 . but they become part of the story. 2006) LRP The historical location of Raymond's book places it in the history of sex-role. The Transgender Studies Reader. (‗Where Did We Go Wrong? Feminism and Trans Theory—Two Teams on the Same Side‘. 93( Judith. the prohibition of sodomy. and others are inherently flawed. New York: Routledge. 06. This discourse. Her highly deterministic account leaves no room for relations of sexuality to be theorized apart from the rigid framework of gender difference or for kinds of sexual regulation that do not take gender as their primary objects (i. That some values and some knowledge are better . it subsumes any other discourse about gender and sex. lecturer in law at Manchester Metropolitan University.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 9 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Feminism Feminism fails to account for an encompassing view of the subject which rejects the ridgid gender binaries defined by the Heteronormative.

Nationalism. Both Enloe's and Bloom's texts reprint popular colonial postcard images of naked or partially clothed native women reclining on the ground in what Bloom calls the "odalisque pose" ( Bloom 1993 . Enloe defines a nation as "a collection of people who have come to believe that they have been shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. Cynthia Enloe finds important connections between the conceptions of nationalism and of masculinity. That belief is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups around them" ( Enloe 1989 .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 10 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Nationalism The modern nation state is defined by what it opposes and excludes.and a particular kind of heterosexuality as well.LRP) In her study of race and gender in international politics. and environmental justice. though colonization regularly includes rape. 104). feminism. Like the colonizers of three and four centuries past. The native feminized other of nature is not simply eroticized but also queered and animalized. Page Number: 114. 1992 . Lisa Bloom finds that "the explorations symbolically enacted the men's own battle to become men. writer. In colonialist discourses of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Queer theorist Eve Sedgwick argues that gender and sexuality are "inextricable . Gaard. Becoming a nationalist requires a man to resist the foreigner's use and abuse of his women" ( Enloe 1989 .similarity between the two operations. Publication Year: 1997. Simply stated. the editors of Nationalisms and Sexualities explain that "national identity is determined not on the basis of its own intrinsic properties but as a function of what it (presumably) is not" ( Parker et al. polar expeditions. Similarly. educator. emphasis added). .is implicit in conceptions of both dominant masculinity and Plumwood's master model. nor transgendered. . 45. 44). in that each can be expressed only in terms of the other . feminist and ecofeminist theories fall short without a queer perspective. Here again. a tool for explaining how inequities have been created between 'us' and 'them' " ( Enloe 1989 . reason over and against the erotic. . and the colonized women are often depicted as sex objects by foreign men. or class and race" (1990. . say. the subordinated countries are feminized. moreover." and the recorded narratives left by the explorers present "U. 30).S. 307).S. Serving as a foundation for all imperialist exploits. scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature. To automatically assume that this makes it the theory of sexual oppression is to fail to distinguish between gender. Colonization becomes an act of the nationalist self asserting identity and definition over and against the other -. it is clear that notions of sexuality are implicit within the category of gender. the subordinated men are emasculated. It is. 97 (Greta. 5). and erotic desire.not experiential -. One male writer described colonialism as the condition wherein a man's women are "turned into fodder for imperialist postcards. In the preceding examples. then. 1992 . bisexual. As Gayle Rubin has noted. Heterosexuality -. 5).culture over and against nature. the explorers and imperialists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have used the perceived eroticism of native peoples as a justification for their colonization. Hypatia. the masculinity of the colonizer and of Plumwood's master identity is neither homosexual. colonial nationalism offers a definition of identity that is structurally similar to the master identity. a heterosexuality contained within certain parameters -. Volume: 12. in her study of U. it uses difference to enshrine a collective national identity. in twentieth-century Western culture gender and sexuality represent two analytic axes that may productively be imagined as being as distinct from one another as. national identity as essentially a white masculine one" ( Bloom 1993 . gender and class. Inevitably "shaped by what it opposes. . Our conception of state hood is heteronormative. the discourse of nationalist colonialism contains specific conceptions not only of race and gender but also of sexuality. masculine over and against feminine. ‗Toward A Queer Ecofeminism‘. 61)." a national identity that depends on such differences is "forever haunted by [its] various definitional others" ( Parker et al. is "a set of ideas that sharpens distinctions between 'us' and 'them'. on the other" (1989. The feature of masculine identity that Enloe and Bloom seem to overlook and that Plumwood does not explicitly address is sexuality. 11). in that any sexual behavior outside the rigid confines of compulsory heterosexuality becomes queer and subhuman. 6. From a queer ecofeminist perspective. The metaphoric "thrust" of colonialism has been described as the rape of indigenous people and of nature because there is a structural -. Issue: 1. then. on the one hand. "Feminism is the theory of gender oppression.

Even proponents of abortion rights. however radical the means by which specific constituencies attempt to produce a more desirable social order." and thus as a fight for the future. Indeed. against all reason. which it then intends to transmit to the future in the form of its inner the children"? How could one take the other " disassociate the queer. as I argue here. 2-4. to authenticate social order. given its unlimited faith in reason . indeed. resisting the social structures that authenticate reproductive futurism. the place of the social order's death drive: a place. to be sure. but queerness. like an ideological Mobius strip.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 11 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Future Orientation Political debate is necessarily framed in terms of the Child. at the heart of my polemical engagement with the cultural text of politics and the politics of cultural texts lies a simple provocation: that queerness names the side of those not "fighting for the children. preserving in the process the absolute privilege of heteronormativity by rendering unthinkable. (Lee. Such "self-evident" onesidedness .political not in the partisan terms implied by the media consultant. figures." when taking any side at all necessarily constrains one to take the side of. More radically. mirroring their anti-abortion foes. JCE) But what helped him most in these public appeals on behalf of America's children was the social consensus that such an appeal is impossible to refuse. while promoting the freedom of women to control their own bodies through reproductive choice. that follows from reading that figure literally. Edelman. by virtue of taking a side within. though. that rhetoric was intended to avow that this issue. remains. Professor of English Literature . Queerness refuses political reaffirmation of the future Child. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. of the political field -as defined by the terms of what this book describes as reproductive futurism: terms that impose an ideological limit on political discourse as such. at its core. which ideologically constrains our thinking in terms of heteronormativity. as a "fight for our children-for our daughters and our sons. to submit to the framing of political debate-and.' What. the fantasmatic beneficiary of every political intervention. .is precisely. For politics. but political in a far more insidious way: political insofar as the fantasy subtending the image of the Child invariably shapes the logic within which the political itself must be thought. queerness attains its ethical value precisely insofar as it accedes to that place. what distinguishes public service announcements from the partisan discourse of political argumentation. accepting its figural status as resistance to the viability of the social while insisting on the inextricability of such resistance from every social structure. Any possible political reform will remain within this heterosexist mindset. to the extent that we would register as politically responsible. 2004. only permitted one side. though these public service announcements concluded with the sort of rhetorical flourish associated with hard-fought political campaigns ("We're fighting for the children. That logic compels us. Indeed. the possibility of a queer resistance to this organizing principle of communal relations. making real change impossible. outside and beyond its political symptoms.the affirmation of a value so unquestioned. That Child remains the perpetual horizon of every acknowledged politics. conservative insofar as it works to affirm a structure. in that case. and hence a place from which liberal politics strives-and strives quite reasonably. by contrast." the side outside the consensus by which all politics confirms the absolute value of reproductive futurism. But it is also. recurrently frame their political struggle. what makes such announcements so oppressively political . as that of the Child whose innocence solicits our defense. because so obviously unquestionable. would it signify not to be "fighting for the image of the future it intends? Impossibly. I suggest. pp. by casting outside the political domain. of course. Whose side are you on?"). a political order that returns to the Child as Child. my project stakes its claim to the very space that "politics" makes unthinkable: the space outside the framework within which politics as we know it appears and so outside the conflict of visions that share as their pre-supposition that the body politic must survive. of abjection expressed in the stigma. The ups and downs of political fortune may measure the social order's pulse. sometimes fatal.

and Lawrence Stone have made clear. to serve as the repository of variously sentimentalized cultural identifications. but more punitively. produces it. From Delacroix's iconic image of Liberty leading us into a brave new world of revolutionary possibility. James Kincaid.' an excessive 'unreal' remainder that produces an ever-present jouissance. the meaningless substrate of signification that meaning intends to conceal. whatever refuses this mandate by which our political institutions compel the collective reproduction of the Child must appear as a threat not only to the organization of a given social order but also. what we take to be reality itself. this loss is a real rather than a symbolic one. in Wordsworth's phrase. this fantasmatic Child. 2004." In its coercive universalization.her bare breast making each spectator the unweaned Child to whom it's held out while the boy to her left. an irrepressible remainder that the subject cannot separate itself from. (Lee. This surplus. however. . the advent of the signifier effects. the Child has come to embody for us the telos of the social order and come to be seen as the one for whom that order is held in perperual trust. it functions not in a mode of absence but in a mode of an impossible excess haunting reality. indeed. though always at the cost of limiting the rights "real" citizens are allowed. remains spectral. Hence. "father of the Man. The drive holds the place of what meaning misses in much the same way that the signifier preserves at the heart of the signifying order the empty and arbitrary letter. the death drive-holds a privileged place in this book. in opposing itself to the negativity of such a drive. Saving our children represents saving our ideal citizens and preserving our social institutions Edelman. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. the image of the Child as we know it: the Child who becomes. Lacan makes clear that the death drive emerges as a consequence of the Symbolic. then. JCE) The drive-more exactly. This surplus is what Lacan calls the subject's 'anatomical complement. we are no more able to conceive of a politics without a fantasy of the future than we are able to conceive of a future without the figure of the Child. gives us history as the continuous staging of our dream of eventual self-realization by endlessly reconstructing. As the constancy of a pressure both alien and internal to the logic of the Symbolic. while desire is born of and sustained by a constitutive lack. the image of the Child. Politics. For the social order exists to preserve for this universalized subject. pp. he ends Seminar 2 with the claim that "the symbolic order is simultaneously non-being and insisting to be. drive emerges in relation to a constitutive surplus. that is what Freud has in mind when he talks about the death instinct as being what is most fundamental-a symbolic order in travail. put at risk the Child to whom such a freedom falls due. the "inspirational" "One Day More"). from a will to undo what is thereby instituted. That figural Child alone embodies the citizen as an ideal." This constant movement toward realization cannot be divorced. is called forth to figure: the negativity opposed to every form of social viability." or impossible insofar as it insists outside the logic of meaning that. as social critics and intellectual historians including Phillipe Aries. "unreal. in the mirror of desire. entitled to claim full rights to its future share in the nation's good. the death drive names what the queer. which might. of desire. to which it persistently appeals. Small wonder that the era of the universal subject should produce as the very figure of politics. and far more ominously. marks the impossible place of an Imaginary past exempt from the deferrals intrinsic to the operation of the signifying chain and projected ahead as the site at which being and meaning are joined as One. insofar as it threatens the logic of futurism on which meaning always depends. compelling the Symbolic to enact a perpetual repetition. affirms the absolute logic of reproduction itself-to the revolutionary waif in the logo that miniaturizes the "politics" of Les Mis (summed up in its anthem to futurism. as the inarticulable surplus that dismantles the subject from within. As such. with it. the Real loss." Historically constructed. 9-11. in the process of coming. however. in the order of the social. to social order as such. nonetheless. not to be confused with the lived experiences of any historical children. after all. Professor of English Literature . insisting on being realized. in the realization of the subject's authentic presence in the Child imagined as enjoying unmediated access to Imaginary wholeness. reproducing her posture. In this it enacts the formal repetition distinctive of the drive while representing itself as bringing to fulfillment the narrative sequence of history compelling such discourse to accede in advance to the reality of a collective future whose figurative status we are never permitted to acknowledge or address. And it does so without letting us acknowledge that the future.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 12 Queer Sex the Bomb The queer is the figure of the death drive standing in opposition to the future. a notional freedom more highly valued than the actuality of freedom itself. to begin again ex nihilo. In other words. serves to regulate political discourse-to prescribe what will count as political discourse. because also as the embodiment of futurity collapsing undecidably into the past. Suzanne Barnard expresses this well in distinguishing between the subject of desire and the subject of the drive: "While the subject of the drive also is 'born' in relation to a loss. For the death drive marks the excess embedded within the Symbolic through the loss.

the figure of this Child seems to shimmer with the iridescent promise of Noah's rainbow. When we witness. Saint Thomas. the videotaped representation of Andrew playing on the beach as a boy (see figure 4). the political right. Edelman. of course. since queerness. is understood as bringing children and childhood to an end. if not at. in a cinema (unlike the one in which we sit watching philadelphia) not phobic about graphic representations of male-male sexual acts. Nor should we forget how pervasively AIDs-for which to this day the most effective name associated with the congressional appropriation of funds is that of a child. Ryan Whitereinforces an older connection. and the freedoms of adults face constant threat of legal curtailment out of deference to imaginary Children whose futures.k. Recall. as old as the antigay reading imposed on the biblical narrative of Sodom's destruction. counters their efforts by inviting us to kneel at the shrine of the sacred Child: the Child who might witness lewd or inappropriately intimate behavior. Beckett. as if they were permitted to have them except as they consist in the prospect of passing them on to Children of their own. Thus. last seen on his deathbed in an oxygen mask that seems to allude to. to serve in the military. the occasion of a gay man's death gives the film the excuse to unleash once more the disciplinary image of the "innocent" Child performing its mandatory cultural labor of social reproduction. This. we find ourselves in. Thus. while lesbians and gay men by the thousands work for the right to marry. or trope on. as portrayed by the saintly Tom Hanks). in the historical epoch of our current epistemological regime. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. Hannibal Lecter's more memorable muzzle (see figures I and 2). is the connection on which Anita Bryant played so cannily when she campaigned in Florida against gay civil rights under the banner of "Save Our Children. We encounter this image on every side as the lives." and it remains the connection on which the national crusade against gay marriage rests its case. the end of Jonathan Demme's Philadelphia (1993). but also against the homosexual world in which boys like this eventually grow up to have crushes on other men. has shuffled off this mortal coil to stand. to adopt and raise children of their own. between practices of gay sexuality and the undoing of futurity. 2004. is the figure for this compulsory investment in the misrecognition of figure.or later. as viewed through the prism of the tears that it always calls forth. before a higher law. the speech. JCE) The Child. now crowded with children and pregnant women whose reassuringly bulging bellies (see figure 3) displace the bulging basket (unseen) of the HIV-positive gay man (unseen) from whom. refusing to acknowledge these comrades in reproductive futurism. a. therefore.a. in the film's final sequence. serving like the rainbow as the pledge of a covenant that shields us against the persistent threat of apocalypse now. (Lee. It takes its place on the social stage like every adorable Annie gathering her limitless funds of pluck to "stick out [her] chin! And grin! And say: 'Tomorrow!! Tomorrow!! I love ya! Tomorrow! You're always! A day! Away. pp. For the cult of the Child permits no shrines to the queerness of boys and girls. Professor of English Literature .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 13 Queer Sex the Bomb The future of the child is a promise to shield ourselves against the threat of apocalypse. his filmic act of contrition for the homophobia some attributed to The Silence of the Lambs (199r). for contemporary culture at large as for Philadelphia in particular. the tears that these moving pictures solicit burn with an indignation directed not only against the intolerant world that sought to crush the honorable man this boy would later become. the Child who might choose a provocative <CONTINUED> . contracted the virus that cost him his life. for example. the Child who might find information about dangerous "lifestyles" on the Internet. The fetish fixation on the Child is a mark of heteronormativity. his wake surveying a room in his family home. 18-21. the filmic text suggests. After Andrew Beckett (a man for all seasons.' "And lo and behold. as we are led to suppose. are construed as endangered by the social disease as which queer sexualities register.

a will. Indeed. with an "otherness" of which its parents. as the radical right maintains.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 14 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> book from the shelves of the public library. uncompromised by any possible access to what is painted as alien desire. and Peter Pan. marks the fetishistic fixation of heteronormativity: an erotically charged investment in the rigid sameness of identity that is central to the compulsory narrative of reproductive futurism. a Symbolic resistance to the unmarried men (Scrooge. as Voldemort's name makes clear. an Imaginary fullness that's considered to want. condenses a fantasy of vulnerability to the queerness of queer sexualities precisely insofar as that Child enshrines. And so. a wish. that is. Uncle Ebenezer. or the state do not approve. its church. and therefore to want for. or even by the threat of potential encounters. who might find an enjoyment that would nullify the figural value. the Child. the battle against queers is a life-and-death struggle for the future of a Child whose ruin is pursued by feminists. terroristically holds us all in check and determines that political discourse conform to the logic of a narrative wherein history unfolds as the future envisioned for a Child who must never grow up. made to image. and those who support the legal availability of abortion. queers. God's children. itself imposed by adult desire. David Balfour. in its form as sublimation. in short. immured in an innocence seen as continuously under siege. our enjoyment of liberty is eclipsed by the lengthening shadow of a Child whose freedom to develop undisturbed by encounters. of the Child as unmarked by the adult's adulterating implication in desire itself. does the historical construction of the homosexual as distinctive social type overlap with the appearance of such literary creations as Tiny Tim. Captain Hook) who embody. nothing. That Child. that is. after all. "a nation made for adult citizens has been replaced by one imagined for fetuses and children. The Child. for the satisfaction of adults. the Child. its purpose was wholly congruent with the logic of reproductive futurism: to "disrupt and ultimately destroy Satan's power to kill our children. who enact. Not for nothing. or a drive toward death that entails the destruction of the Child. As Lauren Berlant argues forcefully at the outset of The Queen of America Goes to Washington City. in an imperative most evident today in the uncannily intimate connection between Harry ." On every side. . the very value for which queerness regularly finds itself condemned: an insistence on sameness that intends to restore an Imaginary past. as the Army of God made clear in the bomb making guide it produced for the assistance of its militantly "pro-life" members. Potter and Lord Voldemort.

that social and economic conditions are so unfriendly to children and mothers that many women feel they have no choice but to terminate their pregnancies. forcing us to live in a preapocalyptic world of paralyzed action Sofia. Pg. The flyer's middle panel. displacing extinction anxieties into abortion. 56-57. J. Wilke in 1973 copyrighted a lurid anti-abortion flyer containing graphic depictions of dead fetuses and sensational descriptions of unborn life. Disarmament. are symptomatic of the very mode of thought which has placed extinction within our reach: that peculiarly masculinist mode which has stubbornly devalued the visible ordering and multiplyembedded character of terrestrial life in favor of the decontextualized abstractions of Jupiter Space. it still employs an Aristotelian model which accords ail of the transformative. of babies dead in the garbage and the title "Human garbage. The back page of this flyer is interesting on several counts. A fertilized ovum? Yes! You were then everything you are today. and the Sexo-semiotics of Extraterrestrialism. . Wilke from the National Right to Life Committee has claimed that pro-choice forces "do violence to marriage by helping remove the right of a husband to protect the child he has fathered in his wife's womb. which disappears the womanlwifelmother into the protecting superwomb of patriarchal culture and accords male semen all the fertile power. A review of Contemporary Criticism. DES) The absolutist logic of the Pro-Lifers for Survival line. Its text is as follows: Did you "come from" a human baby? No! You once were a baby. and Mother Earth keeps getting left out of the picture. Summer 1984. But of particular interest here is the origin story which appears on the left panel. C. and on the subject of reproduction." Diacritics. and observes: There's a way in which the fetus is discussed as though it were not within a living woman. using the fetus as a cosmic model leaves the problematic portions of the military-industrial complex unchallenged." namely. which claims that "abortion-ondemand laws give to one person (the mother) the legal right to kill another (the baby) in order to solve the first person's social problem. Pro-choice activist Janet Gallagher complains about the level of abstraction which arises in discussions with pro-lifers.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 15 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Face of the Child The cult of fetal-personhood is symptomatic of the masculine fertility complex which put extinction within our reach. generative power to males and reduces females to mere nurturant vessels for male seeds. 2001 is clearly working on this model: all of the embryological imagery is associated with men and their tools. The binarist logic of masculinist thought is stumped by contextual relations like that of the fetus to the woman's body. This same Dr. . <CONTINUED> . Did you "come from" a fertilized ovum? No! You once were a fertilized ovum.9 Dr. As if that woman didn't exist. Vol 4. collapsing the future tense into the ideology of progress." brings forward an aspect of the abortion question which tends to be glossed under the legalist rhetoric of "choice. The far right panel. 84 (Zoe "Exterminating Fetuses: Abortion. Did you "come from" a human fetus? No! You once were a fetus. . The New Right's rhetoric of ―defense‖ and ―protection‖ of fetal life is similarly resonant with militaristic scenarios. Noted Austrailan cyber and cyber-gender theorist." l o This statement expresses the kernel of the masculinist fertility complex. and the dichotomies structuring the abortion debate." can be read as symptomatic of anxiety over the wastage of life which would result from a nuclear war.

But there are three major dangers in using the fetus as a cosmic symbol: If the cosmic associations are left unspecified. and underneath it the following words appear in heavy type: Nothing has been added to the fertilized ovum who you once were except nutrition. there is no guarantee that extinction anxieties won‘t continue to be displaced onto the more manageable issue of abortion. <CONTINUED> . It is an overblown symbol of the parasitic male ego. while leaving untroubled that part of the belief system which favors further development of doomsday machines. given what we already know of Dr.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 16 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> A line is then drawn across the column. Its associations with an anti-erotic repressive morality and pro-militarist sentiments make the movement to protect the fetal person seem less about life and more about preventing its termination: the New Right is not so much "pro-life" as "anti-abortion. the pro-life fetus arises as the negation of life's negation. which is "taking a form that has its own energy. The cult of fetal personhood can thus serve as a safety valve for the right's bad conscience over its exterminist policies. If we put this line under a microscope. It is not entirely inappropriate that the planet be represented by a signifier of unborn life. then anxieties over the fate of the Earth can be unconsciously expressed in hysterical or abstract discussions of individual fetal life. quoted as saying "the fetus might well be described as an astronaut in an interuterine space ship. and more generally. if not in living woman's body? The front cover of this flyer gives us one answer: the dead fetus is in the man's hands. then. centuries of extraterrestrial fantasies capped off by several decades of off-world practice have encouraged us to think of space as a good womb. and the way it appears at the moment we're threatened with nuclear abortion. the fetus is working as a symbol for the Earth. and tends to keep questions of reproductive morality confined to the private sphere Even where the connections between cosmic and individual unborn are explicitly recognized. It is a cosmic symbol. At one level. this other inhabitant of Jupiter Space may also stand for extinction." Like the Star Child. From this perspective. for we can always escape to one of the new Star Children we pluck from the vacuum. and the pregnancy entirely spermatic. we might even mutate into extraterrestrial cyborgs. almost like a religious cult. disarmament might be seen as an act to prevent a cosmic abortion. the mother all food. and which may gain further impetus as people lose hope of dismantling the nuclear apparatus. More generally. From this view. for it presently contains all of the possibilities for future life forms. of the corporate Superbabies which feed off the Earth while pretending it doesn't exist. and there is something disturbing about its image as fetusthe profound individualism of it perhaps. The fetus here is all mouth. then its womb is space." We look again to the film 2001 for clues to the source of this energy. Although we know of no other living worlds. One pro-life lawyer has been . the individualist rhetoric on both sides of the abortion debate prevents proper recognition of the radical reproductive choices being made daily by the militaryindustrial complex. substituted for it: it becomes a world of its own. as in the Pro-Lifers for Survival position. The Earth is usually pictured as a Mother. through which the male ego resurrects itself as a spermatic creation. And like the Star Child. The text here "draws the line" at a point where biological knowledge constrains it from asserting something it really believes. Wilke's attitude to fathering. But there is also a space oddity involved: for if the Earth is an embryo. a tendency already encouraged by moral absolutism. The astral fetus is visually equated with the planet. and in the last frame. Where does the pro-life fetus exist. full of inhabitable planets. The line between these last sections is particularly interesting. One pro-choice activist has claimed that the notion of fetal personhood is a relatively new one."" He is correct: the fetus is a decontextualized abstraction of Jupiter Space. it would probably read as follows: Did you "come from" your father's sperm? No! You once were your father's sperm. the Earth is just one of many cosmic pregnancies. which here means patriarchal consciousness. It doesn't really matter if we abort it.

allowing the conceptus to be spoken of as a "tiny person" and the deliberate arrest of its development equated with homicide. The embryo faces no alternative futures. to be determined by the future events or decisions which might influence or terminate its development. and space colonies are inevitable parts of our future. that embryo was always already what we are now. after all. there's no time like the present. The perversity of the collapsed future tense lies in its ability at once to invoke and deny the future. It is the "bound to be" of the ideology of progress. who understand conception as an occurrence with a number of possible outcomes. The pro-life prosition is therefore continuous with all of those other discourses of future collapse which work to paralyze people into inaction in the face of the extraterrestrial and exterminist technologies which seem destined to take over our lives. . operative in the discourse of those who tell us that since nuclear reactors. we have no need to consider the survival needs of future generations: we are the future generation. Dr. we might as well quit griping about their bad side-effects and get on with making the future happen. the collapse of the future leaves the present with no time. The collapsed future tense lies at the heart of our culture of space and time travel. Wilke's embryological catechism attempts to persuade us that we did not just "come from" an embryo (the future conditional). The collapse of adulthood into the fetus-world symbol helps render extinction conscionable by reductively equating the megadeath of the cosmic unborn with the individual deaths we all know we must face. we "once were" that embryo (collapsed future). an adult person. which is moreover collapsed back onto all previous states of being. Contrasting with this collapsed future tense of antiabortion rhetoric is the future conditional of feminists. the cult of fetal personhood employs termporal distortions remarkably similar to those of science-fiction culture. deep-sea mining. but one single destiny. and we live with the sense of the preapocalyptic moment. the inevitability of everything happening at once.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 17 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> Apart from the space oddities it shares with 2001. For if the future is already upon us. Trouble is. Star Wars.

A Conceptual Framework‘.and upper-class. for example. White. the same man rapes or other¬wise sexually assaults his own daughter. When a man rapes or otherwise sexually assaults the child of a neighbor. and deductions and tax credits accrue to parents with dependent children. for example. Married. Boston: McGraw Hill. Families are institutions where goods and services are distributed to reinforce the economic power of dominant groups. middle. When. used the term "family values" to refer to the political values that serve the interests of nu¬clear. Families are institutions where the ideas that bolster and justify the dominant power structure are reinforced daily in an intimate setting. making it especially difficult for women and children to success¬fully challenge the abuse of that power either within the family or in the criminal justice system (cf. male heterosexuals are reinforced daily in a vari¬ety of ways. the rape is more often either not chal¬lenged at all. . heterosexual couples pay one rate. Current tax laws determining what part of income earned by individual workers will be re¬tained by the state are set by family status. unmarried individuals pay another rate. those values that serve to reinforce the dominant power structure. The family wage—a wage large enough to enable a man to provide for his entire family—was extended at the end of the nineteenth century to White men to lure them away from family farms and into factory work but was never extended to men of color. treated as an issue for social services. Christian families—that is. Conserva¬tive politicians and political interest groups in the 1990s. and Sexuality. Class. however.and upper-class White. 01 (‗Understanding Race. Weber. or dealt with in therapy. Families are institutions where the public authority and power of middle. Herman 1992). heterosexual. Political. Economic. The public power of men (including their greater economic power) gives them power in the family. It also served as a mechanism for exerting control over women by both denying them access to wage work and by justifying lower wages for women (Hartmann 1997). Gender. LRP Ideological. the violation is typically seen as a crime and is often pur¬sued in the criminal justice system.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 18 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Nuclear Family The nuclear family reinforces the dominant family structure.

Motivated by a reformist impulse. This movement has helped to bring about a society-wide liberalization of responses to persons identified as homosexual. Kinsey's "heterosexual-homosexual rating scale. of necessity. especially since 1969. sounded precise." from zero to six. New York: Dutton pg 98-101) JNF His recasting of the hetero/homo polarity did suggest that there are degrees of heterosexual and homosexual behavior and emotion. Kinsey stresses. there must be arbitrary prohibitions. The idea of hetero and homo identities—two discrete. had cut the sexual population in two—and helped to establish the social and personal reality of a heterosexual and homosexual identity.5° At the same time. If the novelist considers that they are no more complex than their labels. and scientific. As sex-liberal reformer. heterosexual and homosexual. he ordered. unhappily. Another sex reformer. linked with licentiousness). quantitative. modern women's pursuit of heterosexual happiness has often been degraded by sexism and co-opted by commerce ("You've come a long way. Gore Vidal. in which we will find. "is not to be divided into sheep and goats. Stressing the variations between exclusive heterosexual and exclusive homosexual behavior and feeling. has for years been joyfully proclaiming: there is no such thing as a homosexual or a heterosexual person. So why all the fuss? In order for a ruling class to rule. he challenged the social and historical division of people into heterosexuals and homosexuals because he saw this personlabeling used to denigrate homosexuals. he must. the historical establishment of a heterosexual identity as universal. But that famous continuum also emphatically reaffirmed the idea of a sexuality divided between the hetero and homo. One team is good. Kinsey's contesting the notion of homosexual and heterosexual identities and persons was one early. . the historical establishment of a female heterosexual identity has encouraged twentieth-century women to pursue erotic enjoyments unknown to many of their nineteenth-century foremothers. Once the novelist has created a human being. On the other hand. godly. influential sex-liberalism thus upheld the hetero/homo division. he rejected the social reality and profound subjective force of a historically constructed tradition which. The historical emergence of a specifically homosexual person has." (That revealing Biblical metaphor positions heterosexuals as sheep.S. led to the development of a powerful movement publicly and actively affirming a gay and lesbian "identity. for people refuse.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 19 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Hetero/Homo Binary The distinction between heterosexuality and homosexuality is flawed. painful. There are only homo. essentially different types of people—is a deeply ambiguous political legacy. In "Preservation of Innocence. neatly demands the 'presence and passion of human beings. but the hetero/homo division itself? As early as 1949. but society's. coupled with conformity. we have allowed our governors to divide the population into two teams. straight. The Invention of Heterosexuality. sick. he denied that human beings "represent two discrete populations. sexual taboo is the most useful because sex involves everyone. At the same time. and homosexuals as goats. the other is evil." published obscurely in Tangier." Modeled after American movements affirming "racial" and "ethnic" identities. The hetero/homo division of persons is not nature's doing. the mass coming out of gay and lesbian persons has freed thousands of women and men from a deep." But can we not take Vidal's analysis of our "wacky division" one step further? Can we now question.or heterosexual acts.. not only the division into hetero and homo persons. and what anyone does with a willing partner is of no social or cosmic significance. to function in so neat and one-dimensional a‘s a social construction that has led to the heterosexual supremacy as the ―norm‖ and views homosexuality as the evil Other to be ostracized. Katz. fixing the het/homo binary in the public mind with new certainty. giving it new life and legitimacy. Kinsey also explicitly contested the idea of an absolute either/or antithesis between hetero and homo persons. he has <CONTINUED> . Of all prohibitions.49 His science-dressed. presumed. who cannot ever be labeled. Baldwin innovatively warned that the tagging of homosexual persons denied human complexity—not only that of homosexuals but of everyone:52 It is quite impossible to write a worth-while novel about a Jew or a Gentile or a Homosexual. partial form of resistance to the antihomosexual use of the hetero/homo distinction. baby!") and made dangerous by men's sexual harassment and violence. since the early twentieth century in the U. produce a catalogue. 95( Jonathan Ned... an independent scholar and historian of sexuality." The world's population. and normative has supported the formation of heterosexual supremacy. vicious. the twenty-five-year-old James Baldwin was initiating an inquiry into his society's sacred sexual labels. On the one hand. socially induced sense of inferiority and shame. Most people are a mixture of impulses if not practices.

of our multiple human attributes. that you have no right to be here. Baldwin declares. is not natural but social and value-laden. is able. it marks." Hetero/Homo is an artificial division. . and nothing in everybody else which is not in me. "can only betray a division within the soul of each. But that's the world's problem. man/woman distinction is a problem for the psy che. It had nothing to do with these labels. "56 "The recognition of this complexity"—this ambiguity of the sexes and sexual divisions—"is the signal of maturity. to tell us something about it. a false accusation. The "present debasement" of the male homosexual." Baldwin says: "There's nothing in me that is not in everybody else." Anyway. all those attributes with which the label is associated.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 20 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> shattered the label. Baldwin suggests. . The Invention of Heterosexuality. Imagining a radically new future sex. for the reasons he discusses: A novel insistently time. . Baldwin hints. The language of gay is accepting their world‘s linguistic attempt to divide and conquer Katz. "having once listed the bald physical facts. an independent scholar and historian of sexuality. ." the homosexual did not exist. speaking out of black America. of course. "and our obsession with him. . it seemed a great mistake to answer in the language of the oppressor. nor. But the complexities of human experience—Baldwin's own experience. a worthy novel about a Heterosexual would also seem to be ruled out. locked in those airless." The either/or. We were all in a state of nature."55 The division between man and woman. no one will identify as straight." We're "trapped in language. Though Baldwin doesn't mention it. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman. 95( Jonathan Ned. As long as I react as a "nigger. New York: Dutton pg 104-105) JNF Hetero/homo is "an artificial division. That is." That "rigidity of attitude" puts to death "any possible communion. that species of social curse." as long as I protest my case on evidence or assumptions held by others. . I'm saying I have nothing to prove. which are masculine and which are feminine. labeled cells. when I had to try to answer that stigma. we'may all smother to death. Without this passion. the young Baldwin suggests. that you have to prove your right to be here. Baldwin's response to the world's sex problem parallels his response to the world's race problem: My own point of view. Maybe that's at the bottom of my impatience with the term. and in transcending the subject matter. Baldwin says: No one will have to call themselves gay. That world. I'm simply reinforcing those assumptions." he admits. It won't help our souls to declare "that men must recapture their status as men and that women must embrace their function as women. for the first listed." Baldwin stresses. is linked inextricably to a system of moralizing judgments about men and women: Before we were banished from Eden and the curse was uttered. In a world in which no one identifies as gay. "corresponds to the debasement of the relationships between the sexes. The world also belongs to me. divested of the homosexual/heterosexual division." says Baldwin. and tied to a problematic cultural connection of men and women. which isolate us from each other and separate us from ourselves. It answers a false argument. will belong to all of us. the world had all kinds of words for us. words that divide and try to conquer: I loved a few people and they loved me. .53 The differentiation of homosexual and heterosexual persons. properly speaking." it's difficult to "decide. did the heterosexual. Of course. "the death of the child and the birth of the man. for example—cast doubt on the language of heterosexual and homosexual.54 The homo/hetero distinction.

(Gust.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 21 Queer Sex the Bomb Because of the homo/heterosexual binary. 114). is created a whole set of positions which are unthinkable from the standpoint of your identity. 45. JCE) Heterosexuality Needs to Constantly Reproduce Itself. No. Just imagine the anxiety. and Elia. Elaborating on her notion of comedy. such as the articulation of one‘s exclusive desire for only members of a different sex and engagement in only certain authorized erotic practices. heterosexuality erects heavily policed borders. such as homosexuality or queerness. 2/3/4. 1997). Because of the relational nature of the homo/heterosexual binary. If you say ―I can only desire X. Karen. 1996. as an institution and identity. suggests that heterosexual performativity is beset by an anxiety that it can never fully overcome. . 125) In short. . (Butler. then it must continuously re-affirm itself through repeated performance. That it must repeat this imitation. In other words. to survive. But why such anxiety? I contend that the source of anxiety and tension partly emanates from awareness that heterosexuality is fundamentally fragile. It must constantly restate itself repeatedly by denying homosexuality as a viable alternative. is fragile and fundamentally comic. and anger– even violence– which can be provoked by suggesting to a self-proclaimed heterosexual man that he might be gay. Journal of Homosexual Studies. is caught up in an anxious and unending cycle of repetition compulsion. In spite of its immutable appearance. Butler (1996). and ultimately ―free‖ of its dependence on homosexuality. Such borders are closely watched and carefully defended because they are points of danger for one or the other or both identities involved (Johnson. Such incessant ritualistic reproduction is an attempt to maintain the fiction of a stable heterosexuality. Now. heterosexuality. 2003.. a host of sexual possibilities are denied yet immediately conjured up. In a never-ending attempt to appear as ―authentic. to ritualistically reproduce itself all over the place‖ (p. and that it is consistently haunted by that domain of sexual possibility that must be excluded for heterosexualized gender to produce itself. like other sexual norms. in rendering desire exclusive. 114) In a sense. and John. heterosexuality is caught in a cycle of unending compulsion towards reaffirming itself. If heterosexuality is not independent and stable. tension. positively. (p. pp. that its effort to become its own idealizations can never be finally or fully achieved.‖ Butler maintains that the heterosexual ideal. heterosexuality can never be completely.‖ what you‘ve immediately done. hegemonic heterosexuality is itself a constant and repeated effort to imitate its own idealizations. she states. Vol. . heterosexuality is neither fixed nor stable. Invoking her notion of performativity.‖ and ―uncontaminated‖ from homosexual invasion and infringement. through the erection of boundaries. I take it that one of the essential aspects of comedy emerges when you end up actually occupying a position that you have just announced to be unthinkable. Butler (1993) points out that . heterosexuality is dependent on a ‗perverted‘ opposite. Yep.‖ ―pure. ―heterosexuality has to re-elaborate itself. Professors @ San Francisco University. p. that it sets up pathologizing practices and normalizing sciences in order to produce and consecrate its own claim on originality and propriety. Lovaas. 28-29. Calling it ―the heterosexual comedy.

But if homosexuality is a reality.'") 73 Although the unmarked term claims a kind of precedence or priority over the marked term. 44-46. Halperin. logically contradictory predicates. . depends on homosexuality to lend it substance--and to enable it to acquire by default its status as a default." like "woman. at least it's not that. just as the man/woman binarism is a sexist production. it elevates itself as a privileged and unmarked term. material culture and visual culture. the marked term's priority to the unmarked term is not only structural or logical but historical as well: the invention of the term and the concept of homosexuality preceded by some years the invention of the term and concept of heterosexuality-which was originally the name of a perversion [what we now call bisexuality] and only gradually came to occupy its familiar place as the polar opposite of homosexuality. construction that has come to be misrecognized as an object under the epistemological regime known as realism. they die from them. We must break out of this binary hierarchy Halperin 95 David M. not to describe a single. the very logic of supplementarity entails the unmarked term dependence on the marked term: the unmarked term needs the marked term in order to generate itself as unmarked. stable thing but to operate as a placeholder for a set of mutually incompatible. critical theory. whose impossible conjunction does not refer to some paradoxical phenomenon in the world so much as it marks out the limits of the opposed term. The social world contains many realities that do not exist by nature. constructions are very real. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. as a lack of difference or an absence of abnormality. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. (In the case of heterosexuality and homosexuality. "heterosexuality. of course. and homophobic. In that sense the marked term turns out to be structurally and logically prior to the unmarked one.) 74 "Homosexual. the first of which is unmarked and unproblematized--it designates "the category to which everyone is assumed to belong" (unless someone is specifically marked as different)--whereas the second term is marked and problematized: it designates a category of persons whom something differentiates from normal. increasingly. it's a discursive. Which is not. 70 The marked (or queer) term ultimately functions not as a means of denominating a real or determinate class of persons but as a means of delimiting and defining--by negation and opposition--the unmarked term. but a hierarchical opposition in which heterosexuality defines itself implicitly by constituting itself as the negation of homosexuality. If the term "homosexuality" turns out. 1995. it is a constructed reality. by abjecting and problematizing homosexuality. The heterosexual/homosexual binarism is itself a homophobic production. You can't get more real than that." 75 is not a name that refers to a "natural kind" of thing. 76 People live by them.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 22 Queer Sex the Bomb The hetero/homo binary is a homophobic production. a social and not a natural reality. DES. after all--and nowadays. unmarked people. as we have seen.'" also "a source of heterosexual anxiety: 'There is nothing else to say about it but that. then. On the contrary. pg. 71 Heterosexuality defines itself without problematizing itself. Heterosexuality. queer theory. to say that homosexuality is unreal. 72 ("A source of heterosexual comfort. " New York Oxford University Press." Paul Morrison suggests: "'Whatever else you might say about [heterosexuality]." that is because homosexuality and heterosexuality do not represent a true pair. two mutually referential contraries. Each consists of two terms.

we should note a large body of feminist literature challenging the supposed exceptionalism of ‗sadistic.11 I will now turn to the ways the acts of torture were staged. and the lack of control in the actual lives of soldiers (Whitworth 2004: 166). soldiers seek to (re)constitute their militarized masculine self. The prison guards also arranged naked male detainees in a human pyramid. Yet the problem goes beyond military training. blatant. through violence and the denigration of Others who undermine their promised entitlements. Richter-Montpetit. Whitworth further argues that. Violence and denigration of the other are a way of constituting the masculine self by making feminine or homosexual the target nation or enemy‘s body. particularly after the ‗emasculating‘ events on 9/11 and the daily resistance against the occupation of Iraq. At this point. Political Science Department.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 23 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Military The military solider is premised on an ideology of manliness. first. Barrett 1999. 9 Issue 1. ―Empire. Whitworth (2004: 16) argues that militaries rely on a certain kind of ‗ideology of manliness‘ in order to function well. second. . aggressive heterosexism. and wanton criminal abuses were inflicted on several detainees‘ in Abu Ghraib prison (Taguba 2004: 16).I suggest that these torture practices are embedded in colonial narratives and practices that. This feminist scholarship on militarism suggests that being a soldier is. Whitworth 2004). about violence and about preparing people to destroy other human beings by force‘ (Whitworth 2004: 151). and. paint the colonies or ‗dark corners of the earth‘ as feminized and ‗spatially spread for male exploration‘ (McClintock 1995: 23) or ‗penetration‘. According to the military reports male detainees were ‗sodomized‘ by prison guards. often on their heads. ‗in short. the racialized encounter between prison guards and detainees as a colonial one and the torturing of detainees as acts of colonial violence rooted in the desire to enact ‗Whiteness‘. Mar 2007. Many of these ‗homosexual acts‘ 1⁄4 ‗indecent acts‘ were photographed and/or videotaped. due to the discrepancies between the ‗myths and promises‘ associated with militarized masculinity as experienced and enacted in military training as well as in simulations of warfare. it is about what constitutes becoming and being a soldier – it is about militarized masculinity. How can we make sense of this tension? I argue that we can do so if we understand ‗Operation Iraqi Hope‘ as a colonial endeavour. York University. in such a way ‗that the bottom guys [sic] penis would touch the guy on tops [sic] butt‘ (Taguba 2004). individual conformity to military discipline. forced to ‗masturbate themselves‘ and/or ‗perform indecent acts on each other‘ (Fay and Jones 2004: 72). blatant. Moreover. 2007 (Melanie. p38-59. The military compensates the soldier for subordination and physical stress with the promise of community. misogyny and racism. ‗numerous incidents of sadistic. such as simulating and/or performing oral or anal ‗sex‘ on fellow male detainees. an ideology premised on violence and aggression. Drawing on Cynthia Enloe.International Feminist Journal of Politics. Following Whitworth. and physical and emotional toughness (Whitworth 2004: 16). equate the lack of potency and domination of the male body (and the nation) with femininity and male ‗homosexuality‘. The heavy involvement of female-identified soldiers in the torture of prisoners seems to stand in clear contradiction to feminist theories of militarized masculinity. the four reports came to a similar conclusion whereby between October and December 2003. and wanton criminal abuses‘ among soldiers in war zones and at home (see Seifert 1996. the soldiers stripped male detainees and forced them to wear female underpants. Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner 'Abuse' in Abu Ghraib and the Question of 'Gender Equality‖. and called them names such as ‗gay‘. Militarized masculinity is inherently fragile. Vol. I suggest that the various forms of torture enacted by the soldiers on the bodies of Abu Ghraib detainees were a way of reasserting control and reconstituting the soldierly Self. 22p) Hdo In stark contrast to the seemingly benign intentions articulated in this hegemonic national fantasy.

The use of homosexuality in violence relegates it to dehumanization and obscures state-sponsored systemic violence. This reasoning conflates ‗homosexuality‘ with dehumanization. These intersecting processes helped erect and police the boundaries between the imperial elites and the European and non-European subaltern. and continues to play. In the court martial of army reservist Charles Graner. as particularly humiliating for ‗oriental‘ men. Mar 2007. as well as ‗homosexual sex‘ and its simulation. As I will elaborate below. The deliberate involvement of ‗females‘ in Abu Ghraib (and Guantanamo Bay). to be feminized and sexualized by a female-identified soldier is deemed particularly humiliating for the colonized male body (and his nation). prostitutes. Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner 'Abuse' in Abu Ghraib and the Question of 'Gender Equality‖. a significant role in military conquests of the US Empire. which also included ‗a female Soldier . witnesses reported that female soldiers were instructed by officers to ‗shout abuse‘ (Reid 2005). For example. Homosexual acts are against Islamic law‘. Hersh (2004) argues that ‗[s]uch dehumanization is unacceptable in any culture‘. An example of this can be seen in an article by high-profile investigative journalist and commentator. and served to rationalize. and of the penetrator as virile and masculine has played. Vol. . York University. it also obscures how terror against queers in the alleged ‗most free nation in the world‘ is systemic and state-sponsored.International Feminist Journal of Politics. Political Science Department. . the unemployed. ―Empire. ‗a suppository for Saddam‘ and ‗bend over Saddam‘ (Progler 1999). ‗[t]he personage of the savage was developed as the Other of civilization and one of the first ―proofs‖ of this otherness was the nakedness of the savage. the western colonial projects coincided and intersected with the rise of ‗scientific‘ racism and its systematic racialization of Others in the colonies and in the mother country. In the colonies. the concomitant acts of exclusion and violence. such as ‗Mrs Saddam‘s sex toy‘. the insane (McClintock 1995: 50) and homosexuals. p38-59. but then continues to say that ‗it is especially so in the Arab world.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 24 Queer Sex the Bomb Heteropatriarchal associations with the penetrated body play a significant role in US military conquests. during the 1991 Gulf War. press[ing] a broom against his [a male-identified detainee‘s] anus‘ (Fay and Jones 2004: 77). Seymour Hersh. as well as all inmates with ‗Arabs‘ Fundamentalist‘. 22p) Hdo In the late nineteenth century. ‗Back home‘. in the New Yorker newspaper. Richter-Montpetit.administration‘s ‗few bad apples‘ thesis on the prisoner ‗abuse‘ in Abu Ghraib. 9 Issue 1. I do not suggest that the ‗female‘ soldiers were puppets in the service of racialized heteropatriarchy. 2007 (Melanie. to render ‗natural‘. It intersects clearly with racialized notions of inferiority and superiority. The hetero-patriarchal association of the penetrated body as passive and feminine. the twin processes of sexualization and racialization constructed internal Other(s) – the degenerate European races such as the Jews and the Irish. In this hetero-patriarchal narrative. intersects with racist orientalist discourses that depict acts of sexualized violence against ‗men‘ at the hands of ‗women‘. US airforce soldiers scribbled messages on their bombs. the visibility of its sex‘ (Mercer and Julien cited in Somerville 2000: 5). but rather that their motivations were located in colonial desires. . Hersh‘s article was the first to offer a detailed analysis countering the Bush.

Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner 'Abuse' in Abu Ghraib and the Question of 'Gender Equality‖. as Whiteness and the concomitant World (Dis)Order are also a classed project. the violent practices constitute merely a reversal of that logocentrism. and one of the seven soldiers convicted of prisoner ‗abuse‘ self-identifies as a Black male. the participation of the three female-identified soldiers is not a sign of ‗gender equality‘. I think Ehrenreich‘s hope of taming/‗civilizing‘ the military is an illusion. 2007 (Melanie. weakeness. physical violence and aggressive Othering play a constitutive role in the construction of the soldier Self. and given that their effect is to re/produce the identity and hegemony of the US Empire and its heterosexed.and male-identified prison guards occupy the subject-position ‗White but not quite‘ (Agathangelou 2004). Moreover. the Fay-Jones Report (2004: 77. ―Empire. Vol. p38-59. the acts of violence perpetrated by the female-identified soldiers on the bodies of prisoners should be located within colonial desires. Political Science Department. York University. the female-identified soldiers ironically contributed actively to gender inequality. classed and racialized bodies of some of the US Empire‘s internal Others. the reproduction of the ‗New World Order‘ continues to depend heavily on the deployment of military force. Though none of the torture pictures published depict soldiers of colour. . the commonsensical fantasy of the First World civilized Self that brings (liberal) democracy to the Third World Other incapable of self-determination. depend on the association of femininity with subordination. creates discursive space for the interpellation and participation of the sexed. In sum. and inferiority Richter-Montpetit. Mar 2007. and the subject-position ‗Whiteness‘. simultaneously racialized and heterosexed character of the acts of torture. as its mission is to prepare and organize its workers to kill people. passivity. that is. The military cannot be transformed.International Feminist Journal of Politics. Further. To remain within Ehrenreich‘s problematic framework. 9 Issue 1. Given the systematic. As discussed earlier. These reports do not contradict my argument that the soldiers desired and enacted a fantasy of ‗racial‘ supremacy. inferiority. 22p) Hdo As my analysis of the sexed.19 both female. weakness and passivity. the hegemonic national fantasy envisaging the First World civilized Self bringing (liberal) democracy to the Third World Other incapable of self-determination. While the (hetero)sexualized humiliation of racialized men at the hands of White western women disrupts the fictitious clear-cut male/female dichotomy underpinning this fantasy. they do not displace it. 80) twice mentions ‗Black soldiers‘ engaging in torture of prisoners. in short. racialized torture practices has shown. the ‗save civilization itself‘-fantasy. I argue that the essentially colonial character of ‗Operation Iraqi Hope‘. racialized and classed World (Dis)Order. The US militaries saving civilization fantasy require placing the Other into an association of feminity with subordination.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 25 Queer Sex the Bomb The aff‘s taming of the military is an illusion.

p38-59. Mar 2007.International Feminist Journal of Politics. others who are expected to be grateful‘ (Razack 2004: 10. the war ‗to save civilization itself‘ (Bush 2001e). queers and women in the ‗mother‘ country/‗homeland‘. ―Empire. that Empire is not only about the accumulation of wealth. but also about ‗a deeply held belief in the need to and the right to dominate others for their own good. Vol. 22p) Hdo Drawing on the insight of Edward Said (1993) and other postcolonial scholars. heterosexualized violence. This continuum of violence reaches back in time to the modern ‗civilizing mission‘ and outward in space to link the imperial violence enacted on the bodies of people of colour. 9 Issue 1. but rather to show how our desires are not just a question of individual preference. York University. Muslims. Political Science Department.4 . Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner 'Abuse' in Abu Ghraib and the Question of 'Gender Equality‖.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 26 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: War on Terror The war on terror is an act rooted in racialized. Making legible some of the larger social relations at work in the events at Abu Ghraib is not intended to exonerate the military prison guards. Richter-Montpetit. 2007 (Melanie. (hetero)sexualized. I argue that the torture and murder of prisoners were acts of colonial violence. classed violence. with the perceived moral righteousness or even duty of the US Empire to bring (liberal) democracy to the ‗dark corners of the earth‘ (Bush 2002a) in the ‗war on terror‘. emphasis in original). firmly rooted in a continuum of racialized.

Thomas & MacGillivray. 145). A penetrable body is a vulnerable body. JCE) Heterosexuality and Pleasure. the language of eroticism is man‘s language (Frye. 1996. and practices appears promising. The limited conceptions of heterosexual pleasure are connected to gender. The same is true for lesbian sex. (p. 1994. and share their pleasures. a language for ―doing it‖ (p. in our current cultural landscape. 45. 1990). acts. 172) Even for ―queer-identified‖ heterosexual men. Professors @ San Francisco University. 1999. No. women in general. 2000). 2000). everyday discourses of female sexual agency and female sexual pleasure are largely absent (Holland et al. The unease and revulsion this activity provokes is precisely because it is generally still read within the ―heterosexual matrix of meanings. to be penetrated is to relinquish power (Bersani.‖ Smart (1996b. and John. a genitally focused activity in which the man‘s penis penetrates the woman‘s vagina. will emerge among lesbians. 1999). the potential for re-signifying penetrative sex.‖ Most are not particularly receptive. penetration is not an option (Thomas. p. it does not necessarily signify the invasion and subjugation of women‘s bodies. Although penetration occupies a privileged place in heterosexual sexual relations.‖ For most straight men being fucked means being ―unmanned. (Gust. 1988. p. Jackson. Lovaas. is limited. 2000. In short. to the idea of giving up the idea that sex with women equates with penetrating them.. sex is defined in terms of the ―penetrative norm‖ (Jackson. Vol. 33-34. and practices. Robinson. As I noted earlier.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 27 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Penetration Language Under heteropatriarchy the discourse of ―penetration‖ means the penetrate relinquish power – they are unmanned Yep. most straight men are decidedly queasy about the very idea of being penetrated. she points out that a lexicon for lesbian sex is ―utterly inarticulate‖ (p. pp. and Elia. acts. Journal of Homosexual Studies. Although there is language for erotic pleasure in literary contexts. Karen. 314). 311). This is hardly surprising: Under heteropatriarchy. not the exclusive meaning of dominance and subordination which is endlessly mapped onto the binary of male and female. pleasures. In contrast. This diversity of practices allows penetration to have various meanings. Although Frye (1990) is optimistic that a vocabulary of pleasure and sex. Because ―men penetrate men. a diverse language is available to gay men to express and articulate their sexual desires. either. articulate. 2003. and heterosexual ones in particular. Although the possibility of re-coding heterosexual sex as a broader scope of desires. This script for sex and sexual pleasure is defined by and for men. Jackson (1999) observes. do not have an adequate language to assert. women penetrate women and women can penetrate men. . Wrenching penetration out of a heterosexual matrix of meanings deprives it of its symbolic power. 236) writes. Even in consensual sex.. 2/3/4.

. 2000. 45. 39-40.S. Smith. individuals who engaged in certain erotic practices. Karen. Anzaldúa. particularly the civil rights. and Elia. 2001). people of color. and. 1997). the lesbian and gay movement became increasingly interested in community building and gaining civil rights by adopting the ethnic model in the mid-1970s (Seidman.. able-bodied gay men at the top (Seidman. transgenders. Clausen. 1979/1998. and sexual minority communities (see. 2000. Vance. that is. Seidman. also found themselves marginalized by the mainstream gay community (Seidman. women‘s. and gay and lesbian liberation movements. erased their subjectivities and excluded their participation (Anzaldúa. 1999. 2000. gender. Lorde. Lovaas. 1984). In other words. The question ―Is and should sexual object choice be the most significant basis for community?‖ was debated among different individuals and groups within ethnic. 11). A unitary gay identity created visible and commodified lesbian and gay urban communities. Yep. not a gay identity. Professors @ San Francisco University. in some cases. Women. No. gays and lesbians– have demanded inclusion in U. members of excluded groups–ethnic minorities.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 28 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Gay Identity The gay movement is has the same effect on the marginalized groups that normative heterosexuality has. 1983. Since early liberation movements. working-class individuals became increasingly alienated and started interrogating the viability of a gay identity that marginalized. 2003. for example. pp. 1990. middle-class. a sense of recognition and solidarity based on shared characteristics (Ryan. and John. 1993). society and politics by arguing that they possess ―the characteristics that allowed white men to govern themselves–that they were fully persons‖ (Turner. a new hierarchy emerged with white. Brandt. Lorde. 1998. a unified homosexual subject– a stable gay identity– emerged. Although initially conceived in terms of a liberation politics aimed at freeing people who are locked into homo/heterosexual and feminine/ masculine roles. (Gust. JCE) Contesting Identity. 1997). 1997). women. Vol. Moraga & Anzaldúa. p. Journal of Homosexual Studies. Combahee River Collective. Thus. such as leather and sadomasochism. 1984. Gay culture became mainstreamed and through this process. we need a queer identity. In addition. 2/3/4. 1984. Such a move depends on claims about identity.

This mayor may not be an accurate assessment of the relationship between sex and gender in tribal organizations." Social Perspective in Lesbian and Gay Studies. sexual desire and fantasy. as in "to have sex. and allowed to participate primarily as itself a social product. "The Traffic in Women" was inspired by the literature on kin-based systems of social organization." I used the concept of a sex/gender system. "94 I went onto argue that "Sex as we know it . To assume automatically that this makes it the theory of sexual oppression is to fail to distinguish between gender. The cultural fusion of gender with sexuality has given rise to the idea that a theory of sexuality may be derived directly out of a theory of gender. Gender affects the operation of the sexual system. they are not the same thing. purity that of women.gender identity." women have had to overcome serious limitations on their social mobility. . .. on the other. helped to reduce its importance. 1993 (Gayle S. It appeared to me at the time that gender and desire were systemically intertwined in such social formations. and arousal. lust. Western societies created and deployed a new apparatus which was superimposed on the previous one. the existence of such a rich discussion is evidence that the feminist movement will always be a source of interesting thought about sex." This semantic merging reflects a cultural assumption that sexuality is reducible to sexual intercourse and that it is a function of the relations between women and men. Whichever feminist position on sexuality right. concepts of childhood . Nevertheless. In an earlier essay. "95 I did not distinguish between lust and gender. and erotic desire. left or center . It is no accident that pornography and the perversions have been considered part of the male domain. I am speaking of the deployment of sexuality . treating both as modalities of the same underlying social process. In the English language. Part of the modern ideology of sex is that lust is the province of men. But it is surely not an adequate formulation for sexuality in Western industrial societies. a cultural anthropologist best known as an activist and influential theorist of sex and gender politics. and which. the second [sexuality] is concerned with the sensations of the body." But sex also refers to sexual activity. It means gender and gender identity. DES) .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 29 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Feminism Feminism is a theory of gender oppression because it distinguishes between gender through biological means. on the one hand. In order to participate in the "perversions. a system of sexuality has emerged out of earlier kinship forms and has acquired significant autonomy: Particularly from the eighteenth century onward. But although sex and gender are related. "The Traffic in Women. As Foucault has pointed out. the quality of pleasures. without completely supplanting the latter. what is pertinent is the link between partners and definite statutes. and their sexual freedoms.eventually attains dominance. I want to challenge the assumption that feminism is or should be the privileged site of a theory of sexuality. and the sexual system has had genderspecific manifestations. as in "the female sex" or "the male sex. women have been excluded from most production and consumption. and the nature of impressions.. In the sex industry. their economic resources. 96 The development of this sexual system has taken place in the context of gender relations. the word "sex" has two very different meanings. "Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality. sex has replaced gender Rubin. defined as a "set of arrangements by which a society transforms biological sexuality into products of human activity. . and they form the basis of two distinct arenas of social practice. NY Routledge. . For the first [kinship]. Feminism is the theory of gender oppression. intercourse.

Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 30 Queer Sex the Bomb Link: Ecofeminism Contemporary ecofeminism just adds queers and stirs. sexism." writes ecofeminist author Ellen O'Loughlin ( 1993 . writer.‖ Hypatia. it is exactly this approach that has characterized ecofeminist theory to date. ageism. heterosexism. and ableism so that we may cease to reduce our idea of nature to a dark. 97 (Gretta ―Toward a Queer Ecofeminism. Unfortunately. and sexism are all related to naturism. pg. it is time for the queers to come out of the words and speak for ourselves! Gaard. Chaia Heller elaborates: "Love of nature is a process of becoming aware of and unlearning ideologies of racism. to pretend that we can just'add queers and stir' " (1994. Volume: 12. "It is not enough simply to add 'heterosexism' to the long list of dominations that shape our relations to nature. 'beautiful' mother" (1993. feminism. 231). heterosexual. 114. But as Catriona. 21). Issue: 1. 148). social and environmental justice. which is the reason I believe it is time for queers to come out of the woods and speak for ourselves. DES) "We have to examine how racism.2 . heterosexism. Sandilands astutely comments. scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature. an educator. classism.

Hypatia. Volume: 12. Page Number: 114. writer. . scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature. Issue: 1. to the claims of the natural. 87). are among the most potent we can make.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 31 Queer Sex the Bomb Internal Link: Naturalizing the Hetero Naturalizing heterosexuality powerfully stabilize reality resulting in homophobia Gaard. They seem to tell us the truth" (1991. Henifin. Attempts to naturalize one form of sexuality function as attempts to foreclose investigation of sexual diversity and sexual practices and to gain control of the discourse on sexuality. As Jeffrey Weeks writes in Against Nature. ‗Toward A Queer Ecofeminism‘.LRP) By attempting to "naturalize" sexuality. "appeals to nature. the dominant discourse of Western culture constructs queer sexualities as "unnatural" and hence subordinate. Fausto-Sterling 1985. and Fried 1982. and where we are going." as feminist philosophers of science have repeatedly argued. Hubbard. and environmental justice. They appear to tell us what and who we are. They place us in a world of apparent fixity and truth. Publication Year: 1997. are frequently used to justify social norms rather than to find out anything new about nature ( Bleier 1984. Such attempts are a manifestation of Western culture's homophobia and erotophobia. Arguments from "nature. educator. Keller 1985. 97 (Greta. Lowe and Hubbard 1983). feminism.

guilt-producing. I felt absolutely alone. Internalized homophobia. by self and others. I had no one to talk to. Lovaas. Professors @ San Francisco University. It is a dramatic term for circumstances that eventuate in crime–the deliberate attempt to eradicate or compromise the separate identity of another person‖ (p. . (Gust. . like one out of every three gay teens. Soul murder is a term that I borrow from the child abuse and neglect literature to highlight the torment of heteronormativity (Yep. are anxiety-ridden. and John. and physically threatening. JCE) These are the internal injuries that individuals inflict upon themselves. Exemplifying the feelings and experiences of many people who do not fit in the heteronormative mandate. [so that] the children‘s subsequent emotional development has been profoundly and predominantly negatively affected‖ (p. my emphasis). ―soul murder is neither a diagnosis nor a condition. 2002).. . 2/3/4. So I withdrew from my peers and used alcohol and drugs to try to dull the pain of my isolation. of the heteronormative mandate a widespread form of soul murder? .‖ Not once in high school did I ever learn a single thing about homosexuality or gay people. shame-invoking. psychologically blemishing. at age seventeen I tried to kill myself. . Shengold (1989) writes. who had been and would always be despised for their ―perversion. 13-14) Heteronormativity is so powerful that its regulation and enforcement are carried out by the individuals themselves through socially endorsed and culturally accepted forms of soul murder. in the form of selfhatred and self-destructive thoughts and behavioral patterns. I saw nothing in my past. Further explaining this concept. Vol. [I] realized in grade school that I was gay. Shengold (1999) defines soul murder as the ―apparently willful abuse and neglect of children by adults that are of sufficient intensity and frequency to be traumatic . fear-inducing. 21-22. I imagined gay people were a tiny. my present.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 32 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Soul Murder Heteronormativity has so much power that the people it ends up destroying the identity of those it affects in what is called ‗Soul Murder. and saw few representations of gays in the media of the 1970s. Eventually. Very early in life children learn from interpersonal contacts and mediated messages that deviations from the heteronormative standard. No. (pp. Karen. and Elia. 45. Isn‘t the incessant policing and enforcement. becomes firmly implanted in the lives and psyches of individuals in heteronormative society. I couldn‘t imagine a happy life as a gay man. tiny minority. such as homosexuality. Kevin Jennings (1994) tells us his personal story: I was born in 1963. pp. 2003. 2. didn‘t know any openly gay people.‘ Yep. . Journal of Homosexual Studies. either deliberately or unconsciously. 1). or (it seemed) my future suggesting that things would ever get any better. hate-deserving.

1997 (David ―Nanotechnological Prolongevity: The Down Side. any and every atrocity can be justified.. 1983. become the excuse to justify victimizing the victim. homosexuals to heterosexuality) reflects the common perception that both minorities are "outcast in the sight of G-d. June-July." DEHUMANIZATION IS NUCLEAR WAR.. The slander of "sodomites‖ has replaced "Christ-killers" in the vocabulary of hatred and heaven's retribution against a minority community has.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 33 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Dehumanization Heterosexism justifies dehumanization and violence as Anti-Semitism did with the Jews in Nazi Germany Rozdzial.cas. Moreover. http://www." NanoTechnology Magazine. The modern propaganda of hatred that equates AIDS to homosexuality echoes Hitler's racial anti-Semitism that accused the Jews of spreading disease. This would involve valuing people as means. this entire resultant worldview smacks of eugenics and Nazi racial science. AMG Similarly. Thus. . defended under biblical precedent. When people are dispensable. Ph. Anti-Semitism and Heterosexism: Common Constructs of Oppression. 3:5. and international genocide. After all. respectively. how can the "other" want to be who he is and stubbornly hold on to a life of deprivation when the doors are. Behind the genocide of the holocaust lay a dehumanized thought.. there would always be a superhuman more super than the current ones. contagion and contamination and are reminders of past genocide and the excuses for a present violence. Jewish women and lesbians are. co-chair of the National Council of NOMAS. bitches and princesses. Once justified. The recent push to find a biological origin for homosexuality has a frightening parallel to the Nazi's eugenics response to the "Jewish problem. weaklings. NOMAS. humans would never be able to escape their treatment as means to an always further and distant end. Jewish men are labeled mention only a few of the epithets hurled at them. 2000 Moshe. or natural calamity on record -. Common weapons of oppression include the emasculation of Jews and stereotyping of homosexuals to perpetuate an excuse for dehumanization and a perception of facile targeting for violence. they become dispensable. lies a dehumanized image of man.and its potential danger to the quality of life and the fabric of civilized society is beyond calculation. This means-ends dispute is at the core of Montagu and Matson's treatise on the dehumanization of humanity. just as gay men are the sissies and pansies . it is safe to conclude the foundations of humanness offer great opportunities which would be foregone. plague. For that reason this sickness of the soul might well be called the Fifth Horseman of the" And the stereotype of stubborn adherence to a despised lifestyle even in the shadow of salvation is another common accusatory theme. Professor of Communication Studies at the University of South Carolina. Winter echo the vilest forms of anti-Semitism. or butches and dykes.nomas. once again. http://www. environmental apocalypse. nerds. beneath the menticide of deviants and dissidents. and saving grace? To look at the similar language of marginalization of these two groups without noticing the historical connection would mean yielding to ignorance. Dehumanization is nuclear war. (Montagu & Matson. we approach a nearly inestimable value greater than any tools which we can currently use to measure it. ENVIRONMENTAL APOCALYPSE AND INTERNATIONAL GENOCIDE.. When people become things. in the cuckoo's next of America. When we calculate the actual losses and the virtual benefits. famine.htm) Assuming we are able to predict who or what are optimized humans. While it may never be possible to quantify the impact dehumanizing ethics may have had on humanity.D. privilege. Accessed 7-8-09.. xi-xii). religious attacks on homosexuals.. opened to a life of safety. THERE IS NO WORSE WEAPON AGAINST HUMANITY Berube. figuratively. They warn: "its destructive toll is already greater than that of any war. Even the promise of "salvation" through "conversion" (Jews to Christianity. they seem to be inevitable for every epoch has evil and dehumanization is evil's most powerful weapon.

the culture-nature relationship becomes one of compulsory heterosexuality ( Gaard 1993). their culture. Page Number: 114. ‗Toward A Queer Ecofeminism‘. and environmental justice. Colonization can therefore be seen as a relationship of compulsory heterosexuality whereby the queer erotic of non-westernized peoples."11 . Hypatia. scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature.LRP) Men have done with Mother Nature this same dominance/submission flip-flop. 97 (Greta. Volume: 12.10 As I have argued elsewhere. and culture is masculinized. feminism. when nature is feminized and thereby eroticized. They have by their technologies worked steadily and for generations to transform a psychologically intolerable dependence upon a seemingly powerful and capricious "Mother Nature" into a soothing and acceptable dependence upon a subservient and non-threatening "wife. and their land. Issue: 1. is subdued into the missionary position -. Gaard.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 34 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Colonization Colonization and environmental destruction is the relationship compulsory heterosexuality.with the conqueror "on top. educator. writer. 42)." This "need to be above" and to dominate permeates male attitudes toward nature ( Gray 1979 . Publication Year: 1997.

―The cultural consolidation of heterosexuality. Indeed. Journal of Homosexual Studies. this gendered formation is racialized. homosexual desire (now collectively sublimated into identification with the oedipal ―father‖ and a fascistic fraternalism) re-experienced. Bersani reminds us that Kenneth Lewes (1988) theorized male heterosexual desire as the complicated consequence of flight to the father following a horrified retreat from the mother. It causes sexism. its narcissistic unity dissolved. p. 40). hegemonic male heterosexuality is constructed upon and actively requires a traumatic privileging of difference. ―the straight mind might be thought of as a sublimation of this privileging of difference‖ (Bersani. and the creation of stereotypes. Pinar. the fabrication of masculine identification requires the relocation of repudiated desire onto others who are already fictionalized (constructed as. The compulsory production of an exclusively heterosexual orientation in men appears to depend upon a misogynous identification with (and suppression of desire for) the father as well as a permanent and ongoing disavowal of femininity. associating it with castration. 39) asserts. 1990) also underlines the defensive and traumatic character of much male heterosexual desire. whose civic existence corresponds to their imagined and often sexualized existence in the white male mind. JCE) It is queer theory that has enabled me to understand that the democratization of American society cannot proceed without a radical restructuring of hegemonic white male subjectivity (Savran.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 35 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Root of Oppression Compulsory heterosexuality is the root cause of oppression. p.‖ Bersani writes. ―is grounded in its more fundamental. In addition to psychoanalytically-inspired studies. ―The straight mind valorizes difference. 2003. . that is.‖ Bersani (1995. The association of compulsory heterosexuality with a hierarchical view of difference– an association elaborated earlier by Monique Wittig (1992)–I understand psychoanalytically. non-reflective construction as the compulsive repetition of a traumatic response to difference‖ (1995. for instance. although each differently). stereotypes). Progress cannot be achieved without a radical restructuring of male subjectivity. 1998. patriarchy. Boyarin. lack. So conceptualized. its repressed feminine composition reclaimed.. racism. and loss. Professor at Louisiana State. p. crosscultural anthropological research (see Gilmore. shattered as Kaja Silverman (1992) and Leo Bersani (1995) have suggested. hegemonic male subjectivity must be brought to ruin. In the social production of hegemonic (white) masculinity. In this regard. (William F. and ―race‖ is gendered. 40). 1995. 1997). In the United States (as well as in other former slave states and colonial powers.

2005 (María Mercedes. In fact.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 36 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Violence Compulsory Heterosexuality creates a norm which excludes Queers/Women and it is the root cause of violence against the Feminine and Sexualities. gender roles. Today. Violence. Moreover. the only times Bush conjures up threats to civilization are in the ‗war on terror‘ and the ‗war on same-sex marriage‘. Political Science Department. desiring the opposite sex and acting in a lesser degree transgender people-. York University. federal law prohibits openly gay men and lesbians in the US military. queer organizations in New York City have reported a dramatic increase in anti-queer violence since the Bush administration‘s aggressively anti-queer agenda (Goldstein 2004). 1-2.they are still submitted to second class citizenship and to extraordinary State and non-state violence in many societies. On Prejudice. Our sexuality and our self is undetermined and contingent. it should not be surprising that the prison guards set the stage for their acts of violence and humiliation according to an aggressively homophobic script. 2007 (Melanie. Compulsory heterosexuality operates through political. Vol. Between 1994 and 2003.International Feminist Journal of Politics.500 members of the US armed forces were discharged under the ‘don’t ask. sexual desire and practices do not correspond. but that they do not coincide for anyone. as well as research on sexual behavior. but are aimed at fighting non-normative sexualities tout court. which had criminalized consensual anal sex in the ‘private’ sphere. sexual. Same-sex marriage threatens ‗the basis of an orderly society‘ (Bush 2004b) and ‗the welfare of children‘ (Bush 2004a) – ultimately it threatens civilization itself. la-buena-vida. I suggest. ongoing project from 2005 until 2008. it was not until 2003 that the US Supreme Court struck out the ‘anti-sodomy’ laws of fourteen US states and the military.14 For example. the anti-queer sexual politics of the Bush administration are not limited to defending marriage.15 Against the backdrop of the institutionalized aggressive heteronormativity of the US nation-state. but puts them at stake. Many of us dwell in societies of ―compulsory heterosexuality‖ 3 and act and live as if the binary construction of the world were natural and universal instead of contingent and socially constructed. It is not only that for some people biological sex. I zoom in a little closer on the discursive practice of referring to ‘homosexual sex’ and ‘sodomy’.13 Moreover. nearly 9. and Democracy. don’t tell. don’t pursue’ policy (Associated Press 2005). pp. JAR) Deconstruction and queer theories. In the following. Bush (2004a) declared that a ban on same-sex marriage was a matter of ‘national importance’ because the union of a man and woman in marriage is ‘the most fundamental institution of civilization’. 9 Issue 1. Such a norm assumes male and female bodies invested with masculine and feminine roles. have shown that a binary categorization of differences is inadequate and insufficient to contain the fluidity of our desires and our identifications. Gómez. 22p) Hdo Among the current anti-queer sexual politics of the Bush administration is the attempt to pass a constitutional amendment limiting marriage to unions between ‗men‘ and ‗women‘. ―Empire. p38-59. particularly within its military. But the perception of this generates extreme anxiety because it not only discloses the unsubstantiated condition of sexual binaries. Mar 2007. Political theorist on Hate Crimes. social and economic practices that stigmatize and make targets of violence that which is perceived as feminine and sexualities. Anti-queer politics results in institutionalized violence and humiliation Richter-Montpetit. . which do not conform to the heterosexual norm. helps erase certain aspects of the violences. It also puts at risk the privileges that derive from such binaries. Desire and Violence: A Queer Transnational Feminist Reading of the Prisoner 'Abuse' in Abu Ghraib and the Question of 'Gender Equality‖. Despite the cultural and legal reforms that dissenting sexualities have achieved in the past decades --especially gay men and lesbians and. which.

1996. Eskridge. 1996). Gross & Woods. 2000). Although the issue of same-sex marriage is highly contested on ideological grounds within LGBTQ communities in the U. 2001. 2003). or all of the above (Kaplan. JCE) These are systematic and socially accepted injuries inflicted upon individuals outside of the heteronormative mandate. 2003. and strategically invisible. LGBTQ couples are deprived of the numerous rights and privileges accorded to heterosexually married dyads (Kaplan. Richardson. Yep. Ramazanoglu. Professors @ San Francisco University. domestic and intimate life (Croghan. education (Kumashiro. 1993. 2002. in our social institutions. pp. Lovaas. 1997. the mass media and popular culture (Fejes & Petrich. Such violence is everywhere: in the individual psyche and in collective consciousness. Gross. 1998. 45. Undergirding all social institutions is heteronormative ideology (Berlant & Warner.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 37 Queer Sex the Bomb Institutional violence underpins all of our societal institutions. 1999. & Thomson. p. visit one‘s same-sex partner in the hospital. being able to obtain bereavement leave when one‘s partner passes away. Rubin. denies. Lovaas. Ingraham. Stein. 1999. refusing them basic rights and recognition. 1999). 1996. the regulatory power of heteronormativity denies LGBTQ individuals and couples their citizenship. and continuous violence for LGBTQ individuals. 1999). Talburt & Steinberg. 24-25. Journal of Homosexual Studies. social policy (Carabine. In short. heteronormative thinking is deeply ingrained. among many others. No. 1998. The process of normalization of heterosexuality in our social system actively and methodically subordinates. denying them protection against discrimination. Kaplan. 1993. VanEvery. unforgiving. Institutional violence is widespread for LGBTQ individuals and communities. In sum. being able to file joint income tax returns with one‘s partner. and rejects individuals who do not conform to the heterosexual mandate by criminalizing them. 1997). 1996b).. harsh. 1996a. (Gust. and it is everywhere.S. Heteronormativity causes continuous violence against LGBTQ individuals. 2/3/4. More simply stated. become foster and adoptive parents. and Elia. 286) that heterosexual individuals take for granted but LGBTQ persons are categorically denied. There are numerous ―positive rights‖ (Stein. in the individual perceptions and experiences and in the social system and institutions. (Yep. disempowers. b). among others. gain custody of their children. Karen. 1997. Hegemonic heterosexuality permeates the family (VanEvery. & Elia. heteronormativity is a site of unrelenting. 1984/1993). Pinar. Holland. Vol. 2002. They include being able to marry a person of the same sex. and John. .

Compulsory heterosexuality creates the conditions by which ―it never occurs to many women to be anything else‖ but heterosexual (Kitzinger & Wilkinson. after reviewing previous research.) Heterosexuality is a patriarchal institution that subordinates. & Thomson. Richardson. 1997) accurately maintain that heterosexuality is a key site of male power and dominance. 1993. despite the ubiquity of heterosexual behavior. Delphy & Leonard. have sex with their husbands and/or other men. 1993). 2/3/4. Kitzinger& Wilkinson. As such. and John. Based on their extensive work with heterosexual feminists (Wilkinson & Kitzinger. ―compulsory heterosexuality‖ (Rich. pp. Jackson.e. 1980/1993. and Elia.e. Jones. 1996. Carabine.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 38 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Violence to Women Compulsory heterosexuality forces women into the service of men. Journal of Homosexual Studies. Heterosexuality creates dominant power relations for males. murder–occurs within the context of heterosexual relationships. We refer to heterosexual identity as ―precarious‖ in part as a way of signifying the difficulty women have in claiming the label ―heterosexual‖ as their own–hard to do when it stands. 19-20. Feminist scholars (see. Gelles. Rich. or voluntarily have sex with or marry them. 2001) indicate that much of the physical violence against women–battering and physical abuse. Holland. 28. child-rearing obligations. 31) and channels these women into marriage and motherhood in the service of men (Richardson. 26) and they range from physical and emotional exhaustion to violence and diminished mental health. emphasis in the original) Here they highlight the regulatory power of heteronormativity. as synonymous with oppression. No. 1990. in so much feminist theory. Because asymmetry of power and sexist norms are common in heterosexual relationships. 227). 1999.. and depression) than lesbians. . Because such violence has been normalized in society. and parenting responsibilities associated with motherhood (Croghan. 2001) or may not even recognize their own torment and pain. for example. 1996. if they had a choice? (p. Kitzinger and Wilkinson (1993b) point out. 1996.. 1993b. because who would be heterosexual. it is hardly surprising that heterosexually-identified women can readily identify sites of emotional.. Ramazanoglu. 142). ―Women who date men. . Further. Finally.g. VanEvery. Russell. p. Vol. more mental disorders) than heterosexually married men. Karen. p. Kitzinger and Wilkinson (1993b) conclude: The behaviors commonly known as ―heterosexuality‖ are commonplace among our feminist contributors: they are married. really. and economic suffering in their relationships. . many heterosexual women live in inequitable and exhausting relationship arrangements: They carry the burden of housework. Heterosexual identities are precarious. Yep. Professors @ San Francisco University. Walby. 1987. 1993). as manifested in compulsory heterosexuality. 1993a. 1999. Jacklin. many women learn to overlook their suffering (Wood. more anxiety. degrades. and oppresses women. 179). 2003. 1994a. 1980/1993. Kitzinger and Wilkinson (1993b) note that heterosexually married women report lesser psychological health (i. b. b. p. and bring up children with the fathers of those children. are disproportionately at risk for violence. research findings (e. rape and murder from those men‖ (p. ―the reasons for heterosexual women‘s misery have been well documented‖ (p. 1998. in the lives of women who are well aware of the gender-based patterns of dominance and submission. physical. 2000. Kitzinger&Wilkinson. (Gust. 45. tension. p. 1992.. Lovaas. 1993b. psychic. and lesser psychological adjustment (i. (I discuss this further when I examine the relationship between heterosexuality and gender later in this essay. 1975. . JCE) One of the ways in which heteronormativity manifests itself is through ―obligatory heterosexuality‖ (Rubin. According to Kitzinger and Wilkinson (1993b). or ―compulsive heterosexuality‖ (Jackson. care-taking expectations. rape. 27). Wood. 1996a. The identity of ―heterosexual‖ (a sense that they are accurately described by that label) is much rarer. 2000).

Rubin. reinstalls and reaffirms gender division. Heterosexuality and Gender. Jackson. Kitzinger&Wilkinson. woman with man. pp. I examine heteropatriarchy through its interlinkages and interconnections with gender. researchers agree that heterosexuality and gender are inextricably linked (Ingraham. a naturalized polarity and binarism–a ―heteropolarity‖ (Wilton. 1992). 127). Thus. one who is different–man with woman. Jeffreys. and John. and whiteness. Heteropolarity permeates scientific and popular discourse. 2/3/4. (For detailed analyses of the link between gender and sexuality. 1993]. Wilton (1996) further explains: ―This heteropolarity is necessary for patriarchy. 127)–is created. Yet this discourse is critical for the maintenance of heterosexuality and heteropatriarchy. Karen. based on gender to secure male domination and female submission. Through this relation of otherness. 1993b. Although there is disagreement about whether sexuality or gender should be emphasized in the analysis of heterosexuality. Kitzinger and Wilkinson (1994b) point out that ― ‗hetero‘ means other. 1996. ‗heterosexuality‘ means sexual involvement with one who is other. see Ingraham [1996] and Jackson [1999]. 1999. JCE) Heteropatriarchy is an overarching system of male dominance through the institution of compulsory heterosexuality.) Heterosexuality. Wilton. p. 1996. 1996. The otherness of the ‗other‘ sex. is thereby immediately reinforced‖ (p. and the connection between heterosexuality and gender. 2003. .. 31-32. 45. In this section. Heteropolarity is the necessary condition for patriarchy Yep. 1975. people uncritically speak about the ―opposite sex‖ when ―there is no biological or somatic sense in which the bodies of women can be understood as opposite to the bodies of men‖ (Wilton. Lovaas. 1996. 1996. Journal of Homosexual Studies. p. 126). Vol. Professors @ San Francisco University. pleasure. and Elia. (Gust. No. 444). 1996. is maintained as a fundamental feature of social life. see Butler [1990. 1994b. different.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 39 Queer Sex the Bomb Heterosexuality reinstalls and reaffirms gender divisions. Wittig. for it must be possible to distinguish men from women in order to institute and reproduce a power differential that is (precisely) predicated upon that difference‖ (p. Heteropolarity is a social construction founded upon a presumed complementarity between women and men (the ―natural fit‖ between penis and vagina). by its very definition. the ‗differentness‘ of man from woman. a social hierarchy.

2000. ―there is harm. which most–if not all–of us feel‖ (Thomas& MacGillivray. No. ―that nightmare from which we never seem to awaken‖ (p. and maintains the dominant social and material status of men at the expense of women and sexual others. and Elia. To be a ―real‖ man is an exhausting and unending performance. pp. Lovaas. ―men have much less reason to struggle and go on struggling than women‖ (p. and John. gender performances. Heterosexuality constitutes men as ―real‖ men (Wittig. heteronormativity and heteropatriarchy are also harmful to men in perhaps less tangible ways (Thomas & MacGillivray. Homophobia and the fear of being perceived as gay become the central organizing principle and the cultural policing of manhood. on the level of sexual practice. men. compulsory heterosexuality is also imposed and enforced on men (Connell. 60). In addition. JCE) Although the manifestations and effects are different.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 40 Queer Sex the Bomb Impact: Violence to Men Compulsory heterosexuality does violence to men Yep. MacGillivray notes. ashamed to be afraid. a range of sexual possibilities. 1995). or as Michael Kimmel (2001) puts it. elevates. Journal of Homosexual Studies. The fear of humiliation and emasculation keeps ―real‖men afraid. and pleasures. In sum. As a patriarchal institution.. endowed with their heterosexual privilege. if not banishing. Indeed. heterosexuality privileges. 2001). 1992). have less impetus and motivation to expose the violence of heteronormativity. Professors @ San Francisco University. Fear and shame are sites of psychic violence for these men. p. . (Gust. as Ramazanoglu (1993) reminds us. heteronormativity impels heterosexual men into a lifelong labor of ―proving‖ their manhood and concealing. and silent about their own fears (Kimmel. 257). 2003. However. Vol. 45. 2/3/4. 2000). since I for one would suggest that heterosexuality is based on a repression of all unsanctioned sexual impulses. 277). 20-21. Karen.

184. Ramirez. of citizenship broadly defined. JAR ) Hardly a static and predictable response to systems of marginalization and exploitation.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 41 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative: Queer Performance Queer performance engages its audience and makes them relflect on the message being presented to them. reinventing in their migrations the forms and meanings with which they invest their products. Performances open up discussions and allow for the message to be passed on from people to people. U. Roque. from Queer Migrations: Sexuality. .S. they open spaces for dialogue and reflection. health agencies. and of queer bodies in transit between local and global histories. and impact. Citizenship. 2005 (Horacio N. El Corazon Nunca Me Ha Mentido and Del Otro Lado were critical interventions into notions of the state. pp. Queers move with their cultures. Queer Latina/o Community histories Professor at UCSB. In this regard. and social action thus intersected. and Border Crossings. intent. cultural work travels with its makers. cultural productions construct social space and facilitate further opportunities for creative interplay-feelings. they engage each ot her and themselves with the images and the words. As cultural productions. thought. As audience members exit theaters. In this tradition. considering technical questions along with content. and other venues for viewing and experiencing these productions collectively.

ecological culture based on our shared liberation.LRP) Today. Issue: 1. and masculinity. Rejecting that colonization requires embracing the erotic in all its diversity and building coalitions for creating a democratic. Liberal reforms won‘t get it done. . educator. Publication Year: 1997. Hypatia. Gaard. To create that culture. we must combine the insights of queer and ecofeminist theories. able to explore the eroticism of reason and the unique rationality of the erotic. Volume: 12. scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature. our parallel oppressions have stemmed from our perceived associations. As feminists have long argued. all those associated with nature and the erotic continue to experience the impact of centuries of Western culture's colonization. and environmental justice. Page Number: 114. 97 (Greta. ‗Toward A Queer Ecofeminism‘. in our very bodies and in our daily lives. the way out of this system of endemic violence requires liberating the erotic -. culture. which would authorize increased access to pornography or child sexual encounters. Ecofeminists must be concerned with queer liberation. but through a genuine transformation of Western conceptions of the erotic as fundamentally opposed to reason. humanity.not in some facile liberal scheme. feminism. It is time to build our common liberation on more concrete coalitions. A queer ecofeminist perspective would argue that liberating the erotic requires reconceptualizing humans as equal participants in culture and in nature.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 42 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative: Liberating the Erotic The way out of heterosexist violence requires a genuine transformation of conceptions of the erotic. writer. just as queers must be concerned with the liberation of women and of nature.

I would argue." finds its value not in a good susceptible to generalization. we might rather. with liberal discourse.but rather to refuse the insistence of hope itself as affirmation. from the assurance. The structuring optimism of politics to which the order of meaning commits us. constitutive. something I want to call "better. that we might do well to attempt what is surely impossible-to withdraw our allegiance. and not redouble. then. this ascription of negativity to the queer. 5-8. We encounter this Wunsch with its particular. Not in the hope of forging thereby some more perfect social order. can write of this truth: The quality that best characterizes it is that of being the true Wunsch. I connect this something better with Lacan's characterization of what he calls "truth. on the contrary. irreducibly linked to the "aberrant or atypical". We withdraw from your system of rules and refuse to have an alternative. in more than one sense of the phrase.I do not intend to propose some "good" that will thereby be assured. And the various positivities produced in its wake by the logic of political hope depend on the mathematical illusion that negated negations might somehow escape. can afford an access to the jouissance that at once defines and negates us. To the contrary. The . is always. of such access to jouissance in the social order itself. cast our vote for "none of the above. after all.' Truth." the queerness of which I speak would deliberately sever us from ourselves." 4 Such queerness proposes.such a hope. that turning the force of queerness against all subjects. the good. we might." for the primacy of a constant no in response to the law of the Symbolic. (Lee. however compulsory. but of a final experience from whence it springs and is subsequently preserved in the depths of the subject in an irreducible form. irreducible character as a modification that presupposes no other form of normalization than that of an experience of pleasure or of pain. that attending to the persistence of something internal to reason that reason refuses. of negativity into some determinate stance or "position" whose determination would thus negate it: always the imperative to immure it in some stable and positive form. In contrast to what Theodor Adorno describes as the "grimness with which a man clings to himself. it names only the insistent particularity of the subject. Requiring us to have an alternative is a social construction that reaffirms reproductive futurism. to the necessary contradiction of trying to turn its intelligibility against itself. from a reality based on the Ponzi scheme of reproductive futurism . The Wunsch does not have the character of a universal law but. or even. inhumane. impossible fully to articulate and Intend[ing] toward the real. Professor of English Literature . which is always affirmation of an order whose refusal will register as unthinkable. do better to consider accepting and even embracing it. Edelman. JCE) Rather than rejecting." though it promises. however queer. the pulsive force. turning ourselves against all norms. but only in the stubborn particularity that voids every notion of a general good. and we reject it. I mean to insist that nothing. absolutely nothing. irresponsible. though bound." 6 Lacan. installing as it does the perpetual hope of reaching meaning through signification. Abjuring fidelity to a futurism that's always purchased at our expense. in place of the good. just as any such order would equally occasion the negativity of the queer. what? Always the demand to translate the insistence. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. as I argue. of knowing ourselves and hence of knowing our "good. My polemic thus stakes its fortunes on a truly hopeless wager: that taking the Symbolic's negativity to the very letter of the law. Our response is to do nothing. would only reproduce the constraining mandate of futurism. even if that order can access its constant access to jouissance only in the process of abjecting that constancy of access onto the queer. pp." can ever have any assurance at all in the order of the Symbolic. of the most particular of lawseven if it is <CONTINUED> <CONTINUED> universal that this particularity is to be found in every human being. 2004. such negativity. to what chafes against "normalization. which would echo that law's foundational act. figuratively. and certainly not what we call the "good. the inescapability. as Symbolic subjects consigned to figure the Symbolic's undoing. like queerness. And the trump card of affirmation? Always the question: If not this. When I argue. that is. which was at the origin of an aberrant or atypical behavior. and negative act. as Lacan makes clear. a negation of this primal.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 43 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative: Do Nothing The social order will always attempt to translate our negativity into a position." where truth does not assure happiness. therefore. Instead. its self constituting negation. Or better: can expose the constancy. as to the immediately sure and substantial.

As a particular story. of course.and by extension. to deny the experiential violence that frequently troubles social reality or the apparent consistency with which it bears-and thereby bears down on-us all. that shape them. one that takes both the value and the burden of that failure upon itself. on every side. To say as much is not. It is. of why storytelling fails. where the energies ofvitalization ceaselessly turn against themselves. or even of what Lacan will often refer to as "the letter. the queer insists that politics is always a politics of the signifier. instead. Divesting such politics of its thematic trappings. in other words. and thus in its radical challenge to the very value of the social itself. the linguistic structures. of the social subject. the "side" outside all political sides. while refusing as well any backdoor hope for dialectical access to meaning. a faith that politics. then queer theory must always insist on its connection to the vicissitudes of the sign. marks the "other" side of politics: the "side" where narrative realization and derealization overlap. bracketing the particularity of its various proposals for social organization. as I construe it. If it aims effectively to intervene in the reproduction of such a reality-an intervention that may well take the form of figuring that reality's abortion. to futurism's unquestioned good. committed as they are. its value. implicitly affirms." It serves to shore up a reality always unmoored by signification and lacking any guarantee.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 44 Queer Sex the Bomb embrace of queer negativity. to the tension between the signifier's collapse into the letter's cadaverous materiality and its participation in a system of reference wherein it generates meaning itself.' For by figuring a refusal of the coercive belief in the paramount value of futurity. to suggest that queerness exposes the obliquity of our relation to what we experience in and as social reality. then. resides in its challenge to value as defined by the social. alerting us to the fantasies structurally necessary in order to sustain it and engaging those fantasies through the figural logics. . the queer dispossesses the social order of the ground on which it rests: a faith in the consistent reality of the social. can have no justification if justification requires it to reinforce some positive social value. whether of the left or of the right. rather. queer theory.

and the best. in a noteworthy instance of piety in the sky. against the cult ofthe Child and the political order it <CONTINUED> . again as figure. forever "near the goal" of a union they'll never in fact achieve. then the only oppositional status to which our queerness could ever lead would depend on our taking seriously the place of the death drive we're called on to figure and insisting. If the fate of the queer is to figure the fate that cuts the thread of futurity. He did so by proclaiming. 2004.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 45 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative: Fuck the Future Fuck the Symbolic order of futurism. political self-destruction inheres in the only act that counts as one: the act of resisting enslavement to the future in the name of having a life. necessarily destroys -necessarily insofar as this "self" is the agent of reproductive futurism and this "politics" the means of its promulgation as the order of social reality. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. innocent kid on the Net. with work. fuck the poor. Some seven years later. denounced in 1996 proposed legislation giving health care benefits to same-sex partners of municipal employees. fuck the waif from Les Mis. condemning state-recognized same-sex unions as parodic versions of authentic families. as "politically self-destructive. Only destroying the future gives us hope for a life. But perhaps. We might like to believe that with patience. Pope John Paul II returned to this theme. mistaking (or maybe understanding too well) the degree of authority bestowed on him by the signifier of his patronymic. that bestowing such access to health care would profoundly diminish the marital bond. Acceding to this figural identification with the undoing of identity. fuck the whole network of Symbolic relations and the future that serves as its prop. But they're positioned as well to recognize the irreducibility of that fantasy and the cost of construing it as contingent to the logic of social organization as such. we're held in thrall by a future continually deferred by time itself. Because marriage remains the principal. 28-31. are what queerness. but also by saying explicitly what Law and the Pope and the whole of the Symbolic order for which they stand hear anyway in each and every expression or manifestation of queer sexuality: Fuck the social order and the Child in whose name we're collectively terrorized. pp." With this fatal embrace of a futurism so blindly committed to the figure of the Child that it will justify refusing health care benefits to the adults that some children become. "Such a 'caricature' has no future -and cannot give future to any society. Law lent his voice to the mortifying mantra of a communal jouissance that depends on the fetishization of the Child at the expense of whatever such fetishization must inescapably queer. fuck Laws both with capital Ls and with small. chosen as they are to bear the bad tidings that there can be no future at all: that the future. as Annie's hymn to the hope of "Tomorrow" understands." he opined. luring us into. is "always! A day! Away. not only by avowing our capacity to promote that order's coherence and integrity. "based on individual egoism" rather than genuine love. (Lee." But politics (as the social elaboration of reality) and the self (as mere prosthesis maintaining the future for the figural Child). reborn each day to screen out the grave that gapes from within the lifeless letter. "has a special interest in the protection." Like the lovers on Keats's Grecian urn. he observed. with generous contributions to lobbying groups or generous participation in activist groups or generous doses of legal savvy and electoral sophistication. That future is nothing but kid stuff. which is also to say with the disarticulation of social and Symbolic form. education and socialization of children. Those queered by the social order that projects its death drive onto them are no doubt positioned to recognize the structuring fantasy that so defines them. "Society. the former cardinal of Boston. the future will hold a place for us-a place at the political table that won't have to come at the cost of the places we seek in the bed or the bar or the baths. constrained to pursue the dream of a day when today and tomorrow are one. But there are no queers in that future as there can be no future for queers. if the jouissance. as Lacan's engagement with Antigone in Seminar 7 suggests. reality's gossamer web. Professor of English Literature . There can be no future for queers. Justifying that condemnation." Queers must respond to the violent force of such constant provocations not only by insisting on our equal right to the social order's prerogatives. in John Brenkman's words. Edelman. the state has a special interest in marriage. might well be described. intrinsic to queer (non)identity annihilates the fetishistic jouissance that works to consolidate identity by allowing reality to coagulate around its ritual reproduction. after Law had resigned for his failure to protect Catholic children from sexual assault by pedophile priests. JCE) Bernard Law. framework for the nurture. care and upbringing of children. the corrosive enjoyment. fuck Annie. ensnaring us in.

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<CONTINUED> enforces, that we, as Guy Hocquenghem made clear, are "not the signifier of what might become a new form of 'social organisation,' "that we do not intend a new politics, a better society, a brighter tomorrow, since all of these fantasies reproduce the past, through displacement, in the form of the future. We choose, instead, not to choose the Child, as disciplinary image of the Imaginary past or as site of a projective identification with an always impossible future. The queerness we propose, in Hocquenghem's words, "is unaware of the passing of generations as stages on the toad to better living. It knows nothing about 'sacrifice now for the sake of future generations' ... [it] knows that civilisation alone is mortal." Even more: it delights in that mortality as the negation of everything that would define itself, moralistically, as pro-life. It is we who must bury the subject in the tomb-like hollow of the signifier, pronouncing at last the words for which we're condemned should we speak them or not: that we are the advocates of abortion; that the Child as futurity's emblem must die; that the future is mere repetition and just as lethal as the past. Our queerness has nothing to offer a Symbolic that lives by denying that nothingness except an insistence on the haunting excess that this nothingness entails, an insistence on the negativity that pierces the fantasy screen of futurity, shattering narrative temporality with irony's always explosive force. And so what is queerest about us, queerest within us, and queerest despite us is this willingness to insist intransitively-to insist that the future stop here.

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Alternative: S&M
Sadomasochism associates pleasure with different parts of the body besides penetrative sex for pleasure. It is an acting out of power differentials in a game. This runs contrary to heterosexual pleasure, and avoids the patriarchical idea that penetrative sex is necessary for pleasure. Yep, Lovaas, and Elia, Professors @ San Francisco University, 2003.
(Gust, Karen, and John, Journal of Homosexual Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2/3/4,, pp. 44-45, JCE) Another area of embodiment is, of course, the domain of erotic practices. Jackson (1999) argues that the idea of ―queering sexual practices‖–that is, making them innovative and nonnormative–has little political effect. Foucault (1989) might disagree. Using the example of sadomasochism (S/M) as the real invention of new avenues and possibilities of erotic pleasure, Foucault debunks popular beliefs about the association of S/M with deep-seated psychological violence and aggression. He argues that individuals who engage in S/M ―are inventing new possibilities of pleasure with strange parts of their body–through the eroticization of the body‖ He elaborates, . . . the S/M game is very interesting because it is a strategic relation, but it is always fluid. Of course, there are roles but everybody knows very well that those roles can be reversed. Sometimes the scene begins with the master and slave, and at the end the slave has become the master. Or, even when the roles are stabilized, you know very well that it is always a game. Either the rules are transgressed, or there is an agreement, either explicit or tacit, that makes them aware of certain boundaries. This strategic game as a source of bodily pleasure is very interesting. But I wouldn‘t say that it is a reproduction, inside the erotic relationship, of the structures of power. It is an acting out of power structures by a strategic game that is able to give sexual pleasure or bodily pleasure. Contrary to heterosexual relationships where strategic relations, such as pursuit, conquest, or flight, are played out before sex to obtain sex, S/M practices are played out within sex. In this sense, S/M practices are transgressive. Proposing a ―queer praxis‖ through ―the transformative potential of queer sex‖ Foucault suggests that S/M practices, for example, radically re-map and re-orient sites of eroticism and pleasure in the body. This re-mapping of the erogenous zones extends beyond private pleasures: By focusing on the entire surface of the body as a site of potential erotic pleasure, S/M practices challenge to dissolve the monopoly of genitally-focused sexuality–that is, penetrative sex encoded within the heterosexual matrix of meanings.

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Alternative Solves: Heterosexism
Queer theory challenges mainstream heteronormativity. Slagle, Professor @ University of Puerto Rico, 2003.
(R. Anthony, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 45, No. 2/3/4, pp. 135-136, JCE) Heteronormativity. Queer criticism challenges the heteronormative assumptions in the mainstream (Seidman, 1993; Warner, 1993). In other words, queer rhetoric insists that there is nothing necessarily ―normal‖ about being heterosexual. In this world view, those who are not heterosexual are labeled as deviant. When heterosexuality is seen as ―normal‖ or ―natural,‖ other sexualities are seen as ―abnormal,‖ ―unnatural,‖ or they are ignored entirely (Butler, 1990; Fuss, 1991; Morrison, 1992; Smyth, 1992). In popular culture, this notion abounds. We are bombarded every day with messages that tell us not only that heterosexuality is the only acceptable way to live our lives, but also that a particular kind of heterosexuality is normative; that is, we are told regularly by a variety of sources that, at least in the United States, the nuclear family is the foundation of everything that we believe as a nation. Queer criticism rejects the idea that normative heterosexuality is the only acceptable sexual posture. Queer theory is critical of dominant models that view heterosexuality as the only ―normal‖ form of sexual expression because these models leave no room for discourses that come from other perspectives. The force of queer criticism is that it illuminates normative heterosexual privilege in discourse. Put another way, queer criticism challenges the notion that traditional heterosexual relationships are the only normal sexual expression, to the exclusion of other sexual possibilities.4 Queer rhetorical criticism celebrates the range of queer sexual expression, which can, indeed, include normative heterosexual expression to the extent that heterosexual constructions of the world do not dismiss or diminish queer sexualities. For this reason, some have argued that there are ―straight queers‖ (Powers, 1993). Straight queers are individuals who immerse themselves in queer cultures and ideologies, yet their objects of sexual desire are members of the opposite sex. In other words, they are queer except in terms of sexual activity.5 Straight queers provide a unique challenge to dominant ideologies; that is, they challenge the dominant notion that sexual object choices define queerness (as is the case with ―gay,‖ ―lesbian,‖ ―bisexual,‖ ―homosexual,‖ and ―straight‖). The debates in Congress during 1996 over the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) were filled with language that reinforced this notion (Smith, 1997). For example, these debates emphasized that ―marriage is a legal bond between one man and one woman.‖ Even for heterosexuals, nonmonogamous relationships are condemned; non-procreative relationships are not given the same emphasis in our society as relationships that produce children, to say nothing of relationships between members of the same sex, or combinations of more than two individuals regardless of the biological sex of the participants.

Smart (1996a) points out that heterosexual identity is ―akin to a white colonial identity. a defeat of the emotional and the neurotic by the power of unconscious struggle and. 1997). In the process. pp. given their status as women in the always patriarchal shape that whiteness assumes. gender becomes inextricably linked to sexuality in the ongoing tension and struggle between heterosexuality and whiteness to reproduce and sustain a white heteropatriarchy–a self-evident standard against which all differences are measured. pp. for instance.6 Prejudices and the violent ways in which they manifest are central obstacles for the achievement of participatory parity. ongoing project from 2005 until 2008. 15) which produces a racial subject that is ― Political theorist on Hate Crimes. p. masculine colonial identity. 14.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 49 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative Solves: Racism The belief that race or identity is essential and immutable causes violence to the racial other. sexual orientation has often been seen as invisible and mutable. 1999. In this sense. la-buena-vida. Young. and Elia. Journal of Homosexual Studies. 2001. They make it possible. Heterosexuality is akin to a white. 2005 (María Mercedes. 2001. I am using whiteness to refer to a ―historical systemic structural race-based superiority‖ (Wander. (Stokes. visible. the second way seeks to exteriorize difference when the ―other‖ threatens to become one of ―us‖ or part of the norm. cultural and legal efforts to overcome prejudice focus on a notion of discrimination. white women become silent markers in the systems of exchange that make both whiteness and heterosexuality cultural givens. and raceless‖ (Johnson. universalized. thus underscoring their normalizing and selfgenerating power. I contend however.. of course. Observing the similarities between heterosexuality and whiteness. The first way is premised on the assumption that one cannot become ―the other‖ because the borders between the norm and those outside the norm are rigid. On Prejudice. Both heterosexuality and whiteness are everywhere and strategically invisible. Heterosexuality and whiteness produce similar findings when investigated. ―the stuff that creates us with no reminder that it is doing so‖ (Stokes. as essential. On the one hand.4 In contrast. (Gust. yet are kept from the fullness of its franchise. visible and immutable differences. normalized. JCE) Heterosexuality and Whiteness. to achieve participatory parity for all their members in order to make collective decisions regarding the way they want to live their lives. 1998. as Nancy Fraser puts it. No. seemingly related to violence in a specific way. 2/3/4. my emphasis). and John. 173). Such an unstable mixture of excitement and horror results in a compulsive imagining of interracial sex (Ferber. p. Stokes. deified. Martin. However. Queering solves by collapsing the borders between norms and deviance. p. Violence. shapeless. cultural and legal settings. Lovaas. 2003. 1). Simultaneously imagined as the key to whiteness‘s future and its weakest defense. the assumed permeability of the borders of difference – between the norm and deviance or dissent-. the certain knowledge of masculine superiority‖ (p. and taken for granted. 45. 1997. Many of the political. It entails an effortless superiority. white women enable whiteness at the same time that they are denied its fruits. JAR) People who embody difference are marked in two ways. a moral rectitude. 17) Once again. Yep. a closer examination of heterosexuality and whiteness reveals that their relationship is deeply ambivalent and eminently troubled : Heterosexuality is simultaneously the means of ensuring and the site of endangering the reproduction and perpetuation of whiteness (Dyer. naturalized. p. that explanations about different types of prejudices when collapsed into a single explanatory logic of discrimination are insufficient to elucidate the complexity of exclusionary practices. heterosexuality is absolutely indispensable for the reproduction of whiteness. Gómez. it is also the mechanism through which whiteness can annihilate itself (Dyer. Prejudice against dissenting sexualities is paradigmatic of border anxiety because unlike other seemingly essential. Professors @ San Francisco University. and normalized to evade theoretical scrutiny and critical analysis. Race and gender. 2001. heterosexuality makes the reproduction of whiteness unstable. have been historically conceived. & Nakayama. Heterosexuality and whiteness appear as the very air we breathe. 1995). It is apparent that an examination of heterosexuality produces parallel and analogous findings to investigation of whiteness. and without content. Karen. and Democracy.5 In this case. . 1999. Stokes. 34. A fundamental principle of democratic societies should be. Vol. 2-3. on the other. 2001). in social. and largely immutable physical attributes.

global family. is poised to play a critical part in the Western mind‘s break with the tyranny of dualistic thinking. In shifting our thinking in this way the greater wholeness that we all seek will be implicit in the differences that comprise it. our foods. Gearhart. I have a vision of Queer Theory‘s future that will require a fundamental change in the minute-byminute thinking of our thoughts. A salutary byproduct of correlative thinking would be our understanding at last that since I share a unity with every Other–the That-Which-Is-Not. I suggest that. . almost heart-stopping cusp in our evolution. Communication Professor. beings. it means acknowledging the fact that ―Asian men‖ is a name that can exist only if there is a category of all men who are not Asian. and similarly we are wary of those who wish to divide us into essential little particles that can be (and historically are) made into hierarchies or warring factions. our dress. Queer Theory. and speak. Journal of Homosexuality. to think correlatively is to name. to separate. peaceful. xxix-xxxviii. Vol. and diluting our differences. and surrounded as we have never been before by the speed and the vast capability of an electronic revolution. As always in our bids for freedom. Let us forgo the labeling found in dichotomous thinking and embrace the naming found in correlative thinking. it seems to me. we confirm the necessary interdependence of every contrasting pair of things.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 50 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative Solves: Dichotomies/Binaries Queer theory breaks with the tyranny of Western duality which solves violence to the other. Let us replace our practice of constructing dichotomies–the differentiation and total divorce of any pair of qualities. write. appalled as we have never been before by the human capacity for cruelty and greed. I believe. we want to honor and preserve both the characteristics that make us unique (for example. or entities. while to think dichotomously is to label. (Sally Miller. reciprocal relationship between any pair of qualities. In short. and to affirm. JCE) Finally. to disconnect. as queer theorists. beings. our stories. We are appropriately wary of those who wish to unite us by merging. 45. to connect. No. it means acknowledging the fact that to name myself a lesbian I need the heterosexual woman to distinguish myself from. or entities–with the practice of constructing correlatives–the involvement of a mutual. to unify. whole. our language. and the fact that the heterosexual woman can so name herself only in counterdistinction to a lesbian sister. and each identity that we long to preserve will exist because the wholeness that it is different from also exists. 2003. For instance. These groups of men have a reciprocal and absolutely necessary relationship to each other. pp. and vice versa. masking. at a delicate. 2/3/4. We stand. This will mean that. we make a deliberate and consistent change in one of our primary habits of thinking. and to negate. our rituals. as we think. our expressions of love) and the unity that we hunger for which can make us into an organic.Myself–then to harm that Other is to harm myself.

Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 51 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative Solves: Inclusivity Queer is a re-appropriated discourse to include culturally marginalized individuals – its complexity leaves it open-ended. In a broader sense. questioning. 2/3/4. JCE) Originally used as slang for homosexual and a homophobic epithet. Butler (1993). I turn to discuss the emerging and fluid theoretical model–queer theory– that I alluded to earlier. (Chinn. Halperin (1995) extends it beyond normative heterosexuality: Queer is by definition whatever is at odds with the normal. & Horrigan. partly because it started out as a pejorative term and has been consciously reclaimed as an honorific term. or different because of one‘s sexual orientation. Professors @ San Francisco University. and Elia. but rather reinhabit them in different ways. the term ―queer‖ is actually astonishingly complex and fairly perplexing (Anzaldúa.. rather. Queer can signify self-identified culturally marginal individuals of various sexualities and/or describe an emerging and fluid theoretical model that has evolved and developed out of more traditional lesbian and gay studies (de Lauretis. forms of knowledge. however. [It] demarcates not a positivity but a positionality vis-à-vis the normative. (p. regimes of enunciation. . Although seemingly simple. . p. two-spirited. and desire. bisexual. and practices of community–for restructuring. in recent years. 1996). . 1997). it cannot. 1999). (p. ―queer‖ signifies nonnormativity. . that is. modes of self-constitution. capacious and deliberately inclusive. . ―queer‖ can and does coexist with terms such as ―lesbian‖ and ―gay‖. (Gust. There is nothing in particular to which it necessarily refers. Halperin (1995) further explains. Yep. presentation. Parker (1994) contends that ―queerness takes its bearings in defining itself against normativity. I identify some common con. Karen. given the fact that heterosexuality is nothing if not normative‖ (p. 45. 62. been re-appropriated in popular culture and academic discourse. . 55). [It] does not designate a class of already objectified pathologies or perversions. In a narrow sense. intersexed. In an interview. 62) Based upon these common conceptions. unrestrained. No. truth. 1992. gay. how can it be defined? In a true sense. 81). 1996). erotic identities. the dominant. logics of representation. 1991. ―queer. Journal of Homosexual Studies. they are not interchangeable with one another (Jagose. [and] there are probably a lot of people that are truly queer that aren‘t gay‖ (Chinn et al. and openended (Jagose. . 1998). and ―queer‖ does so in some especially interesting ways. Given that the category of ―queer‖ is never closed. Jakobsen. 1996. Kumashiro (2002) identifies two ways in which he uses the term.ceptions that circulate around the term. Any word like that represents a very contested site. 2003. It is from the eccentric positionality occupied by the queer subject that it may become possible to envision a variety of possibilities for reordering the relations among sexual behaviors. Parker. not heterosexuality. partly because it‘s an experiment– not the first experiment–with finding a non-gender-specific name for a variety of sexual experiences and practices. Jagose. pp. . and John. the relations among power. Lovaas. constructions of gender.. 2000. 1994). DiGangi. 1992. However. Kumashiro (2002). Although intended to be fairly narrow. Agreeing with Warner (1993. transgender. pp. 35-37. ―queer‖ is intended to mean lesbian. in reality. and Clarke (1994).‖ has. it describes a horizon of possibility whose precise extent and heterogeneous scope cannot in principle be delimited in advance. It is a category in the process of forming and becoming without predetermined or final borders. Next. . it is conceptually elastic. the legitimate. Clarke. the designation is. Vol. 1994. Seidman (1996. 80-81) She further points out that ―there are a lot of people that are gay that aren‘t queer . Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick contends that one of the interesting features of the word ―queer‖ is that it isn‘t up to one person to define. or identity. Part of what interests me a lot about it is that in reclaiming the term. I don‘t think that what‘s being done is to disavow a lot of the negative stereotypes associated with it. emphasis in the original) Imagining the possibilities of queer-world making.

. 12-13) points out that Queer theory wishes to challenge the regime of sexuality itself. ―in-your-face‖ queer politics of activist groups such as ACT UP and Queer Nation. Yep. 1995. . Rather. 12. [In short]. Halperin. 1990. . As such. 1995).Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 52 Queer Sex the Bomb Queer theory deconstructs normativity in order to form an open politics of difference. . Modern Western affirmative homosexual theory may naturalize or normalize the gay subject or even register it as an agent of social liberation. 1995). 1996. but it has the effect of consolidating heterosexuality and homosexuality as master categories of sexual and social identity. A unified homosexual subject reproduces the homo/heterosexual binary. and distancing itself from conventional lesbian and gay studies. p. Seidman. neither one of which is necessarily superior to or more inclusive than the other (Berlant & Warner. this regime of sexuality based on the homo/heterosexual binary becomes injurious and violent to individuals and communities through the workings of heteronormativity. Departing from the ―gay ‗ethnic‘ identity‖ model of homosexuality (Epstein. desires. the knowledges that construct the self as sexual and that assume heterosexuality and homosexuality as categories marking the truth of sexual selves. my emphasis) As such. Queer theorists shift their focus from an exclusive preoccupation with the oppression and liberation of the homosexual subject to an analysis of the institutional practices and discourses producing sexual knowledges and the ways they organize social life. another discursive horizon. Vol. it is not a traditional theory that can be described and explicated in propositional form. as Seidman (1996) explains. 1996). (p. Jagose. identities. In the process. Karen. 1997). 2003. Queer theory. and another perspective from which social relations can be analyzed and examined. Because it is an open system. it reinforces the modern regime of sexuality. where difference is not oppressed. 285) and inspired by the radical. and Elia. 37-38. a language that frames what we know as bodies. pp. developed in. 13. . queer theory aspires to transform homosexual theory into a general social theory or one standpoint from which to analyze social dynamics. queer theory is characterized by a transgressive agenda and a rebellious spirit. then. (p. As such. Journal of Homosexual Studies. . that is. This is a normative language as it shapes moral boundaries and political hierarchies. pp. 1995. (Gust. confrontational. queer theory provides another view. No. sexualities. is more about an open system of discursive and conceptual possibilities than a rigid and fixed theoretical model. see Epstein. 2/3/4. 1990. Seidman (1996. JCE) Originating from. Lovaas. queer theory challenges the assumption of the unified homosexual subject undergirding much of Western homophobic and gay-affirmative theory (for a detailed account of this assumption. attending in particular to the way these knowledges and social practices repress differences. and John. Professors @ San Francisco University. Recognizing normalization as a site of violence. queer theory calls for a dramatic shift from lesbian and gay assimilationist politics to a politics of difference (Slagle. Queer theorists view heterosexuality and homosexuality not simply as identities or social statuses but as categories of knowledge. . queer theory does not aspire to attain theoretical hegemony or domination in cultural politics. queer theory is neither a singular nor a determinate body of ideas (Berlant & Warner. . my emphasis) As I argue throughout the essay. queer theory and its predecessor have overlapping but distinctively different theoretical and political goals. Seidman (1996) further explains. 45.

79-80. Race and racism. . (John.. and sexual prejudice (e. Color. p. 45. socio-economic class. and sexual prejudice. Therefore. 182) .‖ (Weber. sexism. and transphobia) need to be exposed and challenged very directly.g. and social connections leave some people more constrained than others. JCE) On a larger scale. The pursuit of social justice gives meaning to people‘s lives. expectations. ―There are constraints on any choice. but it is even more crucial to challenge the injustices from which disenfranchised individuals have suffered for hundreds of years. By preparing the fields and planting the seeds together. we don‘t have to bring about a revolution. Developing a queer understanding of oppression becomes part of a commitment to dismantling that oppression one person at a time. . . Kath Weston (1991) asserts. . the social injustices that pervade our lives regarding the various sorts of sexual lifestyles and relationships we choose. it is critical to be cognizant of the reality that some folks have more opportunities available to them than others in terms of being able to create queer romantic and sexual relationships. and practices. ethnicity and race are significant factors to be taken into consideration. access to money. Elia. society. for many marginalized individuals. we can plant together. creating and sustaining such relationships is an arduous task. Professor @ San Francisco University. 2/3/4. Calling attention to the saliency of classism and racism regarding access and obstacles to choosing families. (p. racism. Lynn Weber (2001) puts it best by declaring. no. Queering relationships becomes part of the larger ideological commitment to dismantle brick by brick the oppressive forces of dominant cultural beliefs. pp.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 53 Queer Sex the Bomb Alternative Solves: Oppression Queering solves social injustice. sex negativity. This is important in general. individuals working one at a time can do it. To derive meaning from the struggle for justice. racism. This becomes yet another outrageous commentary about how omnipresent and deeply entrenched injustices are in U. including classism. 2001. 182). if not serve as a corrective to. class and class pretensions. xv). . 2003. sexism. biphobia. This means that classism. Journal of Homosexuality. There is no need for a revolution. Sex. queering relationships can begin to address. all go into the evaluative mix‖ (p. Simply put. homophobia. we can live fulfilling lives even as we wait for the harvest. The first step to ameliorate and ultimately eliminate such inequities is by ―Developing a deep understanding of the forces of oppression and acting in the pursuit of social justice . Vol. if not seemingly impossible.S.

however. but only. Judith." singular and deliberate. baptisms. noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley. also perform a certain action and exercise a binding power. And though it may appear that the binding power of his words is derived from the force of his will or from a prior authority. it is through the invocation of convention that the speech act of the judge derives its binding power. to repeat an earlier phrase. then the performative is one domain in which power acts as discourse. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp. and it is the power of this citation that gives the performative its binding or conferring power. but in the citational legacy by which a contemporary "act" emerges in the context of a chain of binding convention. This is less an "act. the judge who authorizes and installs the situation he names invariably cites the law that he applies. are statements that. Hence. Butler. performatives tend to include legal sentences. 225 LRP Performative acts are forms of authoritative speech: most performatives. declarations of ownership. in the uttering. . that binding power is to be found neither in the subject of the judge nor in his will. but confer a binding power on the action performed.4 Implicated in a network of authorization and punishment. there is no power. construed as a subject. Indeed. statements which not only perform an action. than a nexus of power and discourse that repeats or mimes the discursive gestures of power. Every ballot matter – repetition is what confers power on the performative act. for instance. Importantly. inaugurations.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 54 Queer Sex the Bomb Role of the Ballot The Ballot is a performative act – the ballot is a discourse exercising binding power. the opposite is more true: it is through the citation of the law that the figure of the judge's "will" is produced and that the "priority" of textual authority is established. that acts. a reiterated acting that is power in its persistence and instability. If the power of discourse to produce that which it names is linked with the question of performativity. 93 (Dr.

becomes heteronormative. the status of those who are charged with saying what counts as true. 167)." Think about these ideologies. Boston: McGraw Hill. heteronormativity is violent and harmful to a range of people across the spectrum of sexualities. In his power/knowledge matrix. We must join queer theorists in talking about and theorizing about how to solve the problems that heteronormativity presents in order to prevent the social. with the alleged sexual practices of the heterosexual majority taken as the moral norm against which the sexual orientation and practices of people who are gay. A Conceptual Framework‘. unintelligible. but rather that they should be denied or ignored—neither discussed in public nor condoned. people in these groups find it relatively easy to dismiss the claims of oppressed groups as unreal. (Gust. He writes. truth. the fundamental conceptual pair that organizes modern Western discourses of sexuality. the mechanisms and instances which enable one to distinguish true and false statements. and John. the means by which each is sanctioned. are profoundly involved and deeply implicated in current systems of power as they produce and disseminate knowledge. Yep. Class. invisible. In other words. Communication Scholars are deeply involved in current systems of power that produce and disseminate knowledge. and Elia. or written out of existence‖ (Yep. Voting for framework makes ignorance the preferred social policy – this anti-intellectual stance has no place in an educational activity Weber. and wisdom. p.. 2/3/4. gender. Foucault reminds us that knowledge and truth are closely interconnected. because if you tell you will be punished. 01 (‗Understanding Race. Lovaas. lesbian. don't tell" captures the dominant ideology of sexual restraint: "We won't ask and you shouldn't tell. (Foucault. Heteronormativity produces ―the equation ‗heterosexual experience = human experience‘‖ and ―renders all other forms of human sexual expression pathological. It suggests that ignorance is a preferred foundation for social policy—an anti-intellectual stance that has no valid place in the modern academy.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 55 Queer Sex the Bomb Framework Framework is the dominant ideology of restraint. the types of discourse which it accepts and makes function as true. cultural. More simply put. institutional heterosexuality. Vol. 131) In other words. like researchers in other areas of academic study. JCE) Communication scholars. No. pp. Excluding the criticism maintains the heterosexual norm. Aware of the mobility of power relations. Why would we use denial and blindness as bases for social policy and the assessment of moral rightness? To do so implies that we seek not to see and therefore not to know. the techniques and procedures accorded value in the acquisition of truth. As such. deviant. class. and Sexuality. Journal of Homosexual Studies. sexual. Yet these stances to race. 45. communication scholars are inextricably involved in current regimes of power and knowledge. and sexuality prevail for at least two basic reasons: Because members of privileged groups are not disadvantaged and in fact benefit from these systems. Gender. The dominant ideology of sexuality is not that we should be blind to differences. Professors @ San Francisco University. and systemic violence that is forced upon disenfranchised groups every day. through the process of normalization. that they shouldn't matter or don't exist. its ―general politics‖ of truth: that is. In the academy and elsewhere. and transgenderedl are seen as deviant and dangerous. 2003. where we use our senses to seek knowledge. we as debaters are implicated in the maintenance of the homo/heterosexual binary and heteronormativity. p. queer/quare theorists from a variety of disciplines have provided analytical tools to create new openings and <CONTINUED> . LRP The dominant ideology of sexuality is one of restraint. bisexual. communication scholars are profoundly implicated in the maintenance of the homo/heterosexual binary. 2002. In our education and in mass media we do not systematically learn about the totality of the experiences of subordinate groups. including those who live within its borders. The military's policy toward homosexuals of "Don't ask. 1980. 47-48. Each society has its regime of truth. Karen.

secondary. Besides the hegemonic hold schools have had regarding a heterosexual bias. good. & Griffin. sexuality and gender are interwoven and dialectically create prejudice (e. and therefore the essence of normal. . . . p. the promotion of the heterosexual family as predominant. . 1997. and unequal. which are hierarchical. providing definitive solutions. states that accept funding for this form of sexuality education require that young people are taught to abstain from sexual activity until they get married. p. a more in-depth description and analysis of this form of sexuality education will follow later in this essay. competitive. 2003. the status quo of our dominant social institutions. According to federal legislation. class. 55). It seems to me that sexuality education is ripe for the opportunity to challenge heterosexism in school culture. public school-based sexuality education is presently in serious crisis. As a communication teacher and scholar who travels across academic disciplinary boundaries. This is a critical site to interrogate heterosexuality Elia. 259). however. pedagogy. and ideal lifestyle‖ (Leck. declaring transcultural knowledge. social. proclaiming transhistorical generalizations. and critically examine heteronormativity. Baroudi.‘ heterosexual behavior has gained status as the right. Committed to the celebration of human differences and dedicated to the interrogation of the normalizing technologies of power. by social custom and with reinforcement from the law. p. not much is being done in a systematic fashion to disrupt the ways in which U. These queer/quare theorists and activists are invested in ―detaching the power of truth from the forms of hegemony. these interdisciplinary scholars and community activists scrutinize the homo/heterosexual binary as the foundation of current discourses of sexuality. and begin to erode. JCE) Akin to organized religion and the biomedical field. Bell. 2/3/4. Yep. Simply put. 45. stretch. 2002. Professor @ San Francisco University. reorient. sexist. Letts & Sears. schooling has perpetuated such hierarchies. Vol. Schools would be an ideal site to interrogate. sinful. To date. From having been presumed to be ‗normal. Debate is education. 1995. Lovaas. p. 1999.. Journal of Homosexuality.S.g. 2002). heteronormativity and sexual prejudice pervade the curriculum at the elementary. school culture continues to devote much energy to maintaining ―. and to create and produce historically specific and embodied racialized knowledges of the human sexual subject. p. and homophobic‖ (Arnstine. and re-map the conceptual landscape of the field of communication. or making universal pronouncements. 64. classism. the educational system has been a major offender. within which it operates at the present time‖ (Foucault. and cultural politics. authoritarian. Wedded to disseminating the idea that heterosexuality is the ultimate and best form of sexuality. no. racism. This has numerous implications for relationship construction. Such scholars are not interested in speaking for others. the kind of hegemony upon which heterosexism rests and is supported. I invite communication scholars across the spectrum of social locations to join these theorists and practitioners in this radical project to expand. (John.only sexuality education. While there has been modest success in addressing various forms of prejudice in schools (Kumashiro. as it has turned mostly to the business of pushing for abstinence. 183). or both. Our society has long viewed queer sexualities as ―. and hetero[sexism]). racist. 1999. . 2001). 1999. School culture in general is fraught with heteronormativity. & Collins.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 56 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> possibilities of change and transformation. what is sorely lacking is serious attention to how the intersections of race. I urge communication teachers and scholars to interrogate and unpack the homo/heterosexual binary. ―Schools have maintained. and our schools are populated by adolescent peers and adult educators who share these heterosexual values‖ (Ginsberg. see: Adams. 133). deviant. and post-secondary levels (for examples of this and ways of intervening. disentangle and demystify the power of heteronormativity in our scholarship. 1980. economic and cultural.

I want to concentrate on only one motive for the gay-militant appropriation of Foucault. specifically his inquiry into what might be called the political economy of sexual discourse. not in terms of what it says but in terms of what it does and how it works. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. relationships and emotions are shaped by the culture in which we live (Weeks. I believe that Foucault's political approach to discourse. For example. Weeks (2003) argues that the emergence of the label 'gay' in the early 1970s was important in terms of the public expression of homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity. which offered a previously unavailable sense of security and community. It established a clear social identity. 1980). mnc) The social constructionist approach to sexuality is grounded in the belief that our identity.SAGE Publications. There are doubtless many other factors that may explain the over determined appeal for gay activists of Foucault in general and The History of Sexuality. Volume I. material culture and visual culture. critical theory. rights and recognition. 2003). ‗There aren‘t words for what we do or how we feel so we have to make them up‘: constructing polymorous languages in culture of compulsory monogamy‘. one has to understand what discourses say in order to be able to analyze what they do and how they work). desires. queer theory. 30-31.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 57 Queer Sex the Bomb Language Matters Language shapes identities. 36 That shift has proven extremely profitable for the analysis of homophobic discourse. The language around us shapes our self-identities (Burr. alter and reclaim language in order to fit experiences for which there is no existing language. The K is a way to reinvent the world Ritchie & Barker 06. For the purpose of this essay. For one thing. The reclamation of the term 'queer' by some may offer a move away from fixed sexual identities (Jagose. We come to understand ourselves in terms of the concepts that are available to us in the time and place we live in. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. That does not mean that we learn from Foucault to treat the content of particular discourses as uninteresting or irrelevant (after all. 35 The effect of Foucault's political approach to discourse is not to collapse truth into power but to shift the focus of our attention from matters of truth to matters of power. 34 enables us to devise some effective strategies for confronting and resisting the discursive operations of contemporary homophobia. 1997). however. it does mean that we learn from him not to allow the truth or falsity of particular propositions to distract us from the power-effects they produce or the manner in which they are deployed within particular systems of discursive and institutional practice. 37 it has also proven crucial for the larger projects of delegitimating heterosexist authority and empowering gay practices of knowledge and community. " New York Oxford University Press. Halperin. DES. 1995) and our understanding of sexual identity depends on the language of sexuality available to us. It seems that the existing language of sexual identity may shape our experiences but that people and communities also invent. 1995. The political economy of sexual discourse is crucial to delegitimating heterosexist authority Halperin 95 David M. although such categorization may also be seen as restricting and inhibiting (Plummer. in particular. 2003). Foucault's example teaches us to analyze discourse strategically. . I shall take up each of these three points in turn. The language and everyday experience of sexuality are thus intrinsically linked (Weeks. pg. Southampton Solent University & London South Bank University (Ani & Meg. There is a wealth of literature considering how people of non-heterosexual sexualities have developed their own languages to express their identities and experiences and to claim community.

" 59 The political importance of sex consists in the way it supports the modem regime of "bio-power. and social relations by a certain apparatus that emerges from a complex political technology" 61 --enables him effectively to displace conventional ontologies of the sexual and thereby to resist the preemptive claims of various modern expert knowledges. demographics. specifically.)--techniques that make possible a strategic alliance between specialized knowledge and institutionalized power in the state's management of life. 57 enables him both to denaturalize and to politicize sexuality. Foucault's own discursive counterpractice seeks to remove sexuality from among the objects of knowledge and thereby to deauthorize those branches of expertise grounded in a scientific or quasi-scientific understanding of it. queer theory. " New York Oxford University Press. it appears not as a natural drive but instead (as we have seen) as "an especially concentrated point of traversal for relations of power. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. 40-42." "Bio-power" refers to the modern political procedure of regulating human life by means of expert techniques (statistics. DES. etc. By analyzing modem knowledge practices in terms of the strategies of power immanent in them. . behaviors. the strengthening of controls and resistances. Sex contributes to this technology. critical theory." as an "entire political technology of life. sterilization. his transformation of it from an object of knowledge into a cumulative effect of power--"the sum of effects produced in bodies. by connecting the body and the nation. contrasting it with the old regime of "power over life and death. sexuality can now be analyzed according to the strategies immanent in its discursive operation." Sexuality is in fact part of an "apparatus" or "device" (dispositif) 58 that serves to connect new forms of power and knowledge with new objects and new domains." which Foucault defines. are linked to one another. Conceived according to Foucault in discursive terms. an objective natural phenomenon to be known by the mind. Halperin. Halperin 95 David M. regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population." 60 Foucault's conceptual reorientation of sexuality. . and by treating "sexuality" accordingly not as a determinate thing in itself but as a positivity produced by those knowledge practices and situated by their epistemic operations in the place of the real. of positivist epistemologies that constitute sexuality as a (or as the) real thing. . Foucault's shift of perspective. eugenics. pg. the intensification of pleasures. the incitement to discourse.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 58 Queer Sex the Bomb Viewing sexuality from a history of discourses enables the resistance of biopolitical control and quasi-scientific understanding. 1995. linking "the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines" of sexuality (the "anatomo-politics of the human body") with "an entire series of. his insistence on writing the history of sexuality "from the viewpoint of a history of discourses" 56 rather than from the viewpoint of the history of science. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. When sexuality is viewed from that angle. It can therefore be described as "a great surface network in which the stimulation of bodies. thereby opening up new opportunities for both scholarly and political intervention. Foucault politicizes both truth and the body: he reconstitutes knowledge and sexuality as sites of contestation. it also seeks to delegitimate those regulatory disciplines whose power acquires the guise of legitimate authority by basing itself on a privileged access to the "truth" of sexuality. the formation of special knowledges. in accordance with a few major strategies of knowledge and power. material culture and visual culture.

" but also where an alteration of power relations was possible. but on tactical considerations and ethical practice (including a practice of reform that would not depend upon the expert reformer). What has often been thought of as his nihilism was. in fact. and. and his account is worth quoting at some length: Foucault developed a new political role for intellectual work and a new sort of political activism that was informed by historical analysis.. the terms of power change. not with expert. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography.. not on the enumeration of values or the proposal of social policy. or a program for a legitimate political system. Foucault was concerned above all with the effects of his thinking and political activity.. Foucault challenged the intellectual activism whose claim to a progressive politics is a theoretical apparatus. DES." .. He believed that a progressive politics needed. Those who come to Foucault's work looking for political solutions will be perpetually disappointed.. not a vision of what should be. or a correct set of values. If Foucault remained fairly silent on the subjects of answers and principles. but with "lowranking knowledges. his sense that articulating a set of values inhibits effective and ethical political action... Foucault's project--in both his politics and his histories-was not to lay out solutions. [H]e wanted to establish an activism that was predicated... it was because he was acting ethically and strategically. first of all.. it was because he believed that asserting principles would get in the way of an ethic of "popular" participation..Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 59 Queer Sex the Bomb Kritik Comes 1st Utilizing a methodology to accurately characterize problems is a prerequisite to taking action Halperin 95 David M. but a sense of what was intolerable and an historical analysis that could help determine possible strategies in political struggles. Keith Gandal has attempted to explicate Foucault's political attitudes and practices.. He wanted to allow and even inspire a practice of criticism which proceeded. For Foucault. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. in assimilating the resistance. material culture and visual culture. change is made possible by cooptation because. secondly. but in a practice that talked about problems in a manner that opened up new possibilities for action.. Halperin. pg. Identifying and sizing up a problem was the most determinate act of thought. his understanding that resistance cannot stand in pure opposition to the powers that be. 1995.. that. theoretical or scientific knowledges. " New York Oxford University Press. instead. but that. 53-54.. critical theory.. but rather to identify and characterize problems. He pursued struggles where the situation was "intolerable. Truth did not reside in a set of ideas about the way things should be. in the process of co-optation. struggle and change always take place through co-optation.. queer theory..

in effect. a cultural anthropologist best known as an activist and influential theorist of sex and gender politics. inequities and modes of oppression Rubin. NY Routledge. "Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality. war. when we live with the possibility of unthinkable destruction. and modes of oppression. DES) The time has come to think about sex. the concrete institutional forms of sexuality at any given time and place are products of human activity. the domain of erotic life is. renegotiated. As with other aspects of human behavior. inequities. They acquire immense symbolic weight. They are imbued with conflicts of interest and political maneuvering." Social Perspective in Lesbian and Gay Studies. disease. To some. The realm of sexuality also has its own internal politics. sexuality may seem to be an unimportant topic. . war. but magnified by these conditions requiring a serious investigation of internal politics. 1993 (Gayle S. . or nuclear annihilation. Contemporary conflicts over sexual values and erotic conduct have much in common with the religious disputes of earlier centuries. racism.. and discharging their attendant emotional intensity. But there are also historical periods in which sexuality is more sharply contested and more overtly politicized. Consequently. In that sense. . sexuality should be treated with special respect in times of great social stress. sex is always political. or epidemics. both deliberate and incidental. famine.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 60 Queer Sex the Bomb Answer To: Case Outweighs Discussion of sexuality is not second to poverty. But it is precisely at times such as these. In such periods. Disputes over sexual behavior often become the vehicles for displacing social anxieties. that people are likely to become dangerously crazy about sexuality. a frivolous diversion from the more critical problems of poverty.

I But if language is not opposed to materiality. chiasmic in their interdependence but never fully collapsed into one another. aurally). and the materiality so posited will retain that positing as its constitutive condition. The materiality of language. 67-69 LRP The linguistic categories that are understood to "denote" the materiality of the body are themselves troubled by a referent that is never fully or permanently resolved or contained by any given signified. is to persist as the horizon and the "that which" which makes its demand in and to language. . while in language. It bears on language all the time. for language both is and refers to that which is material.. where that materiality is considered ontologically distinct from language. On the contrary. that which impels language repeatedly to attempt that capture. noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley. Indeed. Relations.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 61 Queer Sex the Bomb Answers To: Prevents Political Change Language and the material flesh of the world are intimately bound up. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp. even the notion of difference. it is not that one cannot get outside of language in order to grasp materiality in and of itself. Hence the absolute distinction between language and materiality which was to secure the referential function of language undermines that function radically. the process of signification is always material. and appearing through material means. This is not to say that. relations of differentiation. every effort to refer to materiality takes place through a signifying process which. that it has no bearing on language. the tacit structurings of a linguistic context that is illimitable in principle. that materiality will be at once an instrumentality and deployment of a set of larger linguistic relations. Hence. institute and require relata. is to undermine the possibility that language might be able to indicate or correspond to that domain of radical alterity. Judith. Butler. is always already material. but which remains irreducible to the signified. including materiality. We cannot posit the material world outside of language. This radical difference between referent and signified is the site where the materiality of language and that of the world which it seeks to signify are perpetually negotiated. but. On the one hand. 93 (Dr. in its phenomenality. that tacitly structure and propel signification itself. In this sense. phenomenal signifiers. To posit a materiality outside of language is so to posit that materiality. language and materiality are never fully identical nor fully different. i. that abiding function of the world. although what appears only signifies by virtue of those non-phenomenal relations. Apart from and yet related to the materiality of the signifier is the materiality of the signified as well as the referent approached through the signified. The materiality of the signifier will signify only to the extent that it is impure. Language and materiality are fully embedded in each other. instead. This might usefully be compared with Merleau-Ponty's notion of the flesh of the world. that which language does not capture. There is no action without language. the signifier will work to the extent that it is also contaminated constitutively by the very materiality that the ideality of sense purports to overcome. it nevertheless cannot be reduced to it. To posit a materiality outside of language. i.e. That referent. terms. of the very sign that attempts to denote "materiality. always already exceeding one another.e. neither can materiality be summarily collapsed into an identity with language. the materiality of the signifier (a "materiality" that comprises both signs and their significatory efficacy) implies that there can be no reference to a pure materiality except via materiality. and yet neither fully ever exceeds the other Always already implicated in each other. rather. indeed. then. contaminated by the ideality of differentiating relations. And yet what allows for a signifier to signify will never be its materiality alone.12 Although the referent cannot be said to exist apart from the signified. reduced to one another. that referent persists only as a kind of absence or loss. Conversely. the body is simply linguistic stuff or. This loss takes its place in language as an insistent call or demand that." suggests that it is not the case that everything. on the other. language and materiality are not opposed. is never fully o/language. and what is material never fully escapes from the process by which it is signified. signs work by appearing (visibly. on the one hand. that circumscription—and to fail.. is always already language.

but what they ultimately cannot forgive us is our happiness. the growth of community organizations. faithfulness. Despite his interest in the transformative potential of S/M. To reduce the inventiveness and creativity of gay life to sexual promiscuity. [T]he gay movement has a future which goes beyond gays themselves.) And he added that what straight society finds intolerable about gay people is not our specific pleasures or sexual practices but their outcome. with their multiple intensities. or avant-gardist in order to qualify as a form of political resistance. is much more threatening "than the sexual act itself. The institutional regulations cannot approve such [emotional] relations [between men]. These developments represented signal instances of the new sorts of things that gay men could do with their sexuality. 194 Hence it is "the homosexual way of life" that. the 1970s were a time of vigorous and expansive community formation for gay leathermen in San Francisco and elsewhere in the United States. and custom. critical theory. including dress. community fundraisers. Foucault was far from insisting that gay life or gay sex had to be thoroughly transgressive.. may not have been their allegedly disaggregating impact on the individual subject of desire but their incongruous integration into "homosexual ways of life. queer theory. one's sexuality to achieve a multiplicity of types of relations. 1995. AT THE SAME time as he proposed practicing what Bersani calls 'jouissance as a mode of ascesis. and in fact what may have intrigued Foucault most about fistfucking was the way a specific non-normative sexual practice could come to provide the origin and basis for such seemingly remote and unrelated events as bake sales. DES. after all. according to Foucault. It would create relations that are. Those "communitarian practices of life and sexuality" which Foucault saw knitting together the social relationships of gay leathermen demonstrated dramatically how one could "use. that's the problem." ULTIMATELY." 195 (Which may be why it is easier to legalize gay sex than gay marriage. types of exchanges between individuals that are really new and are neither the same as. But that individuals might begin to love each other. If at's possible. regularity. in Foucault's eyes. the staging of athletic events. the provision of public services.. and block parties. American theorist in the fields of gender studies. 197 What that meant is that fist-fucking and S/M did not remain merely occasional or isolated practices but became linked to other expressions of subcultural development.. and changing forms--relations that produce a short circuit and introduce love where there ought to be law. material culture and visual culture. Imagining a sexual act that does not conform to the law or to nature. nor superimposed on. Given the way that society is currently organized. that unexpected lines of force might appear. "Sain Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography." As Rubin has recently documented. Halperin. friendship. 196 Similarly. imperceptible movements. companionship. [It may include the possibility of a] culture in the large sense." 193 And he added. that's not what upsets people.. even the most innocuous-seeming expressions of gay sexuality threaten the coherence of the social order. the most interesting things about S/M and fistfucking. tenderness. That goes against the grain of social institutions: they are already crisscrossed by emotional intensities which both hold them in place and fill them with turmoil--look at the army. their effect on the quality of our lives: straight people can forgive us our physical thrills. where love between men is endlessly solicited and stigmatized. then gay culture will be not only a choice of homosexuals for homosexuals. patterns of life and work. types of values. types of existence." 192 Foucault also argued implicitly against the tendency to associate resistance only with radically non-normative social and sexual practices. 97-100. existing cultural forms.. at certain points. variable colorations. comradeship. the transformation of neighborhoods. <CONTINUED> . transferable to heterosexuals. pg. in Foucault's opinion. a culture which invents ways of relating. and ultimately the emergence of locally based and funded social and political groups. for which a fairly controlled society cannot make room without fearing that alliances might be formed. " New York Oxford University Press." "to define and develop a way of life." to "construct cultural forms. is in Foucault's view to erase "everything that can possibly be upsetting about affection. experimental.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 62 Queer Sex the Bomb Queernees can be used as a form of political resistance Halperin 95 David M. for example.

We have to reverse things a bit. . we will see that non-homosexual people can enrich their lives by changing their own schema of relations.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 63 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> (Elsewhere Foucault cited gay bathhouses as an institution that heterosexuals might benefit from." By proposing a new relational right. Rather than saying what we said at one time: "Let's try to re-introduce homosexuality into the general norm of social relations." let's say the reverse: "No! Let's escape as much as possible from the type of relations which society proposes for us and try to create in the empty space where we are new relational possibilities. 198 the codification of "relations of provisional coexistence" might enable other "types of exchanges" equally beneficial to heterosexuals). 199 The future Foucault envisages for us is not exclusively or categorically gay. But it is definitely queer.

ideally. Laying claim to such terms in reverse will be necessary to refute homophobic deployments of the terms in law. on the street. in "private" life. Judith. despite the political pressure to do so) and (b) the deformative and misappropriative power that the term currently enjoys. although it does insist that an inquiry into formation is linked to the contemporary question of what is at stake in the term. but. But the necessity to mobilize the necessary error of identity (Spivak's term) will always be in tension with the democratic contestation of the term which works against its deployments in racist and misogynist discursive regimes. it remains politically necessary to lay claim to "women." precisely because of the way these terms. such that "queering" might signal an inquiry into (a) the formation of homosexualities (a historical inquiry which cannot take the stability of the term for granted. including the question of how racial and reproductive relations become articulated through one another. it will lose its democratizing force. ." "queer. 93 (Dr.10 Such an inquiry does not suspend or ban the term. as it were. the formation of race. Some recent race theory has underscored the use of "race" in the service of "racism." and proposed a politically informed inquiry into the process of racialization. to make us consider at what expense and for what purposes the terms are used. public policy. If "queer" politics postures independently of these other modalities of power. to extend its range. 228-229 LRP In this sense. lay their claim on us prior to our full knowing. Queering can be a historical inquiry that resolves your K.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 64 Queer Sex the Bomb Answers To: Historical Critique of Queer Laying claim to the term queer is necessary to refute homophobic power deployments." "gay. noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp." and "lesbian. and through what relations of power such categories have been wrought. The point may be taken for queer studies as well. Butler. At stake in such a history will be the differential formation of homosexuality across racial boundaries. The political deconstruction of "queer" ought not to paralyze the use of such terms.

he was begging for something else. to seize his possessions. What Lacan calls love in this passage exceeds all feel-good forms of altruism with which we're wont to identify compassionate identification. cannot be imposed upon us as duty." Lacan observes in invoking this touchstone of compassion. But perhaps over and above that need to be clothed. and compassion from the kind of love the beggar may actually have been soliciting from the saint: "It is in the nature of the good to be altruistic. having noted with understatement that "men are not gentle creatures" questions the imperative to "love one's neighbor. the sinthomosexual opposes the fantasy that generates endless narratives of generation. done from love. the compassion that." And he adds. 2004 (Lee. In any encounter there's a big difference in meaning between the response of philanthropy and that of love. as Kant puts it. leading to a complete evacuation of their self-worth and identity. "the sound of 0" in Thornhill-the "0" that parades as Thornhill's initial to the extent that it stands for nothing-Leonard refuses the tragedy of desire that Thornhill's cry portends. the promise of totalization and self-completion. at the heart of the neighborly love that Augustine associated with the "counsel of compassion" Lacan perceives the function of "malignant jouissance" (187). Lacan. "We are no doubt touching a primitive requirement in the need to be satisfied there. And this alone. the "love of man"). 8285. Professor of English Literature." To the contrary. linked as he is to the figure full of microfilm. in his view. But that's not the love of thy neighbor" (I86). philanthropy." he declares." since. whose response to a certain beggar who asked for his help on a cold winter's day was to cut his own warm cloak in two and give half to the man who had nothing." 20 One might hear in this a faint echo of Kant. "My egoism is quite content with a certain altruism. since what we do by constraint of duty is not. to cause him pain. for most human beings. alas! is not such as to be found particularly worthy of love. Instead. Lacan insists. to make this clearer still: "What I want is the good of others provided that it remain in the image of my own" (187). to borrow Joel Fineman's phrase. is thinking of Civilization and Its Discontents. to use him sexually without his consent. cannot. The best thing we can do for our neighbor is to not help them. pp. who. Leonard thus stands opposed to the desire for which Thornhill solicits support by standing on the hand that Leonard refuses to lift in order to help him-or. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. therefore. refuses to lift the better to help him: to help him slip free of fantasy and the clutches of desire.18 Lacan affords us some guidance here through his gloss on the legend of St. namely that Saint Martin either kill him or fuck him. Leonard. <CONTINUED> .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 65 Queer Sex the Bomb Answer To: Obligation to Help Others Choosing not to help our neighbors. Attempting to help someone do to some arbitrary moral duty causes their self-actualization to be disrupted. however. reinforces the ego's narcissism. disdains the Imaginary structure informing the inevitably narcissistic love we take for love itself. free of the hold by which love holds off his access to jouissance while offering. "their neighbor is for them not only a potential helper or sexual object. "Saint Martin shares his cloak. but also someone who tempts them to satisfy their aggressiveness on him. it follows. to inflect that last phrase differently. to torture and kill him. for the beggar was naked. The commandment to love one's neighbor. where Freud. his turning away from the empty "0" that turns the globe to rot. in a future that's unattainable because always still to come. distinguishes all such altruism. to humiliate him. Edelman. North by Northwest's MacGuffin (Hitchcock's term for an object invested with "vital importance" in the narrative. Lacan points out. or those that are near us. Martin. in order to stand for the law of desire to which we properly owe our standing as subjects of the Symbolic. "altruism that is situated on the level of the useful. Hearing. the Imaginary One of the Couple and its putative sexual rapport. explains why Freud. maintaining "that our species. instead. though it "is actually nothing at all" 17)." "retreats in understandable horror" (193)· Lacan. confronted with the biblical injunction to "love one's neighbor. JCE) Despite that blow. as a feeling. and a great deal is made of it. might interpret Thornhill's tragedy as his newfound sincerity in the face of this threat to Eve and thus as his ceasing to stand for nothing. the love that surpasses philanthropy (etymologically. of course." 19 The love Lacan refers to here. actually helps them achieve self-actualization." insists that love. to exploit his capacity for work without compensation.

thereby.22 In this way the command to love one's neighbor unleashes its negativity against the coherence of any self-image. paradoxical though it may seem. the image of self-completion that "love" as fantasy would sustain. which up to now has been the form in which access to jouissance has presented itself to us. of rupturing the subject's Imaginary totalization. according to Lacan. for the sake of duty alone. like the ground of God's power. and by means of this love (in the first place) do him good'." though appearing to support a compassionate love with its roots in the Imaginary. permitting the realization. subjecting us to a moral law that evacuates the subject so as to locate it through and in that very act of evacuation.' "21 Lacan draws out the extent to which such a translation of "love one's neighbor. Kant's duty to conform to moral law without any pathological motive. thus trenches. a freedom that. Here.‖ . "may be the cruelest of choices.has the effect. my neighbor's body breaks into pieces" (202). in this access to jouissance. as Lacan is quick to remind us. by installing the abstract logic of duty as the submission to moral law. and this marks the central point of Lacan's elaboration of Kant with Sade. 'Thou shalt first of all love. whereby pathos becomes pathological and reason the logical path. on the question of jouissance: "When one approaches that central emptiness. of a freedom beyond the boundaries of any image or virtue of which "I imagine [others') difficulties and their sufferings in the mirror of my own" . but: 'Do good to thy neighbor. and this beneficence will produce in thee the love of men." which.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 66 Queer Sex the Bomb <CONTINUED> "mean. ultimately resides in nothing more than "the capacity to advance into emptiness" (196). psychoanalysis encounters the innermost meaning of the commandment to "love one's neighbor. to the contrary.

may inhere in linguistic structures that don't correspond to anything else"? If irony can serve as one of the names for the force of that unthought remainder. a violent passage beyond the bounds of identity. in deconstruction's case. this jouissance dissolves such fetishistic investments. going to produce repetition or. "It is in fact because it is unnameable. but only a structural position determined by the imperative of figuration. however. Being oppositional would constitute an identity in and of itself.. pp. though in radically different guises. which Barbara Johnson calls. To the extent that jouissance. Thus. of embodying the remainder of the Real internal to the Symbolic order. in a different context. insisting on the Real of a jouissance that social reality and the futurism on which it relies have already foreclosed. Queerness undoes all identity using a ‗death drive‘ to stand in opposition to any social reality. as fantasmatic escape from the alienation intrinsic to meaning. depiction of its own ostensibly coherent identity. Professor of English Literature . of congealing identity around the fantasy of satisfaction or fulfillment by means of that object.. its proper task the ceaseless disappropriation of every propriety. may have the effect. insofar as it gets attached to a particular object or end. beyond the pleasure principle. in both versions of jouissance. for Lacan there is another name that designates the unnameability to which jouissance would give us access: "Behind what is named. might not queerness serve as another? Queer theory. of identity itself. meaning. as Lacan describes it." he writes. toward which the pulsion of the drives continuously impels us. beyond its fantasy of self realization. it stands in opposition to any logic of opposition. rather. is never a matter of being or becoming but. One name for this unnameable remainder. in the image of an Imaginary past. But it does so with a difference. therefore. affording the dominant order a reassuringly symmetrical. and law. the noncoincidence. therefore. beyond the distinctions of pleasure and pain. But to the extent that it tears the fabric of Symbolic reality as we know it. and bisexuals. a disruption inextricable from the articulation of narrative as such. This passage. undoing the consistency of a social reality that relies on Imaginary identifications. and hence the disfiguration. if inverted. Edelman. At the same time. is jouissance. sometimes translated as "enjoyment": a movement beyond the pleasure principle. 24-27." Hence. a realization of meaning that will suture identity by closing that gap. "a kind of unthought remainder .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 67 Queer Sex the Bomb Answer To: Identity Politics Bad Queer theory is not oppositional to heteronormative culture. Where futurism always anticipates. manifests itself. . reenacting the very constraint of meaning it was intended to help us escape. lodges itself in a given object on which identity comes to depend. on the structures of Symbolic law. and on the paternal metaphor of the name. queerness could never constitute an authentic or substantive identity." 29 The death drive. it follows. (Lee. that is to say to death. it produces identity as mortification. there is the unnameable. that it is akin to the quintessential unnameable. which heteronormative culture displaces onto the figure of the queer. Queerness. for the gap. but as a version of the death drive. with all the resonances you can give to this name. would constitute the site where the radical threat posed by irony. a formal overdetermination that is. Where the political interventions of identitarian minorities-including those who seek to substantialize the identities of lesbians. including the object as which the subject necessarily takes itself. JCE) How should we read this constant disruption of narrative signification. gay men.may properly take shape as oppositional. queerness undoes the identities through which we experience ourselves as subjects. is uncannily returned by queers who no longer disown but assume their figural identity as embodiments of the figuralization. unraveling the solidity of every object. No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive. queer theory's opposition is precisely to any such logic of opposition. 2004. and queerness rejects any such identity. in Freud's case. that the order of the signifier installs both informs and inhabits queerness as it inhabits reproductive futurism. jouissance evokes the death drive that always insists as the void in and of the subject.

Because queer theorists challenge the notion of a static. the recent emergence of queer theory and activism is a reaction to the more conservative approach to framing identity of the liberationists. essential. One of the fundamental assumptions of queer theory is that essential notions of identity are problematic. (R. No. and essential identity categories. queer theory raises challenges to totalizing theory. Furthermore. 2003. queer theory rejects any perspective that approaches the construction of identity from a universal perspective. in fact. Anthony. (R. That is to say that no two people experience their identities in the same way. Thus. Morton (1996) explains that queer theory ―is seen as making an advance by opening up new space for the subject of desire. Queer criticism examines artifacts for essential identity categories. rejecting essentialism or any argument that attempts to say identity is universal. Journal of Homosexuality. Rather than arguing that queers communicate in a particular way. queer critics focus on the uniqueness of individual identities and celebrate the novelty of differences among all people (Seidman. and performed by individuals. a queer critique must focus on how identities are represented in the artifact. JCE) Challenge of essentialism. 1). Queer theorists bring issues of sexuality–issues generally considered private and personal–to the fore through critical inquiry. 2/3/4. unique. Queer theory focuses on the uniqueness of the individual. 45. p. communicated. 130. Journal of Homosexuality. audiences are also composed of unique individuals. queer theory is a reaction to other late 20th-century identity political movements that have generally relied on essential identity constructions in order to form cohesive groups for political action. In particular. people in the liberation movements have sought to allow gay men and lesbians participation within the dominant system. 133. Indeed. p. Whereas liberation theory has explicitly reified sexual identity and gender categories. 2003. No. . 2/3/4. they are not the monolithic entities that mainstream theorists often assume. a space in which sexuality becomes primary‖ (p. In line with postmodern theories. Vol. This is significant because queer critics reject any perspective that approaches discourse from a universal perspective. by their nature. Slagle. 1993). JCE) The goals of queer theory are consistent with those of postmodernity. The critic engaged in queer criticism celebrates the diversity of humanity by emphasizing diversity and difference of those who are oppressed by the mainstream. Anthony.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 68 Queer Sex the Bomb Queer theory challenges essentialist theories of identity by opening up new space for the subject of desire Slagle. More broadly. or natural identity. queer theory explodes the notion that individual identities and differences are constructed. In terms of the emergence of queer theory and activism. In other words. Put another way. and that individual communication varies widely from person to person. one must understand the distinction between the gay and lesbian liberation movements and the more recent queer movements. entrenched values. In general. Vol. 45. Professor @ University of Puerto Rico. queer theorists view identity as fractured and individual. Professor @ University of Puerto Rico. queer critics adamantly reject the idea that identity categories are a sufficient way to label the identities of groups of individuals. queer theory is a progressive move toward inclusivity and the celebration of differences. Queer criticism acknowledges that all human beings are.

pp. . however.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 69 Queer Sex the Bomb Answer To: Totalizing Heterosexuality Overlooking the complexity of heterosexuality is a necessary move to prevent it from evading scrutiny for violence committed. I . Yet I don‘t deny it. in terms of sexual practice. 31) . 1990. a slight annoyance. 62) While Gergen‘s reaction is one of puzzlement. sex is still defined as ―penetration for men‘s pleasure in which women find fulfillment primarily in the relationship. Among feminists. 1996. Heterosexuality. 1999. is that the pluralisation [of heterosexuality] might appear as if it were trying to evade the accusation of ―holding‖ institutional power. Heterosexual identities. 170).. when asked to contemplate her heterosexuality. heterosexuals as a ―class‖ cannot be held responsible for heterosexism and homophobia and the range of harms addressed to ―other‖ sexualities. while keeping other categories such as race and social class as secondary in an attempt to challenge sexism and patriarchal power. heterosexual identities are unremarkable. JCE) Although we are living in times of declaration and affirmation of diversity and difference. (p. and daughter) come from heterosexual relations. Holland and associates (1994) found that. . and constrain how women and men operate and function in the social world.‖ ―taken-forgranted‖ and ―default‖ identity and social location. is extremely complex.. As a practice.g. many of the identities available to women (e. feminists used to argue that gender division should be primary. Journal of Homosexual Studies. 50. heterosexuality. heterosexuality is rooted in gender hierarchy and manifested through its central mechanism. reproductive) and labor (e. the positioning of women as sexual objects and men as sexual subjects (Jackson. (2) heterosexuality as identity. p. Yep. I do not murmur. 2/3/4. Then. resentment. Vol. Mary Gergen (1993).g. Jackson. and John. 1999) suggests that. the classifications of ―white‖ and ―people of color‖ are used to highlight material and structural power differences in racialized and racist societies. practice. emotional) (Delphy & Leonard. then. heterosexual identities are more problematic. 1996). heterosexuality involves behaviors and actions derived from our current gender hierarchy. Lovaas. emotional work. Perhaps the most important reason for such a move. radical lesbian feminists simply treat it as eroticized power (Jeffreys. in giving pleasure‖ (p. 1996a). Implicit in the marriage contract is men‘s appropriation and exploitation of women‘s bodies (e. I do affirm some basic selfidentification tag. 2003. Through institutionalized heterosexuality. appear to be highly contested among feminists (for a more detailed presentation of this debate. However. . And it‘s a social phenomena which makes the multiplicity of sex acts less relevant. discourses and representations of sex are articulated in phallocentric terms. the complexity of heterosexuality– as an institution. As an institution. 1993b. 1996a. No. As an identity. Professors @ San Francisco University. For example. There are reasons for overlooking the complexity of heterosexuality. 1996). Similarly. Jackson (1996. marriage (Jackson. 1992). my reactions shifted to a mingled puzzlement. my emphasis). Although such domains obviously interconnect and intersect. heterosexuality is still generally treated as a monolithic and unitary concept (Crawford. and Elia. As such. heterosexuality tends to be unmarked and uncontested.‖ escapes analytical scrutiny. 1994).. others are more defensive.sexuality as experience. identity. . Male control is also found in committed antisexist living arrangements where a more egalitarian principle governed division of housework and child-rearing practices. Karen.g. it is social (VanEvery. to examine its complexities. or struggle (Kitzinger & Wilkinson. 1996b). wife. For example. p. mother. influence. Similarly. domestic. 13) ―charmed circle. 1993. . girlfriend. tend to homogenize. . and (4) hetero. that is. 29-31. heterosexuality is considered a ―default identity‖ achieved without much effort. 1995. Eliason. In her research on longterm domestic living arrangements. thought. As such. Such moves. I am not now and never have been a ‗heterosexual‘ ‖ (1993. Why address me so categorically as a heterosexual? Why was anyone so sure? Because I am married? Or because my husband seems ―straight‖? (p. like other forms of human expression. Smart (1996a) argues. . and erase important differences from within and can lead to misleading hierarchies of oppression. It might seem that. . Jackson (1999) argues that they are useful analytical tools for debunking myths of monolithic heterosexuality. Smart. ―There must be some mistake. ignore. for example: ―Although I have lived monogamously with a man I love for over 26 years. and sexual behaviors. cultural conceptions of a ―good wife‖ or ―good mother‖ create expectations and experiences and regulate women‘s behavioral choices. by locating itself inside Rubin‘s (1984/1993. Take Sandra Bem‘s. and experience–is disregarded. 1993). Its ordinariness represents a lack of reflection characteristic of the privilege of power. Exemplifying these struggles. became aware that no one had ever actually called me a heterosexual before. As a practice. Unlike marginalized sexual identities that are achieved after tremendous emotional labor and immense personal struggle. As an institution. Such actions include domestic labor.. p. Heterosexuality is not merely sexual. see Wilkinson & Kitzinger. 45. (Gust. It is a ―normal. wrote.‖ No. silence. four analytical domains should be considered: (1) Heterosexuality as an institution. By ignoring that ―heterosexuality may be many things‖ (Smart. 171) This move is neither new nor unproblematic. (3) heterosexuality as practice. VanEvery (1996b) observes that men control and appropriate women‘s labor in most domestic situations. sexual. if we acknowledge heterosexualities. 31). p. Such identities shape.

As Besnier points out. For other gender liminal people. it is now not uncommon for gender liminal persons to seek sex reassignment surgery even though they live within a cultural context where their gender liminality might formerly have been understood in terms of a gender role for which bodily change was not considered an issue. note 47). (p. 10. Roen. however. Vol. ‗1 (Katrina.. it is not simply a case of reclaiming cultural values around gender liminality. [so w]hile North American berdache traditions died out with the contexts that supported them. critical of such romanticising of Polynesian acceptance of gender liminality. 3. This is different in cultural contexts where such historical ties have been lost. Roen. Roscoe. Stryker. The relationship between this aspect of anthropological study and research on transsexuality and transgenderism has complex implications for the various parties involved. ―Transgender Theory and Embodiment: the risk of racial marginalization‖. how might they inform one another more fruitfully? How might queer be theorised to better take into account Don's perspective of putting culture first and gender/sexuality second? Must there be such a prioritising for issues of racism. of both racial and (trans)gendered politics. if not for all fa'afafine) because family ties and the knowledge of cultural history are still sufficiently intact. pg 258-259)JNF Some aspects of Don's reclaiming fa'afafine as a highly esteemed way of being and challenging Palagi approaches to sexuality and gender seem to me to work along similar lines to inclusive and expansive in a way that is reminiscent of some authors' descriptions of queer (Goldman. Journal of Gender Studies. the relative facility of accessing western psycho-medical discourses as ways of . They juggle Maaori and transgendered identities in their attempts to hold specific forms of racialised gender liminality in high esteem. 1987.. how might Don's perspective on gender liminality differ from those of people for whom such historical. Besnier. 560. 1991. No. Nanda. with the possible exceptions of New Zealand and Hawai'i. 1994). queer and transgendered critiques of psycho-medical discourses on transsexuality. 1996).g. Journal of Gender Studies. Polynesian societies were generally not subjected to systematic annihilating efforts on the part of colonizing populations . cultural connections have been largely lost? What recourse do these people have for reclaiming culturally specific understandings of gender crossing? Some Maaori transpeople are attempting to map discursive pathways for the purpose of reclaiming both cultural and queer identities. On the other hand. 1996. ‗1 (Katrina. For some gender liminal people. No. 3. but of creating gendered ways of being that satisfy aspects. through the processes of westernisation (via colonisation). 1990.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 70 Queer Sex the Bomb Answers To: Race/Culture K‘s of Queer Theory The aff romanticizes 3rd gender acceptance in non-western cultures. comments on the risk of assuming that gender-phobic attitudes are purely colonial phenomena. Queer is a highly inclusive terms – There are enough crossing discourse for cultural histories to remain intact. it is important to maintain `traditional' cultural values by resisting identification with (conmporary western) medical discourses on transsexuality.. He describes fa'afafine as encompassing gender-crossing possibilities similar to those discussed by some transgender authors (e. He writes: `explaining violence against liminal individuals as the sole result of emergent modernity in the Pacific Islands presupposes a romanticized view of Polynesia that has no validity outside the western imagination' (p. ―Transgender Theory and Embodiment: the risk of racial marginalization‖. Associate Professor of Psychology at Oslo University. Vol. note 36) Therefore. Issues of specific concern are: the lack (or inaccessibility) of knowledges about pre-colonial concepts of gender and sexuality. On the one hand. a romanticised version of third-gender acceptance within non-western cultures can provide images of hope for transgendered people fighting gender oppression. 559.. pg 254-255)JNF Anthropological research documents numerous examples of non-western cultures where concepts of gender liminality are accommodated through available gender roles (e. He describes fa'afafine as Walters. Besnier (1994). Given that there are these parallels between Don's discourse on fa'afafine ways of being and some queer and transgender discourses.g. the cultural setting in which Polynesian gender liminality is embedded never disappeared. 1994). 10. homophobia and transphobia to be effectively combated? Perhaps fa'afafine identities provide an example of a crossing that can be sanctioned (for Don. Associate Professor of Psychology at Oslo University. particularly in contexts where little detailed historical information about sexuality and gender remains decades after colonisers' attempts at assimilation and annihilation.

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understanding experiences of gender liminality, the possible contradictions between medical and Maaori discourses on (transsexual) bodies; and the current power differential between Maaori and Pakeha which enables New Zealand laws (and therefore transsexuals' legal rights) to be dictated primarily by Pakeha (medical) understandings of sexed embodiment. According to New Zealand legislation at the time of writing this paper, it was possible for documentation relating to passports and marriage certificates to carry the posttransition gender marker (M or F) only after sex reassignment surgery had taken place (Alston, 1998a, b).

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Answer To: Must Stabilize Queer for X Reason
Any attempt stabilize queer relationships within boundaries or borders is heteronormative and heterosexist. Elia, Professor @ San Francisco University, 2003.
(John, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 45, no. 2/3/4, pp. 78-79, JCE) As indicated earlier, queer relationships go against the grain of heteronormativity and heterosexist beliefs and practices. Queer relationships contest hegemony and boxiness/containment, and constantly call into question the ubiquitous essentialized notions about sexuality and gender. When one thinks about queer(ing) relationships, images of potentiality, expansiveness, plasticity, instability, and lability come to mind. To attempt to capture the innumerable types of queer relationships possible here presents a paradox and is, in fact, a conceptual trap. I could go on and on by listing and describing various con figurations of relationships, such as threesomes, polyamorous/polyfidelity, SM, virtual, crossethnic, cross-generational, financially-based, short-term non-monogamous, fuck buddies, fetishistic, etc., but ultimately it would be another way of naming and containing such relationships. Clearly, there are countless types of relationships and various combinations of qualities that constitute queer relationships. It is truly staggering and impressive. It is impossible, and even unwise–in the spirit of queering–to attempt to provide an exhaustive list of the forms of queer relationships. Explicating the various functions queer relationships serve is also an impossible task. However, some functions include: sexual gratification, pair bonding, political activism, liberation from traditional gender roles, emancipation from traditional family structures, freedom from patriarchal ideologies and practices, being extricated from fixed notions about sexual identity, etc. A particular queer relationship might provide one of these functions or share several concomitantly. And it goes without saying that there are incalculable other functions as well. Between forms and functions, there are infinite possibilities for how queer relationships can be constructed and lived.

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Answer To: Perm
The perm is part of the assimilative process of heteronormativity which takes over all spheres of life. Heteronormativity is in the unmarked portion of the perm – a normalized acceptance of a dangerous policy into the alt. The perm is part of the process of forcing us to learn to conform or survive in the heteronormative regime. Yep, Lovaas, and Elia, Professors @ San Francisco University, 2003.
(Gust, Karen, and John, Journal of Homosexual Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2/3/4,, pp. 18-19, JCE) Heteronormativity is ubiquitous in all spheres of social life yet remains largely invisible and elusive. According to Berlant and Warner (in Warner, 2002), heteronormativity refers to: the institutions, structures of understanding, and practical orientations that make heterosexuality seem not only coherent–that is, organized as a sexuality–but also privileged. Its coherence is always provisional, and its privilege can take several (sometimes contradictory) forms: unmarked as the basic idiom of the personal and the social; or marked as a natural state; or projected as an ideal or moral accomplishment. It consists less of norms that could be summarized as a body of doctrine than of a sense of rightness produced in contradictory manifestations–often unconscious, immanent to practice or to institutions. (p. 309, my emphasis) Heteronormativity makes heterosexuality hegemonic through the process of normalization. Although it is experienced consciously or unconsciously and with different degrees of pain and suffering, this process of normalization is a site of violence in the lives of women, men, and transgenders–across the spectrum of sexualities–in modern Western societies. Not unlike the experiences of children who must learn to survive in an emotionally and physically abusive environment where violence is the recipe for daily existence (Miller, 1990, 1991, 1998, 2001), individuals living in the heteronormative regime need to learn to conform, ignore, and banish their suffering to survive. The process of coping by repressing the pain and identifying with the perpetrator is, in my view, a powerful mechanism for heteronormativity to perpetuate itself in current forms of social organization. Drawing from the work of feminists and womanists, critical scholars, and mental health researchers, I identify and examine the injurious and violent nature of heteronormativity in this section. For purposes of discussion, I focus on the violence of heteronormativity enacted upon: (a) women inside the heteronormative borders, (b) men inside the heteronormative borders, (c) lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer people, and (d) individuals living at the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality.

Queers are not interested in assimilating into mainstream culture, or becoming the dominant force in society. Queers are the progressive change that will root out domination and oppression in our current system. Slagle, Professor @ University of Puerto Rico, 2003.
(R. Anthony, Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 45, No. 2/3/4, pp. 136-137, JCE) Assimilation. Queer critics adamantly argue that queers are not interested in assimilating seamlessly into an unchanged mainstream (Seidman, 1993; Tierney, 1993). For example, queer critics reject the rhetoric of gay liberation that strives to make sexual identity something that should ultimately not be a factor in determining who is allowed to participate in society, and who is not. Queer critics argue that individual sexual differences are significant, that queers are unique, and that these differences still do not justify oppression. Finally, it is important to remember that queer criticism has an explicitly activist agenda; that is, queer criticism seeks to dismantle the existing social order that silences queer voices in our society. Queer critics attempt to construct a world in which sexual difference is not only acknowledged, but celebrated. Queer theorists argue that it is not sufficient to point out that oppression and domination merely exist; instead, a major goal of queer criticism is to point to the potential for progressive change in the social structure.

the terms through which we insist on politicizing identity and desire. that language expresses a "will" or a "choice" rather than a complex and constitutive history of discourse and power which compose die invariably ambivalent resources through which a queer and queering agency is forged and reworked.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 74 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Historical Critique of ―Queer‖ We must critique queer politics – the history of the term demonstrates the impossible conflicts between racial. Judith. she teaches composition and rhetoric at U. that is. Butler. 227 LRP This view of performativity implies that discourse has a history7 that not only precedes but conditions its contemporary usages.C. Berkeley. We can‘t avoid the mess. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘). then it follows that the critique of the queer subject is crucial to the continuing democratization of queer politics. and whereas in some instances it has mobilized a lesbian activism. it may be that the critique of the term will initiate a resurgence of both feminist and anti-racist mobilization within lesbian and gay politics or open up new possibilities for coalitional alliances that do not presume that these constituencies are radically distinct from one another. the genealogical critique of the queer subject will be central to queer politics to the extent that it constitutes a self-critical dimension within activism. As much as identity terms must be used. Judith Butler is a noted for her studies on gender. Aff Answer: Must Deal With The Future The choices is self-determination or nuclear doom. it is used in ways that enforce a set of overlapping divisions: in some contexts. without a history. as much as "outness" is to be affirmed. LRP It may be that the conceit of autonomy implied by self-naming is the paradigmatically presenrist conceit. if the genealogical critique of the subject is the interrogation of those constitutive and exclusionary relations of power through which contemporary discursive resources are formed. or religious affiliation and sexual politics? What kinds of policies are enabled by what kinds of usages. And yet. in some contexts. To recast queer agency in this chain of historicity is thus to avow a set of constraints on the past and the future that mark at once the limits of agency and its most enabling conditions. therefore. these same notions must become subject to a critique of the exclusionary operations of their own production: For whom is outness a historically available and affordable option? Is there an unmarked class character to the demand for universal "outness"? Who is represented by which use of the term. the term appeals to a younger generation who want to resist the more institutionalized and reformist politics sometimes signified by "lesbian and gay". we must sort through it . 228-229 .8 What it also means is that the terms to which we do. ethnic. in others the term represents a false unity of women and men. often demand a turn against this constitutive historicity. Queer politics cannot divorce itself from its past. a persistent reminder to take the time to consider the exclusionary force of one of activism's most treasured contemporary premises. rendered obsolete to the extent that it yields to the demands which resist the term precisely because of the exclusions by which it is mobilized. dispelled. nevertheless. sometimes the same. Critiquing the term queer will open up new possibilities for mobalization that are not possible if only a presentist perspective is affirmed. or religious affliations and sexual politics. and that this history effectively decenters the presentist view of the subject as the exclusive origin or owner of what is said. and who is excluded? For whom does the term present an impossible conflict between racial. 93 (Dr. ethnic. pp. and which are backgrounded or erased from view? In this sense. Those of us who have questioned the presentist assumptions in contemporary identity categories are. that this one makes oneself in and through the magic of the name. it has marked a predominantly white movement that has not fully addressed the way in which "queer" plays—or fails to play—within nonwhite com-munities. As expansive as the term "queer" is meant to be. the belief that there is a one who arrives in the world. in discourse. lay claim. 93( Judith. Indeed. The term will be revised. ‗Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex‘) pp. Butler. sometimes charged with depoliticizing theory. noted for her studies on gender & teaches composition and rhetoric at Berkeley.

a Research Fellow with the Australia Research Institute at Curtin University. Instead. pg.a choice between techno-doom and self· determination. We just have to sort our way through all the mess. of course. 54-71.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 75 Queer Sex the Bomb Lucy. The logocentric choice is no choice at all: that way the future is already written. Culture. . or perhaps by the same token. we need to take account of the 'postal' effects of our thinking on technology. How we might go about doing so is undeniably urgent and crucial. 2007. ―Beyond Semiotics: Text. perhaps like long-lost letters gone astray. DES) Other fates await us too. Research Fellow with the Australia Research Institute at Curtin University. as if the 'technological' future or the 'natural' past were all there is . 07 (Niall. July 19. but it's not as simple as resolving the fate of technology by situating the nuclear question on the side of speech. and Technology.‖ Continuum.

Adoptive parental bodies resist reprosexuality also in an even more basic way. 2006. we openly challenge both (biological and legal) ownership paradigms of parental rights and the heteronormative paradigm of families. As Warner indicates. Adoptive relationships. that heterosexuals only have sex when they want to reproduce. Thus the practice of open adoption rejects the notion that children must have only one ―real‖ mother. 9). 270). 9). that people who have gay sex do not have other kinds. 1. Why then do so many wish to assume ―a paradigmatic status for heterosexual coupling?‖ The real reason.‖ Heterosexuality would not find itself necessary—―meaningfully opposed to something else—were we not invested in a growth economy of population‖ (1991. The straight personal identity interwoven with biological and cultural reproduction is a ―breeder identity‖—a self-understanding (along with fantasies of self-transcendence) that is tied to one‘s status as procreative. pp. and even if straight and coupled. lesbian or gay as well as straight. As such. Similarly.‖ or the notion that ―our lives are somehow made more meaningful by being embedded in a narrative of generational succession‖ (7). 21. adoptive (or foster) motherhood—were there no investment in a growth economy of population. no.Do Both. Hypatia vol. is an ―interweaving of heterosexuality.‖ as defined by Michael Warner. When adoptive mothers and gestational mothers embrace each other as coparticipants in child rearing. adoptive mothers also challenge the paradigms of ―real‖ motherhood and of the heterosexual nuclear family in another way—by the deliberate inclusion in a child‘s life of more than one mother. have the potential to queer the family by openly resisting both reprosexuality and repro-narrativity. (Shelley M. The fact that most adoptive parents are straight and married highlights the enforcement of predominant cultural values. The future is not valueless to queering. reprosexuality is closely aligned with ―repro-narrativity. pronatalism. humanity would become extinct) presupposes ―that there are no lesbian or gay parents. Adoptive maternal (and paternal) bodies embody a critique of the notion that reproduction and (hetero)sexuality are inextricably intertwined. ―Reprosexuality involves more than reproducing. As Warner explains. Adoptive parents may be single as well as coupled. As Homans emphasizes. As Warner claims. JCE) ―Reprosexuality. 217-218. their status as parents bears no essential connection to their sexuality. Park. and personal identity‖ (1991. Thus we also undermine a primary—albeit absurd—rationale for both compulsory motherhood and compulsory heterosexuality.‘ This is key to resisting compulsory heterosexuality as well as heteronormativity. . Warner suggests. more even than compulsory heterosexuality: it involves a relation to self that finds its proper temporality and fulfillment in generational transmission‖ (9). Queered families can openly resist heterosexism. when brought out of the closet. the notion of ―real‖ motherhood might not find itself necessary— meaningfully opposed to something else. [or] that parental narcissism is higher consciousness‖ (9). biological reproduction. ―the problems with repro dogma‖ are so obvious—given the absurdity of the notion that humans are in short supply—that it is difficult to know why anyone would believe it. ―is to render the tacit value on reproduction itself unquestionable. Uncloseted adoptive maternal bodies stand openly (even if unintentionally) against a growth economy of population. Professor of Philosophy. it is not a function of any ―natural‖ edict. In open adoptive relationships. The practice of open adoption insists that we consider this gestational body a maternal body alongside the maternal body legally authorized to raise her birth child.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 76 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Queer Families Perm Perm. adoptive maternal bodies openly resist the notion that ―reproduction must be the logic of sexuality and the means of self-transcendence‖ (Warner 1991. In particular. as nonprocreative adult bodies. 10).. there is a ―physical maternal body presupposed by adoption— a childbearing body that should not be erased or rendered invisible‖ (Homans 2002. that sex always means coupling. the notion that reproduction is the goal of sexuality (and hence that if everyone were queer. and can help resist the ‗growth economy. namely. cultural reproduction. refusing the logic of either/or embedded in the nature/nurture dichotomy in favor of both/and reasoning.

I remember my mother saying: 'You mustn't walk like that. . they don't do that in New Zealand'. Don points out that the division-by-labels of sexuality and gender categories makes it hard to talk about concepts of fa'afafine and holism. 3. I grew up with this really arrogant opinion of myself: for some reason the world is rather special with me in it! Being fa'afafine was really special. He talks about the importance of fa'afafine in Samoan culture.. To begin with. Journal of Gender Studies. cultural identity precedes gender/sexuality identity in political importance... Don's willingness to accept that some of his fa'afafine friends seek sex reassignment surgery. he is highly sceptical about the Palagi system of dividing and labeling sexualities and genders. Don'. despite shifting to New Zealand as a child and having to learn that fa'afafine were far less tolerated there. To this I add that discussion of transgenderism would benefit from further consideration of the effects of westernisation on gender liminality: not for the sake of a simplistic reclaiming of a 'third gender' [5] status. but in some respects resembles. However. Jesus. he is concerned about the general westernization and subsequent degra¬dation of fa'afafine identities.. I said: 'Why not?' [and she replied:] 'Well. anatomically male... the two things I want them to find out about me is the fact that I'm Samoan first and foremost and . he describes the relationship between his Samoan and fa'afafine identities by saying: 'for me culture is always first and then sexuality'.. transgenderism.. faggot. and how his own sense of self-esteem relates to being fa'afafine. pg 257-258)JNF Don provides an example of reclaiming a traditional sexuality/gender subject position which is very distinct from. being fa'afafine does not imply dissatisfaction with sexed embodiment nor does it make specifications about partner-gender: fa'afafine is constructed across sexuality and gender. but the two are intrinsically linked: one does not make sense without the other. ensuring that they are making the right decision. (Don. interviewed: May.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 77 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Race Kritik of Queer Theory Queer politics push gender and sexuality to the point of obscuring race altogether – the division of queer identities and even the use of queer as a label espouse more inclusive holistic understanding of gender coming from culture. cock in a frock" '. preferring to espouse a more holistic approach. No. before going ahead with surgery. accompanied by his concern for younger fa'afafine who are completely seduced by Palagi understandings of sexuality and gender. . (Don. fa'afafine simply 'means like a woman'.. interviewed: May.. 328). to him. 1996) He describes being taught from an early age that to be fa'afafine was to be valued and respected. [Those terms] actually tell you how that society views that person. queer . Elaborating on this contrast Don describes how. ‗1 (Katrina. for the language assumes categories which obscure the importance of the inclusivity of fa'afafine.. he echoes his elders in expressing concern about younger fa'afafine being attracted by the glamour and lifestyle of cities where they come to think of themselves more in terms of western transvestite and transsexual identities. It's a knowledgeable woman but recognised [as] . ―Transgender Theory and Embodiment: the risk of racial marginalization‖. rather than according to traditional understandings of fa'afafine Some of these young fa'afafine opt for sex reassignment surgery. In stating his priorities thus. I was never put down or anything . Roen. saying: 'I know of some of the traditional fa'afafines and each time I've gone back to Samoa it's always been the case "Oh gosh. remind me of Besnier's comment: `Further discussion of gender liminality in Polynesia cannot take place without locating the category in a specific historical context and must address its relationship to modernization and change' (1994. 10. Don hastens to add that he is not simply opposed to sex reassignment surgery: he has some older fa'afafine friends who have waited years. He is also critical of Palagi attempts to reclaim words such as queer.. My culture just views it 'like a woman'. Don sets himself in sharp relief to queer and transgender stances which often highlight gender and sexuality to the point of obscuring race altogether.. whereas: All the Palagi [4] [English] terms: gay. and 'any interaction I have with anybody. Although he plays an active role in his local gaylesbitrans support networks. but for the sake of contextualising transgender theorising with respect to cross-cultural understandings of gender as those understandings change over time. Vol.. For Don. suggesting that this only reflects Palagi cultures' intolerant attitudes towards sexuality and gender variance. [secondly] that I'm fa'afafine'. 1996) For Don. we're being reduced to a . That's something I never ever accepted. Nevertheless.. p. when I came to New Zealand that was soon cut out! . Associate Professor of Psychology at Oslo University. And it's like a special woman.. [they're] awful .

. pp. and canonized in gay and lesbian studies classrooms.. 593-594. The queer tribe attempts to be a multicultural. Johnson (2001) introduces quare theory. Vol. 1995 (Joshua. multisexual. . . Karen. As a ―theory of the flesh‖ quare necessarily engenders a kind of identity politics. and sexuality and discusses how such components affect the social. can subsume and hide the internal differences it attempts to incorporate. Quare studies . Focusing on a critique of stable conceptions of identity and committed to racialized and class knowledges. and transgender. multigendered. And as some letter writers point out . as some lesbian writers point out. 10. 45. (For a more detailed explanation of these approaches. Johnson. lesbian. class. we need quare theory. publications. 41-42. Rather. Although the broad umbrella of ―queer‖ may appear to include queers of all races and social classes.) ―Queer‖ erases the ethnic and racial ties that people have – ends up denying difference. and John. Lovaas. Quare studies critiques the concept of race while also taking into account differences between sexual and social groups that queer theory does. Professor of sociology at University of San Francisco. it is a misleading façade (Anzaldúa. would not only critique the concept of ―race‖ as historically contingent and socially and culturally constructed/performed. JCE) Race Problems. 1991. Queer as an identity category often restates tensions between sameness and difference in a different language. . it is usually a contained reading of an artist of color that does not factor questions of race into the entirety of their project. queer becomes simply a short hand for "gay. cited. When race is discussed by most white queer theorists. 2/3/4. Calling it a ―queer blind spot. in fact. Even in its less nationalist versions. (Gust. queer can easily be difference without change.‖ Muñoz (1999) observes. Journal of Homosexual Studies. pp. ―Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma‖ from the book Social Perspectives in Lesbian & Gay Studies: A Reader. my emphasis) In light of this situation. one that acknowledges difference within and between particular groups. Thus. hodge-podge of outsiders. Muñoz offers the notion of disindentifications as a lens to interpret minoritarian politics based on interlocking components of race. as Steven Seidman points out. bisexual. No. . The lack of inclusion is most certainly not the main problem with the treatment of race. identity politics does not necessarily mean the reduction of multiple identities into a monolithic identity or narrow cultural nationalism. . JAR) In the hands of many letter writers. see Johnson [2001] and Muñoz [1999]. 2003. Most of the cornerstones of queer theory that are taught. (p. Queer theory doesn‘t do enough to focus on race issues. quare studies moves beyond simply theorizing subjectivity and agency as discursively mediated to theorizing how that mediation may propel material bodies into action. 9) Both disindentifications and quare theory appear productive points of engagement with mainstream queer theory about racialized knowledges and experiences. gender. as a quasinational shorthand "queer" is just a slight shift in the boundaries of tribal membership with no attendant shifts in power. . and conferences are decidedly directed toward analyzing white lesbians and gay men. republished in 1998. 2001). He explains. . (p. it is as likely to become synonymous with "white gay male" (perhaps now with a nose ring and tattoos) as it is to describe a new community formation. it would also address the material effects of race in a white supremacist society. Gamson. it ironically ends up "denying differences by either submerging them in an undifferentiated oppositional mass or by blocking the development of individual and social differences through the disciplining compulsory imperative to remain undifferentiated" (1993: 133)." much like "people of color" becomes an inclusive and difference-erasing short hand for a long list of ethnic. and racial groups.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 78 Queer Sex the Bomb Queer theory does not take into account issues of race. Yep. . Professors @ San Francisco University. national. and Elia.

Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 79 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Capitalism Turn While concentrating on decentering identity. however. 48) The fragmentation of social life repeats itself in the proposal that sexuality and gender are separate and autonomous from bureaucratic state organization.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. The danger. 176). kinship based groupings–the building of an ―affectional community . as in Jameson‘s terms. Yet to argue that culture is today no longer endowed with the relative autonomy is once enjoyed as one level among others in earlier moments of capitalism (let alone in precapitalist societies) is not necessarily to imply its disappearance or extinction.‖ posits a conclusion that emphasizes individual resistance and that ironically. must be as much a part of our political movement as are campaigns for civil rights‖ (Weeks. Quite the contrary. 2006. queer theory succeeds in promoting the very goals of global capitalism that work against the formation of communities or provide the means to destroy those that already exist Kirsch 6 (Max. For those who are not included in traditional sources of community building–in particular. as examples. any hope for political action. Fragmentation highlights the it also becomes more abstract: What we must now ask ourselves is whether it is precisely this semi-autonomy of the cultural sphere that has been destroyed by the logic of late capitalism. ½. 1985. 52. If. of course. No.14). . . PhD Florida Atlantic University. ―Queer Theory. DES. and with them. Harrington Park Press. This building of communities requires identification. p. p. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. p. is that while we concentrate on decentering identity. Jameson has proposed that the concept of alienation in late capitalism has been replaced with fragmentation (1991. pp. ends up reinforcing the ―narrative‖ itself. 1991. then the dominant modes of power will prevail without analysis or opposition. If we cannot recognize traits that form the bases of our relationships with others. differences can be equated. we succeed in promoting the very goals of global capitalism that work against the formation of communities or provide the means to destroy those that already exist. to the point at which everything in our social life–from economic value and state power to practices and to the very structure of the psyche itself–can be said to have become ‗cultural‘ in some original and yet untheorized sense. (Jameson. with the overwhelming power of ―master narratives. 19-45. Vol. However. as postmodernist and poststructuralist writers assume a position that this equation is impossible and undesirable. substantially quite consistent with the previous diagnosis of a society of the image or simulacrum and a transformation of the ―real‖ into so many pseudoevents. we must go on to affirm that the autonomous sphere of culture throughout the social realm. This proposition is. how then can communities be built? The preoccupation of Lyotard and Foucault. . then this should not pose a problem for the mobilization of resistance to inequality.

such a relationship construction would constantly keep them ―on edge‖ and insecure. argues that instead of focusing on specific areas of oppression and strategies to change them. Karen. . 123). Queer thrives on blurring boundaries. Professor @ San Francisco University. based on a shared identity. custody rights of children. Vol. Elia. with a focus on individual self-expression. might actually be harmful to people by making it more difficult to identify with others. at the same time. Yep. 2003. no. job security. In other words. Kirsch (2000) cautions us that queer theory. and. 2/3/4.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 80 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Alt doesn‘t Solve Queer theory focuses in the individual. Journal of Homosexual Studies. queer theorists are criticized for their neglect of community organizing. Queer theory. Queering thrives on blurring boundaries and being unpredictable while challenging cultural norms. Professors @ San Francisco University. and so on. mainstream relationship construction could potentially disadvantage queers socially in terms of reputation. p. Such a radical departure from the usual. Kirsch vociferously argues. queer theory focuses on the individual as a site of change. This is quite a challenge. if not downright disadvantageous. No. 45. 45. to be in a queer relationship. Queering is disadvantageous to queers. to promote social change.. Collective identities require clear membership boundaries. p. 45. For some individuals. 1997). It would also disadvantage them socially. discrete in-group/out-group distinctions (Gamson. where obfuscation is more valued than strategies for recognition and community-building‖ (2000. JCE) On the other hand. Kirsch (2000). In terms of a relationship it would make many people insecure. 80-81. Journal of Homosexuality. This means an end to academic posturing. 2003. and Elia. it could be extraordinarily difficult. 2/3/4. this makes hinders community and makes it more difficult to effect change and identify with others. being uncontained and unpredictable. Vol. that is. for example. and John. challenging dominant cultural norms regarding romantic and sexual relationships. ―needs to be refocused to take into account the realities of everyday life in a capitalist world system. (John. collective identities and power in numbers are politically effective. Lovaas. Another thing to consider is that a queer relationship would necessarily lack the ―security‖ and ―anchor‖ that are features of so many relationships. Such a move insulates individuals and hinders community building. pp. material benefits that are usually afforded to those in normalized relationships. (Gust. JCE) At a very practical level.

"promoting" a remarkably Foucaultian view of queerness as a contingent category. fluid categories. is scary. and once you see that lesbians and gays are just like you. by demonstrating similarity (to heterosexual people. lesbians. and if tomorrow I choose to run down the middle of Market Street in a big floppy hat and skirt I will still be normal. and therefore rights and protection. JAR) Queer thus asserts in-your-face difference." Without a clear and static identity. Gamson. Lesbian visibility is more recent and hard won. The Colorado solicitor general. made arguments" that could have appeared in a queer core rant. 598.blow it. to other minority groups) in a non-threatening manner." goes the refrain from this camp. pp. JAR) The overwhelmingly female participation in the Bay Times disputes over bisexuality and transgender inclusion underscores this point. We are different. 1995 (Joshua. Queer confrontational difference. Gay men react with less vehemence because of the stronger political position from which they encounter the queer challenge: as men. and your response is either your problem or your wake-up call. lesbians are asked not only to share it but to subvert it." goes the chant. pp. know myself as a queer. moreover." Phyllis Lyon says simply in the Bay Times. and thus politically useful: "Now that I call myself queer. in struggles against patriarchal control. Professor of sociology at University of San Francisco. are unavailable. Similar pitfalls were evident in the 1993 fight over Colorado's Amendment 2. according to this logic. as reporter Donna Minkowitz put it." the solicitor general argued. writes Alex Chee (1991). for whom at least the appearance of normality is central to gaining political "room. Queer does not so much rebel against outsider status as revel in it." Rights are gained. "I am normal. minority status.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 81 Queer Sex the Bomb Using the term ―Queer‖ prevents political inclusion – institutionalizes difference. . Here.Eric Marcus (1993: 14) writes that "I'd rather emphasize what I have in common with other people than focus on the differences. "I am not queer." In the national gay weekly 10 Percent-for which Rant & Rave can be seen as a proud evil twin . permeable. republished in 1998. Lesbians are especially threatened by the muddying of male/female and gay/straight categorizations exactly because it is by keeping sexual and gender categories hard and clear that gains are made. If I tell them I am queer. which prohibits "the state or any of its subdivisions from outlawing discrimination against gay men. They only need to give me room." This goes against the grain of civil rights strategists. We are your sons and daughters and co-workers and soldiers. that is. Gamson. by alienating each other and our straight allies with words like "queer. Just as they are gaining political ground as lesbians. nothing will keep [queerhaters] safe. of course. I can think of little better. as gay men with a more established public identity. the fluidity of group boundaries and the provisional nature of collective identity was used to argue that no one should receive legal benefits or state protection-because there is no discernible group to be protected. get used to it. or bisexuals" (Minkowitz 1993). we're queer. ―Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma‖ from the book Social Perspectives in Lesbian & Gay Studies: A Reader. moreover. Politically. whose members can slip in and out of its boundaries like subversive fish" (Minkowitz 1993:27). 593. with an edge of defiant separatism: "We're here. the lesson is familiar: as long as membership in this group is unclear. queerness makes civil rights unattainable. "We don't have a group that is easily confinable. republished in 1998. ―Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma‖ from the book Social Perspectives in Lesbian & Gay Studies: A Reader. not-scary." writes a letter writer named Tony. odd and out there and proud of it. I do not want to be one of them. that is. you will recognize the injustices to which we are subject. Professor of sociology at University of San Francisco." The point is to be not-different. lesbianism and feminism have often been strongly linked. "We are everywhere." and "the last thing I want to do is institutionalize that difference by defining myself with a word and a political philosophy that set me outside the mainstream. "Let's not blow it" . 1995 (Joshua. "We have a lot going for us. not-odd. Although the solicitor-general-as-queer-theorist is a strange twist. they give me room. free from convention. by declaring woman and lesbian to be unstable.

what then.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. Vol.) If the tenets of queer theory reject strategies of mobilization for fear of essentializing identity. Simply reflection on the success of movements around the world and throughout modern history tells us otherwise. . this aspect of marginality can itself become an identity: if one recognizes and embraces the fact that one is marginalized. and my final chapter is called ―What is to be Done?‖. and indeed. 19-45. pp. and the ―lived moment. Legitimization in queer theory means the right to be as one is. The stance that it is limiting to pose categories of behavior and belief. 1993. DES. has no inherent historical or social context. Recognizing that oppression and violence. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. 2006. such as ―here are my five prescriptions. Queer theory promotes the ―self‖ of the individual as an alternative to wider social interaction. and individual variants in thought and speech. Harrington Park Press.‖ And I set up my typology.‖ are aspects of personal recognition. 52. pp. when Judith Butler was asked for suggestions on how to proceed in the political arena.‖ (Bell. ideals still rule the day. The problem we thus encounter is that the collective level is deemed impossible: the legitimating function is purely personal. even if those constructs are fluid and changing. it preempts the whole problem of context and contingency. as I will maintain. PhD Florida Atlantic University. ―queer‖ as put forward by queer theorists. 2006. are part of the daily reality for those of us who do not correspond to dominant standards is compromised by queer theory‘s rejection of the category of identity. ―Queer Theory. reinforces internalized homophobia. it is doubtful that queer theory would exist at all without new political juncture that Rorty (1991) and Jameson (1991) both note is being produced in late capitalism. PhD Florida Atlantic University. Too. 52. Vol. disassembling the social ties that bind. ―Queer Theory. and which Haraway (1985). . and I do think that political decisions are made in that lived moment and that they can‘t be predicted from the level of theory–they can be prepared for but I suppose I‘m with Foucault on this . 167) But context and contingency. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. ½. and. p. And that when theory starts being programmatic. Eagleton (1986) point to as having led to a new stage of politics. the ultimate statement of ―the personal as political. No. 308). Queer politics are ineffective due to their fear of essentializing and inability to unify. . ½. sexuality.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. The problem. she answered: I actually believe that politics has a character of contingency and context to it that cannot be predicted at the level of theory. We continually return to the following question: to whom does it belong and what does it represent? These advocates of ―queer‖ do not acknowledge that queer is produced by social relations. No. categories as a whole. Be that as it may. DES. a kind of free activity that incorporates gender. reflection leads nowhere Kirsch 6 (Max. 1999. puts the individual subject in the position of internalizing thoughts and feelings without the benefit of peer feedback. are its politics? The historical and ethnographic fallacies in defense of postmodernist and poststructuralist critique aside.‖ Indeed.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 82 Queer Sex the Bomb Queer theory emulates late capitalism by refusing the collective leading to daily lived violence and marginalization to queer folk Kirsch 6 (Max. But to simply disclaim creates isolation. It seems like a noble tradition.) This mirroring of late capitalism in queer theory has unforeseen consequences for the individual in society and has hindered its practioners from engaging important ways of envisioning collective action. and a failure to specify leads nowhere. It declares that the only way to prevent being overwhelmed by power is to ―disclaim‖ (Butler. Harrington Park Press. 19-45. there is no need to seek support or to engage social action. and therefore contains the attributes of existing relationships of power. p. symbolic and physical. lies in the fact that this process of legitimization does not create equality: dominance still exists. of course.

Harrington Park Press. DES The promise of queer theory–and its imagined advance over previous approaches in gay and lesbian studies– is inclusiveness.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. ―Queer Theory. The characters that Duberman documents in this exposition of Stonewall (1993) all differ in their backgrounds and in their understanding of the world at large. Identifying with social movements in an era of global capitalist accumulation presupposes a recognition that exploitation. 101).‘ has made this strategy untenable. and violence are facts of everyday life that many experience. the epistemology of which is the negation of political action and the reification of the individual ‗self. but its general demands were the same for all: an end to discrimination and persecution. PhD Florida Atlantic University. . In other words.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 83 Queer Sex the Bomb Queer theory will not succeed in improving lives due to the reliance on postmodern and poststructuralist theory. identifying with social movements that appreciate difference can create real material change Kirsch 6 (Max. Nor it is necessary to experience the reality of your cohorts to identify with common causes. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. The movement generated by Stonewall cut across class and status. p. 52. The paradox of queer theory is that while it strives for this inclusiveness in a manner that identity politics cannot–a laudable goal–the reliance by its practioners on postmodern and poststructuralist theory. The process is liberatory. It is not necessary to agree with all of the beliefs of your neighbor to establish a mutually supportive alliance. it is necessary to refocus on practice–unifying and practice–generating principles (Bourdieu. 1977. No. prejudice. 2006. 19-45. The ability to create a true political movement assumes identification with the struggles and projected outcomes of that movement while recognizing the differences between members that need to be accommodated. Vol. pp. ½.

Similarly. leads to lesbian erasure. relegating drag queens to performances at primarily male spaces instead of being a category that a person lives as. fails to take into account the context in which gender performances occur. . once again. (p. Vol. We [cannot] afford to allow privileged patriarchal discourse (of which poststructuralism is but a new variant) to erase the collective identity Lesbians have only recently begun to establish.. argues that queer theory. Lovaas. which is caused by queer theory. for example. Namaste (2000). with its focus on performativity. and othering genders that are not male. pp. Queer theory also fails to recognize transgender issues.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 84 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Queer Theory Not Inclusive Destabilization of identity. and John. erasing. a typical move in queer analysis. such terminological breaks can be read as reactionary and potentially dangerous (Thomas. Wolfe and Penelope (1993) contend that destabilization of identity categories. and the existence of real Lesbians has been denied. 2/3/4. Elliot and Roen (1998) call for the development and articulation of transgender theories. Engagement with the social context and the material realities associated with gender performance under heteropatriarchy would diminish the danger of excluding. came to signify male homosexuality in a number of contexts. whether used or mentioned. She points out that Butler‘s drag queens perform in gay male cultural spaces and reduces drag to something a person does on stage rather than a person who is. They write. is that the word Lesbian has been placed in quotation marks. . No. ideas and assertions that inform and are informed by transgender political movements and articulated by transgenderists. and Elia. (Gust. Jeffreys (1997) is concerned about the disappearance of the lesbian and denial of lesbian oppression under patriarchy and heteronormativity. . causing ‗gay‘ to become a term associated almost primarily with males. . Professors @ San Francisco University. As a non-gender-specific term. 42-43. Queer theory is committed to the deconstruction of gender and sexual categories. 3) Given the history that ―gay. 2003. JCE) Gender Trouble. that is. leads to lesbians erasure. This happened before with the gay rights movement.‖ as a label. Karen. Yep. the concern that ―queer‖ might become a male generic is certainly not unwarranted. 2000). In addition. 45. Queer theory is also guilty of transgender erasure. in academic ―feminist‖ discourse at least. queer theory ignores the material realities. the lived experiences and the subjectivities of transgendered people. Under a non-gender specific umbrella. However. ―queer‖ appears inclusive of all genders. Journal of Homosexual Studies. For what has in fact resulted from the incorporation of deconstructive discourse.

can "reclaim" the word only because they have not felt as strongly the sting. Professor of sociology at University of San Francisco. "Another sarcastically asks. the dispute reads like a sibling sandbox spat. a letter writer shoots back that "this new generation assumes we were too busy in the '70s lining up at Macy's to purchase sweaters to find time for the revolution-as if their piercings and tattoos were any cheaper. "All those dumb closeted people who don‘t like the Q-word. its oppressive meaning can never be lifted. it divides the community. ―Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma‖ from the book Social Perspectives in Lesbian & Gay Studies: A Reader. many point out. asserting that the men opposing the theme are "not particularly thrilled with their attraction to other men." the Bay Times quotes Peggy Sue suggesting. Another writer asserts that 35 is the age that marks off those accepting the queer label from those rejecting it. The queer linguistic tactic. For older people. ostracism. "can go fuck themselves and go to somebody else's parade. police batons. "I am sure he isn't old enough to have experienced that feeling of cringing when the word 'queer' was said. is loudly rejected by many older gay men and lesbians.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 85 Queer Sex the Bomb The usage of the word ―Queer‖ drives further down the split between generations. many letter writers frame the differences as generational. the venom hits first." yet willing to benefit "from the stuff queer activists do. 592. and baseball bats that accompanied it one generation earlier." says Roy of an earlier letter writer." A few weeks later. can never be turned from overpowering to empowering. . pp." A man named Patrick argues along the same lines. Gamson. Although the curses fly sometimes within generations. 1995 (Joshua. embrace and resignify a stigma term. Younger people. republished in 1998." are "cranky and upset. "How did you ever miss out on 'Faggot' or 'Cocksucker' ?" On this level. the attempt to defang. JAR) In the discussion of the "Year of the Queer" theme for the 1993 lesbian and gay pride celebration.

Anything else is blaming the victim. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. Vol. how do we get there? Working towards structural change requires strategies for social change. We can learn from past successes and analytical mistakes. 2006. . Harrington Park Press. pp. PhD Florida Atlantic University.‖ in all their ambivalence. which is what answering the question ―what is to be done‖ entails. .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 86 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Identity Politics Good Identity politics are a precondition for political Action Kirsch 6 (Max. . If our goal is to produce a society that accepts difference. But without it. . 210) Contrary to the fear that identity limits choice. Identity. it is a choice. and of relationships. 19-45. A radical sexual politics affirms a freedom to be able to choose between them . One need not have the same sexual orientation or the same taste in fashion to understand that discrimination exists and therefore to embark on a fight against it together. .‖ Journal of Homosexuality. As Weeks notes. then. Just as Oscar Lewis‘s (1963) belief that the ―culture of poverty‖ could only be broken through intensive psychotherapy ignored the structures that created it. and champions human rights. p. . welcomes diversity. ―Queer Theory. those identities constitute a precondition for political action. DES The recognition of common goals can give rise to an identification based on common purpose. ½. To argue that ‗anything goes‘ is to fall back on an easy libertarianism which ignores questions of power and the quality of relationships. . seems to be the precondition for the realization of sexual diversity. in the end. The recognition of ‖sexual identities. may. a ploy to enjoy particular types of relationships and pleasures. be no more than a game. the possibilities of political choice are not increased but diminished. so we too must recognize that the conditions of oppression are not self-generated. There exists a plurality of sexual desires. 52. or potential ways of life. (1985. No. In a culture where variants on the norms of gender and sexuality are not fully accepted. it seems.

classism. No. By this means. and talks about Maaori women in general. they are complex (i. serving as role models in her development of her self as a woman. For this purpose. 2003. They are all interconnected in our social institutions. gender. and heteronormativity. Professors @ San Francisco University.) Tania talks about this person as very vocal and assertive in demanding acceptance as a woman within traditional Maaori contexts. She argues that to deride her for being transsexual would be to denigrate her entire ancestral line: a far more risky and grave action than merely discriminating against an 'individual'. pp. creation of social stratifications that benefit and provide options and resources for some and harm and restrict options and resources for others). Neither is asking an individual to specify a rank order for their oppression (e. her transgendered friend appears to have been accepted by local Maaori insofar as she has authority as a woman during traditional gender-specific cultural rituals and practices. To explain this. 1984.. 1999. may be accessible to a more racially diverse range of people who might otherwise find no recourse but to invest in medical discourses on transsexuality.. intricate and interconnected). 138) means negotiating different histories. and experiencing the violence of racism. class. it is vital to theorise queer so that it is more relevant and open to people for whom gender/sexuality identities come second to racial identities. and sexuality experience violence and oppression simultaneously based on such systems of social ordering (Kumashiro.e. and John. variable (i. One form of oppression is not more important or independent from all others. These systems are neither independent nor additive (Combahee River Collective. Kumashiro. ‗1 (Katrina. 2001). 45.&Ho. class. hooks. It is not helpful to compare oppressions or to specify which oppression a person feels affects them more deeply. and sex/gender systems. Takagi. 1979/1998. Journal of Gender Studies. do you feel that oppression based on your race is more intense than your sexuality or your gender?). Lovaas.g. It is not theoretically useful or pragmatically helpful to compare and rank different forms of oppression. the process of ―performing the hybrid self‖ (Muñoz. economic disparities. and hierarchical (i.e. 2001). and Elia. 2001. and sexuality. As such. Vol. No. Smith. Yep.e. prevailing across time and space). severe (i. 2001. 2/3/4. For individuals located at these intersections. Perhaps following her friend's lead. (Gust. Tania has developed various arguments herself which validate her transsexuality and depend upon the assertion of her identity as Maaori. this friend of Tania's is non-operative. and sexuality are systems of oppression. persistent (i. According to Tania. pg 259)JNF Tania describes herself as moving in predominantly Maaori circles. pervasive (i. 1990. the important work being done by transgenderists and queers who challenge medical definitions of sexualities and genders.Intersectionality Perm: Theorize queer to specifically address issues of race and indigenous colonization Roen. Karen. 25-26.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 87 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answers: Perm . Yep et al. Journal of Homosexual Studies. According to Weber (2001). gender. 1996. race. and a Maaori male-to-female transgendered friend in particular. class.e. Lorde.. Theorising transgender and queer more specifically to address race. Vol. Associate Professor of Psychology at Oslo University. 3.. and the purpose and basis for such a comparison.. widespread throughout all social domains). she draws on the Maaori conception of identity as something which is never based in the individual alone but relates to the extended family (whaanau) and to genealogy (whakapapa).. For example. JCE) People inhabiting and navigating the intersections of race. gender. indigenousness and colonisation might provide more discursive pathways for indigenous people struggling to live in gender liminal ways.e. 10. ever changing and always transforming).. 1998.. serious consequences for social life). Lovaas.e.. (Incidentally. sexism. a claim that Asian Americans are more homophobic is futile without specification of the interplay between race. . p. and to theorise queer so that it is open to cross-cultural interpretations of the relationship between sexed embodiment and lived gender. Yep. ―Transgender Theory and Embodiment: the risk of racial marginalization‖.

Finally. that is-what happens to identitybased social movements such as gay and lesbian rights? Must sociopolitical struggles articulated through identity eventually undermine themselves? Social movement theory. In explicating the queer dilemma and its implications for social movement theory.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 88 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Perm – Identity Politics PERM . This alternative angle. an understanding that includes the impulse to take apart that identity from within. Disrupting those categories. pp. holds that sexual identities are historical and social products. republished in 1998. and its links with and parallels to queer theory. a logical place to turn for help in working through the impasse between deconstructive cultural strategies and category-supportive political strategies. influenced by academic "constructionist" thinking. zeroing in on the dilemma. Professor of sociology at University of San Francisco. is the key to liberation. arguing that queerness illuminates the core dilemma for identity movements more generally. refusing rather than embracing ethnic minority status. its continuities with earlier lesbian and gay activism. often contained in queer activism (and in the newly anointed "queer theory") to take apart the identity categories and blur group boundaries. for social movement analysis. fluid and constructed than movements have tended to assume-if one takes the queer challenge seriously. 1992. for example). Fixed identity categories are both the basis for oppression and the basis for political power. more importantly for the purposes here. 589-590. both as theoretical and empirical fact. using them to highlight the emergence of queer activism. is not to determine which position is accurate but to cope with the fact that both logics make sense. I first briefly summarize the current state of relevant literature on collective identity. The challenge for analysts. I take up debates over the inclusion of transgender and bisexual people-the two groups brought in under an expanded queer umbrella-in lesbian and gay politics. calls for a more developed theory of collective identity formation and its relationship to both institutions and meanings. If identities are indeed much more unstable. JAR) Yet this impulse to build a collective identity with distinct group boundaries has been met by a directly opposing logic. in drawing out ramifications for social movement theory. Next. and gender movements. Queerness spotlights a dilemma shared by other identity movements (racial. Here I point to a distinctive (although not entirely new) element of queerness. . This raises questions for political strategizing and. largely as they took place in the letters column of the weekly San Francisco Bay Times in 1991. I argue. man/woman) that are the basis of oppression. and to the resistance to that politic. In this deconstructionist politic. not natural or intrapsychic ones. a politic of boundary disruption and category deconstruction. unstable experiences of self become fixed primarily in the service of social control. I make use of internal debates. Then. clear collective categories are an obstacle to resistance and change. is hard pressed in its current state to cope with these questions. made especially visible by the gendered nature of these debates. I turn initially to debates within lesbian and gay communities over the use of the word queer.we must embrace the fact that identity. It is socially produced binaries (gay/straight. ethnic. ―Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma‖ from the book Social Perspectives in Lesbian & Gay Studies: A Reader. fluid. and 1993. the predicament of identity movements. I briefly demonstrate affinities between the queer debates and debates over multi-racialism in African American politics. The case of queerness. I conclude by suggesting ways in which social movement literature can be pushed forward by taking seriously. Gamson. must be both fluid and static to fight oppression. 1995 (Joshua. I will argue. as viewed through Queer theory.

limited groups. Are there no great radical ruptures. the aims decipherable. inequalities. knowledge relationships. One must suppose rather that the manifold relationships of force that take shape and come into play in the machinery of production. relations of power are not in superstructural positions.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 89 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Perm – Resistance with the System Perm: Do Both. and conversely they are the internal conditions of these differentiations. power is exercised from innumerable points. are the basis for wide-ranging effects of cleavage that run through the social body as a whole. target. they are inscribed in the latter as an irreducible opposite. neither the caste which governs. Hence there IS no single locus of great Refusal. and yet it is often the case that no one is there to have invented them. Vol. almost unspoken strategies which coordinate the loquacious tactics whose ':inventors" or decision makers are often Without hypocrisy. wherever they come into play. so too the swarm of points of resistance traverses social stratifications and individual unities. 94-96. somewhat similar to the way in which the state relies on the institutional integration of power relationships. at times mobilizing groups or individuals in a definitive way. certain types of behavior. furrowing across individuals themselves. serial arrangements. then? Occasionally. These then form a general line of force that traverses the local oppositions and links them together. or pure law of the revolutionary. or focuses of resistance are spread over time and space at varying densities. But this does not mean that it results from the choice or decision of an individual subject. inflaming certain points of the body. -Power relations are both intentional and nonsubjective. because one is subject to the law in any case? Or that. history being the ruse of reason. solitary. and convergences of the force relations. or sacrificial. Just as the network of power relations ends by forming a dense web that passes through apparatuses and institutions. They are the odd term in relations of power. becoming connected to one another. and yet. this resistance is never in a position of exteriority in relation to power. and institutions. they have a directly productive role. The negative fundamentally misunderstands power. there is no "escaping" it. they can only exist in the strategic field of power relations. there is no absolute outside where it is concerned. but finding their base of support and their condition elsewhere. let us not look for the headquarters that presides over its rationality. (Michel. support. Should it be said that one is always "inside" power. knots. Instead there is a plurality of resistances. homogenizations. 1. These points of resistance represent everywhere in the power network. massive binary divisions. no soul of revolt. that is. But this does not mean that they are only a reaction or rebound. power is the ruse of history. forming with respect to the basic domination an underside that is in the end always passive. in families. But more often one is dealing with mobile and transitory points of resistance. -Power comes from below. The History of Sexuality. in the interplay of nonegalitarian and mobile relations. Resistances do not derive from a few heterogeneous principles. . they also bring about redistributions. doomed to perpetual defeat. restricted level where they are inscribed (the local cynicism of power). Foucault. savage. there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power relations. to be sure. they are the immediate effects of the divisions. tactics which. always emerging the winner? This would be to misunderstand the strictly relational character of power relationships. interested. Hence they too are distributed in irregular fashion: the points. source of all rebellions. by definition. marking off irreducible regions in them. or rather consequently. realignments. but neither are they a lure or a promise that is of necessity betrayed. nor those who make the most important economic decisions direct the entire network of power that functions in a society (and makes it function). this is not because they are imbued. producing cleavages in a society that shift about. fracturing unities and effecting regroupings. or violent. attracting and propagating one another. Relations of power are not in a position of exteriority with respect to other types of relationships (economic processes. resistance within is possible. improbable. end by forming comprehensive systems: the logic is perfectly clear. with merely a role of prohibition or accompaniment. rampant. and few who can be said to have formulated them: an implicit characteristic of the great anonymous. and disequilibriums which occur in the latter. If in fact they are intelligible. with calculation: there is no power that is exercised without a series of aims and objectives. pp. cutting them up and remolding them. yes. still others that are quick to compromise. something that one holds on to or allows to slip away. Their existence depends on a multiplicity of points of resistance: these play the role of adversary. And it is doubtless the strategic codification of these points of resistance that makes a revolution possible. sexual relations). certain moments in life. or shared. Major dominations are the hegemonic effects that are sustained by all these confrontations. -Where there is power. necessary. JCE) Power is not something that is acquired. concerted. others that are spontaneous. 1978. but are immanent in the latter. there is resistance. the rationality of power is characterized by tactics that are often quite explicit at the. through and through. and serving as a general matrix -no such duality extending from the top down and reacting on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the social body. without being exactly localized in them. Philosopher of Awesomeness. or handle in power relations. in their bodies and minds. seized. nor the groups which control the state apparatus. each of them a special case: resistances that are possible.

acknowledged or disputed. 2006. the anxiety with categorical identification has been a main current in queer theory. yet how do we deny homophobia? Social movements and politics are necessary to counter dominant ideologies and power structures. 307-308) In contrast to the currents in the development of gay and lesbian studies. gay theories. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. ―the prospect of being anything. Indeed. As Butler (1993) has stated. But one has to wonder. .‖ She is therefore . as many queer writers have shown. No. pp. The concern is not unfounded. identity categories tend to be instruments of regulatory regimes. Labeling can become a constricting structure that limits the possibilities of being or becoming. has always produced in me a certain anxiety. and the mirroring of the current social conditions of late capitalism. including the renouncing of identity. 19-45. if we do not have rallying points. we can identify with social movements rather than simply identifying as a particular category. A perception that we can reject static systems of identity without rejecting all bases for identity. ½. however temporary they may be.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. from its beginnings in sex and gender studies to its expansion into the wider cultural realm. DES I have argued here that this turn towards the individual. ‗to be‘ lesbian seems to be more than a simple injunction to become who or what I already am. even for pay. Vol. has led to a disengagement of coalition building and social movements. not at ease with lesbian theories. for ‗to be‘ gay. 52. from where do we fight prejudice and exploitation? Foucault has argued that participating in a homosexual perspective admits a homophobic discourse. whether as normalizing categories or oppressive structures or as the rallying points for a liberatory contestation of that very oppression. Harrington Park Press. . pp. ―Queer Theory. Thus. PhD Florida Atlantic University. (1993. is necessary for true resistance and social change. .Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 90 Queer Sex the Bomb Social movements and politics are necessary to prevent exploitation – we can reject static identities without rejecting all identity. for as I‘ve argued elsewhere. Kirsch 6 (Max.

Harrington Park Press. and the individual‘s relationship to society. it must include the individual as more than the self as text. ―Queer Theory. It must accommodate the individual in society. identity and self-actualization are indeed complementary.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. The community is a forum for debate for the construction of strategy. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. 2006. rather than mechanistically deconstructing the identities that comprise subjugated positions. from anti-colonial movements to calls for better working conditions. 52. No. is to become anything more than a novel digestion of difference. 52. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. DES The tension between gay and lesbian studies and queer theory represents wider differences in the approach to the analysis of the social. if ―queer‖ is really a refusal to category. Vol. including the strategies that derive from those differences. Assimilationist movements cannot work towards sustained social change because there is no confrontation with the basis of oppression. and united action without predefined categories is necessary to overcome oppression. for it separates every person from any concrete sense of identity and collective opposition. pp. 2006.‖ Journal of Homosexuality. ½.‖ is the most harmful strategy of all. 19-45. can begin to resolve the stagnation that has dominated attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter. for ―self. Social and emotional health is promoted by active participation with others. PhD Florida Atlantic University. PhD Florida Atlantic University.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 91 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Perm – Coalitions Working alone will never suffice. Community. 19-45. Separatist strategies are the most harmful strategy of all Kirsch 6 (Max. . The call for individuality. Harrington Park Press. Such struggles have larger outcomes. identifying with social movements that aim to end exploitation will be more productive than deconstruction subjugated identity categories Kirsch 6 (Max. ½. ―Queer Theory.‖ then. But it should be clear that we cannot struggle alone against a global system of military power and the ever-present threat of economic and physical destruction. Separatist movements have proven unproductive as the group becomes isolated and involutes with disagreement. No. If ―all things queer. pp. DES Community. Identifying with social movements on the basis of the recognition of exploitation and devaluation. coalitions. Vol. Power in numbers has been the call of resistance movements world wide.

Some have rejected these associations and attempted to align themselves with the public male sphere of rationality (liberal feminists).‖ Hypatia. Though the reason/erotic dualism seems to be an aspect of the original culture/nature dualism. and incorporation. and sexuality. Gaard 1994 b). and naturalized. With this added perspective." Contradictions such as this are of no interest to the master. Feminists have also argued that women's oppression in Western culture is characterized by our association with emotion. Others have reversed the valuation and embraced these associations while devaluing the male rational culture (cultural feminists). religious. From a queer ecofeminist perspective. . only in one position. 1989. social and environmental justice. eroticized. In contrast. for example. nature. is seen as "closer to nature" in the dualisms and ideology of Western culture. and the erotic. animals. animals. and have responded to these associations in three different ways. as it is only in the past century that the concept of homosexual and heterosexual identities has developed ( Smith 1989. writer. Gruen 1993. eroticized. we can explore how nature is feminized. ecofeminists would find it very productive to explore "vertical" associations on either side of the dualisms: associations between reason and heterosexuality. Issue: 1. nonwhite persons. But the problem of oppression based on sexuality is not limited to the heterosexual/queer dualism. DES) Queers experience backgrounding. Mohr 1988. Western culture's oppression of nature can be traced back to the construction of the dominant human male as a self fundamentally defined by its property of reason. 97 (Gretta ―Toward a Queer Ecofeminism. and that dismantling these dualisms is integral to the project of ecofeminism. eroticized. an educator. each characteristic of the other. including women. even queered. 114. feminism. Finally. The oppression of queers may be described more precisely. and naturalized in a culture that devalues women. As queer theorists have shown. it is clear that heterosexuality and its associated gender identities are taken as the standard in dominant Western culture. We can also examine how persons of color are feminized.Arizona Debate Institute 2009 Holbrook/Nielson 92 Queer Sex the Bomb Aff Answer: Perm – Ecofeminism Adding the heterosexual/queer and reason/the erotic reinforcing dualisms to the list of problematic dichotomies allows ecofeminism and queer theory to unite Gaard. As Plumwood has ably demonstrated. though such contradictions have been of great interest to feminists and queer theorists alike. ecofeminists have argued for a "third way. Sedgwick 1990). and social sanctions ( Hollibaugh 1983. then." one that rejects the structure of dualism and acknowledges both women and men as equal parts of culture and nature ( Warren 1987. In terms of incorporation. we can examine the ways queers are feminized. a fear of the erotic so strong that only one form of sexuality is overtly allowed. animalized. or between reason and whiteness as defined in opposition to emotions and nonwhite persons. As a logical development of ecofeminism. A queer ecofeminist per spective would argue that the reason/erotic and heterosexual/queer dualisms have now become part of the master identity. Volume: 12. as the product of two mutually reinforcing dualisms: heterosexual/queer. Katz 1990). then. animalized. and reason/the erotic. Yet queer sexualities are frequently devalued for being "against nature. the body. As Sedgwick argues. Bringing these dualisms into the list of self/other and culture/nature dualisms offered by Plumwood is one step toward queering ecofeminism. and our failure to comply with it. In terms of radical exclusion. The critical point to remember is that each of the oppressed identity groups. and the construction of reason as definitionally opposed to nature and all that is associated with nature. radical exclusion. Rubin 1989). heterosexuals frequently conclude they know everything there is to know about us once they know our sexuality. the heterosexual identity is constituted through a denied dependency on the homosexual/queer identity (backgrounding). scholar and activist working at the intersections of literature. queers find that the erotic (a particularly perverse erotic) is projected onto queer sexuality to such a degree that this quality is seen as the only salient feature of queer identities. and reproduction. the larger problem is the erotophobia of Western culture. and queers are defined primarily in relation to that standard. who have argued that it is precisely such contradictions that characterize oppressive structures ( Frye 1983. King 1989. emotions. using both queer theory and feminist theories about the oppression of the erotic. and reproduction ( Plumwood 1993). pg. the heterosexual/queer dualism is a fairly recent development. and only in the context of certain legal. a queer ecofeminist theory would build on these analyses. or associations between women. the body. When queers come out. Plumwood 1993.