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ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

CHNG 1: CNG NGH TRUYN HNH MI DA TRN NN IP 1.1 Tng quan v mng bng rng: c th kt ni cc mng my tnh ca mt doanh nghip ti nhiu im c nh khc nhau, ngoi gii php s dng dch v knh thu ring hin ang s dng, khch hng c thm s la chn mi vi dch v mng bng rng. Mng bng rng bao gm cc dch v kt ni mng my tnh trn din rng rt ph hp vi cc t chc, doanh nghip. Dch v ny thch hp cho cc doanh nghip hot ng kinh doanh c trn a bn rng vi nhiu im giao dch c nhu cu kt ni s liu nh: Ngn Hng, Bo Him, Hng Khng... Thc t nh gi t cc chuyn gia v kt qu trin khai nhiu nm qua cho thy, nhiu tnh nng u vit ca dch v mng bng rng t ra thch hp v em li hiu qu ng k cho cc c quan, doanh nghip c nhu cu kt ni mng thng tin hin i v tit kim.
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Tnh hin i v tit kim th hin : Kh nng mm do, linh hot ca cng ngh cho php khch hng c th va kt ni mng ring o va truy cp Internet; kh nng nng cp tc truyn dn nhanh chng, d dng; kh nng cung cp cho khch hng cc knh thu ring c tin cy cao; gi cc thp. Cng ngh mng bng rng : Dch v bng rng xDSL l dch v kt ni cc mng my tnh trong nc v quc t bng cng ngh ng dy thu bao s i xng (SHDSL) hoc cng ngh ng dy thu bao s bt i xng (ADSL) kt hp vi cng ngh MPLS/VPN. c im dch v : - Cc mng my tnh ca khch hng c kt ni qua CPE bao gm (Modem/Router

ADSL/SHDSL). - Mng bng rng cung cp cho khch hng hai kh nng kt ni cc mng my tnh vi tc ti

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thiu l 64Kbp/s (Ti a ty theo dch v c th ln n vi chc Mbps). - S dng SHDSL vi tc chiu i v chiu v bng nhau. - S dng ADSL vi tc trn l thuyt ln nht c th l 8Mbps chiu v /640Kbps chiu i. - Tc cng cung cp dch v thc t ph thuc vo yu cu ca khch hng v cht lng ng truyn ca ng dy thu bao xDSL c xc nh trong qu trnh kho st lp t. Li ch ca dch v : - Kt ni n gin vi chi ph thp (Do lp t kt hp trn ng dy in thoi). - Mm do, linh hot : C th va kt ni mng ring (gi in thoi, ni mng ni b) va truy cp Internet (Nu khch hng c nhu cu). - Cung cp cho khch hng cc knh thu ring c tin cy cao.

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- Dch v mng bng rng rt thch hp cho cc c quan, doanh nghip c nhu cu kt ni mng thng tin hin i, hon ho, tit kim. Khch hng ng k s dng cc dch v ca mng bng rng ng thi c cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet trn ng dy thu bao in thoi. Tuy nhin tc cng cung cp dch v c ci t cho truy nhp dch v Internet ph thuc vo tc ln nht m ng dy thu bao in thoi thc t c th cung cp v tc ca cng mng bng rng theo yu cu ca khch hng. 1.2 Tng quan v ADSL : 1.2.1 ADSL l g? ADSL vit tt ca Asynmetric Digital Subscriber Line - l ng dy thu bao s dng k thut truyn tc cao khng i xng kt ni t Modem ca thu bao ti nh cung cp dch v. ADSL l s thay th Modem tc 64 Kbps c bng thit b Modem ADSL hoc l Modem ISDN
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gip truy nhp Internet vi tc cao hn. Cc biu sau ch ra cc tc cao nht c th t c gia cc dch v kt ni Internet.

Hnh 1.2.1: So snh tc gia cc dch v Internet. Gii thch cc thut ng: Asymmetric : Tc truyn khng ging nhau theo hai chiu i (Download) v v (Uploat). Tc ca chiu i (T mng ti thu bao) v v (T thu bao ti mng) khng ging nhau ph hp cho vic s
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dng dch v Internet ch bng phng thc nhn chut (Tng ng vi lu lng nh thng tin m thu bao gi n mng Internet) l c th nhn c mt lu lng ln d liu ti v t mng Internet. Digital : Cc Modem ADSL hot ng vi cc tn hiu s (0 v 1) v dng chuyn thng tin s ha gia cc thit b s nh cc my tnh c nhn PC v t my tnh PC ln mng Internet. Chnh kha cnh ny th ADSL khng khc g cc Modem thng thng ch khc l ch tc ca n cao hn. Subscriber Line : Dch v ADSL c cung cp trn ng dy thu bao in thoi bnh thng ni t khch hng ti tng i ni ht. ng dy thu bao ny vn c th c tip tc s dng cho cc cuc gi in thoi ng thi vi vic s dng dch v Internet tc cao ADSL thng qua thit b phn chia gi l Splitters c chc nng tch thoi v d liu trn ng dy. 1.2.2 u im ca ADSL :

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Hin ti Vit Nam th ADSL ang c li th pht trin hn so vi cc dch v truy nhp bng rng khc. S pht trin ny mt phn l nh vo c tnh ca cng ngh ADSL l pht trin trn nn c s h tng ca mng in thoi truyn thng thc s ln mnh. Cc cng ngh khc cn xy dng mi c s h tng nn s cn nhiu thi gian v vn u t hn . thy r u im ca ADSL th chng ta lm mt php so snh s khc nhau gia ADSL vi Modem quay s truyn thng (PSTN) v mng s lin kt a dch v (ISDN). Dch v PSTN, ISDN Dch v ADSL

PSTN v ISDN l cc ADSL l cng ngh truy cng ngh quay s. cp kt ni trc tip, lin tc. PSTN v ISDN cho ADSL ch trao i thng

php chng ta s dng tin d liu ti Internet. Fax, d liu, thoi, d liu ti Internet, d liu

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ti cc thit b khc. PSTN v ISDN cho ADSL kt ni chng ta ti php chng ta tu chn mt nh cung cp dch v nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) nh trc. Internet (ISP) no m ta mun kt ni. PSTN, ISDN chy tc ADSL c th ti d liu c s 64 Kbps hoc v vi tc ln n 8 128 Kbps. Mbps

PSTN, ISDN ngt truy ADSL cho php va s nhp ti Internet khi dng Internet trong khi chng ta thc hin cuc vn c th thc hin cuc gi. gi in thoi.

Kt ni Internet qua ADSL do khng phi ng PSTN v ISDN quay s truy nhp nn bng phng thc quay khng phi tr cc in s c tnh cc ni ht. thoi ni ht.

Ch :
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- Mc d Modem ADSL lun ch kt ni thng trc, nhng vn c th cn phi thc hin lnh kt ni Internet trn my PC. - Cc dch v nh : Fax v thoi c th c thc hin cng trn kt ni d liu ADSL ti Internet. - Trn thc t, tc Download tiu biu i vi dch v ADSL gia nh thng cung cp l 512Kbps (gi tc thp nht). - Tnh cc theo lu lng d liu gi/nhn vi gi cc thp : Dng bao nhiu, tr by nhiu. - Khng hn ch s ngi s dng khi chia s kt ni Internet trong mng ni b. T php so snh trn ta c th nu ra u im ca ADSL mt cch y v ngn gn nh sau : V tc : ADSL c tc truy nhp cao v n c tc trao i d liu cao, iu ny rt ph hp vi nhiu ng dng yu cu bng thng rng nh hi ngh truyn hnh, truyn hnh theo yu cu, o to t xa,

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V kt ni : i vi ADSL do khng phi quay s nn ngi s dng lun trng thi kt ni (Tc l lun sn sng-Always on) khng c tn hiu bn khi kt ni, khng thi gian ch. c tnh ny s phc v cho cc ng dng c d liu lin tc nh IP Multicast, Cc dch v gio dc trc tuyn, cc dch v d liu kinh t trc tuyn, chm sc sc kho trc tuyn, D s dng : Khch hng c th s dng dch v ngay sau khi nh cung cp dch v hon thnh cng vic lp t. tin cy cao : Cng ngh ADSL c xy dng v pht trin trn nn c s h tng truyn dn ca mng in thoi truyn thng, l mt trong nhng c s h tng c tin cy cao nht. Tnh bo mt cao : i vi cc mng cp, v tinh,dng cc phng tin truyn dn nh dy cp, cp quang v sng v tuyn th nhiu ngi s dng dng chung mt phng tin truyn dn vt l. ADSL s dng mt kt ni in thoi ring, im ni im

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gia ngi s dng v tng i ca nh cung cp nn tnh bo mt ca ADSL l rt ln, t c hin tng nhiu xuyn knh, mt tn hiu khi truyn. 1.2.3 ng dng ca ADSL : Dch v ADSL c kt ni cung cp t tng i ca nh cung cp n nh khch hng trn chnh ng dy in thoi bnh thng. Thc cht ca ng dng ADSL khng phi vic truyn d liu i/n tng i in thoi ni ht m l to ra kh nng truy nhp Internet vi tc cao. Nh vy, vn nm vic thit lp kt ni d liu ti nh cung cp dch v Internet. Mc d chng ta cho rng ADSL c s dng truyn d liu bng cc giao thc Internet, nhng trn thc t vic thc hin iu nh th no l do cc giao thc kt ni Internet ch khng phi l c trng k thut ca ADSL. Hin nay, khch hng phn ln ng dng ADSL cho truy nhp Internet tc cao v s dng cc dch v

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trn Internet mt cch nhanh chng. ADSL l mt cng ngh ang rt c a chung cho nhng ai thng xuyn kt ni Internet - mt cng ngh cho php truyn d liu v truy cp Internet tc cao qua ng dy in thoi. ADSL l mt trong nhng kt ni Internet ph bin cung cp bng thng ln cho vic truyn ti d liu hay cn gi l mng bng rng (Broadband Internet). Internet tc cao so vi kt ni bng Modem quay s truyn thng l mt cuc cch mng ln v tc vi tc kt ni gp hng trm ln Modem quay s. ADSL - mt ng dng ca Broadband Internet - s gip khch hng thc s thng thc th gii k thut s trn mng ton cu. Tnh Bt i xng ca ADSL c gii thch nh sau : Cng ngh ADSL s dng phn ln knh truyn cho vic ti d liu xung (Download) v ch dnh mt phn nh cho vic truyn d liu ln (Upload). Trn l thuyt tc ti xung ca ADSL c th t ti 8 Mbps cn truyn ln l 640 Kbps. Nu so snh vi tc truy nhp Internet qua Modem quay s thng thng
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(Dialup), tc ti xung ca ADSL cao gp khong 142 ln, cn nu so snh vi cng ngh truy nhp ISDN th cao gp khong 62 ln. ADSL tn dng bng thng cha c dng n ca ng dy cp in thoi. ng dy ny c bng thng ln n 100 Mhz, trong phn dnh cho tn hiu thoi ch chim khong 4 Khz nn phn cn li ca ng dy cha c dng n. Cng ngh ADSL tn dng phn bng thng d tha ny truyn d liu. iu c ngha l chng ta va c th truy cp Internet, va gi in thoi hoc gi Fax trn cng mt ng dy in thoi. D liu Internet c truyn c lp vi d liu thoi v Fax nn cht lng thoi khng thay i m tc truyn d liu Internet li rt cao. y l im ni bt nht ca cng ngh ADSL so vi cng ngh kt ni Internet qua Modem quay s thng thng. Vi th mnh v tc truyn d liu cao v kh nng kt ni Internet lin tc ca mnh, ADSL rt thch

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hp cho dch v hi tho qua mng, xem phim, nghe nhc, chi game trc tuyn, Video theo yu cu, s dng dch v ADSL khch hng cn trang b mt Modem ADSL. Modem ADSL khc vi Modem quay s thng thng ch c kh nng ghp, tch tn hiu thoi v d liu nh b chia trn cng mt ng dy thoi. Sau khi ng k vi nh cung cp dch v, ng thu bao ca khch hng s c ni vi thit b ghp knh truy nhp DSLAM t ti tng i. Mi DSLAM c th c t 24, 36, 48, 96 cng Tng ng vi s thu bao m n c th m nhim. Tuy nhin cn lu mt iu l: Tc kt ni Internet ADSL s ph thuc rt nhiu vo khong cch t thu bao n ni t DSLAM. Vi khong cch 3.5 Km tc ti xung c th t ti 8 Mbps v tc truyn ln l 640 Kbps. Khi khong cch ln hn th tc s gim i v vt ra ngoi khong cch 5 Km th tc ca ADSL s gim i rt nhiu so vi gi tr danh nh ban u ca dch v.

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1.3 IPTV l g? IPTV (Vit tt ca Internet Protocol Television): L qu trnh phn phi knh truyn hnh k thut s v cc dch v Audio v Video khc qua mng d liu bng rng s dng cc giao thc h tr Internet. Hay ni cch khc IPTV- cng ngh truyn hnh s dng giao thc Internet; l mt cng ngh truyn dn cho php truyn ti cc tn hiu hnh nh (Video) v m thanh (Audio) qua dch v truyn hnh trn nn h thng mng IP. Nguyn tc chung ca truyn dn tn hin truyn hnh qua giao thc Internet l tn hiu m thanh v hnh nh c s ho, nn gim tc ng truyn yu cu v c ng thnh cc gi d liu theo giao thc Internet. Mt h thng phn mm tng tc (Qun l trao i thng tin hai chiu) s thc hin truyn cc gi d liu ny n ngi xem qua mng IP. Khi ngi xem gi thng tin yu cu th cc gi d liu c chuyn ti thit b u cui ca ngi xem nh my tnh, b STB c kt ni vo mng IP v c bin i thnh tn hiu hnh nh v m thanh hin th. Cng ngh
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truyn dn IPTV c u im ng ch l phm vi cung cp dch v rng ln, kh nng trin khai v ng dng dch v truyn hnh tng tc v truyn hnh theo yu cu rt linh ng. IPTV c hai c im c bn l : Da trn nn cng ngh IP v phc v theo yu cu trong khi truyn hnh s thng qua cc Menu nh trc ngi dng la chn th IPTV c th nng cao cht lng dch v nh tnh tng tc cao. So vi cc cng ngh cung cp Video qua Internet khc, IPTV c u th l rt d s dng, hin th trn tivi r nt hn mn hnh my vi tnh, nh cung cp dch v d qun l khch hng. u th k thut ca IPTV l c th cung cp nhiu dch v a phng tin (Multimedia) khc nhau. Ngi dng c th la chn xem phim, gi in thoi IP thy hnh, nghe nhc, tra cu thng tin trn mng qua mn hnh tivi hay my tnh. Ta thy kh nng ca IPTV gn nh v hn v n ha hn mang n nhng dch v ni dung k thut s cht lng cao. K thut ny thch hp cho cc dch v nh Video theo yu cu (VoD), hi tho,
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truyn hnh tng tc/trc tip, Games, hc t xa, tin nhn nhanh qua tivi. Sc hp dn chnh ca IPTV l n s dng cng mt cng ngh vi mng Internet V tr khch hng thay i, khng cn l quan h mt chiu gia ngi xem vi nh cung cp m IPTV cho php khch hng v knh dch v truyn hnh c c kh nng tng tc kiu DVD hn. y l c tnh lu tr khng gii hn theo cc danh mc knh yu thch v hng ngn gi chng trnh truyn hnh hoc phim nm trn di ngn tay la chn ca khch hng. IPTV cn cho php cc nh nh hng cung cp chng trnh n nhng i tng cng chng nh hn, hp hn hoc a phng ho hn. Cc nh cung cp cng c th gi cc chng trnh phn gii cao thng ti ngi xem m khng cn c u thu tn hiu c bit. Nhng c l hp dn nht - d nhiu ngi cho l khng quan trng lm - chnh l truyn hnh trc tip. Hin nay, nhiu hng truyn thng ln quyt nh u t cho IPTV v tim nng li nhun ca dch v ny s rt ln trong tng lai. Hn na IPTV s dng giao
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thc mng tiu chun nn cc nh u t khng mt nhiu chi ph lp t mng v khch hng cng khng phi b nhiu tin mua cc thit b dng kt ni vi mng. Ch cn mt thit b STB kt ni vi Internet bng rng th tn hiu truyn hnh c cung cp n vi khch hng theo tng chui knh, hiu qu hn khi ta dng cp ng trc truyn tn hiu. Cp ng trc c u im l r tin, nh, mm v d ko dy, nhng tn hiu truyn qua cp ng trc khng m bo c tnh bo mt v c th b nhiu. Ni mt cch tng qut th truyn hnh qua giao thc Internet l cng ngh truyn hnh th h mi, l mt h thng dch v truyn hnh k thut s c truyn n khch hng thu bao bng giao thc Internet bng thng rng qua dch v ADSL. 1.4 Kh nng khai thc IPTV ti Vit Nam : 1.4.1 Nhu cu th trng : nh gi nhu cu th trng (Khch hng) i vi dch v IPTV th mt trong nhng nh cung cp ni

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dung VASC thuc VNPT t chc mt cuc thm d nhu cu ti 04 thnh ph : H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh, Nng, Hi Phng. Mc tiu ca cuc thm d nhm nghin cu th trng trn cc mt : Tm hiu thi quen, gii tr ca cng chng; tm hiu mc chp nhn ca cng chng i vi dch v truyn hnh trc tuyn Video theo yu cu v cc dch v khc ca IPTV nh tng, gi c, d bo nhu cu s dng dch v IPTV; phn tch d liu thu c nhm xut cc nh hng kinh doanh cho dch v. i tng nghin cu : Tp trung kho st cc i tng l cc c nhn trong tui t 18 -50 c quan tm ti dch v gii tr truyn hnh v bit s dng Internet trn c nc, ring i tng c hi th ch gii hn 04 a bn tiu biu l H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh, Nng, Hi Phng. Kt qu thm d nhu cu th trng: X hi ngy cng pht trin nhu cu gii tr ca ngi dn cng v th m ngy mt nng cao, hu ht cc gia nh u c ti vi v nhiu gia nh cn c thm c CD, DVD, VCD.
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Thi quen xem ti vi, nghe nhc ti nh chim phn ln thi gian gii tr. Ti 04 thnh ph kho st th gn 1/3 ngi dn c nhu cu truy cp Internet v 1/8 dn chng c thi quen xem phim ti rp v chi Video Games. Mt na i tng kho st c ng k s dng truyn hnh cp/k thut s cho thy ngi dn hng th vi cc dch v gii tr truyn hnh, c bit l hnh thc s dng truyn hnh c tr tin. Th phn ca cc nh cung cp dch v l khc nhau, nhng xt mt cch tng qut th cc nh cung cp dch v truyn hnh cp/k thut s p ng c hn 70% nhu cu gii tr truyn hnh ca khch hng. Gn mt na khch hng hi lng vi nh cung cp dch v nh s a dng v cc knh v chng trnh truyn hnh, 1/4 cn li hi lng v cht lng ni dung chng trnh. Trong khi 1/3 khch hng mong i c thm nhiu knh truyn hnh, thuyt minh v ph ting vit. Loi hnh dch v truyn hnh qua Internet (IPTV), Video theo yu cu (VoD) v cc dch v cng thm ca IPTV nh : Truy cp Internet v Email trn tivi,
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in thoi hin th hnh nh v in thoi VoIP, chc nng ghi hnh, chi game c ng o khch hng quan tm. Ti Nng, khong 90% khch hng u th v vi dch v ny k n l thnh ph H Ch Minh v Hi Phng vi 80% v 81%, cui cng l H Ni 54%. Nu c cn c trn thi quen gii tr ti gia nh ca i a s ngi dn th nhu cu s dng IPTV phi c trin khai mt cch tch cc, nhanh chng. Nh vy nu xt trn gc nhu cu th trng, a s khch hng c nhu cu s dng loi hnh dch v IPTV v sn sng tr thm mc ph dch v c kh nng gii tr thun tin, cht lng. 1.4.2 Kh nng p ng nhu cu dch v IPTV ca mng vin thng Vit Nam: Vi mng bng hp truyn thng, ch c mt s dch v n gin ca IPTV l c th xem c. Cn c th p dng thnh cng dch v IPTV th mng bng rng ng vai tr cc k quan trng, bi v ch vi

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mng bng rng mi c th bo m cung cp y bng thng theo yu cu cho cc dch v IPTV (Nh truyn hnh, Video, Games,). Cho n nay, th trng bng rng ti Vit Nam ang trong giai on pht trin bng n nhu cu v cn rt nhiu tim nng ln. Bn cnh , vic khai thc cng ngh hu tuyn ADSL v cng ngh v tuyn bng rng (Wifi/Wimax,) ca cc nh cung cp dch v Vit Nam, th IPTV li cng c c hi pht trin mnh m v bo m thnh cng ca loi hnh dch v mi ny. Vic chuyn i cu trc mng li t chuyn mch knh truyn thng iu ch phn knh theo thi gian sang mng mng th h tip theo (NGN) vi cng ngh chuyn mch gi y l mt bc t ph mi v cng ngh rt ph hp vi xu th pht trin chung ca cc nc trn th gii. Do vy, cc nh cung cp dch v ca Vit Nam chn NGN lm bc pht trin tip theo trong vic tm kim cc gii php pht trin mng. Mng NGN s cho php trin khai cc dch v a dng vi gi thnh thp, gim thiu thi gian a dch v mi
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ra th trng, gim chi ph khai thc mng v dch v, ng thi nng cao hiu qu u t v to ngun doanh thu mi ngoi doanh thu t cc dch v truyn thng. NGN cho php tng cng kh nng kim sot, bo mt thng tin v tin cy trong khi gim thiu c chi ph vn hnh. NGN c xy dng trn tiu ch mng m, cc giao thc chun v thn thin. NGN thng nht mng hu tuyn truyn thng v chun truyn ti m thanh, hnh nh, d liu hu tuyn hoc v tuyn. Xt trn kha cnh cng ngh, xu hng cng ngh hin nay l s hi t ca nhiu cng ngh a ra nhng loi hnh dch v tng hp (Nh kt hp cc dch v thoi, d liu v bng rng) cho khch hng, ng thi tn dng c nhng c s h tng sn c gim thiu chi ph u t, nng cp. Dch v IPTV chnh l mt sn phm ca s hi t v dch v ny cn mt kt ni t thit b u cui ca ngi dng n my ch ca nh cung cp (Server). Khi nhn c tn hiu yu cu, Server s truyn d liu truyn hnh ti ngi dng qua kt ni nu m bo mt s yu cu cn thit
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thit lp cung cp dch v. i vi khch hng mun s dng dch v IPTV trn ti vi truyn thng th phi c thm b giao tip STB lm nhim v giao tip gia ngi s dng v Server. STB l b m v gii nn d liu lm nhim v chuyn i t tn hiu s sang tn hiu tng t hin th ln mn hnh ti vi. i vi khch hng s dng my tnh c nhn - PC th vic giao tip vi Server s n gin hn so vi giao tip qua mng IP truyn thng. PC s s dng phn mm thng qua cc giao thc ph hp thc hin vic m, gii nn v sau hin th d liu ln mn hnh. Hin nay, sau khi nc ta gia nhp WTO th vic p dng cng ngh IPTV trin khai nhng dch v vi cc chi ph nh, ti u ho h tng vin thng sn c s lm tng sc mnh cnh tranh ca Vit Nam trn th trng cng ngh thng tin i vi cc nc trong khu vc v th gii. ng thi c th khng nh rng vi h tng mng truy nhp hu tuyn v v tuyn bng rng trn c s mng NGN hin i m cc nh khai thc cung cp dch v ca Vit Nam v ang nh
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hng xy dng th vic trin khai dch v IPTV l rt hp l v kh nng m bo cc yu cu trin khai dch v ny l hon ton kh thi. 1.5 Tng qut h thng truyn hnh IPTV: 1.5.1 S khi:

Hnh

:S

hi h thng IPTV.

1.5. 2 Cc thnh phn:

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Hnh 1.5.1: M hnh n gin nht ca IPTV

1.5.2.1 Content Source (Ngun ni dung): y l mt khi chc nng c nhim v bin tp tt c cc ngun ni dung t cc nh sn xut v t bt k cc ngun tn hiu no khc. Cc ni dung sau khi c bin tp c m ha v c lu tr trong mt my ch c s d liu (VoD Streaming Server) phc v cho vic cung cp dch v theo yu cu (VoD) ca khch hng gi ti. ng thi khi Content Source ny cng thu tn hiu t cc ngun tn hiu qung b v tn hiu truyn hnh trc tip sau tn hiu ny c m
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ha thnh tng lung d liu v c lu trong my ch trc tip (Live Streaming Server). 1.5.2.2 Node dch v IPTV: Khi chc nng ny nm n trong khi chc nng IP ca hnh v 1.5.1. N nhn lung Video di cc nh dng khc nhau. Sau lung Video ny c nh dng li v c ng gi trc khi truyn i trn mng IP vi cht lng dch v tng ng vi cht lng mng ca khu vc . Vic ny gip cho qu trnh cung cp tn hiu ti khch hng c d dng hn. V mt qun l dch v, Node dch v s tng tc vi cc thit b u cui khch hng (Customer Premises Equipment - CPE) qun l quyn truy nhp v cc phin giao dch ca khch hng. Ngoi ra Node dch v cn trao i thng tin vi phn phn phi khc ca dch v IPTV. 1.5.2.3 Mng phn phi : ni dung c cung cp ti ngi xem y v t yu cu th ta cn ch ti kh nng phn phi,

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dung lng v cht lng dch v ca mng phn phi. ng thi n cng c kh nng khc na chng hn nh qu trnh phn pht a im, rt cn thit cho qu trnh phn phi d liu IPTV thi gian thc vi cht lng cao t cc Node dch v ti cc thit b u cui khc hng. Cc thnh phn trong mng trc chnh, mng phn phi v mng truy nhp bao gm : Mng phn phi bng cp quang v rt nhiu b ghp knh truy nhp ng dy thu bao s (DSLAM). Cc b ghp knh ny t ti tng i trung tm (Central Office CO) hoc cc im phn phi t xa. 1.5.2.4 Mng truy nhp khch hng : Trong cc mng truy nhp khch hng (c th h tr thm cng ngh ng dy thu bao s tc cao nh ADSL2+) th khch hng c cung cp mt mch vng thng qua ng dy in thoi ti thng nh khch hng. Ngoi ra cn mt s cch khc na v d nh cp quang truyn dn tn hiu ti tn nh, cch ny c cng nhn l phng thc truyn ti ti u (Cp quang c bng tn rt rng v c kh nng truyn dn
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hai hng i v v i xng m bo c yu cu truyn hnh nh ng vi cht lng cao). Bn cnh , nh cung cp c th s dng kt hp thm h thng mng cp quang ti FTTC, FTTB, FTTH v k thut DSL truyn tn hiu ti nh thu bao. 1.5.2.5 Thit b u cui khch hng : Thit b u cui khch hng c t ti nh khch hng thng thng l mt b STB, mt PC hoc cc thit b mng khc trong gia nh. IPTV Client l mt khi chc nng dng chuyn lu lng IPTV ti thit b u cui khch hng chng hn nh STB vi mc ch x l tn hiu. IPTV Client thit lp kt ni, QoS vi Node dch v, gii m lung Video, thay i knh, kim sot hin th v kt ni ti cc ng dng ngi s dng chng hn nh cc knh truyn hnh s c phn gii cao (HDTV) 1.5.3 Cc ng dng v cc dch v IPTV: u tin th chng ta cn xem cc dch v m IPTV c th cung cp trc khi bc vo phn k thut IPTV.
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Tt c cc k thut cn s dng v cc nguyn l k thut u tp trung vo vic phn phi cc loi dch v cung cp bi IPTV nh: - Cung cp cc dch v qung b : Qung b truyn hnh (Broadcast TV); knh m thanh (Audio Chanel); truyn hnh trc tuyn (Time-Shift TV); VoD bng hp. - Cung cp cc dch v theo yu cu : Video theo yu cu (Video on Demand -VoD, m nhc theo yu cu ( Music on Demand - MoD), TV theo yu cu (TV on Demand - TVoD). - Cung cp cc dch v tng tc : Thng tin tng tc (Interactive Information); truyn hnh tng tc (Interactive TV); cng ch, t thin; trc tuyn; tr chi; phng vn trc tuyn; truyn hnh trc tuyn. Bn cnh nhng dch v m IPTV c th cung cp, cn tm hiu thm mt s dch v in hnh khc ca IPTV nh :

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- My ghi hnh c nhn qua mng (Network Personal Video Recorder - NPVR) y l tin ch s dng trn mng ca PVR. N c th c xem nh l VCR o (My ghi m ct - xt Video) vi vic lu tr v kt hp cc chc nng khc cung cp t mng. Ni dung truyn hnh qung b c th c ghi li v xem li sau . - Hng dn cc chng trnh in t (Electronic Program Guide - EPG) l chc nng hng dn cung cp cho ngi s dng cc thng tin v cc chng trnh IPTV ang v sp pht. Nh vy EPG l phng thc ngi s dng tm kim cc ni dung ca nh cung cp. - Cc dch v thng tin : Cc dch v thng tin bao gm tin tc, thi s, tin th thao, d bo thi tit, thng tin v cc chuyn bay, cc s kin trong khu vc/a phng - Truyn hnh tng tc : Knh qung b tng tc (Back Chanel) IP khng ch cung cp kh

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nng ly thng tin m cn cho php khch hng tng tc vi cc Show truyn hnh hoc khi to cc ng dng lin kt n mt chng trnh ang c cung cp. Cc v d in hnh ca truyn hnh tng tc l tham d vo cc tr chi truyn hnh, bnh chn qua truyn hnh, phn hi ca ngi xem truyn hnh, cc chng trnh thng mi - Cc ng dng tng tc : S tng tc khng n thun l s lin kt n mt chng trnh truyn hnh truyn thng m cn l mt s dch v mi nh : u gi, mua sm, dch v ngn hng l cc ng dng truyn hnh c s dng rng ri, to ra s hi t ca thit b v s pht trin cc giao din ngi s dng mi. Truyn hnh khin cho vic s dng cc ng dng tng tc (Ging nh vic s dng Internet) tr thnh mt trong nhng thnh phn chim u th ca IPTV/VoD trong tng lai. y cng l mt yu t khc bit ch yu nht so vi truyn hnh qung b truyn
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thng vn khng c mt Knh qung b tng tc no (Nu c th ch l mt ng in thoi). - Cc ng dng bng rng : Cc ng dng dng cho ngi tiu dng v doanh nghip cng c th c thc hin thng qua h tng IPTV/VoD nh hi ngh, o to t xa, gim st an ninh - Pay-Per-View (PPV): L hnh thc tr tin xem mt phn chng trnh no khng c trong danh mc chnh ca dch v, v d: Tr tin xem mt s kin th thao hay tr tin nghe mt bn nhc. H thng cung cp mt knh phim truyn hnh theo hnh thc PPV cho cc thu bao. - Tr chi theo yu cu (Games on Demand) : Dch v ny s cung cp nhiu loi Games ty chn n thu bao t mt danh sch c sn. IPTV yu cu hnh thc ng k n gin da trn ngn ng nh du siu vn bn (HTML).

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- m nhc theo yu cu (Music on Demand) : Cc khch hng c th xem nhng Clip ca nhc theo yu cu ging nh dch v VoD. - Truyn hnh ca hm trc (TV of Yesterday TVoY) : Dch v ny cho php thu bao xem li cc ni dung knh truyn hnh c pht nhng ngy trc. - Karaoke theo yu cu (Karaoke on Demand) : Cc thu bao c th chn v xem cc bi Karaoke c gii thiu v c th ng k mt hoc nhiu bi ht cng lc. - Trong s nhng dch v in hnh ca IPTV th dch v ni bt nht vn l dch v truyn hnh qung b v Video theo yu cu. 1.5.3.1 Truyn hnh qung b k thut s: Cc ni dung truyn hnh c qung b theo lch trnh thi gian c nh nh truyn hnh truyn thng. S la chn cc gi knh theo yu cu ca khch hng c th bao gm cc knh truyn hnh cng cng (Public),
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cc knh truyn hnh tr tin (Pay TV), cc knh truyn hnh c yu thch, cc knh truyn hnh mua sm, cc knh v thi trang Trc y th dch v truyn hnh ny c pht qua h thng truyn hnh cp hoc qua h thng v tinh nhng hin nay khch hng c th xem truyn hnh qung b k thut s thng qua IPTV. IPTV c th cung cp n khch hng rt nhiu loi hnh dch v cht lng v s lng knh truyn nhiu hn so vi cc nh cung cp truyn hnh cp, v tinh hay qung b. Cc nh cung cp dch v truyn hnh cp, truyn hnh v tinh hay truyn hnh qung b u pht cc knh truyn hnh ng thi ti khch hng iu ny lm cho khch hng khng ch ng c xem nhng chng trnh m mnh yu thch. Nhng i vi IPTV l dch v c th ch cung cp mt knh duy nht hoc cc knh ang c xem trc tip hoc c ghi li trn i dy ng truyn ti tn nh thu bao. Nu khch hng khng thch xem knh th c th gi yu cu ln mng, sau s nhn c knh truyn hnh mong
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mun vi s lng cc knh lu tr trn mng l khng gii hn. iu ny lm phong ph thm cho khch hng trong vic la chn cc hnh thc gii tr. Thng th cc knh truyn hnh qung b t c quan tm v cng t c u t nh cc knh th thao theo vng, knh truyn hnh chnh ph, knh truyn hnh quc tV th m ta c th dng phng php phn phi Narrowcast v phng php phn phi Unicast pht ni dung ti khch hng theo tnh hnh khu vc mun pht sng v ty thuc vo khch hng thuc vo i tng thu bao no. 1.5.3.2 Truyn hnh theo yu cu : Vic pht ni dung truyn hnh c la chn bt u khi ngi s dng la chn knh ni dung . Thng thng ni dung l cc b phim hay cc phim c ghi li t mt th vin phim. Dch v ny c th c s dng trong mt s lng gii hn theo kh nng lu tr.

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Truyn hnh theo yu cu (VoD) : y l mt dch v cung cp cc chng trnh truyn hnh theo s thch ca khch hng. Ngi s dng s nhn c knh truyn hnh m mnh mong mun sau khi gi yu cu ln mng v cc nh cung cp s ly ni dung t my ch lu tr cc phim gii tr hoc cc Video phc v cho khch hng. Vic ng dng truyn hnh theo yu cu to cho khch hng mt s t do thoi mi khi thng thc cc dch v truyn hnh. Nh ta bit th VoD l dch v c s tng tc gia khch hng v nh cung cp dch v. Cc chc nng tng tc chnh bao gm duyt danh sch ( Phim, kch, tin tc, ca nhc,), la chn v thanh ton ( Vi dch v mua hng t xa,), xem chi tit v cc s kin (V d nh Hypermedia). Ngoi ra, h thng cn cung cp thm cc chc nng : Play/Resume: Bt u mt phin pht hnh hoc bt u pht li sau lnh Pause.

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Stop Pause

: Ngng pht. : Tm ngng. : Tua tin.

Jump Forward

Back Forward : Tua lui. Fast Forward Slow Down Reverse Fast Reverse Slow Reverse : Tua nhanh. : Tua chm. : Pht ngc li. : Tua ngc nhanh. : Tua ngc chm.

1.6 Cc yu cu thut :

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Hnh 1.6: S

hi lp cu trc dch v.

Yu cu ca cc hi chnh : Headend trung tm : - Phi c HeadEnd chnh v d phng : Nh cung cp cng phi c thit b thu pht chnh v c thit b d phng phng lc gp trng hp s c
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th tn hiu s vn truyn c lin tc ti cc nh thu bao. - Headend trung tm thu tn hiu t v tinh cc knh qung b trong nc. - Server VoD phi c dung lng cao c th cha ni dung nhm p ng yu cu ca khch hng mt cch tt nht. - M ha ni dung : y l mt tnh nng rt quan trng x l cho ni dung trc khi truyn i. Ni dung c m ha trnh nhng trng hp truy nhp ty tin ca cc khch hng khng c quyn. - Chuyn i tc : Qu trnh ny x l cc lung ni dung vi cc nh dng, tc bit khc nhau v bin i chng thnh dng tc bit khng i. - ng gi IP : Cc nh cung cp dch v nhn c rt nhiu ni dung t nhiu ngun khc nhau cng vi cc nh dng khc nhau. Mi gi d liu c x l c lp v i ti ch trn cc ng i
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khc nhau. Mt s gi d liu c th b mt hoc b hng trong khi truyn. Vic ng gi d liu gip cho qu trnh pht ni dung t hiu qu cao hn. - M ha mt ni dung thu c t v tinh ch yu p dng cho cc thng tin mt ca mt t chc no cn c bo v nh thng tin ni b trong chnh ph - Server ng dng v Middleware : Server Middleware l h thng iu khin cung cp dch v bao gm giao din cho php ngi s dng la chn cc chng trnh truyn hnh yu thch, lp lch, iu khin vic cung cp dch v ti khch hng. Server ng dng l my ch cung cp cc dch v ng dng khch hng, Cc thnh phn mng khc ca h thng IPTV c th truy nhp thc hin cc nhim v ln v phc tp. - Chn qung co: V d nh khi mt b phim c thu thi n n thun ch l cc hnh nh c ghp

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li vi nhau. Ngi ta phi chn thm cc on qung co vo tng on ca b phim cho chng trnh truyn hnh thm phong ph v hp dn hn. - Tch hp BSS/OSS: H thng tch hp dng d liu phn phi ni dung truyn hnh qung b (Broadcast Streaming Systems - BSS)/ h thng h tr khai thc (Operations Support Systems OSS). - QoS cho tng dch v : Nh cung cp phi m bo cht lng dch v cho tng loi hnh dch v ring l. - IP Multicast : Truyn thng a phng theo giao thc IP. - Qun l ca B-RAS: L chc nng qun l cc thu bao kt ni vo cc DSLAM. DSLAM c nhim v tp trung hng trm cc thu bao ADSL sau chuyn lu lng ti B-RAS x l thng tin qua ng cp quang. B-RAS c th

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phc v nhiu DSLAM cng mt lc v l cu ni gia DSLAM v nh cung cp dch v. - Qun l khch hng : Bao gm qun l thng tin khch hng, qun l tng tc ca khch hng HeadEnd chuyn tip : c xem nh l tng i khu vc c nhim v tp hp cc thu bao ADSL. y l h thng HeadEnd c quy m nh hn, nhng chc nng ca n tng t nh chc nng ca HeadEnd trung tm, nhng c thm mt s chc nng sau: - Kim sot chnh sch cht ch cho cc nh cung cp dch v m bo duy tr dch v cho ngi dng vi cht lng cao v n nh trn tng cc dch v a phng tin trong h thng mng th h mi. Thit b u cui khch hng : - IP Set-Top-Box x l tn hiu t s sang tng t v hin th ln mn hnh ti vi.

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- Phn mm ng dng khch hng: C kh nng lm cho my tnh thc hin trc tip mt cng vic no m ngi dng mun thc hin. Mt v d v phn mm ng dng l chng trnh x l vn bn, bng tnh, chng trnh gii tr. Cc phn mm ng dng thng c tp hp li thnh b phn mm Microsoft Office v Open Office.org l nhng b phn mm gm c chng trnh x l vn bn, bng tnh v cc phn mm khc. - B m ho MPEG-x/WM9 cc b m ho ny c dng h tr mt hoc tt c k thut nn. - Gii m mt ni dung: Cc nh cung cp ni dung m ho ni dung trc khi truyn i v khi n vi khch hng th trc tin n phi c gii m. - Bo mt - DRM thit b u cui khch hng. - Thit b u cui khch hng s dng cc dch v tch hp b sung: V d tch hp thng mi in

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t vi cc chng trnh Maketing hoc l tch hp cc ti liu in vi Website. 1.6.1 H thng HeadEnd trung tm : H thng HeadEnd trung tm c nhim v thu, iu ch v gii m ni dung hnh nh v m thanh t cc ngun khc nhau v s dng cc thit b m ho (Encoder) chuyn i ni dung ny thnh cc lung IP Multicast khun dng m ho mong mun. Yu cu khi pht ni dung qung b phi c thit b u cui. Thit b u cui ny c kh nng m ho mt chui cc hnh nh theo thi gian thc bng k thut nn dung lng MPEG-4 hoc MPEG-2. Hnh nh m ho c th ly t v tinh, truyn hnh cp, h thng truyn hnh mt t, my ch Video Sau khi m ho, cc chui tn hiu MPEG-x s c ng gi bng cch s dng giao thc IP v c truyn ti bng cch s dng giao thc gi d liu ngi dng UDP (User Datagram Protocol - UDP). UDP l mt trong nhng giao thc ct li ca giao thc TCP/IP. Khi dng UDP

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th chng trnh trn mng my tnh c th gi nhng d liu ngn c gi l Datagram ti my khc. Giao thc UDP khng cung cp tin cy cao v th t truyn nhn cc gi do TCP m nhn. Nh vy cc gi d liu c th n khng ng th t hoc b mt m khng c thng bo. Tuy nhin, giao thc UDP c u im v truyn ti nhanh v hiu qu i vi cc mc tiu nh kch thc nh v d dng p ng yu cu kht khe v thi gian. Do bn cht khng trng thi ca n nn n hu dng i vi vic p ng tt cc yu cu vi s lng ln ngi yu cu. u vo ca h thng HeadEnd trung tm l cc chng trnh truyn hnh qung b, cc knh truyn hnh mua bn quyn thu t v tinh, cc knh truyn hnh cp, cc phim t cc ngun khc nh t cc thit b VCD/DVD Player H thng HeadEnd trung tm l mt trong nhng thnh phn ct li trong lp cu trc dch v IPTV. HeadEnd trung tm c chc nng l phn phi tn hiu ti cc HeadEnd chuyn tip (y l h thng HeadEnd c quy m nh hn) c nhim v phn phi tn hiu ti
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cc thit b u cui khch hng cung cp dch v cho khch hng. Chc nng c bn ca HeadEnd trung tm : t. Lu tr d liu: Lu tr v chn thm cc ni dung b sung nh VoD v chng trnh qung co. Chun b ni dung: Ni dung chng trnh phi y v m bo cht lng trc khi c pht i ti khch hng. Phn phi ni dung: Ni dung c phn phi thng qua mng IPTV. H thng HeadEnd trung tm h tr cc tnh nng sau thc hin cc chc nng trn. M ha Video: B m ha Video c s dng nn tn hiu Video di dng tiu chun. l chun nn c thc hin khi lung d liu vo
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M ha mt ni dung: M ha cc chng

trnh thu c t v tinh hoc truyn hnh v tuyn mt

ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

c phn tch v loi b bt nhng phn d liu khng cn thit. C th hiu thut ng nn l thu gn d liu truyn v lu tr. V d v mt s chun nn tn hiu s : MPEG-2 : Chun MPEG l mt chun rt thng dng v c c s dng rng ri. Tuy nhin kch thc File ln (File l gi d liu) so vi nhng chun mi xut hin gn y v c th gy kh khn cho vic truyn d liu. Vi MPEG-2, ni dung c to ra t nhiu ngun nh Video nh ng, ha, vn bn c t hp thnh chui cc khung hnh phng, mi khung hnh (Bao gm cc i tng nh ngi, vt, m thanh , nn khung nh) c chia thnh cc phn t nh v x l ng thi khng phn bit i tng trong mt khung hnh. Ti pha thu ca ngi s dng, qu trnh gii m din ra ngc vi qu trnh m ha. V vy c th coi MPEG-2 l cng c hin th tnh v nu mt nh cung cp truyn chng trnh ca mt nh cung cp

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khc th Logo ca nh sn xut chng trnh ny khng th loi b c. MPEG-2 ch c th b sung thm cc phn t ha v vn bn vo chng trnh hin th cui cng nhng khng th xa bt cc ha v vn bn trong chng trnh gc. Chun MPEG-4 : L chun cho cc ng dng Multimedia. MPEG-4 tr thnh mt tiu chun cho nn nh k thut truyn hnh s, cc ng dng v ha v cc ng dng Multimedia tng tc hai chiu i v v hoc cc ng dng nhm phn pht d liu Video nh truyn hnh cp, Internet Video MPEG-4 tr thnh mt tiu chun cng ngh trong qu trnh sn xut, phn phi v truy nhp vo h thng Video. N gp phn gii quyt vn v dung lng cho cc thit b lu tr, gii quyt vn v bng thng ca ng truyn tn hiu Video hoc kt hp c hai vn trn.

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Trong chun MPEG-4, cc i tng khc nhau trong mt khung hnh c th c m t, m ha v truyn i mt cch ring bit n b gii m theo cc dng c bn khc nhau. Do vic xc nh, tch v x l ring cc i tng (Nh nhc nn, m thanh xa gn, vt, cc i tng nh Video nh con ngi hay ng vt) nn ngi sn xut c th loi b ring tng i tng khi khun hnh. S t hp li thnh khung hnh ch c thc hin sau khi gii m cc i tng ny. Cc b m ha mc thp hoc mc cao c s dng h tr mt hoc tt c cc k thut nn. Cc b m ha Video cng h tr qu trnh nn File m thanh i km theo cc nh dng nn Audio tiu chun. Chuyn i tc Video: Cc lung Video thu c t nhiu ngun khc nhau nh v tinh hoc t truyn hnh v tuyn mt t s c ghp knh vi nhau. Ti pha thu sau s c tch knh v c chuyn i thnh tng lung Video ring bit. Qu trnh chuyn i tc Video s to ra cc lung Video vi cc nh dng tc bit khc
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ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

nhau, sau bin i chng thnh dng tc bit khng i gip n nh c qu trnh phn phi tn hiu qua mng. Chuyn i nh dng m ha: Thc hin chuyn i dng tn hiu Video ny thnh dng tn hiu Video khc. V d, chuyn i nh dng m ha thc hin qu trnh chuyn i tn hiu MPEG-2 theo thi gian thc thnh tn hiu MPEG-4. Vic chuyn i ny gip cho qu trnh phn phi tn hiu trn mng IPTV c hiu qu hn v h tr cho vic chuyn i th cc khung nn khc nhau phi c s dng trong h thng HeadEnd. ng gi Video: Cc nh cung cp dch v nhn ni dung t nhiu ngun khc nhau v th m vic nh dng li ni dung theo cc gi l rt cn thit gip cho qu trnh phn pht ni dung t hiu qu v tc v cht lng. Vi mng IPTV mi xy dng th c ch ng gi ny chnh l vic gi cc khung Video MPEG-x vo giao thc gi
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ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

tin ngi s dng (UDP) pht trn mng IP; cn i vi mng k tha t trc, l vic gi vo cc t bo ATM (Ch truyn ti khng ng b). Ngoi nhng chc nng m HeadEnd trung tm c th thc hin nh ni trn th n cn c th thc hin cc chc nng khc nh chn qung co. HeadEnd cha cc thit b c tin cy cao v p ng c cc yu cu ca mi trng. Tnh mm do, tnh linh hot v kh nng nng cp c s rt khc nhau i vi tng loi sn phm v tng nh cung cp. V cc tnh nng HeadEnd c thc hin rt nhiu v tr khc nhau trong phm vi mng IPTV nn yu cu ca h thng s ph thuc vo rt nhiu tham s chng hn nh cc b m ha, cc giao din cn s dng H thng HeadEnd trung tm c quy m nh hoc ln. Cc h thng mi ngy nay h tr 8 n 10 b m ha v vi h thng cc ln th con s s ln ti 50 b m ha.

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1.6.2 VoD Server : Cho php lu tr cc ni dung c m ha v thit lp cc chnh sch phn phi ni dung mt cch mm do. VoD Server cng cho php nh khai thc m rng mt cch kinh t, ph hp vi ti khch hng v yu cu dch v ca cc thu bao. My ch VoD s lu ni dung thc v cung cp cho thu bao khi n nhn c s xc thc danh tnh ca khch hng yu cu t my ch Middleware. N cho php cc thu bao ng k v xem nhng b phim cht lng cao v chng trnh theo yu cu (Chng trnh ny c lu trn Server ng dng v truyn ti theo yu cu ca khch hng). Khi nhn c cc yu cu th Server VoD cung cp mt s lng ln cc knh Video s c m ha bao gm cc chng trnh truyn hnh qung b c lu tr. Cc my ch ny nm ri rc trn khp mng IPTV nh ti HeadEnd trung tm hoc HeadEnd chuyn tip. VoD Server c dung lng khc nhau ph thuc vo ni dung m n lu tr v v tr t Server .
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VoD Server c kh nng cung cp ng thi mt s lng rt ln cc lung Video bng phng php Unicast hoc phng php Narrowcast trn mng IPTV bi v n c kt ni bng ng Gigabit Ethernet vi cc b m ha, cc b chuyn mch kt hp lp 2 (Layer2) cc b nh tuyn bin lp 3 (Layer3). Kch thc ca IPTV l kh nng lu tr, thng lng v s lng lung Video c h tr ng thi. Cng ging nh cc thnh phn khc trong cu hnh mng dch v IPTV, VoD Server ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic h tr k thut nn lu tr d liu di nhiu nh dng khc nhau (MPEG-2, MPEG4). Thng thng th cc nh cung cp VoD pht trin sn phm phn mm tng ng vi phn cng ca mnh. Phn mm ca VoD Server cho php phn phi ni dung mt cch thng minh, pht ni dung theo yu cu da trn tc , da trn cc chun s dng v v tr a l ca khch hng. V VoD Server ng mt vai tr rt quan trng nn n cn phi c phn cng cht lng cao, phn mm phi giu tnh nng v cn phi c thm
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ch d phng 1:n m bo tt c cc lung Video u c m bo cung cp an ton v lin tc. Sau khi khch hng gi yu cu i th VoD Server khng gi ni dung n khch hng ngay m VoD Server s truy vn ti thng tin ti khon ca khch hng trn Server tnh cc (y l h thng qun tr khch hng). Sau nu ti khon sp ht thi hn s dng th Server tnh cc s t chi yu cu i vi ngi s dng v gi thng bo qua STB ca khch hng gii thch l do v sao khch hng b t chi. Trong trng hp Server tnh cc chp nhn yu cu cung cp, th sau khi cp nht thng tin theo yu cu ca khch hng, Server tnh cc s gi yu cu ti VoD Server v cho php VoD Server gi ni dung n khch hng. 1.6.3 IPTV Middleware Server (My ch iu hnh) : Middleware l h thng iu khin, qun l khch hng v qun l cung cp dch v IPTV. Hay ni cch

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khc l h thng cung cp kh nng qun l thu bao, ni dung v cc thng bo ca h thng hon chnh cng vi cc chc nng qun l EGP (Cc ch dn lp trnh in t) v STB. Middleware duy tr tnh m cho h thng tch hp cc dch v trong tng lai. Middleware l mt giao din ca h thng cung cp dch v IPTV vi ngi dng, n xc nh danh tnh ca ngi dng, quy nh mt danh sch cc dch v m ngi dng c th s dng v tr gip la chn dch v ny cho khch hng sau khi xc thc danh tnh cho ngi dng. Middleware khng gii hn bt k hot ng ring l no trong h thng, n s giao tip trc tip vi mi thnh phn c h thng h tr. Middleware h tr API (Giao din lp trnh) l mt tp cc giao thc, th tc v cc cng c khc c s dng bi cc nh lp trnh phn mm to ra cc ng dng. Middleware m bo cc hot ng bn trong ca dch v truyn hnh mt cch hon ho v th n c th c coi l b no pha sau ca h thng IPTV. N l mt thnh phn
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chc nng quan trng ca cu hnh phn phi dch v im - im. i vi mng IPTV, Middleware cho php nh cung cp dch v gim st dch v IP Video. Nhn chung, phn mm Middleware thc hin 4 chc nng sau: - nh ngha cc dch v, cc gi dch v v gi c ca cc dch v . - m bo cc giao din vi h thng bn ngoi chng hn nh STB. V d nh: Khi ngi s dng gi yu cu n VoD Server th n s khng gi ni dung ti ngi s dng ngay m gi thng tin ti Middleware xem c iu kin gi ni dung khng nu c th gi i, cn khng th gi thng bo ti ngi s dng l do ti sao khng gi ni dung theo yu cu ca h. - Trao i thng tin vi Server VoD. Trong mt vi trng hp, n giao tip vi cc thnh phn mng bn di.

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- Qun tr cc phin giao dch. V d nh qun tr khch hng truy nhp vo cc knh truyn hnh theo tng thi im; qun tr cc ti nguyn Media v d nh cht lng dch v, ngun ni dung; qun tr cc ti nguyn vt l m bo cho cc my ch lun trng thi hot ng tt, trnh s hng hc; qu trnh s dng ti nguyn ca khch hng. Trong phm vi 4 chc nng ny, cc tnh nng dnh cho khch hng v i vi nh cung cp m Middleware h tr c th lit k ra nh sau: Tnh nng dnh cho khch Tnh nng dnh cho nh hng cung cp

- Hin th trn mn hnh v - Giao din chng trnh giao din ngi s dng. ng dng hiu qu.

- Hng dn chng trnh - H thng chng trnh in t. pht trin phn mm.

- Hin th tng dch v - T ng cu hnh STB,

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(VoD, PPV,).

theo di v hiu chnh STB.

- Hin th dch v tch hp - Qun l dch v v nh (Khai bo th in t, TV gi cho tng dch v v Email,). - Thng tin chng trnh. - Nhc nh chng trnh. tng gi dch v. - Giao din tnh cc v qun l theo di thu bao.

- Ch kim sot dnh cho - Gim st v sp xp th t thu bao, qun l phin giao ngi ln. - Thng tin ti khon. dch, cc chc nng bo co. - Qun l ti nguyn vt l v ni dung, tch hp bo mt. - Kin trc phn mm c linh ng, h thng c tnh hu dng cao. - Tch hp cc nh sn xut vi nhau v d nh nh cung
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cp

STB,
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VoD

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Server,

1.6.4 IPTV Set- Top- Box (STB) : STB l thit b u cui pha khch hng cho php thu, gii m v hin th ni dung trn mn hnh ti vi. STB h tr cc chun MPEG-4/H.264, cc knh truyn hnh c phn gii cao, h tr kt ni gia thit b ti vi v mng in thoi. Ngoi ra, STB s h tr thm phn mm qun l khch hng ca n da trn cu trc phn mm thn thin. Nh vy nhng ng dng v d liu khch hng thuc dch v khch hng s lu trn STB. Chc nng ca STB : - Ni tip vo mng bng tn rng, thu pht v x l s liu IP v lung Video.

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- Tin hnh gii m lung Video MPEG-2, MPEG-4m bo Video VoD hin th ln mn hnh ti vi cc s liu, hnh nh. - Phi hp vi bn phm m bo thc hin ngn ng nh du siu vn bn s dng trn mng, tin hnh gi nhn Email. Hp STB m nhim cc nhim v trn ch yu da vo b vi x l. IPTV STB khng nhng c nhim v gii m ni dung Video m c tn hiu qung b v tn hiu lu tr. Gi thnh gim l mt nhn t quan trng trong cng nghip sn xut STB. Gi c ph thuc vo cc yu t khc nhau nh: Kh nng lu tr v dung lng. H tr cho cc dch v Video theo yu cu VoD. H tr cc thit b ghi hnh k thut s (Digital Video Recorder - DVR). DVR c th hot ng v gim st t xa ti bt c ni no trn mng, ngoi kh nng ghi hnh v ting ln bng t th

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n cn ghi ln cng ca my tnh hoc cc thit b lu tr khc nh CD, DVD Kh nng gii m cc nh dng MPEG bng phn cng. H tr cc b gii m c kh nng nng cp bng phn mm. H tr bo mt/DRM. C 3 thnh phn ch yu trong mt thit b STB l: Giao din mng, B nh m, B gii m. Giao din mng : Phn ny cho php khch hng c th giao tip nhn d liu t my ch mng IPTV. Ngoi ra, giao din mng cn cung cp c ch phin dch lnh nhn c t ngi s dng thnh cc tn hiu thch hp cho truyn dn trn mng. B nh m : Do c hin tng trt, tr trn mng nn khong thi gian n ca dng Video l khng xc nh v chnh xc. m bo vic pht cc knh c lin tc theo thi gian th
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Server m bo d liu phi c mt ti pha khch hng trc thi im sm nht d on s n bng cch tnh tr ln nht trn mng (Max). Server phi truyn mt n v d liu n sm hn t nht bng khong tr ln nht trn mng so vi thi im sm nht d on s n do tr. Tuy nhin, nu tr thc s trn mng ca n v d liu nh hn nhiu gi tr Max, d liu s n khch hng qu sm. m bo ng b, n cn c x l lm tr bng cc lnh Jump trong b nh m. Nu dung lng b nh m ln v cc mc lm tr m b nh m ln th pha khch hng c th thc hin lnh Jump Forward v Jump Backward m khng cn yu cu phi nhn c d liu trc tip t Server. Lc , lnh Jump s c p ng nhanh hn so vi phi yu cu d liu t Server. Cng tng t vi cc lnh Fast Forward v Fast Rewind, b nh m s p ng yu cu lnh

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nhanh hn nu d liu thc s lu tr trong b nh ca STB. B gii m : tit kim khng gian lu tr, dung lng a v bng thng mng, cc phim nh thng c m ho trc khi lu tr. V vy, pha khch hng cn c mt b gii m gii m dng tn hiu n trc khi cung cp cho phn hin th. Vic lu tr d liu trc khi cung cp cho phn hin th thc hin trong b nh m (Nh cp phn trn) cho php trnh c vic gii m thi gian thc, tc l d liu cn hin th phi c thc hin gii m trc khi cung cp cho qu trnh hin th. Nh c th s dng phn cng v thut ton gii m t phc tp hn, Ko theo s gim c chi ph cho b STB. 1.6.5 Thnh phn mng truyn dn: Do c tnh ca dng d liu VoD v Video qung b l dng d liu ln, lin tc trong mt

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khong thi gian di c tc bit bin i, nn yu cu mng phi p ng c cc tnh nng sau : Bng thng rng : l h thng truyn d liu m ti nhiu thit b truyn dn s dng chung mt ng truyn. Dung lng hng v (Download) ln hn rt nhiu so vi hng i (Upload) iu ny c ngha l ni dung gi ti khch hng s nhiu hn so vi ni dung t pha khch hng (iu ny ph hp vi tnh cht bt i xng ca mng ADSL). 1.6.6 Yu cu cht lng dch v: Cht lng dch v (Quality of Service - QoS) c xem l yu cu ca lp dch v (Class of Service - CoS) v loi dch v (Type of Service - ToS). Mc tiu c bn ca CoS v ToS l t c bng thng v thi gian tr cn thit cho mt ng dng ring no . CoS cho php ngi qun tr c th nhm cc lung gi khc nhau, mi lung c tr v cc nhu cu bng

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thng ring. Trong dch v IPTV, tnh nng ToS c gi trong tiu ca gi tn hiu IP cho php CoS h tr. Hay ni n gin th cht lng dch v l cch thc c c nhng dch v d liu n nh v hiu qu hay kh nng mng m bo ng thi duy tr cc mc cht lng nht nh cho mi ng dng theo cc yu cu c ch r ca mi ngi s dng. QoS cho chng ta bit kh nng ca mt phn t mng c th l mt ng dng, mt trm (Host) hay mt s b nh tuyn (Router) m bo nhng yu cu no v lu lng, v kh nng cung cp dch v Nh cung cp dch v mng m bo cht lng dch v cung cp cho ngi s dng v thc hin cc bin php duy tr mc QoS trong iu kin cc thng s mng b thay i v cc nguyn nhn nh : Nghn, hng hc thit b hay li lin kt QoS cn c cung cp cho mi ng dng ngi s dng c th

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chy ng dng v mc QoS m ng dng i hi ch c th xc nh bi ngi s dng, bi v ch c ngi s dng mi c th bit c chnh xc ng dng ca mnh cn g hot ng tt. Ngi s dng hin nhin c th bit c mng cn cung cp nhng g cn thit cho ng dng ca mnh, ging nh cc yu cu cho cc ng dng phn mm my tnh c nhn. c th hn, chng ta hy xem xt n vn QoS ca mt h thng mng. Trong mt mng no . QoS khng th ng ho l mt gii php tng bng thng sn c ca ng truyn trn mng, bi v tht phi l khi i hi ng truyn mt bng thng ln hn kh nng ca n c th cung cp; QoS s lin quan n cch qun l bng thng ca ng truyn trc nhng yu cu ca cc ng dng cng nh lin quan n cch thit lp cu hnh mng. V quan nim th QoS l mt ti nguyn mng, hay ng hn l mt nhm ti nguyn mng, v d nh bng thng v tr, m thanh, hnh nh,

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V pha ngi s dng th cht lng dch v IPTV c xem xt trn cc kha cnh sau : Thi gian bt u s dng dch v : C th s dng dch v trong khong vi pht sau khi hon thnh cng vic lp t cho thu bao. Cht lng dch v c lp gia cc thu bao khc nhau : Cht lng dch v gia cc thu bao l khng gim khi c thm thu bao mi truy nhp h thng. Dng d liu lin tc: m bo khng tr ( l thng tin truyn i di dng mt chui cc khung truyn, khong thi gian tri qua t khi bit u tin ca mt khung i vo mng cho n khi bit u tin ri khi mng gi l tr), khng trt trong khi pht hnh. p ng tt cc chc nng tng tc: X l tt cc chc nng tng tc sao cho tng t nh khi ngi s dng bm cc phm chc nng trn u my pht Video, VCD, DVD,
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ng b gia cc dng a phng tin, c th l ng b gia hnh v ting. 1.6.7 Qun l quyn truy nhp v bo mt ni dung chng trnh: Gn y do s e da mnh m ca cc tin tc v s lan trn ca vi-rt trn mng Internet ton cu lm cho bo mt tr thnh vn hng u. Hu ht bo mt lin quan ti vn nh tnh ring t, s tin cn, xc nhn khch hng v nh cung cp dch v. Cc vn lin quan n bo mt thng c gn vi mt vi hnh thc ca phng php mt m nh m ha v gii m c thc hin thng qua cc k thut m ho ring t v b mt. Vic xc nhn tnh hp l ca khch hng thng c quy nh bi mt mt khu n gin, nu s dng ch k s th phc tp hn. Vic xc nhn tnh hp l ca khch hng thng c quy nh bi mt chng ch s c a ra bi nh cung cp chng ch v c qun l bi mt b phn l Middleware Server.

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Ngi s dng v ng dng c th thm phn bo mt ca ring mnh vo mng v trong thc t, chc nng ny c thc hin trc y. Chc nng ny c thc hin thng di dng mt mt khu truy nhp vo mng. Cc mng ngy nay cn c mt c ch bo mt gn lin vi n ch khng phi thm vo mt cch tu tin bi cc ng dng. Nu khng kh nng kt hp chc nng tng tc khch - ch gm c bo mt s tr thnh mt vic rt phc tp. i vi mng IPTV th bo mt ni dung l mt yu cu c bn i vi cc nh cung cp dch v khi i vo khai thc dch v ny. Cc tnh nng IPTV chng hn nh Video theo yu cu (VoD) v ghi hnh k thut s (DVR) s c nhng yu cu kht khe hn do to ra c hi mi v thch thc mi cho cc sn phm bo mt bng phn mm. H thng truy nhp s c k tha t mng hin c nh mng cp, mng qung b truyn thng p dng m ha mt ni dung ti HeadEnd v gii m ni dung ti pha thu bao. Mc ch na ca h thng
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ny l buc ngi xem phi tr chi ph cho cc chng trnh v hn ch quyn truy nhp tri php vo cc chng trnh. Thnh phn c bn ca h thng ny bao gm b tri ph tn hiu (L cng ngh x l tn hiu dng bo mt), m ha mt tng ng vi tng STB v h thng qun tr mng khch hng. Bo mt trn IPTV khng ch gii quyt cc vn v quyn truy nhp ca ngi s dng c bit m n cn bo v ni dung Video c lu tr trong phm vi ca mng v ti pha u thu khch hng. Mt mi nguy him lun e da ni dung c lu tr chnh l cc Hackers. H thng qun l bn quyn s (DRM) gip nh khai thc bo v ni dung ca mnh, nh trn cc tn hiu truyn hnh hay m ha ni dung VoD khi truyn i trn mng Internet v tch hp vi tnh nng an ninh ti STB pha thu bao. DRM dng bo mt ni dung cc kha gii m ca cc thu bao. Nhng ni dung c truyn ti trn nhng my ch ni dung s c m ha trc bng h thng DRM v n cng
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ch m ha ni dung qung b (Broadcast) bo mt s phn b n STB. H thng c kh nng h tr chc nng m ha trong cc HeadEnd tng ng v cung cp kha mt m cho cc HeadEnd ny. H thng DRM cha kha cho phn ni dung ca mt c s d liu kha ng thi qun l vic phn phi c s d liu ny ti STB. H thng DRM cng s h tr thm vo phn ni dung cc chc nng tng tc trong khi xem (tua nhanh, tua lui,). DRM s da trn cc khi nim ca h thng c s h tng kha cng cng (PKI) dng cc th k thut s xc nhn mi thnh t trong h thng. DRM cng m ha an ton d liu c dng cc kha chung/ring. DRM cung cp mt cu hnh bo mt nhm hn ch kh nng sao chp bt hp php ni dung IP Video, cho d l lung Video ang pht trc tip hay ang c lu tr trn mng. N cng cung cp mt c ch chuyn giao bo mt cho qu trnh tnh cc khch hng v tnh tng chi ph. Gii php DRM s phi tng thch vi rt nhiu yu t trong h mi
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trng IPTV bao gm h thng iu khin cung cp dch v Middleware, VoD Server, STB v tt c cc nh cung cp cc thit b khc nhau Mt vi tnh nng hc ca DRM bao g m : K thut mt m c s dng nhn thc cc thnh phn v bo v mng trc s tn cng tri php. Qu trnh nhn thc cc thnh phn ca DRM c thc hin bng cch s dng cc ch, k s v cc m ph bin. Cc bn quyn (License) v ch, k s c s dng cp quyn cho ngi s dng tng ng vi tng phn cng hn ch vic chia s v sao chp bt hp php. Vic gii m cc kha quy nh trong License v cc m ph bin m DRM cp cho khch hng. Bo mt ni lu tr theo di thng tin trng thi ca License chng hn nh s lng ni dung c pht i. Bo mt ni lu tr cho php cp cc License tng ng vi s lng gii hn
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cc File c pht i hoc s thi gian c php xem. 1.6.8 Cc giao thc c s dng : Nh ta bit, IPTV chuyn i c chng trnh TV trc tip v d nh chng trnh pht qung b a im hoc tn hiu Video theo yu cu (VoD). Yu cu ca IPTV l phi pht li chng trn my tnh c nhn hoc trn STB kt ni vi ti vi. Thng thng, ni dung Video s c m ha di dng lung tn hiu MPEG-2 qua ch pht qung b a im IP. y l phng php m thng tin c gi ti rt nhiu my tnh trong cng mt thi im. Mt chun mi c ra i thay th cho chun MPEG-2, l nh dng H.264 (Hay l MPEG 4 AVC). y l chun dn u trong lnh vc cng ngh nn hnh nh cho php cung cp hnh nh tt nht, kch thc File nh nht, h tr DVD v truyn vi tc cao so vi cc chun trc l MPEG-2, MPEG-4. Trong mt h thng IPTV tiu chun, cc giao thc lp di c s dng cho IPTV l giao thc qun l nhm
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Internet (Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP) v giao thc lung tn hiu thi gian thc RTSV (Real Time Streaming Protocol). y IGMPv2 dng cho cc knh chuyn i tn hiu TV trc tip v RTSP dnh cho VoD. H.264 gim mt na bng tn yu cu khi pht Video k thut s cht lng cao (DVD) ti khch hng v lm gim bng tn truyn dn tn hiu truyn hnh s tiu chun xung cn 700Kpbs. Tng t nh MPEG-2, H.264 yu cu k thut m ha v gii m tn hiu Video phc v cho vic truyn dn v c chng ti cc thit b thu ca khch hng (L cc STB, TV/Monitor hoc PC). Trn thc t, H.264 c th s dng k thut truyn dn tng thch vi MPEG-2 ch n gin bng cch nng cp t MPEG-2 ln thnh H.264 hn ch u t khi mng hin ang s dng MPEG-2, trong khi vn m bo qu trnh truyn pht qua giao thcTCP/IP v qua mng v tuyn.

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H thng m ha H.264 s chuyn cc tn hiu Video nguyn thy thu c t cc nh cung cp ni dung thnh lung tn hiu Video H.264. Cc lung tn hiu ny c th c ng gi (Capture). y l mt hnh thc ngt ngoi v c lu tr trn cc Video Server ti trung tm thu pht tn hiu (HeadEnd) hoc gi ti mt Video Server ti tng i trung tm (CO) phc v cc dch v Video theo yu cu. D liu Video lc c th c xem nh l mt chng trnh trc tip trn mng. Cc thit b chuyn mch v thit b mng tiu chun s nh tuyn cc lung Video ny, gi chng trong giao thc truyn ti trn mng tiu chun, v d nh ch truyn ti khng ng b (ATM). Mt phn c bit ca H.264 l lp mng tru tng (Network Abstraction Layer NAL) cho php gi lung tn hiu c truyn ti d dng qua mng TCP/IP, chng hn nh mng dch v truy nhp Internet DSL ca cc nh cung cp thoi truyn thng.

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Khi d liu Video ti pha thu, n s c nh tuyn ti khch hng qua Modem DSL v qua mng ni b ca khch hng (C th l khng dy hoc c dy). Mt b STB s gii m lung d liu v hin th chng trn mn hnh TV hoc Monitor trong khi mt my tnh PC gii m d liu ch cn s dng mt chng trnh Video Player chng hn nh Real Player hoc Windows Media Player. 1.7 Cc gii php phn mm: Phn ny s cp ti cc phn mm di dng Media Player cho php ngi s dng xem cc loi lung d liu Video khc nhau thu c t Internet. Hin nay cc nh cung cp Media Player ph bin nht l : Windows Media Player ca Microsoft, QuickTime ca Apple Computer, RealPlayer ca Real Networks v Flash Player ca Macromedia. Cc hng ny u cung cp cc b cng c trn gi gm Video Streaming Server (lu tr, truyn pht d liu theo cc giao thc h tr ... ), Video Player (Hin

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th d liu ti pha ngi dng) kt hp vi mt u nn v mt u gii nn d liu cng cc chun nn. 1.7.1 Sn phm QuickTime ca Apple: QuickTime l mt phn mm Mulltimedia dng xem phim, nghe nhc ging nh Windows Media Player (WMP) ca Microsoft. N l mt ng dng c th chy trn nhiu nn h thng (Macintosh, Unix v PC) v l chun chnh thc sm nht cho nn tng phn mm v Multimedia, s dng cng ngh Sorenson Video nn cc File d liu Audio/Video v cung cp cc chun nn cng vi Player min ph. QuickTime Streaming Server s dng giao thc truyn ti ni dung thi gian thc (RTSP), mt tiu chun mang tnh m c th hot ng trn nhiu h thng t UNIX n NT v hon ton min ph. QuickTime h tr kh nhiu nh dng, t cc nh dng v hnh nh nh JPEG v cc nh dng Video s nh nh dng MPEG-1. QuickTime l mt cng c rt mnh truyn ti Multimedia v hn th na

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n cn c th c s dng nh mt cng c chnh sa hoc nn d liu.

Hnh 1.7.1: QuickTime Player 1.7.2 NetWorks: RealPlayer (Hay cn c gi l RealVideo hoc ngn gn l Real) c pht trin bi RealNetworks. RealNetworks l hng tin phong trong lnh vc Multimedia trn Web vi nh dng Video (Real Media - RM ) quen thuc vi ngi dng trn mng
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Sn phm ca RealPlayer ca Real

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Internet. Cc sn phm phn mm ca Real gm RealPlayer (Phn mm thng dng vi ngi duyt Web) v RealSystem G2 l th h th hai ca RealVideo vi nhiu chc nng vt tri hn th h trc. Real s dng cng ngh nn Real G2 c pht trin bi RealNetwork v h tr c hai giao thc bao gm giao thc truyn ti ni dung thi gian thc (RTSP) v giao thc truyn siu vn bn (HTTP) v rt thch hp trong vic truyn pht cc Audio/Video hoc khun dng Media khc nh cc sn phm ca MacroMedia Flash. Gn y Real c pht hnh phin bn

RealProducer 8.5, cng c to v nn vi cc d liu Real Media. Mt trong cc tnh nng ca n l SVT (Scalable Video Technology), cng ngh ny cho php cc my tnh tc chm c th hin th cc tn hiu Video m khng phi gii nn ton b thng tin gc. SVT qut ton b d liu Video v la chn t l nn tt nht da vo rng ca bng thng.
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Hnh 1.7.2: RealPlayer. 1.7.3 Sn phm Windows Media ca Microsoft: Windows Media (Trc kia c tn gi l NetShow) l sn phm ca Microsoft nhm phc v vic truyn dng a phng tin (Streaming Media) trn mng Internet. Windows Media c ph bin kh rng ri v nay c phin bn (Version) mi nht l Windows Media 10. Mc d Windows Media Streaming Server s dng giao thc ring ca Microsoft l MMS (Microsoft Media Server), tuy nhin n cng cn s dng km vi phn mm Windows Media Player. y l loi giao thc s dng
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trong vic truyn ti trc tip lung d liu m thanh v hnh nh m khng cn Download File v.

Hnh 1.7.3: Windows Media Player.

Cng ging nh Real, Windows Media tp trung vo vic pht Audio/Video qua mng Internet vi s h tr ca hai giao thc MMS v HTTP vi nh dng dng tch cc (Active Streaming Format - ASF) l dng File nn ca Microsoft cho c hnh nh (Cn c ui l .WMV - Windows Media Video) hoc ch m thanh (.WMA - Windows Media Audio).
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Windows Media cung cp mt b cng c c ng gi hon chnh c tn l Windows Media Techonologies WMT. WMT bao gm Windows Media Tool dng kin to cc d liu lung Streaming; Windows Media Services ng vai tr l my ch cung cp dng video (Video Streaming Server) cung cp d liu; Windows Media Player l cng c hin th d liu v ngoi ra cn c Windows Media Right Manager c s dng bo v chng sao chp d liu. Windows Media Server h tr cng ngh dng d liu thng minh Intelligent Streaming" cho php truyn ti d liu da trn rng bng thng Internet gia ngi dng v Server. Khi cht lng ng truyn b suy gim th Video Server s t ng gim cht lng d liu, gim t l nn, loi b mt s khung hnh vic hin th khng b ngt on. Trong thi gian qua, Microsoft a ra b cng c Windows Media Encoding v8. y l mt ci tin ng k v cht lng, h tr nh dng v tnh nng.
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N bao gm h thng nn v m ho vi chun nn Windows Media Audio 8 v Video 8. Windows Media Video 8 s dng cng ngh nn video tin tin MPEG-4 . So snh vi Windows Media Video 7, t l nn tng ti 30 %, cung cp cht lng xp x cht lng DVD tc 500 Kbps (Vi phn gii 24 hnh/s ). 1.7.4 nh gi chung: Windows Media l sn phm ra i mun nht nhng c u th bi cc tnh nng vt tri so vi cc sn phm khc. nh dng ASF ca Microsoft c kh nng hin th trn nhiu thit b ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Mc d th trng ca Windows Media Player nh hn rt nhiu so vi RealPlayer nhng Microsoft hy vng ngi dng thch s tin li ca h iu hnh Windows c tch hp sn trong Media Player, iu ny gy nh hng kh ln n v tr ca Real. Rt c th s c mt cuc chin v Player gia Real v Microsoft nh cuc chin gia Internet Explorer v Netscape.
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Real c c th trng s dng Video Player ln nht. Trong nhng nm 1997 v 1998, Real c nh gi l sn phm c cng ngh nn cho cht lng tt nht bng thng thp. Nhng t nm 2000 n nay, Microsoft khin hnh nh ca Real, tin phong trong lnh vc Multimedia, dn lu m bi s ra i ca cc cng ngh, chun nn tin tin (Nh nh dng ASF, chun nn WMV 7, WMV 8 ..). Ngoi ra tng doanh thu, Real tch ring cc sn phm phn mm hin th d liu v kin to d liu thnh cc sn phm khc nhau : Basic, Plus, Gold nhng iu ny khin nhiu ngi dng kh chu. QuickTime vn l sn phm c a chung trong gii ho chuyn nghip. Rt nhiu chuyn gia cho rng QuickTime c cht lng tt nht cng vi v ngoi lch lm ni ting ca cc sn phm mang thng hiu Apple. Tuy nhin ngi dng hoc cc nh pht trin trn Windows s khng la chn QuickTime hin th cc d liu Media trn my cc

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b do s u tin ca h i vi h iu hnh Windows. Ngoi tr RealNetwork bn sn phm phn mm Video Streaming Server, Apple v Microsoft u c pht hnh bn min ph. Apple cung cp bn Open Source (Vit trn ngn ng C/C++), Darwin Streaming Server (Bn sao ca QuickTime Streaming Server c kh nng chy trn PC) cn Microsoft tch hp Windows Media Services vo Windows 2000 Advanced Server hoc cho Download min ph bn dnh cho NT 4.0 Server ti Website ca Microsoft. c th hin th cc Media Stream, ngi dng s phi ci t Player tng ng trn my ca mnh. Apple cung cp Player min ph nhng i vi ngi dng Windows, Media Player c u th l c tch hp sn trong h iu hnh nn mang li tin li hn cho ngi dng. Vi nhng nhn xt trn, c th thy rng v cht lng hnh nh, tuy QuickTime Player c nh gi

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cao nht nhng vn ch ph bin trong gii ho chuyn nghip s dng my tnh ca Apple. Media Player cho cht lng kh tt nh s dng cc cng ngh v chun nn tin tin Windows Medial Video (WMV9) cho php t cht lng ngang bng cht lng DVD. Ngoi ra, Windows Media Player c c ch t ng ti chng trnh gii nn (Download Codec) cn gii nn v hin th d liu trn mng Internet rt thch hp vi nhng ngi s dng c kin thc mc c bn v my tnh v Internet. Trn c s pht trin h thng dch v da trn nn h iu hnh Windows (Do hu ht ngi dng ti Vit Nam ch yu s dng h iu hnh ny) vi h tng mng Internet tc cao (S dng cng ngh ADSL) ta thy Windows Media Technologies l la chn hp l nht. WMT cung cp mt gii php ton din nht v lung a phng tin (Multimedia Streaming) trn

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nn Platform Windows. WMT khng ch cung cp ng dng Server, Client m cn cung cp cc chun nn, cng c x l cc nh dng Multimedia cho ph hp cho vic truyn ti trn mng. V cht lng dch v, n nh h thng, a dng trong chc nng ca Windows Media Technologies u vt qua sn phm Darwin Streaming Server ca Apple. Tuy nhin cn c nhc im l kh nng lm ch h thng km hn sn phm ca Apple cung cp ngun m Open Source cho php can thip ti a n h thng. B li Windows Media Technologies c cung cp y cng c pht trin phn mm dng cho ngi lp trnh (Software Development Kit - SDK ) p ng cc nhu cu cn thit. Tm li, Windows Media Technologies ca Microsoft l phng tin pht trin m hnh dch v IPTV qua mng Internet tc cao ADSL.

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CHNG 2 : XY DNG M HNH V TNH NNG SN PHM CA DCH V IPTV. 2.1 Xy dng m hnh IPTV : 2.1.1 Cc chc nng ca IPTV: H thng IPTV l mt h thng tch hp gia phn cng v phn mm. Phn cng bao gm cc i tng hu hnh - cc mch tch hp, cc Board mch in, cc cp, cc ngun cp in, cc b nh, cc u c th, cc my in v cc thit b u cui, Phn mm bao gm cc gii thut, cc giao thc c chc nng tp hp lnh cu thnh cc chng trnh.. Vic tch hp gia phn cng v phn mm c th hiu mt cch n gin l mi phn cng u c mt phn mm t trong n. IPTV vi ngi s dng dch v :

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Ngi s dng s cn phi c Modem ADSL, my tnh PC hoc b Set - Top - Box, TV. Cung cp giao din truy nhp dch v thn thin, trc quan: Ngi s dng s khng c cm gic lo lng, mt t tin khi truy nhp, mi thao tc c hin th r rng v c th t theo quy trnh nghip v, giao din cng d s dng: Mi danh mc, thanh cng c, biu tng v ch minh ha c thit k gn gi vi nhn thc ca ngi dng gip h tip cn nhanh chng mi chc nng ca chng trnh; Giao din truy nhp cung cp thm cc tnh nng hu ch nh thay i thng tin c nhn, gim st chi ph s dng dch v. Cung cp cc on phim c lu tr trn Video Server cho ngi dng c yu cu (Unicast). Mi ngi s dng dch v s c cp ring mt kt ni n Video Server v c m bo v cht lng dch v cng nh kh nng tng tc vi d liu (Tua, tm dng).
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Cung cp cc knh truyn hnh qung b (Multicast), trc tip hoc pht chm (Vi u thu l Video Camera, TV vi truyn hnh trc tip hoc d liu c lu tr trn Video Server vi truyn hnh pht chm). Ngi dng c th truy cp vo cc knh to sn c th hin th d liu hay thot khi bt c lc no tuy nhin s khng c kh nng tng tc vi d liu hin th. C kh nng tch hp vi Microsoft PowerPoint cung cp cc on Slide c km theo m thanh qua mng Internet, thch hp cho vic ging dy t xa. IPTV vi ngi qun l h thng : Cung cp giao din qun l thn thin, d s dng, mi thao tc hon ton t ng. Cung cp tnh nng qun l thng tin khch hng, cc truy nhp, thng tin truy nhp dch v ca ngi dng.
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Qun l trng thi (S ngi truy nhp trn mt thi im, bng thng s dng ), cu hnh h thng (Gii hn s ngi truy cp cng mt thi im hoc gii hn bng thng ti a dnh cho h thng), thit lp v gim st cc im truy nhp ca Video Server. Qun l thng tin v cc d liu Video (Th loi phim, thng tin thm v b phim) v thng tin thng k ca h thng (S ngi xem / b phim..) nhm nh gi v c phng thc qun l hiu qu nht. Ngoi ra vi ngi qun tr mc cao nht, h thng cho php ngi qun tr c th thm bt cc im cung cp d liu (Cc Video Server), thm bt cc knh truyn hnh mt cch d dng.

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2.1.2 Cu trc h thng IPTV ti tnh :

Hnh 2.1.2: Cu trc h thng IPTV ti tnh

H thng gm 2 thnh phn chnh : im truy nhp dch v (i vi ngi dng), gim st h thng (i vi ngi qun l) l mt Web Server (My ch Web) trn ci t phn mm phc

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v Web (i khi ngi ta cng gi chnh phn mm l Web Server). Vi c s d liu SQL Server (IPTV Middleware) c t ti trung tm qun l cp quc gia hay Vin thng tnh. im lu tr d liu l cc Video Server v h thng Headend trung tm. m bo cht lng dch v (Trnh vic tht nt c chai khi d liu phi truyn qua cc mng khc nhau), h thng c phn chia thnh cc vng cung cp dch v. Nhng ngi dng vng cung cp dch v no s c truy cp trc tip vo Video Server v Headend phn b c t ti vng cung cp dch v . Tuy nhin, im truy nhp dch v vn l duy nht v t ti Trung tm qun l quc gia hay Vin thng tnh. H thng s cn c vo thng tin vng cung cp dch v m ngi dng a ra chuyn thng tin yu cu ca ngi n im lu tr d liu Video Server tng ng. 2.1.3 Qun l c s d liu:

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Ngoi d liu Video c qun l bi Video Server th s dng SQL l mt cng c qun l d liu c s dng ph bin hin nay. u tin SQL c s dng trong cc ngn ng qun l c s d liu v chy trn my n l. Do s pht trin nhanh chng ca nhu cu xy dng nhng c s d liu ln theo m hnh ch/t (Server/Client) nhiu phn mm s dng ngn ng SQL ra i m in hnh l MS SQL Server. Trong m hnh ch/t, ton b c s d liu c tp trung lu tr trn my ch, mi thao tc x l d liu c thc hin trn my ch bng cc lnh SQL. My trm (Client) ch dng cp nht d liu cho my ch hoc ly thng tin t my ch. Bn cnh , trn lnh vc ang pht trin hin nay l Internet, ngn ng SQL li cng ng vai tr quan trng hn. N c s dng nhanh chng to ra cc trang Web ng. Trang Web ng thng c ni dung c ly ra t c s d liu. SQL c th c s dng nh mt cht keo kt dnh gia

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c s d liu v trang Web, ng thi cng l cng c cp nht thng tin cho cc c s d liu . SQL l cm t vit tt ca Structure Query Langguage, tm dch l ngn ng truy vn c cu trc. C ngha l SQL ch lm vic vi nhng d liu c cu trc dng bng (Table) nh Access. Chng ta khng th ng dng hiu qu SQL lm vic vi cc tp d liu dng vn bn nh Winword hay cc hnh nh, m thanh. Mt trong nhng l do khin SQL ngy cng ph bin hn l rt d s dng. Ngi s dng khng nht thit phi l chuyn gia tin hc, cng khng cn phi bit lp trnh m vn c th ng dng SQL x l cng vic ca mnh. Thc hin c iu l nh c cc cng c trc quan gip to ra cc cu lnh SQL mt cch d dng, hiu qu, gi l tnh nng Query (Cu hi truy vn) trong cc phn mm c s dng SQL. Mi Query l mt cu lnh SQL c xy dng hon chnh v ghi li c th mang ra s dng bt c lc no. Kt qu ca mt Query l mt bng mi th
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bng mi ny li c th c s dng thng tin u vo ca Query khc. C nh vy ta c th c mt chui Query trc khi i n kt qu cui cng. Cc Query c thit k c bit th hin cc cu hi ca khch hng v d liu lu tr v khi chy n s tr v kt qu theo yu cu ca khch hng. S dng Query rt d dng v t c kh nng mc li. Tuy nhin ngi s dng phi nm vng cu trc c s d liu ca mnh. SQL c kh nng p ng hu ht cc yu cu i vi vic cp nht, phn tch d liu t cc bng. Di y l mt s cng dng chnh ca SQL: - Chn lc mt s ct nht nh trong bng d liu : Thng ta khng s dng tt c cc thng tin ca bng cng mt lc nn SQL c th tch ra s dng ring nhng ct cn thit . - Lc cc bn ghi theo nhng tiu chun khc nhau.

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- Sp xp cc bn ghi theo nhng tiu chun khc nhau. - Cp nht, xa cc bn ghi trn ton bng theo nhng iu kin khc nhau. - Kt hp hai hay nhiu bng theo chiu ngang. - Ni hai hay nhiu bng theo chiu dc. - To bng mi, thay i cu trc bng c. - Thc hin cc php tnh ton thng k theo tng nhm. - Kt ni d liu trn my ch : Khi c s d liu c tp trung trn my ch MS SQL Server, ta phi dng lnh SQL trc tip xm nhp vo c s d liu. - Kt hp cc trang Web vi c s d liu bng lnh SQL. SQL c p dng trong vic xy dng cu trc phn mm IPTV do n c nhng tnh nng c bit nh sau :

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- Cu lnh SQL l ngn gn v n gin do vic x l l t li v vn hnh nhanh. - SQL cung cp cng c trc quan to ra Query thc cht l nhng cu lnh SQL c ghi li mt cch c lp. - S dng cng c Query trong SQL th khng i hi phi nm vng c php cu lnh SQL. Tuy nhin, SQL vn cn tn ti mt nhc im ln cha c gii quyt l SQL khng thc hin c mt s cc chc nng t c hiu qu ti a nu khng kt hp vi cc cng c lp trnh khc. Tuy nhin nhc im khng l ng k so vi nhng li ch m n mang li. 2.1.3.1 C s d liu :

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Hnh 2.1.3 C s d liu ca h thng

2.1.4.2 Cc i tng d liu chnh : Ngoi d liu Video c lu tr trn Video Server, cn cc d liu v thng tin qun l c lu tr trn c s d liu SQL Server c t cng vi Web Server ti Vin thng tnh. Bng Statistic : Lu tr thng tin v s ln truy cp/b phim nh gi. Bng Customer : Lu tr thng tin chi tit v ngi s dng.

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Bng Management : Lu tr thng tin chi tit v vic t chc dch v (Thng tin v cc im cung cp d liu ti cc vng cung cp dch v). Bng Session : Lu tr thng tin tm thi trong mi ln truy nhp ca ngi dng trnh vic truy nhp d liu bt hp php khng t im truy nhp dch v. Bng Access : Lu tr thng tin chi tit v cc ln truy nhp ca ngi dng nhm phc v cho vic tnh cc. Bng Categories : Lu tr thng tin v cc th loi phim m h thng c th cung cp. Bng Movie : Lu tr thng tin chi tit v tng b phim m h thng c th cung cp. Cc bng ny c mi lin h mt thit vi nhau, h tr nhau gip nh qun l c th qun l d liu mt cch d dng thng qua phng tin SQL. 2.1.4 Giao din: 2.1.4.1 Cc giao din ca h thng :
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c thc hin thng qua cc cng truyn thng COM v Object COM giao tip vi c s d liu. COM l mt giao din gip cho hai thnh phn (Component) khc nhau c vit bng hai ngn ng khc nhau c th kt ni v lm vic vi nhau. Object COM l mt thnh phn ca COM. Vic s dng c tnh ca COM v Object COM cho php chng ta c th kt hp cc tnh nng ca tng ngn ng to ra mt chng trnh hay. Bn cnh ta c th kt ni vi h thng thng qua cc loi gic cm BNC, cc dy cm chuyn dng dnh cho vic thu tn hiu truyn hnh t v tinh, t cc knh truyn hnh s mt t, truyn hnh qung b 2.1.4.2 Cc giao din vi chng trnh khc: Vic giao tip vi cc chng trnh khc thng qua giao thc TCP/IP. y l mt h thng v th tc. i a s phn cng v phn mm gip my tnh tham gia qu trnh trao i thng tin u thc hin cc quy

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chun ca TCP/IP. Vic s dngTCP/IP cho php ngi s dng khng cn phi bit chi tit cc quy chun ny. Mt h thng giao thc nh TCP/IP phi m bo kh nng thc hin nhng cng vic sau : ng gi : Xp xp thng tin thnh nhng gi d liu c th d dng i qua b phn truyn ti trung gian. T ng tc : Tng tc vi phn cng ca cc thnh phn mng khc nhau. Xc nh a ch ngu n v ch : My tnh gi thng tin i phi xc nh c th ni gi n. My tnh ch phi nhn ra c u l thng tin gi cho mnh. nh tuyn : H thng phi c kh nng hng d liu t h thng cung cp ti khch hng v t khch hng ti mng. Kim tra li, im sot truyn ti v xc nhn : i vi mt phng tin truyn thng tin cy,
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my tnh gi v nhn phi xc nh v c th sa cha li trong qu trnh truyn ti d liu. Tip nhn : Tip nhn cc yu cu t ng dng v truyn n ti mng ch. TCP/IP c xy dng di dng phn chia ra thnh phn chc nng ring bit hot ng c lp vi nhau. Mi thnh phn chu mt trch nhim trong h thng mng. Cu trc lp TCP/IP cho php nhng ngi s dng d dng p dng phn mm giao thc cho cc phn cng v h iu hnh. Cc lp giao thc TCP/IP bao gm : Lp truy nhp mng : Cung cp giao din tng tc vi mng vt l. nh dng d liu cho b phn truyn ti trung gian v to a ch d liu cho cc tiu mng da trn a ch phn cng vt l. Cung cp vic kim tra li trong qu trnh truyn d liu. Lp Internet : Cung cp a ch Logic c lp vi phn cng d liu c th truyn qua cc mng con
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c cu trc vt l khc nhau. Lp ny cn cung cp chc nng nh tuyn truyn ti lu lng d liu v h tr vic truyn ti lin mng. Thut ng lin mng c dng cp n cc mng rng ln hn bao gm nhiu kt ni mng LAN, to s gn kt gia a ch vt l v a ch Logic. Lp truyn ti : Gip kim sot lung d liu, kim tra li v xc nhn cc dch v cho lin mng, ng vai tr giao din cho cc ng dng mng. Lp ng dng : Cung cp cc ng dng gii quyt s c mng, truyn ti cc File, iu khin t xa v cc hot ng trn Internet. ng thi lp ng dng h tr giao din lp trnh ng dng mng (API), cho php cc chng trnh c thit k cho mt h iu hnh bt k u c th truy nhp vo mng. My tnh s dng h thng giao thc TCP/IP truyn ti d liu trn mng th mi lp trn chng trnh phn mm ca my tnh s b sung thng tin vo

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khi d liu cn gi cc lp ca my tnh nhn c th nhn dng c. 2.1.4.3 Giao din vi ngi s dng: Thng qua cc trang Web cung cp dch v hay thng qua cc giao din ngi dng ha (GUI) chng ta c th thao tc trc tip cc chc nng trn mn hnh ng dng. S dng GUI l qu trnh chuyn i ni dung t dng t ng sang hnh nh, biu tng, k hiu, mu sc v l s b tr sp xp c th t cc thnh phn chnh v ph sao cho chng c xut hin mt cch hp l, thun tin cho ngi dng. Hnh nh v biu tng c tc ng n nhn thc v ghi nh ca con ngi d dng hn nhiu so vi nhng dng vn bn. GUI l mt giao din c s b tr cc yu t ni dung v hnh thc kt hp nhau mt cch hi ha vi tnh nng thn thin, hin th nhanh v d s dng khng nhng p ng c tnh thm m m cn tha mn c cc yu cu c th ca ngi dng. Bn cnh , GUI gip ngi dng s

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dng cc dch v IPTV mt cch nhanh chng v gim thi gian lm quen vi ng dng mi. Nh vy, GUI l mt li th v ang dn chng t hiu qu ca n trong lnh vc phn mm ni ring v trong cc tin ch truyn thng trong x hi ni chung. Bt k nh sn xut phn mm chuyn nghip no cng u ch trng n GUI trong qui trnh sn xut v pht trin sn phm ca mnh. Mt s c im ca GUI mang li li ch cho ngi dng nh : Thn thin, d s dng, an ton. Mt giao din vi mu sc, ng nt sc so, ni dung r rng, mch lc v b tr hp l s to cm gic thoi mi v tin tng cho ngi s dng. Tuy nhin, trong mi mt thit k GUI th c km theo nhng c tnh, yu cu ring ca tng ch th nh sau : Ngi lp trnh : H thng t s tin b v k nng ca mnh ln hng u bng cch p dng nhng k thut mi vo chng trnh. H mun nhanh chng hon thnh chng trnh k c dng nhng gii php
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c sn ca cc cng ty khc. H thng t quan tm n nhng chi tit nh: Giao din ngi dng nh th no ngi s dng s lm vic, tng tc ra sao trn sn phm? Ngi s dng: Ni chung, h khng s dng phn mm ch v thch (Game l mt ngoi l) m ch mun hon thnh cng vic ca mnh mt cch nhanh chng m khng phi c nhng ti liu hng dn s dng di dng. Ngoi ra, chng trnh cng phi d ci t. Ngi thit k giao din : H phi tm hiu xem ngi s dng mun g v hnh thc nh th no thng qua bng thit k mu thm d. Bng cch ny, ngi s dng truyn t ti ngi lp trnh bng ngn ng k thut. ng thi ngi thit k giao din cng quan tm n mt m thut, mu sc, quyt nh s dng nhng hiu ng m thanh, phim, hnh nh, thng tin... Ph hp vi c th ca cng vic ca ngi s dng..

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Tuy nhin ngi thit k giao din cn phi i mt vi nhng kh khn v th thch khng nh trong vic thit k dung ha sn phm va d dng thc hin ngi lp trnh, va tha mn yu cu ca ngi s dng nh : L thuc vo ngi lp trnh : Thng thng ngi thit k s to b cc v sp xp cc thnh phn nh hnh nh, nt lnh, khung, bng... Trong chng trnh nh Photoshop, Flash, Illustrator... v tham kho vi ngi lp trnh v kh nng thc hin. i khi bn thit k rt p, hp dn nhng khng th hin thc c do hn ch ca cng c xy dng phn mm ang thc hin, nn nh phi chnh sa li cho ph hp. V vy, ngi thit k GUI cng phi am hiu phn no v ngn ng lp trnh, gii php, cch b tr cc thnh phn nh theo dng khung (Frame), dng bng (Table) hay chia ct, ng thi cng a ra gii php tho lun vi ngi lp trnh c th t c gii php tt nht, hp dn, d thc hin, d s dng vi thi gian hp l nht.
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Thit k khng ng bng thng : y l im c trng ca ng dng trn Internet. Mi khu vc, mi nc u c bng thng khc nhau nn khi thit k giao din phi ch n iu ny. Vic s dng qu nhiu cc hnh nh, hiu ng, k xo tuy hp dn nhng s lm hn ch tc hin th. Thi gian hin th lu ngi s dng s cm thy mt mi, khng thch dng v s khng pht huy c ht kh nng. Ngc li, hn ch qu nhiu hnh nh, hiu ng, k xo th giao din s tr nn km hp dn. Khi thit k giao din th chng ta phi tm hiu k khch hng ca mnh s s dng bng thng no c gii php tht hp l. Di chuyn gia cc trang mn hnh trong chng trnh : Ngi thit k giao din phi quan tm n cch thc trnh by nhng nt lnh, Menu, Menu ph (Sub Menu) v tr hp l ngi dng d dng thc hin v theo di chng mt cch nhanh chng v nht qun.

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Yu cu ca khch hng khng , khng r rng : Khch hng a s l ngi khng chuyn v lp trnh v k thut. H c th l mt doanh nghip hay t chc on th nn khi h a ra yu cu phn ln l khng y , khng r rng. Nn vai tr ca ngi quan h vi khch hng cng khng km phn quan trng trong vic t vn, tm hiu v a ra c nhng gii php kh thi lm hi lng khch hng. Vic phi hp gia ngi quan h khch hng v ngi thit k giao din ha vi khch hng ly thng tin v a ra thng tin thch hp ng lc cng l mt gii php tt v ng c quan tm thit k mt giao din tt nht cho ngi s dng.

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2.1.4.3: Mt s giao din IPTV ca cc nh cung cp dch v

2.1.5 Cc gi tr gii hn : 2.1.5.1 Gii hn v bng thng cc i ca h thng: Bng thng l rng ph tn s phc v cho mt dch v truyn thng. V d: Sng pht thanh FM quc gia dng di tn t 80Mhz n 120 Mhz th bng thng l :120-80 = 40Mhz.

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Bng thng cc i ca h thng : Bng thng ln nht m h thng c th cung cp. H thng hin nay s dng phng thc Unicast (Dnh cho VoD) truyn d liu ti ngi s dng. Vi phng thc ny mi ngi s dng s chim mt kt ni c nh v mt bng thng c nh (Ty thuc vo t l nn ca d liu Video) ca h thng. V d : H thng c bng thng phc v khong 10Mbps, d liu Video theo yu cu c nn mc Data rate 700Kbps, nh vy h thng ch c kh nng h tr 10.024/700 ~ 14 ngi truy nhp ng thi. Ta c th khc phc nhc im ny bng cch nng cp cc Card giao tip mng c tc cao. Mc khc c th cu hnh h thng gii hn s ngi truy nhp ng thi cng nh bng thng cc i m h thng s dng. 2.1.5.2 Gii hn v bng thng ti thiu ca ngi dng :

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d liu hin th t cht lng, d liu a nhc hnh (Video Compact Disc - VCD) phi c nn ti thiu l 300Kbps v d liu a hnh s

(Digital Video Disc hay Digital Versatile Disc - DVD) phi c nn mc ti thiu l 500Kbps. DVD cho kh nng lu tr ln v hnh nh r hn VCD rt nhiu. DVD cn cho cc la chn v ph , phn phim ph v.v...V vy vi cc truy nhp Internet tc thp (Quay s - Dial up v mng s a dch v ISDN) s cho cht lng dch v km. d liu c hin th vi cht lng cao, ngi dng phi c kt ni Internet tc cao - ADSL. 2.1.5.3 Gii hn v dung lng lu tr: Cc d liu Video theo yu cu c lu tr trc tip trn a cng Video Server. C ba thng s quyt nh dung lng ca mi d liu Video : T l nn thc t (Datarate), th loi d liu (Cc b phim cha nhiu cnh hnh ng (High motion) s c dung lng ln hn cc b phim ch cha cc cnh tnh (Low

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motion) v di ca d liu. Ta c th tnh ton dung lng lu tr theo cng thc sau: (X Kbps x S giy)/8192 = Y MB vi: X : Datarate t l nn. S : di thi gian tnh bng giy. Y: Dung lng d liu.

nn di d liu (pht) 30 30 30 30 30 30

Dung lng d liu 4.8 MB 8.2 MB 11 MB 22 MB 66 MB 225 MB

(Datarate) 22 Kbps 37 Kbps 50 Kbps 100 Kbps 300 Kbps 1000Kbps

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Bng 2.1.5 3 Dung lng lu tr tnh theo t l nn Nh vy vi mt a cng 0.25GB ta ch c th lu tr khong hai b phim c nn t l 300 Kbps vi di 120 pht. Tuy nhin ta c th d dng khc phc gii hn ny bng cch gn thm cc cng dung lng ln. 2.1.5.4 Gii hn v tc c ghi a cng: Nu bng thng c coi nh p ng nhu cu ca h thng, dung lng RAM > 512, CPU Pentium IV tc t 1Ghz tr ln th kh nng ca h thng ch yu ph thuc vo tc ca a cng. Tc ca a cng ph thuc vo nn d liu v s kt ni yu cu d liu. Cng mt a cng c kh nng phc v tt cho mt s t kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate cao hn l cho nhiu hn cc kt ni yu cu d liu Datarate thp (V d: Phc v 4 kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate l 700Kbps s c hiu sut ln hn 28 kt ni 100Kbps mc d u c dung

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lng truyn ti l nh nhau 2800 Kbps) do mt t thi gian tm kim trn a cng vt l. Hin nay mt a cng tc cao c kh nng h tr ng thi 650 lung d liu c Datarate 22Kbps v 45 lung d liu c Datarate 700 Kbps. Tuy nhin vi cc h thng a cng s dng RAID 0.5 c tc ln ti 100Mbps ta c th d dng khc phc vn tc bng cch s dng ng thi nhiu a cng cha cng d liu c mt truy cp cao. RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks l hnh thc ghp nhiu a cng vt l thnh mt h thng a cng c chc nng gia tng tc c/ghi d liu hoc nhm tng thm s an ton ca d liu cha trn h thng a hoc kt hp c hai yu t trn. Vi cc thng s ti u v thit b phn cng ta c th c mt s nh gi v nng lc x l ca Video Server nh sau : Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 103Kbps ngi dng

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Dung lng b nh b chim trn mi 4700 Bytes Kbps ca lung d liu ra Mc s dng CPU / ngi dng Khng tuyn tnh Kh nng cung cp t ni S ngi dng ti u S ngi dng ti a 4000 5000

Bng 2.1.5.4.a : Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate 22K Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 103Kbps ngi dng Dung lng b nh b chim trn mi 1035 Bytes Kbp/s ca lung d liu ra Mc s dng CPU / ngi dng Khng tuyn tnh Kh nng cung cp t ni S ngi dng ti u
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1050
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S ngi dng ti a

1750

Bng 2.1.6.4.b: Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate 100K Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 441Kbps ngi dng Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 138Kbps ngi dng Dung lng b nh b chim trn mi 695 Bytes Kbp/s ca lung d liu ra Mc s dng CPU / ngi dng Khng tuyn tnh Kh nng cung cp t ni S ngi dng ti u S ngi dng ti a 800 1200

Bng2.1.5.4.c: Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate 200K

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Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 324Kbps ngi dng Dung lng b nh b chim trn mi 648 Bytes Kbp/s ca lung d liu ra Mc s dng CPU / ngi dng Khng tuyn tnh Kh nng cung cp t ni S ngi dng ti u S ngi dng ti a 400 470

Bng 2.1.5.4.d: Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate 500K Thiu mt bng y

Bng 2.1.5.4.e: Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c datarate 700K Dung lng b nh b chim bi mi 622Kbps ngi dng

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Dung lng b nh b chim trn mi 608 Bytes Kbp/s ca lung d liu ra Mc s dng CPU / ngi dng Khng tuyn tnh Kh nng cung cp t ni S ngi dng ti u S ngi dng ti a 300 350

Bng 2.1.5.4.f: Kh nng phc v Video Server vi kt ni yu cu d liu c Datarate 1M 2.2 Tnh nng ca sn phm IPTV : 2.2.1 Tnh hiu qu, kh dng: H thng h tr kh nng truy nhp ng thi d liu, kh nng gii hn bng thng v s ngi truy nhp cng lc m bo an ton v cht lng dch v. H thng c kh nng gim st cc hot ng ca ngi s dng thng qua kim tra cc thng tin c

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gi v nhn ca ngi s dng. Vic ny i hi cc thng tin cung cp phi c chuyn qua trung gian cc Server gim st no , nhng khng pht hin v khng gy ra mt thay i cu hnh no trn my ca khch hng. Vic gim st cng ch c tc dng i vi mt s ngi s dng nht nh do yu cu cn gim st thng tin c truy cp bi ngi s dng , khng lm chm tc truy cp mng i vi ngi s dng khng b gim st. H thng c kh nng nh gi lu lng t xa, cung cp giao din truy nhp cng nh qun l thn thin, d s dng n ngi s dng. C th kt ni d dng vo mng, c kh nng nng cp cao, hon ton pht trin bng phn mm nn c chi ph thp, d bo dng 2.2.2 tin cy : H thng IPTV c chc nng qun l nhn thc ngi s dng thng qua c s d liu khch hng nhm ngn cn vic truy cp tri php vo h thng

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mng ni b. Qun l nhn thc da trn tn ngi s dng v Password. Khi mt thao tc truy cp vo mng c thc hin (Kim tra ng User Name v Password) th h qun l nhn thc s gi n my tnh ca ngi dng ang xin truy cp vo mng mt chui cc k t gi l Challegen (Cu thm d), ngi s dng s nhp vo chc nng Token mt chui Challenge v s nhn c mt chui k t mi gi l s nhn dng c nhn (Personal Identification Number PIN). Nh PIN m ngi dng c th truy cp vo h thng mng. iu c bit l Challenge v PIN thay i tng pht mt, cc Token c th c nh v thay i kha m ty ngi s dng nn vic bo mt l gn nh tuyt i. H thng cn c chc nng gii hn cc truy cp bt hp php bng b lc Session thng minh y l c ch hot ng phi hp gia b lc Packet v cng ng dng cung cp mt ch an ninh cao. Vn hin nay l lm sao cung cp Proxy Server cho rt nhiu ng dng khc nhau ang pht trin t. iu
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ny c ngha l nguy c, p lc i vi vic nh la Firewall gia tng ln rt nhiu nu cc Proxy khng kp p ng. Trong khi gim st cc gi mc pha trn, nu nh lp mng i hi nhiu cng sc hn vi vic lc cc gi n gin th vic gim st cc giao dch lu thng mc mng i hi t cng vic hn. Cch ny cng loi b c cc dch v c th cho tng loi ng dng khc nhau. Nu kt hp kh nng ghi nhn thng tin v cc Session v s dng n to cc quy tc cho b lc th s c c b lc thng minh hn. chnh l c ch hot ng ca b lc thng minh. V mt Session mc mng c to bi hai gi Packet lu thng theo hai chiu, do nu thit k theo hai quy tc lc cho hai chiu ny th mt chiu dng kim sot cc gi Packet lu thng t Host pht sinh ra n n my ch v mt chiu kim sot cc gi Packet tr v my ch pht sinh. Mt b lc thng minh c thit k s nhn bit c gi Packet tr v theo chiu ngc li nn quy tc th hai
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l khng cn thit. Do vy cch nhn din cc gi Packet khng mong mun sinh ra t bn ngoi Firewall s khc bit rt r vi cch nhn din cc gi Packet do nhng kt ni c php (Ra bn ngoi). V nh vy d dng nhn dng cc gi Packet bt hp php. H thng IPTV c kh nng bo v d liu hin th qua c ch dng d liu Streaming y l c ch cho php cc Multimedia Server truyn i qua mng Internet cc dng d liu lin tip c th gii nn v hin th ngay lp tc khi ti pha ngi dng. iu ny lm cho d liu c bo v mt cch an ton khi truyn i. Nu ngis dng mun Download mt b phim ngn cng c th mt ti vi pht trong khi cc d liu Video s dng c ch Streaming ch mt vi giy c th hin th. Tnh nng ny khin cho c ch Streaming tit kim thi gian cho ngi s dng. H thng c kh nng chng li sao chp bt hp php ca ngi dng khi s dng cc lp (Layer) chuyn dng ghi li ni dung hin th bng cch
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tch hp cng c Plugin ca Media Player vo Website to ra mt giao din hin th duy nht. Plugin c hiu mt cch n gin l phng php n mt cng c phn mm do hng th ba to ra (Theo tiu chun ca cng ngh thng tin th th t c sp xp nh sau: Hng th nht l ni vit ra phn mm, th hai l ngi dng, th ba l cc hng vit ra cc phn h tr, tch hp cu lnh dng cho phn mm ca hng th nht). Plugin c to ra nhm gip cho ngi s dng c th to c mt s hiu ng, mt s hiu chnh c bit m phn mm th nht khng lm c hoc lm c th rt mt thi gian. a s Plugin cho php ngi s dng thao tc vi hiu qu thi gian thc. 2.2.3 Kh nng bo tr, sa i v nng cp: H thng c kh nng nng cp d dng, c th thm cc Video Server ti cng mt vng cung cp dch v chia ti hoc tng dung lng lu tr bng cch nng cp cng my ch.

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H thng c giao din qun l thn thin, c kh nng qun l v gim st cu hnh t xa thng qua mng Internet. 2.2.4 Kh nng thch nghi mi trng: Do h thng s dng cc thnh phn (Component) ca Microsoft nn h thng hon ton thch ng vi mi trng h iu hnh Windows. Hin nay, hng Microsoft mi cho ra mt phin bn ca Widows l Windows Vista vi nhiu tnh nng hon ton mi s h tr thm cho vic trin khai IPTV n vi khch hng mt cch tt nht. Vi Windowns Vista th khch hng s s dng my tnh ca mnh mt cch tin li, an ton v d dng hn v n cung cp cc chc nng c xem l rt cn thit gm : Tm kim an ton hn : Trnh duyt Internet Explorer trong Windows Vista s bo mt tt hn chng li cc Wed Site c hi v gip ngi s dng trnh c nhng v la o qua Email.
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Kim sot tt hn nhng chng trnh m tr con truy cp: Phn mm Windows Family Safety gip cc bc ph huynh gim st v qun l tt hn vic s dng my tnh ca con ci trnh nhng chng trnh khng lnh mnh. Bo v tt hn khi mi e da: Windows Vista s gip bo v my tnh khi nhng mi e da nguy him nh su my tnh, Virus v gin ip. Kh nng thch ng cao: Windows Vista s t iu chnh pht huy ti a hiu qu hot ng ca my tnh i vi mi c nhn s dng n. Khi a ra h iu hnh Windows Vista th hng Microsoft t ra rt lc quan v bm st nhu cu ca khch hng hin nay: Nhanh, gn, d chuyn i v an ton. Windows Vista s cho khch hng truy cp nhanh nhng chng trnh truyn hnh h mun v ng thi tn hng nhng chng trnh gii tr mi nht trn truyn hnh. 2.2.5 Ci t:

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Ngi qun tr c th d dng ci t v cu hnh h thng thng qua cc phn mm v hng dn s dng ca nh cung cp dch v. xem dch v truyn hnh IPTV th khch hng phi l ngi s dng Modem ADSL ca doanh nghip Vin thng cung cp dch v IPTV. Khch hng s dng dch v truyn hnh IPTV trn ti vi truyn thng th cn c thm b gii m Set-Top-Box (STB). Thit b STB kt ni gia Modem vi ti vi c chc nng chuyn i tn hiu IP thnh tn hiu Video, Audio hin th ln ti vi. Nu khch hng dng h iu hnh Windows mc nh c ci t IE (Internet Explorer) v Windows Medial Player th ch cn ci t WebBrowser v Medial Player theo hng dn ca nh cng cp dch v sau c th t chn knh truyn hnh m mnh mong mun.

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CHNG 3: H TNG MNG PHC V VIC TRIN KHAI DCH V IPTV 3.1 Khi qut v mng th h tip theo (Next Generation Network NGN) : NGN l mng hi t c thoi, Video v d liu trn cng mt c s h tng mng da trn nn tng IP, s dng hai phng thc truyn thng v tuyn v hu tuyn. NGN l s tch hp cu trc mng a dch v da trn h tng c sn v xy dng mi cng vi s hp nht cc h thng qun l v iu khin. Cc ng dng c bn bao gm dch v bng rng, dch v di ng, cng mt s dch v tim nng khc. Hin nay mi trng kinh doanh ngy cng mang tnh cnh tranh cao, yu cu cht lng v s lng
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dch v ngy cng tng th vic xy dng NGN l mt iu tt yu. NGN l bc tip theo trong lnh vc truyn thng th gii bng vic hp nht 03 mng hin c : Mng thoi cng cng PSTN, mng v tuyn, mng s liu hnh thnh mt cu trc mng chung thng minh, hiu qu. C th cp ti ba loi hnh dch v thc y s ra i ca NGN : Dch v truyn thng thi gian thc (Real Time Services - RTS) v phi thi gian thc (Non Real Time Services - NRTS); dch v ni dung (Content Services) v cc hot ng giao dch. NGN to iu kin cc nh cung cp dch v tng cng kh nng kim sot, tnh bo mt, tin cy v gim thiu c chi ph vn hnh. NGN c xy dng trn tiu ch mng m, cc giao thc chun v giao din thn thin p ng c cc nhu cu ca nhiu i tng s dng nh doanh nghip, vn phng, lin lc gia cc mng my tnh. NGN tch hp mng hu

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tuyn truyn thng v chun truyn ti m thanh, hnh nh, d liu trn mng hu tuyn v v tuyn. c xy dng trn cu trc phn lp theo chc nng v phn tn cc tim nng trn mng lm cho mng mm ha v s dng rng ri cc giao din m a truy nhp, a giao thc kin to cc dch v m khng ph thuc qu nhiu vo cc nh cung cp thit b v khai thc mng khc nhau. S tt yu xy dng, trin khai mng NGN xut pht t nhng nguyn nhn sau : Th nht : S bng n ca nghnh cng ngh thng tin v vin thng cng vi s xut hin cc nh cung cp dch v mi cnh tranh vi nhau trn th trng, mt lp nh cung cp dch v mi dn xut hin lun mun khng nh v tr ca mnh trn th trng. V d nhiu nh cung cp dch v la chn trin khai cc cng ngh mi nht nhm dnh u th trong vic tung ra dch v mi.

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Th hai : Yu cu v s pht trin cng ngh v cc dch v cht lng cao tng ln mt cch nhanh chng m ch c mng NGN mi p ng c. Th ba : Vic phi pht trin mng NGN m bo cc nhu cu vin thng hin c v trong tng lai ny sinh xu th hi t ca thit b u cui c kh nng h tr c y cc tnh nng dch v nh lin lc, truy xut thng tin, gii trTrong khi vn m bo c tnh di ng. Trong iu kin , mng Internet chc chn s vn ng vai tr l ngun cung cp thng tin chnh nhng mng truyn ti trung gian chc chn s l NGN. Tuy nhin vic trin khai NGN cng c nhng thch thc ng phi ch sau : V cht lng dch v : Vic tch hp thoi, m thanh, hnh nh, d liu trong mt nn tng mng thng nht i hi phi c mt phng thc p ng c yu cu cht lng ca tt c cc dch v y.

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V qun l : Phi m bo c cc dch v cng cng cho ngi dn hin nay nh dch v cu ho 114, dch v cp cu y t 115, Qu trnh chuyn tip : m bo c s chuyn tip t cu trc mng hin c sang cu trc mng NGN m khng gy xo trn ln v hot ng ca mng li cng nh l dch v. V bo mt : m bo c c ch bo mt cho tt c cc dch v trn nn tng mng thng nht NGN cng nh tng dch v ring l trn nn mng ring l hin c. V kinh t : Phi gii quyt c mi quan h v chi ph u t mng v gi c ca cc dch v ngy cng gim.. Nh vy, NGN l mng c h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, c cc doanh nghip vin thng truyn thng chn la thay th cng ngh chuyn mch knh hin nay. 3.2 M hnh mng:
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Hnh 3.2 : M hnh mng IPTV

Cc giao thc, tiu ch k thut c xy dng trn h thng mng IPTV c phn thnh nhng khi chc nng sau : - Mng li IP/MPLS. - Mng MAN- E. - DSLAM.
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3.2.1 Mng li IP/MPLS : Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS) ra i gii quyt nhng nhc im ca giao thc TCP/IP hin ang s dng trn mng Internet hin nay v p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao v cht lng dch v. Cc nhc im ca giao thc TCP/IP s dng chuyn mch gi truyn thng bao gm : Tc v tr : Chuyn mch IP truyn thng s dng giao thc TCP/IP c tc khng cao v tr ln dn n tnh trng mt gi, mt kt ni, Do c im vic nh tuyn ca giao thc IP truyn thng ch yu da vo phn tiu vi a ch ch lm nng ct. Kh nng m rng mng : Mng IP truyn thng kh nng m rng mng li v vic tch hp cc k thut, cng ngh mi trong cu hnh phn lp tham chiu theo m hnh OSI l rt kh khn.

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MPLS uc xem l gii php cho nhng vn ny. Vi kh nng chuyn tip nhanh, n gin, nh tuyn linh hot, tn dng ti nguyn v c bit cung cp dch v mng ring o (VPN) bo mt cao s gip cho MPLS chim u th trong hin ti v trong tng lai. MPLS kt hp cc u im k thut chuyn mch ca lp 2 (Layer 2) v k thut nh tuyn lp 3 (Layer 3). Do s dng nhn quyt nh chng tip theo phi truyn ti ca d liu trong mng nn b nh tuyn t lm vic hn v hot ng gn ging nh Switch. Nhn c th c dng thit lp phng thc cho qu trnh x l lu lng trong mng l yu t quan trng m bo cht lng dch v. Hin nay, h thng mng li IP/MPLS uc xy dng. Yu cu i vi mng li cung cp dch v IPTV nh sau : - S dng PIM-SM (PIM Spare Mode) thay th cho giao thc PIM - DM (PIM Dense Mode).

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i vi giao thc PIM - DM, khi c mt yu cu ca ngi dng mt mng con no th lu lng thng tin yu cu s c pht tn trn ton b cc thnh phn mng gy lng ph bng thng v ti nguyn. Cn i vi giao thc PIM SM th khi c yu cu ca khch hng ti mng con no th lu lng thng tin hu ch s c gi n mng con , do trnh lng ph bng thng. i vi ch Spare th cc lu lng thng tin yu cu ch gi n nhng Router c lin quan n khch hng yu cu. Ngc li th ch Dense khi c yu cu ca khch hng th lu lng c gi n tt c cc khch hng. Hin nay, cc thit b trn mng a phn cha c h tr IGMPv3 (L phin bn th 3 ca giao thc qun l nhm Internet - IGMP). IGMPv3 cho php cc nt mng lc cc lu lng ti v da trn a ch IP ngun thng qua mt tnh nng gi l truyn thng a phng tin theo tng ngun c bit (SSM).
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- S dng Ipv4 IP Version 4 l phin bn th t ca IP. N l mt dy s c nh danh cho mt my tnh kt ni vi Internet nhm m bo kh nng cung cp dch v ca cc thit b lp 2 (Layer 2) trong mng. - S dng thit b nh tuyn bin (PE) pha nh cung cp (Thit b nm ti vng bin ca mng li IP/MPLS) kt ni vi mng MAN bn di (Thit b nm ti cc Vin thng tnh). cung cp dch v IPTV v nhu cu pht trin thu bao ADSL trong thi gian ti, VNPT ch trng thc hin nh sau : - Tch BRAS v thit b nh tuyn bin pha nh cung cp - PE. - u t thit b nh tuyn bin t pha nh cung cp cho mt s tnh trin khai IPTV : S lng s c tnh ton da trn nng lc mng hin ti v s lng cng dch v IPTV c phn b.

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- u t BRAS cho cc tnh trng im nhm m bo kh nng cung cp dch v ADSL. - u t PE cho cc tnh da trn quan im tp trung theo vng a l. m bo cht lng dch v v kh nng hot ng ca thit b, khuyn ngh mt s tiu ch v kt ni nh sau : - Nh hn 500 thu bao IPTV trn 1 DSLAM. - Nh hn 5 DSLAM cung cp dch v IPTV trn 1 B chuyn mnh mng lu lng (Carier Ethenet Switch-CES) thu gom lu lng. - Mt thit b nh tuyn (SR) cung cp dch v cho khong 10.000 thu bao IPTV. 3.2.2 Mng MAN-E : y l mt mng da trn chun Ethernet phc v trn phm vi khu vc, thng thng l mt tnh hoc mt thnh ph. N l mt mng truy nhp kt ni cc thu bao v cc doanh nghip n mt mng WAN. Tng t nh mng Internet, nhng doanh

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nghip ln, nhng nh cung cp dch v vin thng ln, s dng mng MAN-E kt ni cc chi nhnh vo mng Intranet ca h. MAN-E lm chc nng thu gom lu lng ca cc thit b mng truy nhp lu lng (CES), cc khch hng kt ni trc tip vo mng MAN qua cc DSLAM chuyn ti lu lng trong ni b mng MAN, ng thi kt ni ln mng trc IP/MPLS NGN. Hin ti mng MAN-E ca cc n v thuc VNPT ang c xy dng. Mt s yu cu i vi mng MAN cung cp dch v IPTV nh sau : - S dng Switch lp 2 ca mng MAN cung cp dch v. Switch ny hot ng da trn cu trc iu khin a ch phng tin (Media Address Control-MAC). - S dng phin bn th 2 (IGMPv2) ca giao thc qun l nhm Internet (IGMP). IGMP l mt tp cc nguyn tc v th tc tn ti nh l

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mt phn mm trong mt b nh thao tc ca thit b mng. IGMP c s dng bi cc thit b IP (Nh my tnh c nhn c ni mng) thng bo cho cc thnh vin thuc nhm im a im ca chng n mt b nh tuyn im a im lin k. B nh tuyn ny t ng nhn din cc thit b ang nh tuyn d liu i v n. - S dng c ch Snooping/Proxy gim s lng cc bn tin thng bo gi ln. i vi giao thc IGMPv2, khi mt Host tham gia vo mt nhm, Router s truyn cc lu lng cho nhm thng qua mt phn on mng truyn ti no m khng ph thuc vo a ch ngun ca gi tin. C ch Snooping : Trong ch hot ng bnh thng, mt Host mun tham gia vo mt nhm Multicast phi lin lc vi cng Router Router a Host vo nhm Multicast. C ch Snooping cho php mt Switch gim st, tip nhn cc thng bo
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nhm (IGMP Membership Report) nhn din c nhm no ang c yu cu. S dng c ch Snooping gip cho cc Switch gi lu lng ch cho nhng nhm cn n v trnh lng ph bng thng. tng hiu qu hot ng th c ch Snooping yu cu phn cng phi h tr chc nng lc (bng phn cng) sao cho n c th phn bit s khc nhau gia bn tin IGMP Report v lu lng Multicast bnh thng. Khi CPU ca Switch cn phi nhn din c cc thng bo ca IGMP Report (Cng cc thng bo Multicast Router khc) bi v c ch Snooping c th lm tn tim nng x l ca CPU. Tuy nhin qu trnh truyn khung d liu i khng yu cu chu k iu khin ca CPU m ch cn phn cng ASIC - vi mch tch hp chuyn dng ca Switch thc hin. Nhng Switch th h trc, c bit l nhng Switch khng c lp 3 s khng th nhn dng c mt gi tin l ca IGMP. Cc Switch ny b rng buc v CPU bng cch gi tt c cc lu lng Multicast. Phn ln cc Switch hin i ngy
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nay h tr tnh nng lp 3 nhn bit IGMP, sao cho c ch Snooping s khng rng buc vo CPU. C ch Proxy : Proxy c ngha l ngi c y quyn, y nhim. C th hn l phn mm Microsoft Proxy Server. y l mt chng trnh qun l Server, nhm tng cng tnh bo mt v hiu qu ca Server. Microsoft khng nh n s gip tng tnh hiu qu ca cc mng ln bnh qun ti 50%. Proxy c chc nng ca mt bc tng la (Firewall) nhng c thm tin ch s dng mch cht (Cache) lu tr d liu. N hot ng nh mt cng vi kh nng bo mt ng cp Firewall gia mng cc b LAN v Internet. N s ngn chn vic ngi dng Internet truy cp ti cc a ch b mt. Bi vy, khi kt ni vi mt Proxy Server, khch hng phi chp nhn vic truy cp vo cc Website di quyn kim sot ca Proxy. truy nhp mt Website, sau khi nh a ch HTTP ca n xong, thay

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v s nhn ngay thng bo a ch c tm thy nh vi cc Server khng xi Proxy m ch dng bc tng la th s thy xut hin dng thng bo ang kt ni vi a ch. Sau nu kt ni c th mi xut hin dng thng bo ang m trang HTTP. Vic gim s lng cc bn tin thng bo gi ln khi s dng giao thc IGMPv2 vi c ch Snooping/Proxy th hin nh sau : - H tr Snooping ti nhng im c s lng thu bao khng qu ln. - H tr c hai c ch Snooping v Proxy ti nhng im c s lng thu bao ln. Nhn chung, i vi m hnh xy dng mng MAN hin ti, cc thit b hon ton kh nng cung cp dch v IPTV. Trong trng hp cc n v, cc doanh nghip yu cu s dng m hnh mng VPN Multicast th s u t thm cc thit b lp 3 a cu trc PIM xung su hn trong mng MAN. Ngoi ra, vi cc tnh, thnh ph c mng MAN-E h tr lp 3, trong tng lai khi s lng thu bao cng nh
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quy m mng IPTV ln th cn phng n a PIM xung mng MAN cp Tnh. 3.2.3 DSLAM : DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access

Multiplexer) l b ghp knh truy nhp ng dy thu bao s tp trung. B ghp knh l mt thit b in t m ha mt s tn hiu s thnh mt nh dng tn hiu s xc nh truyn trn mt phng tin truyn dn (Chng hn nh i dy cp). B ghp knh ny c nhim v m bo cc dch v ng thu bao s (DSL) nh ng thu bao s khng i xng ADSL trn i dy ng in thoi. DSLAM l mt thit b t pha tng i, l im kt cui ca kt ni ADSL. Hin ti mng li c rt nhiu loi DSLAM nh ATM - DSLAM v IP -DSLAM. m bo cung cp cc dch v. Dch v IPTV s c trin khai trn cc IP-DSLAM h tr ADSL2+, cc IP-DSLAM s dng trung k GE (Giga Ethernet) m bo bng

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thng cung cp dch v IPTV. Ti cc IP-DSLAM cn h tr c ch IGMP Proxy. Ngoi ra, DSLAM cn c kh nng cung cp dch v Triple Play (Dch v 3 trong 1), cung cp cho khch hng kh nng s dng 3 dch v trn mt i dy cp thu bao Internet ADSL2+ : IPTV, VoIP v Inetrnet. im khc bit ny so vi dch v Internet thng thng l do nh cung cp dch v s dng cng ngh tin tin tch hp 3 dch v ny v a n cho ngi dng cng lc 3 dch v ch vi mt i dy ng v qua hp Set-Top-Box vi cng ngh ng thu bao s tc cao. Hin nay, mng xDSL ca cc nh khai thc ti Vit Nam ch yu da trn kin trc ATM. Cc mng ny c pht trin tun theo khuyn ngh TR-059 ca din n DSL. Tuy p ng c nhu cu s dng Internet tc cao nhng dn l r nhng nhc im cn khc phc. V vy din n DSL a ra khuyn ngh TR-101 v vic chuyn sang pht trin cho mng truy nhp DSL h tr cc cng ngh ADSL2+,
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VDSL, QoS, IP Multicast bng cch tn dng cc li im do cng ngh mng MAN-E mang li. Trong TR-101 ngi ta a ra khi nim cng mng bng rng - BNG bao gm c chc nng BRAS v cc chc nng khc nht l khi c s dng lm b nh tuyn bin - ER. Mng Truy nhp c nh ngha trong TR-101 l phn mng kt ni gia cc nt truy nhp (Access Node) n cng mng bng rng. Nh vy, trong TR059 mng truy nhp da trn nn tng ATM, cn trong TR-101 mng truy nhp l Ethernet. C ch phn tch cc mng Ethernet thnh cc mng LAN o s dng giao thc 802.1Q v c b sung trong 802.1ad. Mng truy nhp Ethernet cn phi cung cp y cc tnh nng ca mt mng ATM c th cung cp, ngoi ra n cn cung cp cc tnh nng khc nh : - H tr u tin lu lng iu khin nghn. - H tr Multicast. - Cung cp tnh nng kh dng cao.

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- H tr kt ni 802.1ad. - Ngn tch ngi dng. Mng truy cp Ethernet cn phi h tr cho cc mng truy nhp trin khai v nht l n h tr mnh m mng MAN-E. l l do m chng ta c th s dng mng MAN chuyn lu lng DSL. Bn cnh , kin trc TR-101 yu cu cc cng mng bng rng cn h tr cc tnh nng sau : - Cn c kh nng kt cui lp Ethernet v cc giao thc tng ng. - Cn b sung tnh nng tng ng vi tnh nng nh xc nh mch vng, cht lng dch v trn Ethernet, an ninh v tnh nng bo tr, bo dng Kin trc TR-101 h tr dng hai cng mng bng rng BNG song song. Theo kin trc ny th c hai BNG khng cn phi h tr ton b tnh nng m ch cn mt BNG c h tr. BNG cn li (v d ta dng lm BNG cho Video) s khng cn ci t tnh nng qun l thu bao. Vic trin khai nhiu hn hai cng
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mng bng rng cng c cp ti trong khuyn ngh. Trong khuyn ngh TR-101 c cc tnh nng h tr Multicast bao gm : - S dng lp 2 hiu qu thng qua c ch VLAN N:1. - H tr IGMP lp 2 v lp 3. - H tr nhiu im trch xut ni dung. - H tr Multicast VLAN trong mng truy nhp. - IP (V c IGMP) c ng gi trc tip bng khung Ethernet. - Cng ngi s dng thuc nhiu VLAN. M hnh thc hin khai bo nhiu Mch knh o (MPVC) cho dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao HSI, IPTV v VoIP. Tp on Bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam - VNPT c th p dng 02 m hnh khai bo ty theo cch qun l v khai thc cng nh cc loi thit b c trn mng.

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- HSI 1:1 VLAN, VoD & BTV N:1, c th nh hnh v sau :

Hnh 3.2.3a: M hnh HSI 1:1 VLAN, VoD & BTV N:1

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- HSI N:1 VLAN, VoD & BTV N :1, c th nh hnh v sau :

Hnh 3.2.3b: M hnh HSI N:1 VLAN, VoD & BTV N:1

3.2.4 M hnh cung cp dch v: i vi dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao HSI, thu bao thc hin phin PPPoE - Giao thc im - im qua Ethernet n BRAS. BRAS c th phc v nhiu DSLAM cng mt lc v l cu ni quan trng gia DSLAM v nh cung cp dch v. BRAS c xem nh l tng i qu giang v nhng
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x l phc tp trn mng u tp trung BRAS. BRAS cung cp a ch IP cho tng kt ni PPPoE, chuyn tip cc lu lng ra Internet. i vi cc dch v VoIP v Video, a ch IP c cp pht ng bng th tc cu hnh host ng DHCP. DHCP l vit tt ca Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Giao thc Cu hnh Host ng - DHCP c thit k lm gim thi gian hiu chnh cu hnh cho mng dng TCP/IP bng cch t ng gn cc a ch IP cho khch hng khi h vo mng. DHCP tp trung vic qun l a ch IP cc my tnh trung tm chy chng trnh DHCP. Mc d c th gn a ch IP vnh vin cho bt c my tnh no trn mng nhng th tc DHCP cho php gn t ng. khch hng c th nhn a ch IP t my ch DHCP th cn khai bo cu hnh khch hng c th nhn a ch t ng t mt my ch. Ty chn (Option) ny xut hin trong vng khai bo cu hnh

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TCP/IP ca a s h iu hnh. Mt khi ty chn ny c thit lp, khch hng c th thu ngn hn mt a ch IP t my ch DHCP bt c lc no. Yu cu phi c t nht mt my ch DHCP trn mng thc hin chc nng ny. Sau khi ci t DHCP th cn to ra mt phm vi DHCP thc cht l vng cha mt dy a ch IP trn my ch v my ch phn phi mt a ch IP no trong vng ny. DHCP to thun li rt ln i vi ngi iu hnh mng. N lm yn tm v cc vn c hu pht sinh khi phi khai bo cu hnh th cng. Chng ta hy xem php so snh di y bit DHCP lm gim bt cng vic nh th no : Khi khng c DHCP: Khi cu hnh th cng, ngi iu hnh phi gn a ch cho mi my trm trn mng. Ngi dng phi gi n ngi iu hnh bit a ch IP v khng mun ph thuc vo h cu hnh a ch IP. Vic cu hnh nhiu a ch IP c kh nng dn n li, rt kh theo di v s dn n li truyn thng trn mng. Hn na vic gn a ch IP
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ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

tnh s dn n ht a ch IP i vi mng con no hoc i vi ton mng nu ngi iu hnh khng qun l cn thn cc a ch IP cp pht. Ngi iu hnh phi thay i a ch IP my trm nu n chuyn sang mng con khc. Ngi dng khi i t ni ny n ni khc s c nhu cu thay i a ch IP nu h mun kt ni vi mng con khc. Khi c DHCP : My ch DHCP s t ng cho ngi dng thu a ch IP khi h vo mng ti bt c u v vi bt k mng con no. Nh ta bit, giao thc DHCP (Khng h tr Option 82) cha ng nhiu vn v bo mt, nht l vn xc thc thu bao. V vy, nh cung cp dch v c th xc thc v iu khin quyn cp pht a ch IP cho ngi dng, cc DSLAM s c tnh nng DHCP Relay v h tr tu chn hay cn gi l tu chn 82 khi nhn c gi tin qung b. DSLAM s a thm cc thng tin nh a ch kt ni hay m nh dng ca DSLAM (trong trng Option 82) ri mi chuyn tip cho DHCP Server. Nh vo
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thng tin ny m vic qun l thu bao theo v tr kt ni c th thc hin c. Trong giai on u, DHCP Server s c t ti IPTV Center. Trong nhng giai on tip theo, khi s lng thu bao tng ln, s y DHCP Server xung cc vng bin cc mng MAN - E. M hnh cung cp dch v IPTV s c cu trc nh sau :

Hnh 3.2.4 : M hnh v giao thc cung cp dch v IPTV

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3.2.5 Quy hoch a ch IP: Khi ta truyn mt bn tin TCP/IP, cc gi tin c nh tuyn thng qua a ch IP. N bao gm 02 phn nhn dng mng - Net ID v nhn dng my ch - Host ID. a ch IP gm 05 lp A, B, C, D, E. Hin ti dng ht lp A, B v gn ht lp C, lp D v E t chc Internet ang dnh cho cc mc ch khc khng phn. m bo s lng a ch IP, vic cung cp a ch cn thc hin theo mt s tiu ch sau : - S dng a ch ring ca my ch. - Cung cp a ch lp B c a ch mng va phi v a ch trn tng my ch va phi. a ch IP lp B gm 04 Octet, mi Octet l mt byte tc l 08 Bit. Cc Octet cch nhau bng du (.).

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Hai Octet u tin c 16 bit. Trong a ch mng cn 02 bit (Bit 1 v bit 2) tnh t tri sang c ga tr ln lt l 1 v 0 dng nhn dng a ch lp B. 14 Bit cn li s phn cho a ch mng - Net ID. Cch tnh a ch mng trn lp B nh sau : Th t Bit Gi Th t a ch mng

tr 2n 1 1 1 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0

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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Khn g phn

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 213 ++21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 213 20

16 382 Khn

++21+ g phn

Lu khi m s bit ta m t tri qua phi nhng khi tnh gi tr thp phn 2n ca Bit li tnh t phi qua tri.

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Th t a ch mng khng phn trong trng hp tt c cc bit trong 14 bit dng cho a ch mng u bng 0 hoc u bng 1. Quy nh ny p dng cho tt

c cc a ch. Vy gi tr thp phn ch th t a ch mng t 1 n 16.382 ng vi 16.382 a ch phn cho cc mng. a ch cc my ch trn mt mng : Tnh a ch cc my ch trn mt mng : Th t Bit Gi Th t a ch mn g
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n 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 tr 2

5 4 3 2 1 0

ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000

Kh ng ph n

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 21+20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 215

1 2 3

65

++21 534 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 215 +20 Kh

++21 ng ph n

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S lng a ch phn cho my ch trong mt mng l : (216 2 ) = 65.534 a ch. Nh vy khi s dng a ch lp B c th phn a ch cho 16.382 mng v mi mng c n 65.534 a ch my ch. Tuy nhin do mi DSLAM l mt mng LAN o nn cn xc nh r s lng thu bao ti a trn mt DSLAM c phng n ti u phn chia a ch hp l. - Cu hnh DHCP cho php cung cp a ch theo cc lp mng khc nhau v c phn chia theo tiu ch : Tnh . Switch. DSLAM. 3.3 Yu cu tnh nng ca thit b : 3.3.1 Thit b mng: 3.3.1.1 Thit b nh tuyn bin pha nh cung cp - PE: Thit b ny s dng cc giao thc sau :
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S dng giao thc IGMPv2. Giao thc ny c c im l : - Gi tr ca Octet u tin trong thng bo truy vn Query l : 0.x.1.1. - a ch ca nhm cho thng bo truy vn l : 0.0.0.0. - a ch ch cho thng ip truy vn l : 224.0.0.1. - Thi gian truy vn mc nh l : 125 giy. - Gi tr ca Octet u tin ca thng bo Report l : 0.x.1.6. - a ch nhm cho thng bo Report l a ch nhm Multicast. - a ch ch ca thng bo bo co l a ch nhm Multicast. - C c ch lm gim thng bo Report. - Thi gian tr li ti a c th c cu hnh t 0 n 25,5 giy. - Mt Host c th gi thng ip ri khi nhm.

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- a ch ch cho thng bo ri khi nhm l : 224.0.0.2. - Mt Router c th gi mt thng bo cho tng nhm c th. - Mt Host khng th gi mt thng bo bo co cho tng nhm v tng ngun c th. - Router khng th gi truy vn cho tng ngun v tng nhm c th. - IGMPv2 tng thch vi phin bn ca IGMP l IGMPv1. S dng giao thc PIM SM : Giao thc nh tuyn Multicast theo ch Spare. Giao thc ny ch truyn lu lng ca nhm ti Router khi n nhn c mt thng bo yu cu. Cc bn sao ca gi tin c gi ti mt nhm Multicast ring bit. S dng giao thc DHCP Relay : Giao thc chuyn tip cu hnh Host ng. cc bn tin qung b t DHCP Client vt qua Router n vi DHCP Server th ta dng DHCP Relay. DHCP Relay l mt thc th trung gian, n cho
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php cc bn tin qung b thng b chn ngay b nh tuyn v t DHCP Client n DHCP Server. Ngoi ra DHCP Relay cn b sung cc thng tin hu ch vo cc gi tin DHCP trc khi cc DHCP ny c chuyn tip. 3.3.1.2 Switch lp 2 v DSLAM : a. Switch lp 2 : Lp 2 (Layer 2) y khng phi l tn m l t km theo m t chc nng ca n l lp my trong m hnh tham chiu kt ni cc h thng m OSI. Hin nay xut hin mt s Switch mi cao cp, cung cp thm cc lp cao hn (Nh lp 3,) c gi l Multi - Layer Switch. V th m t mt cch c th chc nng ca thit b Switch th nn m t lp ca n l Switch lp 2 hay l Multi - Layer Switch. Switch lp 2 dng cc giao thc theo cc c ch trnh by trn :

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- Giao thc qun l nhm theo c ch u quyn Proxy. - Giao thc qun l nhm Internet theo c ch thm d - Snooping. - Giao thc phn gii a ch - ARP. ARP l mt giao thc da trn nguyn tc : Khi mt thit b mng mun bit a ch vt l (MAC) ca mt thit b mng no m n bit a ch tng mng Network (IP, IPX...) th n s gi mt yu cu (ARP Request) bao gm a ch vt l MAC ca n v a ch IP ca thit b m n cn bit a ch MAC trn ton b mt min Broadcast. Mi mt thit b nhn c Request ny s so snh a ch IP trong ARP Request vi a ch tng mng Network ca mnh. Nu trng a ch th thit b phi gi ngc li cho thit b gi ARP Request mt gi tin Packet, trong c cha a ch MAC ca mnh. b. DSLAM :

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Ngoi nhng giao thc trn th DSLAM cn s dng thm cc giao thc nh : Giao thc Ethernet : Nu ng Uplink ca DSLAM l Ethernet th ta gi n l IP - DSLAM. Nu ng Uplink ca DSLAM l ATM th n l ATM DSLAM. IP - DSLAM kt ni n BRAS theo giao thc Ethernet v vy ny sinh kt ni PPPoE t cc Modem ADSL ca khch hng ti BRAS. DHCP Option 82 : DHCP Option 82 gii quyt c mt s vn lin quan ti bo mt. Cc vn bo mt c gii quyt bao gm : Bn tin qung b DHCP. Cn kit a ch DHCP. Gn a ch tnh. Gn a ch tnh IP. Gii m nh danh khch hng. Gii m a ch MAC. Ngoi ra, DSLAM cn iu khin lu lng Multicast mt cch hp l.

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3.3.2 Thit b lu tr ni dung : - VoD : Vi 1.000 gi cho chng trnh VoD ta cn thit b c dung lng ti thiu : 1.000*3.600*.2.0/8 = 0.9 TB (Tera Byte). - TvoD : Truyn hnh theo yu cu vi 10 knh, 04 ngy ta cn thit b c dung lng ti thiu l : 10*4*24*3600*2.0/8 = 0.864 TB. - Times-Shifted TV (Truyn hnh trc tuyn) : Vi 20 knh, 12 gi ta cn thit b c dung lng ti thiu l : 20*12*3.600*2.0/8 = 0.216 TB. 3.3.2.1 Trung tm IPTV : - Ni dung VoD chim khong 0.9 TB. - Ni dung TVoD chim khong 0.864 TB. 3.3.2.2 Trung tm min IPTV : - Ni dung VoD, lu tr khong 90% Node trung tm tc l khong 0.81 TB.

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- TVoD

vi

10

knh,

04

ngy

10*4*24*3600*2.0/8 = 0.864 TB. - Times Shifted TV : Lu tr khong 0.216 TB. 3.4 Yu cu v mng ngoi vi : Trong d n xy dng cu trc mng MAN - E, h thng DSLAM c phn b tng i ng u ti cc khu dn c vi khong cch t thu bao ti DSLAM ln nht l 4Km. Vi khong cch 4Km, ngi dng c th s dng cc dch v truy cp Internet vi cht lng m bo. Tuy nhin, cung cp dch v nh IPTV, bng thng n ngi s dng phi tng i ln (>5 Mbps). Do vy, vi h thng cp ng hin nay, khuyn ngh cung cp dch v IPTV cho nhng thu bao cch DSLAM ln nht l 2,5 Km. 3.5 Modem v Set - Top - Box (STB) : s dng dch v IPTV th khch hng phi l nhng ngi ang s dng dch v ADSL ca nh cung cp dch v. Bn cnh , phi c cc thit b

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u cui nh Modem v b gii m STB do nh cung cp dch v cung cp. Modem (Vit tt ca Modulate And Demodulate) l mt thit b iu ch, gii iu ch v m ha d liu s. Mt v d quen thuc nht ca Modem bng tn ting ni l chuyn tn hiu s 1 v 0 ca my tnh thnh m thanh c th truyn trn ng dy in thoi ca dch v POTS. Sau khi nhn c u kia, tn hiu m thanh c chuyn tr v tn hiu s 1 v 0. Modem thng c phn loi bng d liu truyn, nhn trong mt khong thi gian, thng c tnh bng n v Bit/giy. STB l thit b thu nhn tn hiu IP ri gii m chng thnh tn hiu Audio v Video hin th trn tivi. Ni d hiu hn th xem c IPTV trn ti vi thng thng khch hng phi trang b b gii m STB. Khi c STB khch hng va xem c truyn hnh trn ti vi va s dng ng thi Internet. Km theo

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STB l mt thit b iu khin cm tay Remote Control. N khng ch thc hin cc chc nng iu khin t xa m cn tch hp cc tnh nng tng tc nh : Xem lch chng trnh truyn hnh, t lch xem theo s thch, 3.6 Bng thng h thng: 3.6.1 Bng thng yu cu : Tnh ton bng thng cung cp dch v : S ngi s dng ng thi : S ngi s dng Multicast ng thi : 100% s ngi s dng IPTV. S ngi s dng Unicast ng thi : 20% s ngi s dng IPTV tng ng khong 12.000 ngi s dng ng thi Unicast. Node Trung tm : 10% thu bao VoD s dng ng thi ng vi 12.000*10% = 1.200 ngi. Thu bao VoD s dng ng thi ti cc Node c tnh ton nh sau:

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Trung tm Node : 10% thu bao s dng ng thi ng vi 60.000*20%*10% = 1.200 ngi H Ni cn cung cp : 20.000*20%*90% = 3.600 ngi. H Ch Minh cn cung cp : 20.000*20%*90% = 3.600 ngi. Hi Phng, Nng, Bnh Dng, ng Nai : 5.000*20%*90% = 900 ngi. Nh vy bng thng c tnh ton nh sau : - Mi knh truyn hnh yu cu bng thng 2 Mbps. - Bng thng Multicast cn thit : 100*2.0Mbps = 200 Mbps. - Bng thng Unicast cn thit Trung tm Node : 1.200*2.0 Mbps = 2.4Gbps. - H Ni v H Ch Minh : 7.2 Gbps. - Hi Phng, Nng, Bnh Dng, ng Nai : 900*2.0Mbps = 1.8 Gbps.
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3.600*2.0 Mbps =

ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

- Bng thng cn thit cho STB nng cp, ni dung phn phi, truy nhp EPG: Bng thng cho STB nng cp : 400 Mbps. Bng thng cho ni dung phn phi : 300 Mbps. Bng thng cho truy nhp EPG : 300 Mbps. 3.6.2 o th bng thng h thng mng: o c bng thng th chng ta s dng cc phn mm o th bng thng v cc cng c qun tr ca hng cung cp thit b. Cch o di y ch p dng cho mt ngi s dng truy cp vo Website. Nu mun tnh tng bng thng th phi dng phng php tnh trung bnh. thc hin vic ny khch hng cn mt my tnh kt ni Internet + trnh duyt Web (Internet Explorer - IE). Cc bc tin hnh o bng thng khi c mt ngi truy cp vo Website :

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Bc 1: Xa ton b cc File lu trong th mc C:\Documents And Setting\Administrator\Local

Setting\Temporary Internet Files. Bc 2: S dng trnh duyt IE duyt trang Web. Ton b ni dung trong Website s c lu trong th mc Temporary Internet Files. Trong ngy khch hng mun o bng thng th phi s dng my tnh truy cp vo mt trang Web. Nu trong mt ngy trung bnh truy cp 20 trang th ton b 20 trang ca Website s c Download ton b v my tnh ca khch hng. Gi s, trung bnh mi trang cn ti v 300KB vy s lng l 20 trang th dung lng ti v trong mt ngy l 20*300K = 6.000K = 6M. Nh vy trung bnh mi ngy phi mt 6M cho bng thng. Trong trng hp s ngi truy cp l 20 ngi th con s 6M c tng ln 20 ln. Vy s bng thng phi tn cho mt ngy vi s lng 20 ngi truy cp Website l 20*6 = 120M. Qua cch tnh trung bnh trn th c th tnh ra bng thng s dng (Tnh theo thng) l bao nhiu. Trong trng hp trung bnh
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thng c 30 ngy th bng thng s dng s l 30*120 = 3.600M = 3.6 GB. 3.7 L trnh v ni dung d in trin hai

IPTV ti tnh Lm ng : 3.7.1 L trnh thc hin : L trnh thi gian cung cp dch v: Cui nm 2008 s cung cp dch v IPTV. Giai on u cung cp cc dch v c bn nh Live TV, VoD, Times Shift TV. 3.7.2 Ni dung d kin trin khai : 3.7.2.1 Knh truyn hnh : D kin h thng IPTV ban u s cung cp khong 32 knh truyn hnh bao gm cc knh truyn hnh trong nc v quc t, trong chia nhm nh sau : a) Knh truyn hnh trong nc : Cc knh c th xem xt pht trn h thng IPTV bao gm VTV1, VTV2, VTV3, VTV4, VTV5, truyn hnh TP.HCM,

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truyn hnh VNN, truyn hnh H Ni, truyn hnh cc a phng. b) Knh truyn hnh quc t : Cc knh truyn hnh quc t c th xem xt pht trn h thng IPTV gm c : Truyn hnh nc ngoi : Australia Network, RAI, OPT, CCTV4, CCTV9, DW, TV5 Asie, Arirang, NHK world. Truyn hnh theo ch : C th la chn trong s cc knh di y

TT 1 2 3 4

Knh FTV ESPN/StarSport MTV StarWorld

Ch Thi trang Th thao m nhc Gii tr tng hp

National

Gii tr tng

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Geographic 6 Animax

hp Gii tr tng hp

7 8

Discovery Travel Living and

Khm ph Khm ph

9 10 11

Animal Planet Disney (Chu ) Playhouse Disney

Khm ph Thiu nhi Thiu nhi

12

Cartoon Network

Thiu nhi

13 14 15 ) 16

HBO AXN Cinemax (Chu

Phim truyn Phim truyn Phim truyn

Hallmark

Phim truyn

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M 17 TVB Phim HongKong 18 19 20 21 MGM Xingkong StarMovies CNN tc 22 BBC World tc Thi s tin Phim truyn Phim truyn Phim truyn Thi s tin

3.7.2.2 VoD : Giai on u d in cung cp hong 00000 u ch ng trnh VoD : a) Phim theo yu cu : Phim Vit Nam : Chia thnh cc th loi Phim chin tranh. Phim tnh cm.
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Phim thiu nhi (Phim thn thoi + Phim hot hnh). Phim ti liu. Phim truyn hnh. Phim khoa hc. Phim sinh vin. Phim hp tc vi ncngoi. Phim nc ngoi : Phn chia theo th loi phim : Thn thoi, tm l, hi, hnh ng, kinh d, thiu nhi, gi thng, v thut, kinh in. Phn chia theo nc sn xut : M, Hn Quc, Trung Quc Phn chia theo loi phim : Phim Movies v phim di tp. Phn chia theo loi phim mi pht hnh, Phim hot v phim pht hnh trc nm 2007. b) Chng trnh th thao. c) Chng trnh ca nhc. d) Chng trnh thi trang.
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e) Gameshow truyn hnh. Cc dch v gia tng khc: - NPVR : L mt dch v gii tr trong h thng IPTV ghi v pht li ni dung ca cc knh truyn hnh. Khng nht thit phi ghi li tt c cc knh truyn hnh, NPVR s gii hn trc ch nhng chng trnh c chn, nhng chng trnh ny c th c ghi li vi mc ch iu khin lu tr d liu. - Times Shift TV : Tnh nng tm dng TV l tnh nng gip ngi xem c th tm dng knh truyn hnh ang pht v c th xem tip sau . V d ngi xem tm dng khi cn nghe in thoi, sau khi cuc gi kt thc ngi xem c th tip tc xem chng trnh TV t thi im tm dng trc hoc xem tip nh bnh thng. C th c mt s dch v khc : Shoping, Wallgarden, Chat, Games,

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BNG PH LC ADSL Asymmetric Digital ng dy thu bao s bt i xng

Subscriber Line API

Application Program Giao din chng Interface trnh ng dng Resolution Giao thc phn gii a ch Streaming nh dng lung

ARP

Address Protocol

ASF

Active Format

tch cc Specific Vi mch tch hp chuyn dng Phng thc truyn ti khng ng b

ASIC

Application

Intergrated Circuit ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode B-RAS Broadband Access Server BSS CAM Base Station System Cotent

Remote My ch truy nhp t xa bng rng H thng trm gc

Address Nh a ch ni
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Memory CD CES Compact Disk Circuit Service CO CoS CPE Central Office Class of Service Customer Equiment CPU Central Unit DHCP Dynamic Configuration Protocol DRM Digital Management DSL Digital Line DSLAM Digital
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dung a Compact

Emulation Dch v m phng mch Tng i trung tm Lp dch v

Premise Thit b thuc nh ring thu bao Processing Khi x l trung tm Host Giao thc cu hnh trm ng

Right Qun l quyn truy nhp s

Subscriber ng dy thu bao s Subscriber B ghp knh truy


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Line Multiplexer DVD EPG

Access nhp

ng

dy

thu bao s a a nng s

Digital Video Disk Electronic Guide

Program Cc ch dn lp trnh in t B nh tuyn bin

ER FTTB

Ebge Router

Fiber To The Building Cp quang ti to nh

FTTC

Fiber To The Curb

Cp quang ti cm dn c

FTTH

Fiber To The Home

Cp quang ti tn nh

HDTV

High TeleVision

Definition Truyn hnh nt cao Internet tc cao

HIS HTML

High Speed Internet

Hyper Text Markup Ngn ng nh du Language siu vn bn thc truyn

HTTP

Hyper Text Transfer Giao

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Protocol IAD Integrated Device IPTV Internet TelVision ISDN Integrated

siu vn bn Access Thit b truy nhp tch hp Protocol Truyn hnh bng giao thc Internet Services Mng s lin kt a dch v

Digital Network IGMP Internet

Group Giao thc qun l

Management Protocol nhm Internet JPEG Joint Photographic Nhm lin hp cc chuyn gia ho

Experts Group MAC Medial Control

Address iu khin a ch phng tin

MAN Metro Area Network Mng vng th E - Ethernet dng Ethernet MoD Music On Demand m nhc theo yu cu giao thc

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MPLS

Multi Switch

ProtocolLabel Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc Picture Nhm chuyn gia hnh nh ng Dch v tin nhn a phng tin mng tru

MPEG

Motion Experts Group

MMS

Multimedial Messaging Service

NAL

Network Abstraction Lp Layer tng

NGN

Next Network

Generation Mng th h tip theo Time Dch v truyn

NRTS

Non Services

Real

thng thi gian thc System Kt ni cc h thng m

OSI

Open

Interconnection OSS Operations Systems PC PSTN Personal Computer Public

Support H thng h tr khai thc My tnh c nhn in thoi

Switched Mng

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Telephone Network

chuyn mch cng cng

PKI

Public Infrastructure

Key C s h tng kho cng cng Xem truyn hnh tr tin

PPV

Pay Per View

PPPoE

Point

to

Point

to Giao thc im ti

Protocol Ethernet POST

Over im qua Ethernet

Plain old Telephone Dch v in thoi Network truyn thng S nhn dng c nhn

PIN

Personal Indentification Number

PE

Provider Edge

Thit b nh tuyn bin pha nh cung cp

PVR

Personal

Video My ghi hnh c

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Recoder PVC Permanent VirtualCircuit QoS RAID Quality Of Service

nhn Knh o c nh

Cht lng dch v

Redundant Array Of H thng a d Inexpen Sive Disks phng Mng thc Dch v truyn

RM RTS

Real Medial Real Time Service

thng thi gian thc SDK Software Development Kit SDH Synchronous Hierarchy SQL Structure Language STB Set Top Box Query Ngn ng truy vn c cu trc Hp thu pht t nc SHDSL Singe High Digital DSL tc cao trn
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B cng c pht trin phn mm

Digital Phn cp s ng b

ti: Cng ngh v dch v IPTV v kh nng trin khai trn mng bng rng

Speed Line SR SSM Service Router Single Message TCP/IP

ng dy n Dch v nh tuyn

Segment Bn tin mt on

Transmission Control Giao Protocol/Internet Protocol khin

thc

iu truyn thc

dn/Giao Internet

ToS TV TvoD

Type of Service TeleVision TeleVision Demant

Loi dch v Truyn hnh on Truyn hnh theo yu cu

UDP

User Protocol

Datagram Giao thc gi d liu ngi dng

VCD VoD VoIP

Video Compact Disks a nhc hnh Video on Demand Voice Protocol on Video theo yu cu bng giao

Internet Thoi

thc Internet
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VLAN

Virtual Local Area Mng o cc b Network

WAN

Wide Area Network

Mng din rng

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