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Chng 2

CHNG 2

CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG PON

2.1 Gii thiu mng quang th ng Passive Optical Network (PON)


PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network hay cn gi l mng quang th ng. Cng ngh mng quang th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh quang truy nhp gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng. Cng ngh PON c bit ti u tin l TPON (Telephony PON) c trin khai vo nhng nm 90, tip nm 1998, mng BPON (Broadband PON) c chun ha da trn nn ATM. Hai nm 2003 v 2004 nh du s ra i ca hai dng cng ngh Ethernet PON (EPON) v Gigabit PON (GPON), c th ni hai cng ngh ny m ra c hi mi cho cc nh cung cp dch v gii quyt hng lot vn truy nhp bng thng rng ti ngi s dng u cui. Thnh vin mi nht trong gia nh PON l WDM PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexer PON). Trong cng ngh PON, tt c thnh phn ch ng gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc thit b quang th ng, iu hng cc lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn chia nng lng ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. V vy m ngi ta gi l cng ngh mng quang th ng (PON). V tr ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l mt dng ca mng truy nhp quang. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng. N c t gn u cui khch hng v trin khai vi s lng ln.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Mng truy nhp tn ti nhiu dng khc nhau do nhiu l do khc nhau v PON l mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn bng thng (hng THz). Vic trin khai si quang n tn nh thu bao s l mc ch pht trin trong tng lai. Vi nhng u im vt tri, mng quang th ng PON( Passive Optical Network) l mt s la chn thch hp nht cho mng truy nhp.

2.2 Tng quan v cng ngh PON


Mng quang th ng PON c trnh by nh Hnh 2.1, s dng phn t chia quang th ng trong phn mng phn b nm gia thit b ng truyn quang Otical Line Terminal (OLT) v thit b kt cui mng quang Optical network Unit (ONU).

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 2.1: M hnh mng quang th ng Trong cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau: Passive slitter Feeder Fiber Central office : B chia th quang th ng : Cp Feeder : Vn phng trung tm

Distribution fiber : Phn phi quang

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Management system : H thng qun l Passive splitter : B chia th ng Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn b quang (hay cn gi l mng quang ngoi vi), bao gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b tch /ghp quang th ng, cc u ni v cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t tch cc nh OLT v cc ONU u nm u cui ca mng PON. Tn hiu trong PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang hoc c kt hp li v truyn i trn mt si quang thng qua b ghp quang, ph thuc tn hiu i theo hng ln hay xung ca mng quang th ng PON. Mng quang th ng (PON) c xy dng nhm gim s lng cc thit b thu, pht v si quang trong mng thng tin quang FTTH. PON l mt mng im ti a im, mt kin trc PON bao gm mt thit b u cui knh quang c t ti trm trung tm ca nh khai thc dch v v cc b kt cui mng cp quang ONU/ONT (Optical Network Unit/Optical Network Terminator) t ti gn hoc ti nh thu bao. Gia chng l h thng phn phi mng quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network) bao gm cp quang, cc thit b tch ghp th ng.

2.3 c im ca PON
c trng ca h thng PON l thit b th ng phn phi si quang n tng nh thu bao s dng b chia c th ln ti 1:128. PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet. PON h tr cc dch v thoi, d liu v hnh nh vi tc cao v kh nng cung cp bng thng rng.

Trong h thng PON, bng thng c chia s cho nhiu khch hng iu ny s lm gim chi ph cho khch hng s dng. Cng nh kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn, TDMA v cung cp bng thng ng gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia OLT v b chia. PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si quang. PON c th h tr m hnh: hnh cy, sao, bus v ring.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

2.4 Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON 2.4.1 Si quang v cp quang


Si quang l mt thnh phn quan trng trong mng, n to s kt ni gia cc thit b. Hai thng s c bn ca si quang l suy hao v tn sc, tuy nhin si quang ng dng trong mng PON th ch cn quan tm n suy hao khng quan tm n tn sc bi khong cch truyn ti a ch l 20 km v tn sc th nh hng khng ng k. Do , ngi ta s dng si quang c suy hao nh, ch yu l s dng si quang theo chun G.652. Trn thc t, khc phc nhc im trong truyn dn thng tin ca cp ng, t lu ngi ta cho ra i cp quang cng vi nhng tnh nng u vit hn. Khng ging nh cp ng truyn tn hiu bng in, cp quang dng nh sng truyn tn hiu i. Chnh v s khc bit , m cp quang t b nhiu, tc cao v c kh nng truyn xa hn. Tuy vy, phi n giai on hin nay th cp quang mi c pht trin bng n, nht l trong lnh vc kt ni lin lc a, kt ni xuyn quc gia. V vic s dng cng ngh truyn dn hin i ny cng ang bt u thay th dn mng cp ng ADSL phc v trc tip n ngi s dng. Cp quang di, mng vi thnh phn ca thy tinh trong sut v bng ng knh ca mt si tc. Chng c sp xp trong b c gi l cp quang v c s dng truyn tn hiu trong khong cch rt xa. Cp quang c cu to gm dy dn trung tm l si thy tinh hoc plastic c tinh ch nhm cho php truyn i ti a cc tn hiu nh sng. Si quang c trng mt lp lt nhm phn chiu tt cc tn hiu. Cp quang gm cc thnh phn c th hin nh hnh 2.1. Li: Trung tm phn chiu ca si quang ni nh sng i qua Cladding: Vt cht quang bn ngoi bao bc li m phn x nh sng tr li vo li. Buffer coating: Lp ph do bn ngoi bo v si khng b hng v m t Jacket: Hng trm hay hng ngn si quang c t trong b gi l cp quang. Nhng b ny c bo v bi lp ph bn ngoi ca cp c gi l jacket.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Hnh 2.2: Cu to ca si quang suy hao thp hn cc loi cp ng (tn hiu b mt trong cp quang t hn trong cp ng), nn c th ti cc tn hiu i xa hng ngn km. Dung lng ti ca cp quang cao hn, v si quang mng hn cp ng, nhiu si quang c th c b vo vi ng knh cho hn cp ng. iu ny cho php nhiu knh i qua mt si cp. Cp quang cng s dng in ngun t hn, bi v tn hiu trong cp quang gim t, my pht c th s dng ngun thp hn thay v my pht vi in th cao c dng trong cp ng. Cp quang khng chy, v khng c in xuyn qua cp quang, do khng c nguy c ha hn xy ra. Tuy vy, cp quang v cc thit b i km li rt t tin so vi cc loi cp ng

2.4.2 B tch / ghp quang


Mt mng quang th ng s dng mt thit b th ng tch mt tn hiu quang t mt si quang sang mt vi si quang v ngc li. Thit b ny l Coupler

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

quang. n gin, mt Coupler quang gm hai si ni vi nhau. T s tch ca b tch c th c iu khin bng chiu di ca tng ni v v vy n l hng s. Hnh 2.3 a: c chc nng tch 1 tia vo thnh 2 tia u ra, y l Coupler Y. Hnh 2.3b l Coupler ghp cc tn hiu quang ti hai u vo thnh mt tn hiu ti u ra. Hnh 2.3c va ghp va tch quang v gi l Coupler X hoc Coupler phn hng 2x2. Coupler c nhiu hn hai cng vo v nhiu hn hai cng ra gi l Coupler hnh sao. Coupler NxN c to ra t nhiu Couper 2x2 Coupler c c trng bi cc thng s sau: Tn hao tch: Mc nng lng u ra ca Coupler so vi nng lng u vo (db). i vi Coupler 2x2 l tng, gi tr ny l 3dB. Hnh 2.3 minh ho hai m hnh 8x8 Coupler da trn 2x2 Coupler. Trong m hnh 4 ngn (hnh a), ch 1/6 nng lng u vo c chia mi u ra. Hnh(b) a ra m hnh hiu qu hn gi l mng lin kt mng a ngn. Trong m hnh ny, mi u ra nhn c 1/8 nng lng u vo.
I1 a) I1 I2 b) I1 I2 c)

O2 O3

O2

O2 O3

Hnh 2.3: Cu hnh c bn cc loi Coupler Tn hao chn: Nng lng tn hao do s cha hon ho ca qu trnh x l. Gi tr ny nm trong khong 0,1dB n 1dB.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

nh hng: Lng nng lng u vo b r r t mt cng u vo n cc cng u vo khc. Coupler l thit b nh hng cao vi thng s nh hng trong khong 40-50dB. Thng thng, cc Coupler c ch to ch c mt cng vo hoc mt b kt hp. Cc Coupler loi ny c s dng tch mt phn nng lng tn hiu, v d vi mc ch nh lng. Cc thit b nh th ny c gi l tap coupler.

a) Coupler 4 ngn 8x8 b) Coupler 3 ngn 8x8 Hnh 2.4: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler
cccocCoupler

2.4.3. u cui ng quang OLT Optical line terminal


OLT cung cp giao din quang v pha mng phi quang ODN v cung cp t nht mt giao din quang trn mng pha mng truy nhp quang. OLT c th c t bn trong tng i hay ti mt trm t xa. S khi chc nng ca OLT c m t Hnh 2.4. OLT c chc nng qun l tt c cc hot ng ca PON. ONU v OLT cung cp cc dch v truyn dn mt cch trong sut gia UNI v SNI thng qua PON. 2.4.3.1 Phn li OLT Phn li OLT bao gm cc chc nng sau y: Chc nng kt ni cho c s ha cung cp cc kt ni gia phn mng li/metro vi phn mng phi quang ODN.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp kt ni VP gia chc nng cng dch v SPF v giao din ODN. Cc VP khc nhau c gn vo cc dch v khc nhau ti giao din PON. Cc thng tin khc nh bo hiu, OAM c trao i nh cc VC trong VP. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp vic truyn v ghp cc knh trn mng phi quang ODN. V d nh: d liu i t mng li/metro n mng phi quang ODN th n c nhim v l truyn, cn d liu i t mng phi quang ODN n mng li/metro th n phi c ghp knh trc khi truyn n mng li/metro. Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang kt ni OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU bng vic s dng thit b th ng. N iu khin qu trnh chuyn i quang/in v in/quang. c th thc hin c ch chuyn mch bo v v lm d dng cho vic x l thit b th ng b chia th OLT s c cc chc nng giao
din ODN ging nh phn mng phi quang ODN.

Giao din ODN u cui ng dy PON x l chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN chn cc t bo ATM vo. 2.4.3.2 Phn dch v OLT Phn dch v OLT th c chc nng cng dch v. Cc cng dch v s truyn t nht tc ISDN v s c th cu hnh mt s dch v hay c th h tr ng thi hai hay nhiu dch v khc nhau v d nh dch v truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTVhigh definition TV), game online, truyn d liu... Bt k khi TU (tributary unit) cng u cung cp hai hay nhiu port c tc 2 Mbps ph thuc vo cch cu hnh trn mi port. Khi TU c nhiu port c th cu hnh mi port mt dch v khc nhau. Chc nng cng dch v SPF ng vai tr giao tip vi node dch v. Chc nng cng dch v thc hin chn t bo ATM vo ti trng SDH ng ln, v tch t
Phn li bo ATM t ti trng SDH ng xung. Chc nng nyPhn dch vd phng, do phi c Giao din . . .

chuyn mch ODNv l cn thit. bo


MUX

SPF . . . SPF

. Mng . li .

Giao din ODN


SVTH: Trn Th H Cp ngun -17OAM

Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Ngun: Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng NGN

Hnh 2.5: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT 2.4.3.3 Phn chung OLT Phn chung OLT bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng (OAM-Operation, Administration and Maintenance). Chc nng cp ngun chuyn i ngun ngoi thnh ngun mong mun. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi OLT. Trong iu khin ni b, mt giao din c th c cung cp cho mc ch chy th v giao din Q3 cho mng truy nhp n h thng ang hot ng thng qua chc nng sp xp.

2.4.4 n v mng quang ONU Optical network unit


ONU t ti pha khch hng, ONU cung cp cc phng tin cn thit phn phi cc dch v khc nhau c iu khin bi OLT. Mt ONU c th chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung. 2.4.4.1 Phn li ONU ONU gm giao din ODN, cng ngi dng, chc nng ghp knh/phn knh truyn dn, dch v v khch hng, v cp ngun. a. Giao din ODN

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Giao din ODN x l cc qu trnh chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN trch cc t bo ATM t ti trng PON ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM vo ti trng ng ln trn c s ng b t s nh thi khung ng xung. b. Ghp knh Ch cc t bo ATM c hiu lc mi c th i qua b phn ghp knh do nhiu VP c th chia s bng thng ng ln mt cch hiu qu. Phn li ONU bao gm: Chc nng ghp khch hng v dch v c nhim v nu v pha khch hng th d liu s c ghp trc khi truyn n ODN cn nu v pha ODN th cc dch v s tch ra ph hp cho tng user yu cu dch v. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp cc chc nng phn phi tn hiu gia ODN v khch hng. Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i quang/in hay in/quang 2.4.4.2. Phn dch v ONU Phn dch v ONU cung cp cc chc nng cng ca ngi dng. Chc nng cng ca ngi dng cung cp cho cc giao din dch v ca khch hng v b thch nghi ca chng l 64 kbps hay n64 kbps. Chc nng ny c th c cp bi mt khch hng hay mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i tn hiu ty thuc giao din vt l (v d nh rung chung, bo hiu, chuyn i A/D v D/A). Chc nng cng ngi dng UPF tng thch cc yu cu UNI ring bit. OAM c th h tr mt s cc truy nhp v cc UNI khc nhau. Cc UNI ny yu cu cc chc nng ring bit ph thuc vo cc c t giao din c lin quan. Tch cc t bo ATM ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM ng ln.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Phn dch v Khch hng UPF . . . UPF

Phn li . . .ODN MUX Giao din ODN

Cp ngun

Phn chung

OAM

Ngun: Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng NGN

Hnh 2.6: Cc khi chc nng trong ONU 2.4.4.3. Phn chung ONU Phn chung ONU bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM. Chc nng cp ngun cung cp ngun cho ONU (v d nh chuyn i xoay chiu thnh mt chiu hay ngc li). Ngun c th c cp ti ch hay t xa. Nhiu ONU c th chia s ngun. ONU c th hot ng bng ngun d phng. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi ca ONU. 2.4.5 ODN ODN cung cp phng tin truyn dn quang cho kt ni vt l gia OLT v ONU. Cc ODN ring l c th c kt hp v m rng nh cc b khuch i quang.ODN bao gm cc thnh phn quang th ng: Cp v si quang n mode, Connector quang, thit b r nhnh quang th ng, b suy hao quang th ng v mi hn. Giao din quang ODN cung cp ng quang gia OLT v ONU, mi ng quang c nh ngha l khong gia cc im tham chiu ti mt ca s bc sng nht nh.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Cc giao din quang trong Hnh 2.7 l: Oru, Ord Giao din quang ti im tham chiu S/R gia ONU v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng. Olu, Old Giao din quang ti im tham chiu R/S gia OLT v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng.
R/S R/S

ONU1 Oru , Ord . . .


R/S

ODN

OLT

ONUn Oru , Ord

Olu , Old

Hnh 2.7: Cc giao din quang

2.4.6 B chia (Splitter)


B chia/ghp quang th ng (Splitter): Dng chia/ghp th ng tn hiu quang t nh cung cp dch v n khch hng v ngc li gip tn dng hiu qu si quang vt l. Thnh phn c nhc ch yu trong mng PON l b chia. B chia l thit b th ng, cng dng ca n l chia cng sut quang t mt si ra nhiu si khc nhau. T OLT n ONU c th s dng nhiu dng b chia c t b chia l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128. S dng mt b chia c t l chia ln nh 1:32 hay 1:64 hay c th s dng b chia nhiu lp vi lp th nht s dng b chia 1:2 v lp th 2 s dng 2 b chia 1:4. Hu ht h thng PON s dng b chia b chia l 1:16 v 1:32. T l chia trc tip nh hng qu suy hao ca h thng v suy hao truyn dn. T l ca b chia cng cao cng c ngha l cng sut truyn n mi ONU s gim xung do suy hao ca b chia splitter 1:N tnh theo cng thc 10logN (dB), nn nu t l b chia m

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

tng ln gp i th suy hao s tng ln 3 dB. Cho php gn bn trong gi phn phi quang ODF, hay mng xng.

Bng 2. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia (splitter) tng ng.

S cng 2 4 8 16 32 64

Suy hao splitter(db) 3 6 9 12 15 18

4.4

M hnh PON
C mt vi m hnh thch hp cho mng truy cp nh m hnh cy, vng hoc

bus. Mng quang th ng PON c th trin khai linh ng trong bt k m hnh no nh s dng mt tapcoupler quang 1:2 v b tch quang 1:N Ngoi nhng m hnh trn, PON c th trin khai trong m hnh cy nh l vng i hoc cy i hay cng c th l mt phn ca mng PON c gi l trung k cy. Tt c s truyn dn trong mng PON u c thc hin gia OLT v cc ONU. OLT ti tng i, kt ni truy nhp quang n mng ng trc (c th l mng IP, ATM ). ONU ti u cui ngi s dng (trong gii php FTTH_Fiber To The Home, FTTB_Fiber To The Building) hoc ti Curb trong gii php FTTC_Fiber To The Curb v c kh nng cung cp cc dch v thoi, d liu v video bng rng.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

M hnh cy ( s dng b chia 1:N)

M hnh bus s dng tapcoupler

M hnh vng

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Tu theo im cui ca tuyn cp quang xut pht t tng i m cc mng truy nhp thu bao quang c tn gi khc nhau nh si quang n tn nh FTTH, si quangnkhu dn c FTTC, FTTB.

M hnh cy Hnh 2.8: M hnh mng quang th ng PON

2.6 Phn loi PON


hng xung (t OLT n ONU), mng PON l mng im-a im. OLT chim ton b bng thng hng xung. Trong hng ln, mng PON l mng a imim: Nhiu ONU truyn tt c d liu ca n n mt OLT. c tnh hng ca cc b tch ghp th ng l vic truyn thng ca mt ONU s khng c nhn bit bi cc ONU khc. Tuy nhin, cc lung d liu t cc ONU khc nhau c truyn cng mt lc cng c th b xung t. V vy, trong hng ln, PON s s dng mt vi c ch ring bit trong knh trnh xung t d liu v chia s cng bng ti nguyn v dung lng trung k. a. TDM PON Trong TDM PON, vic truyn ng thi t vi ONU s gy ra xung t khi n b kt hp. ngn chn xung t d liu, mi ONU phi truyn trong ca s (khe thi gian) truyn ca n. Mt thun li ln ca TDM PON l tt c cc ONU c th hot

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

ng cng mt bc sng, OLT cng ch cn mt b thu n. B thu pht ONU hot ng tc ng truyn, thm ch bng thng c th dng ca ONU thp hn. Tuy nhin, c tnh ny cng cho php TDM PON t hiu qu thay i bng thng c dng cho tng ONU bng cch thay i kch c khe thi gian c n nh hoc thm ch s dng ghp knh thng k tn dng ht bng thng c dng ca mng PON. Trong mng truy cp thu bao, hu ht cc lung lu lng ln v xung khng phi l khch hng n khch hng. V vy, iu ny dng nh l hp l tch knh ln v xung. Mt phng php tch knh n gin c th da trn ghp knh phn chia khng gian m n tch, PON c cung cp theo hng truyn ln xung. tit kim cho si quang v gim chi ph sa cha v bo qun, mt si quang c th c s dng cho truyn theo hai hng. Trong trng hp ny, hai bc sng c dng l: hng ln l 1310nm, hng xung l 1550nm. Dung lng knh mi bc sng c th phn phi linh ng gia cc ONU.

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 2.9: Mng PON s dng mt si quang Cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau: ONU: Offtical Network Unit-n v mng quang Data transmitsion: D liu vo Data Receiver: D liu ra WDM: Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46

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Chng 2

Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian l phng php c u tin hin nay cho vic chia s knh quang trong mng truy cp khi m n cho php mt bc sng n hng ln v b thu pht n OLT lm cho gii php ny c u th hn v chi ph u t.
b. WDM-PON

WDM-PON l mng quang th ng s dng phng thc a ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng thay v theo thi gian nh trong phng thc TDMA. OLT s dng mt bc sng ring r thng tin vi mi ONT theo dng im im. Mi mt ONU c mt b lc quang la chn bc sng tng thch vi n, OLT cng c mt b lc cho mi ONU. Nhiu phng thc khc c tm hiu to ra cc bc sng ONU nh l: S dng cc khi quang c th lp t ti ch la chn cc bc sng ONU, Dng cc laser iu chnh c, v ct ph tn hiu. Cc phng thc th ng m theo OLT cung cp tn hiu sng mang ti cc ONU. S dng tn hiu hng xung iu chnh bc sng u ra ca laser ONU. Cu trc ca WDM-PON c m t nh trong Hnh 2.9. Trong , WDMPON c th c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau nh l FTTx, cc ng dngcho ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao VDSL v cc im truy nhp v tuyn t xa. Cc b thu WDM-PON s dng k thut lc quang mng ng dn sng. Mt b lc quang ng dn sng c th c t mi trng trong nh hoc ngoi tri. Gii php WDM yu cu mt b thu iu khin c hoc l mt mng b thu OLT nhn cc knh khc nhau. Thm ch nhiu vn kh khn cho cc nh khai thc mng l kim k tng bc sng ca ONU: thay v ch c mt loi ONU, th c nhiu loi ONU da trn cc bc sng Laser ca n. Mi ONU s s dng mt laser hp v rng ph iu khin c cho nn rt t tin. Mc khc, nu mt bc sng b sai lch s gy ra nhiu cho cc ONU khc trong mng PON. Vic s dng Laser iu khin c c th khc phc c vn ny nhng qu t cho cng ngh hin ti.

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Chng 2

Vi nhng kh khn nh vy th WDM khng phi l gii php tt cho mi trng hin nay. u im chnh ca WDM-PON l n kh nng cung cp cc dch v d liu theo cc cu trc khc nhau (DS1/E1/DS3, 10/100/1000Base Ethernet) ty theo yu cu v bng thng ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, nhc im chnh ca WDM-PON l chi ph kh ln cho cc linh kin quang sn xut b lc nhng bc sng khc nhau. WDM-PON cng c trin khai kt hp vi cc giao thc TDMA PON ci thin bng thng truyn tin. WDM-PON c pht trin mnh Hn Quc.

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 2.10: Cu trc ca WDM-PON Cc thut ng c ch thch trong hnh: CO :Center office : Vn phng trung tm FTTH: Fiber to the home-Cp quang thu bao FTTB : Fiber to the building- Cp quang ti ta nh FTTC : Fiber to the curt- cp quang ti khu dn c VDSL switch: Thit b nh tuyn ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao Wireless Access point : im truy cp Wireless c. CDMA-PON

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Chng 2

Cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA cng c th trin khai trong cc ng dng PON. Cng ging nh WDM-PON, CMDA-PON cho php mi ONU s dng khun dng v tc d liu khc nhau tng ng vi cc nhu cu ca khch hng. CDMA PON cng c th kt hp vi WDM tng dung lng bng thng. CDMA PON truyn ti cc tn hiu khch hng vi nhiu ph tn truyn dn, tri trn cng mt knh thng tin. Cc k hiu t cc tn hiu khc nhau c m ha v nhn dng thng qua b gii m. Phn ln cng ngh ng dng trong TDMA PON tun theo phng thc tri ph chui trc tip. Trong phng thc ny mi k hiu 0, 1 (tng ng vi mi tn hiu) c m ha thnh chui k t di hn v c tc cao hn. Mi ONU s dng tr s chui khc nhau cho k t ca n. khi phc li d liu, OLT chia nh tn hiu quang thu c sau gi ti cc b lc nhiu x tch ly tn hiu ca mi ONU. u im chnh ca CDMA PON l cho php truyn ti lu lng cao v c tnh nng bo mt ni tri so cc chun PON khc. Tuy nhin, mt tr ngi ln trong CDMA-PON l cc b khuch i quang i hi phi c thit k sao cho m bo tng ng vi t s tn hiu/tp m (S/N). Vi h thng CDMA-PON khng c b khuch i quang th ty thuc vo tn hao b sung trong cc b chia, b xoay vng, cc b lc m h s chia OLT/ONU ch l 1:2 hoc 1:8. Trong khi , vi b khuych i quang h s ny c th t 1:32 hoc cao hn. Bn cnh , cc b thu tn hiu trong CDMA-PON l kh phc tp v gi thnh tng i cao. Chnh v nhng nhc im ny nn hin ti CDMA-PON cha c pht trin rng ri.

2.5 So snh PON vi cng ngh mng quang th ng AON


Mng quang ch ng (AON): phn phi tn hiu, mng quang ch ng s dng cc thit b s dng in phn tch d liu nh mt chuyn mch, router hoc multiplexer. D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch c chuyn n

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Chng 2

khch hng . D liu t pha khch hng s trnh xung t khi truyn trn ng vt l chung bng vic s dng cc b m ca cc thit b ch ng. T nm 2007, hu ht cc cc h thng mng quang ch ng c gi l ethernet ch ng. Ethernet ch ng s dng cc chuyn mch ethernet quang phn phi tn hiu, do s kt ni cc cn h khch hng vi nh cung cp thnh mt h thng mng Ethernet khng l ging nh mt mng my tnh ethernet thng thng ngoi tr mc ch ca chng l kt ni cc cn h v cc ta nh vi nh cung cp dch v Mi t chuyn mch c th qun l ti 1000 khch hng, thng thng l 400-500 khch hng. Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp 2 v lp 3. Mt nhc im rt ln ca mng quang ch ng chnh l thit b chuyn mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li truyn i. iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a c th trong h thng FTTX. Ngoi ra, do y l nhng chuyn mch c tc cao nn cc thit b ny rt t, khng ph hp vi vic trin khai i tr cho mng truy cp. Phn tch u nhc im v la chn cng ngh: nhiu chun mng truy nhp FTTx khc nhau v khng tng thch vi nhau. V th c s linh hot v la chn cng ngh, tuy nhin n cng mang li rt nhiu ri ro khi quyt nh u t vo FTTx. V y l mt dch v mng tnh cht k thut cao nn yu t cng ngh mang tnh cht quyt nh sng cn. Vic la chn cng ngh no s ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t: gi thnh, phc tp, kh nng v quy m trin khai, s chun ha v thit b. Gia hai cng ngh mng quang trc tip v mng quang chia s ta s dng mng quang chia s do mng quang trc tip c chi ph rt ln. Hn na vic trin khai mng quang trc tip ti thi im ny cn gp mt s vn c v k thut v ti chnh.Trong mng quang chia s ta dng cng ngh mng th ng (PON) do cng ngh mng ch ng (AON) c nhng hn ch v thit b chuyn mch dn n hn ch v tc ca ton mng. Hin ti nhng chuyn mch quang tc cao c gi thnh rt cao ch ph hp cho thit k mng li.

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Chng 2

Ngun: Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice, October 2007.

Hnh 2.11: So snh mng quang ch ng v mng quang th ng PON: Mng quang ch ng AON: Mng quang b ng OLT: u cui ng quang ONT: u cui ng quang

2.6 Kt lun

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Chng 2

Cc ni dung Chng 2 trnh by tng quan v mng truy nhp quang th ng PON, v cu trc c bn ca n. Chng tip theo s trnh by cc cng ngh PON c s dng trong mng cp quang thu bao FTTH, nhm khai thc kh nng tt nht ca mng truy nhp quang th ng. l cc cng ngh APON, BPON, GPON, v EPON. Ngoi ra, cn c cc cng ngh WDM PON, TDM PON, CDMA PON.

SVTH: Trn Th H

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Lp: K Thut Vin Thng K46