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Adverbs: Types and Positions adverbios: Tipos y posiciones)

(Los

Hay varios tipos de adverbios que responden a las preguntas tales como: cundo?, dnde?, en qu medida?, cmo? y con qu frequencia? La posicin del adverbio en la oracin depende del tipo.

Types of Adverbs (Tipos de adverbios)


1. Adverbios de tiempo: Responden a la pregunta de "cundo?" o Ejemplos: o We went to Paris last year. We went to Paris last year. (Fuimos a Pars el ao pasado.)
o

I already finished my homework. I already finished my homework. (Ya he acabado los deberes.)

See you later! See you later! (Hasta luego!)

2. Nota: "Yet" siempre va al final de la oracin y "still" va adelante del verbo, excepto con "to be," cuando va detrs del verbo. o I haven't finished yet. I haven't finished yet. (No he acabado todava.)
o

He still needs to finish his homework. He still needs to finish his homework. (Todava necesita acabar los deberes.)

I am still waiting. I am still waiting. (Todava estoy esperando.)

today today, tomorrow tomorrow, last week last week, next month next month, already already, eventually

eventually, still still, soon soon, yet yet, now now, later later... Posicin: Los adverbios de tiempo normalmente van al principio o al final de la oracin. 3. Adverbios de lugar: Responden a la pregunta de "dnde?" o Ejemplos: o Despus del objeto o IS she here? Is she here? (Est aqu?)
o o

Despus del verbo I have searched everywhere but I can't find my keys. I have searched everywhere but I can't find my keys. (He buscado por todos partes pero no puedo encontrar mis llaves.)

here here, there there, everywhere everywhere, nowhere nowhere... Posicin: En general, los adverbios de lugar van despus del objeto o del verbo. 4. Adverbios de grado: Responden a la pregunta de "en qu medida?" o Ejemplos: o He was almost late for the meeting. He was almost late for the meeting. (Casi lleg tarde a la reunin.)
o

We are very busy this week. We are very busy this week. (Estamos muy ocupados esta semana.)

I really hope she passes the exam. I really hope she passes the exam. (Realmente espero que pase el examen.)

very

very, really really, almost almost, hardly hardly, quite quite, barely barely... Posicin: Los adverbios de grado van adelante de la palabra a que modifican. 5. Adverbios de modo: Responden a la pregunta de "cmo?" o Ejemplos: o Detrs del objeto o You speak English perfectly.You speak English perfectly. (Hablas ingls perfectamente.) o She read the book quickly. o She read the book quickly. (Ley el libro rpidamente.) o Detrs del verbo o Please drive carefully. o Please drive carefully. (Por favor, conduce con cuidado.) o He runs fast. o He runs fast. (Corre rpidamente.) loudly loudly, carefully carefully, softly softly, beautifully beautifully, fast fast, hard hard... Posicin: Los adverbios de modo van detrs del objeto directo. Si no hay un objeto, van detrs del verbo. 6. Adverbios de frecuencia: Responden a la preguntas de "con qu frecuencia?" o "cuntas veces?" o Ejemplos: o They are frequently late. They are frequently late. (Frecuentemente llegan tarde.)
o

She usually wears black. She usually wears black. (Normalmente lleva ropa negra.)

We never eat in restaurants.

We never eat in restaurants. (Nunca comemos en restaurantes.) often often, frequently frequently, usually usually, sometimes sometimes, rarely rarely, seldom seldom, never never... Posicin: Los adverbios de frecuencia van delante del verbo, pero van detrs del verbo "to be." WARNING! Los adverbios nunca van entre el verbo y el objeto.

Ejemplos: You speak English perfectly. You speak English perfectly.

Adverbs: Form and Function (Los adverbios: La forma y el funcionamiento)


Leccin gramtica: Adverbs: Form and Function Completa las siguientes cuestiones y haz clic en el botn -Corregir Ejercicio- para obtener la correccin de este ejercicio.
Q1 of 12:

went/they/Rome/last month/to (poner adverbio al principio)

Q2 of 12:

went/they/Rome/last month/to (poner adverbio al final)

Q3 of 12:

his/finished/already/dinner/he (poner adverbio al principio)

Q4 of 12:

his/finished/already/dinner/he (poner adverbio al final)

Q5 of 12:

yet/you/?/are/ready

Q6 of 12:

have/we/time/still

Q7 of 12:

happy/I/really/see/am/you/to

Q8 of 12:

quickly/speak/very/you

Q9 of 12:

never/eats/she/vegetables

Q10 of 12:

they/late/class/always/are/to

Q11 of 12: waiting/I/still/am

Q12 of 12:

there/?/yet/he/is

Indefinite pronouns indefinidos)

(Los

pronombres

Los pronombres indefinidos no se refieren a ninguna persona, cosa, lugar, ni cantidad especfica. Por eso, se llaman "indefinidos". Ya hemos visto algunos de los indefinidos relacionados a cantidad en la leccin de cuantificadores. A continuacin, tienes una lista completa con ejemplos de los pronombres indefinidos y las reglas gramaticales de su uso. Pronombre All another Any anybody, anyone anything Espaol todo otro Sing. Plural Ejemplo X X X X You ate all the cookies! (Te has comido todas las galletas!) Another glass of wine please. . (Otra copa de vino por favor.) Is there (Hay leche?) Is there anyone home? (Hay alguien en casa?) It's so dark, I can't see anything. (Est muy oscuro, no puedo ver nada.) We can go anywhere (Podemos ir donde quieras.) X X you want. French. different. movie. time. any milk?

algn, ningn, X cualquier alguien, nadie, X cualquiera algo, nada, X cualquier cualquier lugar ambos/los dos cada, cada uno X

anywhere both each either enough every everybody, everyone everything everywhere Few

Both of my children speak (Mis dos hijos hablan Francs.) Each of them (Cada cual es diferente.) is

cualquiera (de 2) X bastante, suficiente cada, todos X X

I'm happy to see either (Me da igual ver cualquier pelicula.) There is never enough (Nunca hay tiempo suficiente.)

Every student failed the exam. (Todos los estudiantes suspendieron el examen.) Is everybody (Est todo el mundo aqu?) How's everything? Everything (Que tal todo? Todo bien.) is here? fine.

todos, todo el X mundo todo todos partes pocos, unos X X X

The water spilled everywhere. (El agua se derram por todos partes.) He has few friends.

(l tiene pocos amigos.) fewer Less little many more most much neither nobody, no one menos menos poco muchos ms la mayora mucho ninguno (de 2) nadie X X X X X X X X X X X There are fewer students (Hay menos alumnos este ao.) There is less work (Hay menos trabajo este ao.) There is lttle to (Hay poco que hacer aqu.) this this do year. year. here. read. year. here. money. Spanish. today.

She has many books to (Ella tiene muchos libros para leer.) There is more work (Hay ms trabajo este ao.) this

It rains most of the time (Llueve la mayora del tiempo aqu.) We don't have much (No tenemos mucho dinero.) Neither of us speaks (Ninguno de nosotros habla espaol.) Nobody was in (Nadie fue a clase hoy.) class

none

ningn, nada

None of the children wanted to answer the question. (Ninguno de los nios quiso responder a la pregunta.) There is nothing in (No hay nada en la nevera.) He has nowhere (No tiene dnde quedarse.) the to fridge. stay.

nothing nowhere One other others several some somebody, someone

nada ningn lugar un, uno otro otros varios algn, algo de alguien

X X X X X X X X X

One never knows what the future will bring. (Uno nunca sabe lo que le traer el futuro.) The other class has more (La otra clase tiene ms estudiantes.) students.

The others are going to a concert tonight. (Los otros van a un concierto esta noche.) There are several movies playing. (Estn poniendo varias pelculas.) There are some dogs in (Hay algunos perros en el parque.) Someone is in (Alguien est en el bao.) the the park.

bathroom.

something somewhere such

algo algn lugar tal, tan

X X X X

I have something (Tengo algo en el ojo.)

in

my

eye.

Right now it is raining somewhere. (Ahora mismo est lloviendo en algn lugar.) He is such a nice man. (Es un hombre tan amable.) They say this is the best restaurant in town.

they Play Play they You Play You tu X ellos X They say this is the best restaurant in town. (Dicen que este es el mejor restaurante del pueblo.) You never know. Play You never know. (Nunca se sabe.)

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)


1. Los pronombres indefinidos en singular siempre llevan el verbo en singular. o Ejemplos: o Somebody is at the door. Play Somebody is at the door. (Alguien est en la puerta.)
o

Everybody loves chocolate. Play Everybody loves chocolate. (A todo el mundo le encanta el chocolate.)

Nothing was ever the same. Play Nothing was ever the same. (Nada fue lo mismo.)

Is there anywhere you want to go?

Play Is there anywhere you want to go? (Hay un sitio dnde quieras ir?) 2. Los usos de los pronombres indefinidos compuestos con "some", "any", y "no" en frases afirmativas, negativas y interrogrativas son los mismos de los usos de "some" y "any"."Some" y sus compuestos se utilizan con frases afirmativas e interrogativas; "any" y sus compuestos se utilizan con frases negativas e interrogativas; y "no" y sus compuestos se usan con solo frases negativas. Para ms informacin, ves la leccin de cuantificadores. o Ejemplos: o There is something on the floor. Play There is something on the floor. (Hay algo en el suelo.)
o

Would you like something to drink? Play Would you like something to drink? (Te gustara algo para beber?)

There isn't anybody home. Play There isn't anybody home. (No hay nadie en casa.)

Is there anything I can do to help? Play Is there anything I can do to help? (Hay algo que pueda hacer para ayudarte?)

Nobody wants to work today. Play Nobody wants to work today. (Nadie quiere trabajar hoy.)

3. Cuando refirimos a un pronombre indefinido, normalmente utilizamos un pronombre plural. o Ejemplos: o Everyone is here already. They have been waiting for you.

Play Everyone is here already. They have been waiting for you. (Todo el mundo ya est aqu. Han estado esperando por tu.)
o

Somebody left their jacket. It's so cold outside, I'm sure they will be back for it soon. Play Somebody left their jacket. It's so cold outside, I'm sure they will be back for it soon. (Alguien ha dejado su chaqueta. Hace tanto fro, estoy seguro que regresar pronto.)

4. Podemos utilizar el genetivo sajon con pronombres indefinidos de personas y cosas para indicar posesin. o Ejemplo: o Is this anyone's seat? Play Is this anyone's seat? (Hay alguien sentado en este asiento?)

Relative Pronouns (Pronombres Relativos)


Utilizamos los pronombres relativos para refirirnos a un sustantivo (una persona o una cosa) mencionado antes y al que queremos agregar ms informacin o modificar. A continuacin, tienes una lista de los pronombres relativos.
Pronombre that Espaol Persona Cosa

Play
that which

que

que/cual

Play

which who

Play
who whom

que/quin

Play
whom whose

que, a quien

Play
whose

cuyo

Nota: Los pronombres relativos pueden referirse a algo o alguien en singular o plural.

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)


El pronombre relativo se encuentra en lugar de un sustantivo. Este sustantivo suele aparece anteriormente en la oracin.
That

"That" es el pronombre relativo ms utilizado en ingls hablado, ya que se puede utilizar tanto con personas como con cosas. Se utiliza para sustituir "which", "who" o "whom".

Ejemplos: This is the book that won the Pulitzer prize last year.

Play
This is the book that won the Pulitzer prize last year. (Este es el libro que gan el Permio Pulizer el ao pasado.)

His brother, that just graduated university, found a great job.

Play

His brother, that just graduated university, found a great job. (Su hermano, que se acaba de graduar en la universidad, encontr un buen trabajo.)

This is the restaurant that received the excellent reviews in the newspaper.

Play
This is the restaurant that received the excellent reviews in the newspaper. (Este es el restaurante que recibi excelentes crticas en el peridico.)

My friend Sue, that works for a travel magazine, is going to Rome next week.

Play
My friend Sue, that works for a travel magazine, is going to Rome next week. (Mi amiga Sue, que trabaja para una revista de viajes, se va a Roma la semana que viene.) Which

Ejemplos: My new job, which I only started last week, is already very stressful.

Play
My new job, which I only started last week, is already very stressful. (Mi nuevo trabajo, que acabo de empezar la semana pasada, ya es muy estresante.)

The house in which we lived in when we were children burnt down last week.

Play
The house in which we lived in when we were children burnt down last week. (La casa en la que vivamos cuando ramos nios se quem la semana pasada.) Who

Solo se puede utilizar "who" con personas.


Ejemplos: My sister, who just moved in with me, is looking for a job.

Play
My sister, who just moved in with me, is looking for a job. (Mi hermana, que se acaba de mudar conmigo, est buscando un trabajo.)

I never met someone who didn't like music.

Play
I never met someone who didn't like music. (Nunca he conocido a alguien que no le guste la msica.) Whom

"Whom" se utiliza para hacer referencia al objeto indirecto del verbo, pero no lo utilizamos mucho en Ingls coloquial. Ms a menudo utilizamos "who" en vez de "whom".

Ejemplos: The woman with whom I was talking to was my cousin.

Play
The woman with whom I was talking to was my cousin. (La mujer con quin estaba hablando era mi prima.)

This is Peter, whom I met at the party last week.

Play
This is Peter, whom I met at the party last week. (Este es Peter, a quien conoc en la fiesta la semana pasada.) Whose

El uso de "whose" indica posesin, tanto para las personas y las cosas.

Ejemplos: That is the girl whose parents got divorced last year.

Play
That is the girl whose parents got divorced last year. (Esa es la chica cuyos padres se divorciaron el ao pasado.)

Paul, whose wife just had a baby, will not be at work for a few weeks.

Play
Paul, whose wife just had a baby, will not be at work for a few weeks. (Paul, cuyo esposa acaba de tener un beb, no ir a trabajar durante unas semanas.)

Nota: Puede omitirse el pronombre relativo cuando es el objeto de la frase.


Ejemplos: The exam I took this morning won't be corrected and returned until next week.

Play
The exam [that] I took this morning won't be corrected and returned until next week. (El examen que hice esta maana no se corregir ni se devolver hasta la semana que viene.)

The woman I'm dating is a teacher.

Play
The woman [who] I'm dating is a teacher. (La mujer con quien estoy saliendo es profesora.) When and where

Ejemplos: The university where I teach is an excellent school.

Play
The university where I teach is an excellent school. (La universidad donde enseo es una escuela excelente.)

Can you tell me when is the best time to call?

Play
Can you tell me when is the best time to call? (Puedes decirme cuando es la mejor hora para llamar?)

Relative Clauses (Clusula relativas)


Se utilizan los pronombres relativos para unir dos o ms clusulas y formando as lo que llamamos "clusulas relativas". Hay dos tipos de clusulas relativas: las que aaden informacin adicional y aquellos que modificar (o definir) el sujeto de la oracin.
Non-defining Relative Clauses

Estas clusulas agregan informacin adicional. Se utiliza comas para separar la clusula relativa del resto de la oracin.

Ejemplos: My friend Tony, who is an excellent writer, is helping me with my English paper.

Play
My friend Tony, who is an excellent writer, is helping me with my English paper. (Mi amigo Tony, quien es un escritor excelente, est ayundandome con mi estudio de Ingls.)

The report, which my boss asked me to write last week, still isn't finished.

Play
The report, which my boss asked me to write last week, still isn't finished. (El informe, que mi jefe me pidi que escribiera la semana pasada, todava no est terminado.) Defining Relative Clauses

Estas clusulas definen el sustantivo e identifican a qu cosa o persona nos referimos. No se usan comas con este tipo de clusula.

Ejemplos: I wrote that report that you asked for.

Play
I wrote the report that you asked for. (Escrib el informe que me pidi.)

She never met the man who saved her father's life.

Play
She never met the man who saved her father's life. (Nunca conoci al hombre que salv la vida de su padre.)

Ejemplos: The employees who worked long hours completed their projects on time.

Play
The employees who worked long hours completed their projects on time. (Los empleados que trabajaban largas horas terminaron sus proyectos a tiempo.) Nota: Slo los que trabajaron muchas horas terminaron los proyectos a tiempo.

The employees, who worked long hours, completed their projects on time. (Los empleados, que trabajaron muchas horas, terminaron sus proyectos a tiempo.)Nota: Todos los empleados terminaron los proyectos a tiempo.

Relative Pronouns (Pronombres Relativos)


Leccin gramtica: Relative Pronouns Completa las siguientes cuestiones y haz clic en el botn -Corregir Ejercicio- para obtener la correccin de este ejercicio.
Q1 of 10:

The book that I am reading is fantastic.

The pronoun is necessary. The pronoun isn't necessary.


Q2 of 10:

Can you buy me the book that won the Booker Prize last year?

The pronoun is necessary. The pronoun isn't necessary.


Q3 of 10:

Bill has many CDs which were recorded by his brother's record company.

The pronoun is necessary. The pronoun isn't necessary. The man who I met at the party last week wants to go out to dinner this weekend.
Q4 of 10:

The pronoun is necessary. The pronoun isn't necessary.


Q5 of 10:

Rachel said that she was going to Rome next week.

The pronoun is necessary. The pronoun isn't necessary.


Q6 of 10:

My birthday, which is also the birthday of father, is September 3rd.

It is a defining relative clause. It is a non-defining relative clause. I received many gifts for my birthday, but the gifts I love the most are the ones that my children gave me.
Q7 of 10:

It is a defining relative clause. It is a non-defining relative clause.


Q8 of 10:

Those are our neighbors whose house just burned down.

It is a defining relative clause. It is a non-defining relative clause.


Q9 of 10:

My friend Victor, who is a great guy, is single now.

It is a defining relative clause. It is a non-defining relative clause. He has had many jobs, but his favorite was the one that he had in the museum when he first finished university.
Q10 of 10:

It is a defining relative clause. It is a non-defining relative clause.