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---En lingstica histrica, se llama cognados a aquellos trminos con un mismo origen etimolgico, pero con distinta evolucin

fontica. En otras palabras, los cognados son palabras que comparten significado, ortografa y pronunciacin similares en dos idiomas. El vocablo se deriva del latn cognatus, de co- (con) y -gnatus, natus, participio del verbo latino nasc "nacer". Su traduccin literal sera consanguneos, con un mismo antepasado, o relacionado por una misma naturaleza, caracterstica o funcin anloga. Los cognados pueden ser rastros del parentesco que guardan distintas lenguas, o de la influencia de una lengua sobre otra. ---For instance, though pronunciation is slightly different, radio is the same word in both Spanish and English. Some cognate pairs may have the exact same spelling but different pronunciation (such as radio), others may differ slightly in both spelling and pronunciation (bicicleta/bicycle). In either case, the meaning is the same between languages. ---Del 30% al 40% de todas las palabras en ingls tienen una palabra relacionada en espaol. Para los hablantes de espaol ELL, los cognados son un puente evidente al idioma ingls. No resulta sorprendente que los investigadores que estudian la adquisicin de la primera y segunda lenguas hayan descubierto que los estudiantes se benefician al reconocer cognados. El reconocimiento de cognados es la capacidad de usar cognados de la lengua madre como herramienta para comprender una segunda lengua. ---The ability to use cognates is a particularly powerful strategy for helping Spanishspeaking English language learners access information in text and build English fluency. Using the cognates strategy supports English language learners in using their home language as a resource for learning new academic words in English. It is particularly helpful for students who speak Latin-based languages, such as Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian. Cognates are words that have a similar spelling, pronunciation, and meaning across two or more languages. When students recognize words as cognates, they can access unfamiliar English words and better understand what they read. Furthermore, some English science words are a special kind of cognate in Spanish, where the Spanish version of the word is a common word, and the English version is a more specialized science word (e.g., sol/solar; cido/acid) Relationships of words that have been borrowed fairly recently are as useful as words which have formed part of the languages since their earliest times. In fact, pedagogically speaking, recently borrowed words are often more useful than older cognates because times has not yet had the time to change them so much lexically and formally. Cognates are valuable as a method of rapid expansion of vocabulary for the language student. For the Spanish speaker learning English, the number of such lexical items that he can add to his vocabulary is enormous. This is important especially for the beginner, for he often feels frustrated by his belief that he lacks vocabulary. (grammatical and phonemic structures mustnt be ignored- they are not the same) ---If Spanish speaking students can recognize cognate relationships, their English reading can be enhanced; once they know the word in Spanish, recognizing it in English is significantly easier.

Research has long proven that literacy skills in the first language transfer to the second. This idea (the cross-linguistic transfer hypothesis), suggests that the greater the similarity in the writing systems of the two languages, the greater the degree of transfer, and the less time and difficulty involved in learning to read and write the second language word autor in Spanish, its a natural and immediate step to acquire the English word author. (Krashen Affective filter) Using cognates as a starting place builds a comforting bridge for the learner. The message is, You already know this word! Using cognates shows the student that you understand his or her previous experience and you believe that speaking Spanish is helpful in learning English. ---When students are aware of Spanish-English cognates, they do better on vocabulary tasks ---Many ELLs do not automatically recognize cognates in their second language and need explicit cognate instruction. On the other hand, even kindergarteners can be taught to use cognates --- Este estudio argumenta que los cognados son un recurso productivo para el alumno que estudia en cualquier nivel y no solamente una herramienta aleatoria para reconocer palabras. using them to demonstrate to beginner students how much of the target language they already know. to see how cognates are not mere lexical phenomena but also reflect social and cultural language use From a linguistic point of view, a cognate is a word that shares a common ancestry with another word (Crystal 1987, p. 292). For instance, Crystal (1991) defines a cognate as a language or linguistic form which is historically derived from the same source as another language/form (p. 60). Meanwhile, Richards and Schmidt (2002) define a cognate as a word in one language which is similar in form and meaning to a word in another language because both languages are related (p. 829) As Holmes & Ramos (1993) point out, cognate recognition is a natural strategy (p. 92) and as such it does not have to be taught. Furthermore, as Corder (1973, p. 227) argues, students use their own language experiences and resources to find connections between languages. The aim of teaching cognates is to build learner confidence very quickly ---------The role of cross-linguistic influence (CLI), or linguistic transfer in second language acquisition has been a field of extensive research in the past few decades (Ellis, 1994; Gas and Selinker, 1994; Kellerman, 1995; Larsen-Freeman and Long, 1991; Odlin, 1989; Selinker, 1992)