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Cargado por Syed Ahmed

this is my first thermodynamic analysis report of combined power house and boiler room in rajby industries that i made during my internship.
at the time i made this report, i was a student of M.Sc in chemical thermodynamics from university of karachi.

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Syed Faizan Ahmed

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, KARACHI, PAKISTAN contact email: syedfaizan59@gmail.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

I am very grateful that I was given a chance to work as an internee for six weeks at RAJBY INDUSTRIES which was a very educating experience for me. During the internship, everyone I encountered with was very nice and taughtful and I faced no problem whatsoever from any of the employee. I would like to thanks Mr. NADEEM (HR manager) for his support and Mr. TANVEER (system & compliance manager) for taking me under his supervision as an internee. At washing unit, Mr. AIJAZ SHAH (technical manager) has been a great guide and was very supportive throughout the internship. This analysis report is basically to be submitted to Mr. MEHBOOB (mechanical manager) , who has always been a great guide and a teacher. RAJBY INDUSTRIES indeed is a very educating and learning place for the students of industry oriented programs. I hope that I have been a good student in your eyes and hope that in future, more students from APPLIED CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT will be welcomed to RAJBY INDUSTRIES for industrial training. Thank you.

SYED FAIZAN AHMED DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TCHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT:

Gas generator is used for the production of electricity and the burn gases are fed to the heat recovery boiler for the generation of steam. two other gas boilers are used (one standby) to meet the steam requirements in the washing unit. the power house consists of 1 gas generator and 4 diesel generators (prime generator being gas generator). at maximum, the power requirement of washing unit reaches to almost 1 MW, covered by using gas generator. when power consumption is low, the load is transferred to the diesel generators. steam is required to the washing unit for multiple purposes ranging from high temperature washing/dyeing of denim, steam ironing in the packing unit, in sampling and RnD department etc. an energy audit at this unit was conducted in 2005 but no thermodynamic analysis was carried out. this report is been made to analyze the working energy efficiency and lost work of the power house and the boiler room and propose any other power plant for this unit if the current system is proved to be highly inefficient.

INTRODUCTION:

The goal of Thermodynamic Analysis is to develop a methodology for measuring the impact of technology from an energy- and materials-usage standpoint. This analysis is done to analyze the irreversibilities and inefficiencies present in the current working plant and also to propose any changing if the system proves to be highly inefficient. As described above, the power house consists of a prime house generator of 1.4 MW capacity. The maximum required power of the whole unit reaches up to 1.1 MW. The natural Sui gas pipeline is supplying the fuel gas to the turbine with maximum pressure at 600 mbar. The gas generator is of 1378 KVA and CAT branded. The air and gas are both fed to the generator for burning which produces electricity. The burn gas from generator goes to the heat recovery boiler where steam at 170 C and 150 psi is produced. The maximum flow rate if steam is 1 tons/hr. A cooling cycle is working parallel to the gas generator for cooling. This cycle pumps water through heat exchanger (exchanging heat from lube oil circulating inside the generator) and condenses, to be circulated again. Two other steam boilers works in the boiler room (with capacities of 9 tons/hr and 7 tons/hr) among which 9 tons/hr boiler is used at maximum steam requirement. The following chart shows the working described above.

SYSTEMS:

The systems working can be divided into three parts. 1. Main boiler. 2. Heat recovery boiler. 3. Power cycle (which further divides into) a. Gas generator b. Cooling cycle. Working of each of these cycles are shown below,

Desalting tank

pump

Fuel gas

Air

Fuel gas

air

ASSUMPTIONS:

Before carrying out the analysis, some theoretical assumptions are to be taken necessarily due to the lack of actual accurate data or due to the fluctuations in reading through the processes. The environmental temperature is taken to be 30 C. Temperature of water is assumed 25 C. Heat losses due to leakages are neglected. The kinetic and potential energies of working fluids are neglected. Temperature differences due to pressure increment or decrement inside pipes are neglected. All the calculations are based on the working requirements of maximum capacity. The thermal to electrical efficiencies of gas generators are averaged to 35%, which in this case is taken as accurate for the working generator.

AVAILABLE DATA:

Due to the lack of availability of actual data, analysis of plant required extremely exhausting calculations for the theoretical readings from which the further calculations were carried out. Lack of basic observatory devices (flow meter, thermometers, pressure meters, temperature indicators, components composition) proved to be a great hurdle for this analysis due to which the available data was reverse calculated and sometimes multiple calculations were carried out to obtain the exact values. Due to enormous amount of calculated data, all of the calculations that were carried out cant be included in the report, instead in each of the section, a sub-section (ESSENTIAL DATA VALUES) is included in which it is defined that how such calculations were carried out. This sub-section is headed by another sub-section (AVAILABLE DATA) in which the observed available values are shown and decided that which essential values are not available.

ANALYSIS:

This thermodynamic analysis is based on the calculation of entropy generation by each system and work which is lost by these systems. These systems generate a certain amount of entropy which results in loss of work by that system. Greater the loss of work by the system, greater the inefficiency it exhibits which must be reduced or in certain cases replaced. The change in entropy can be calculated by the change in temperature and pressure of working component using any of the following equations.

S = (S2-S1) S = (Cp)s ln - R ln S = R YilnYoi S = Where, S (Cp)s T2 T1 P2 P1 R H G Change in entropy Heat capacity for entropy Final temperature Initial temperature Final pressure Initial pressure General gas constant Change in entropy Change in Gibbs energy

The change in entropy(S) is converted to entropy generation rate SG by the flow rate of the working fluid. SG = mS Where, m = Mass flow rate with entropy generation rate, lost work can be calculated at environmental temperature. Wlost = TgSG Where, Tg = Environmental temperature Submission of all the lost works of the systems gives the total lost work of the operating systems and then the percent lost work of each system is calculated to find the most inefficient system.

The working of main boiler is shown in figure 2. This main boiler system has two components working in it, pump and boiler. As described before, the values are calculated for the maximum capacities and requirements from the unit, the boiler has a maximum capacity of 9 tons/hr steam generation. Firstly, boiler is analyzed and then pump. AVAILABLE DATA (for boiler) : Flowrate of steam ---------- 9 tons/hr Steam production at ---------- 170 C & 8.75 bar Initial water ---------- 25 C/ 298 k & 1.01 bar (atmospheric pressure) Fuel gas inlet ---------- 25 C/ 298 k Flowrate of fuel gas ---------- 96 m3/ton steam generated (based on observations, might be inaccurate) Flowrate of air ---------- ? Efficiency of boiler ---------- ? ESSENTIAL DATA VALUES (for boiler): Theoretical flowrates of fuel gas and air to the boiler has to be calculated to find the efficiency of boiler. The reaction occurring in the boiler is, CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O The reaction gives the energy (Ho298 = -802,625 j , S = -5.306 j/k) With 1 mole of fuel and 2 moles of oxygen, the air required is 7.5 moles. Total change in enthalpy is given by the equation, H = Ho298 The final temperature at the is calculated by using iteration method with the equation, Ho298 = ini(Cp)h (T2 T1) The product gases include CO2, H2O and N2. The heat capacities of all these gases are calculated using the equation, Data for A, B and D is available in table C.1(chemical engineering thermodynamics) Where, = T2/T1 , taking assumed value 2. And putting this value in above equation to find final temperature and doing it continuously until a constant final temperature is reached.

The energy contained in 9 tons/hr steam at 170C & 8.75 bar is calculated using table F.1 and equation, Q = m. H This energy is equal to the energy produced by the boiler through the burning of gas. Thus a theoretical flowrate of fuel gas and air is calculated and efficiency of boiler is found to be 90%. Table 1. Flowrate of air

12387 kg/hr

Boiler efficiency

90%

To calculate the entropy change in boiler, two processes are occurring causing entropy change. Steam generation and fuel burning. Equation ii for entropy change through steam generation is used for following parameters for water/steam. Inlet temperature ---------- 298.15 k outlet temperature ---------- 468.15 k Inlet pressure ---------- 101 kPa/ 1.01 bar outlet pressure ---------- 875 kPa/ 8.75 bar Flowrate ---------- 9000 kg/hr (Cp)s (water) ---------- 38.24 j/kg.k Entropy change due to fuel burning is due to reaction and temperature change of burn gases. For the entropy change due to temperature change equation ii is used for following parameters, (Cp)s (gases) ---------- 400.922 Inlet temperature ---------- 298 k outlet temperature ---------- 2288 k Total entropy generation and lost work is calculated by using equations for Wlost and SG. Table 2. Entropy change by fuel burning & burn gases 0.811 kj/kg. k Entropy change by steam generation 0.178 kj/kg.k Total entropy generation 0.894 kW/k Total lost work

271 kW

AVAILABLE DATA (for pump) : Flowrate ---------- 9000 kg/hr inlet and outlet temperature ---------- 298 k Inlet pressure ---------- 1.01 bar outlet pressure ---------- 12 bar The entropy change is calculated using equation i for inlet and outlet pressures for saturated liquid water. And Total entropy generation and lost work is calculated by using equations for Wlost and SG Table 3. Entropy change 0.9092 kj/k Entropy generated 2.02044 kW/k Lost work 602 kW

Total entropy generation and lost work for main boiler is given in following table. Table 4. Entropy generation in boiler 0.894 kW/k

The burn gases releasing from gas generator are at 550 C, fed to the heat recovery boiler where steam is generated. This steam constitutes little amount of steam required for the whole unit. This system also consists of two components, boiler and pump. AVAILABLE DATA (for boiler): Flowrate of water ---------- 900 kg/hr Inlet temperature (water) ---------- 298 k Inlet pressure (water) ---------- 1.01 bar Inlet temperature (gases) ---------- 823 k flowrate (gases) ---------- ?

outlet temperature(steam) ---------- 443 k outlet pressure (steam) ---------- 8.75 bar outlet temperature(gases) ---------- 473 k

ESSENTIAL DATA VALUES (for boiler): Flowrate of burn gases releasing from the generator is calculated using the energy balance for boiler at 90% efficiency (balance b/w steam energy and gases energy). Flowrate of burn gases is calculated to be 21.69 kg/hr. Entropy change in the boiler is due to the temperature difference in the gases and steam generation. The entropy change due to steam generation from initial to final condition is calculated by equation i. Entropy change due to temperature difference is calculated using equation ii for initial and final conditions of gases. entropy generation and lost work is calculated by using equations for Wlost and SG Table 5. Entropy change for water 6.3998 kj/kg. k

Entropy generation for Entropy change for water burn gases 1.599 kj/k -0.1822 kj/kg. k

AVAILABLE DATA (for pump): Flowrate ---------- 900 kg/hr Inlet pressure ---------- 1.01 bar inlet & outlet temperature ---------- 298 k outlet pressure ---------- 12 bar

The entropy change is calculated using equation i for inlet and outlet pressures for saturated liquid water. And Total entropy generation and lost work is calculated by using equations for Wlost and SG Table 6. Entropy change by pump 0.9095 kj/kg. k Entropy generation due to pump 0.277 kj/k Total entropy generation of system 1.82 kW/k Total lost work of system 552 kW

The power cycle consists of two parts (a) gas generator (b) cooling cycle. Little data is available for gas generator because of which much calculations is done to find theoretical values and total efficiency of gas generator.

PART a) GAS GENERATOR: The required power consumption reaches upto 1.1 MW at maximum working capacity. The observed consumption of fuel gas is 0.34 m3/KW. Thus the theoretical consumption and efficiency has to be calculated. Firstly, 1.1 MW is converted into (KJ/hr). as described, the thermal to electrical efficiency is assumed to be 35% and for this efficiency, thermal power required is calculated. The reaction occurring is, CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O The reaction gives the energy (Ho298 = -802,625 j , S = -5.306 j/k) With 1 mole of fuel and 2 moles of oxygen, the air required is 7.5 moles. Total change in enthalpy is given by the equation, H = Ho298 The final temperature at the is calculated by using iteration method with the equation, Ho298 = ini(Cp)h (T2 T1) The product gases include CO2, H2O and N2. The heat capacities of all these gases are calculated using the equation, Data for A, B and D is available in table C.1(chemical engineering thermodynamics) Where, = T2/T1 , the burn gases releasing at 550 C for which is calculated. The energy balance is done b/w the power required and power generated by the burning of the fuel gas. The flowrate of fuel gas is calculated and compared with the actual consumption of gas. Thus, the efficiency of the generator is found to be 60%. Table 7. Theoretical flowrate of fuel gas 213 m3/hr

Gas generator mechanism can be divided into three steps. 1) Feed burner 2) Turbine 3) Exhaust The mechanism of gas generator cycle is

Figure 5

AVAILABLE DATA: Flowrate of gas ----------- 170.6 kg/hr Inlet temperature ---------- 298 k Reaction temperature ---------- ? ESSENTIAL DATA VALUES: The reaction temperature can be calculated by the equation H = ini(Cp)h (T2 T1) In which ini(Cp)h is calculated for air and fuel gas. The H value is the change in enthalpy by the fuel burn reaction. flowrate of air ---------- 1105.59 kg/hr outlet temperature ---------- 823 k

STEP 1) Feed Burner Feed burner is also called generator, it is the place where both air and fuel gas is mixed and reaction occurs. The entropy change and gibbs energy is S = -5.306 j/k, G = -801,043 j STEP 2) Turbine The generator works on 60% efficiency. Assuming total efficiency on all parts of the generator, turbine also operates on 60% efficiency. For which, the actual conversion of energy from reaction is calculated by the equation, and thus the entropy change is calculated using equation iv. STEP 3) Exhaust The gases releasing contain CO2, H2O and N2. The burn gases are released from exhaust with temperature difference. Heat capacity for entropy for burn gases are calculated by the equation,

The values for A, B, C and D are taken from table C.1. The burn Gases are released at 550C/823k from 2272 k with no pressure change. So, entropy change is calculated by equation ii. Total entropy generation and lost work is calculated by using equations for Wlost and SG Table 8. Entropy change by feed burner -5.306 j/k

PART b) COOLING CYCLE: The cooling cycle is used to keep the temperature of the gas generator low. The complete cycle is shown below,

AVAILABLE DATA: Heat capacity ---------- 34.106 Flowrate of water ---------- 18927 kg/hr For heater/heat exchanger Inlet temperature ---------- 298 k Initial pressure ---------- 1.01 bar

pump power ---------- 15 hp/11180 j/s outlet temperature ---------- 80C/353k outlet pressure ---------- ?

ESSENTIAL DATA VALUES: The building pressure of pump on water is to calculated by the equation H = V(P2 P1) Where V is the specific volume of water. The cooling water cycle can be divided into three parts. 1) Pump 2) Heater/heat exchanger 3) Condenser

PART 1) Pump The pump is pumping the water from atmospheric pressure to final pressure as calculated above. Entropy change is calculated by equation i b/w the entropy of saturated liquid for above defined pressure change. PART 2) heater/heat exchanger The water circulates through heater/heat exchanger in which the temperature of the water rises. The entropy change is calculate using the equation ii with no pressure change. PART 3) Condenser The condenser rejects the heat gained by the water in heater. So, an energy balance is applied for this saturated liquid water heat added from heater to heat rejected from condenser. The entropy change is calculated by equation ii with negative temperature difference and negative pressure difference from pump and heater. This entropy generation is added with a factor . All three of these entropy change is converted to entropy generation on lost work from equations of Wlost and SG. Table 9. Final pressure Entropy of pump change due to pump 22 bar 1.185 kj/kg. k

The total entropy generation of all the systems is 17.86 KW/k and total lost work 5349 KW. The entropy generation analysis is shown in table below, Table 10. SYSTEM Main boiler Gas generator Heat recovery boiler Cooling cycle TOTAL

Total entropy generation 2.9144 kW/k 0.5567 kW/k 1.82 kW/k 12.609 kW/k 17.9001kW/k

Lost work analysis is shown in table below, Table 11. SYSTEM Main boiler Gas generator Heat recovery boiler Cooling cycle TOTAL

CONCLUSION: - The total lost work from the power and boiler room is 5349 kW or 5.3 MW. - The most inefficient system being the power generation unit (gas generator and water cooling system). - Lost work or inefficiencies in present facility is not very high. - Drawback of the working facility is that no enhancement can be made on account of removing the inefficiencies. - If the capacity of present facility needs to be expanded, very little changes can be made possible in the present working system. - If the working capacity is expanded, the working cost of the plant will also increase due to increase in inefficiencies in the system.

NEW PLANT PROPOSAL: The present power and steam boiler plant can only be replaced by more efficient steam turbine system with less work loss and inefficiencies. If such changes had to be made, points to be remembered are, - Capital cost for the installation would be much higher than the installation of present plant. - More efficient working system would be required, with an active maintenance crew and staff. - Because of a single working fluid (steam), many paths can be made for the consumption of steam for work or for turbine, all these paths being interconnected with each other. - Fuel gas consumption would be reduced. - Higher the consumption of steam, higher would be the savings from the gas consumption.

REFERENCES: - Introduction to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS by VAN NESS ABBOTT. - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING KINETICS by J.M. SMITH. - SHREVES CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES. - THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF AL-JUBAIL POWER/WATER COGENERATION CYCLES1, Dr. Osman Ahmed Hamed, Mohammad AK. Al-Sofi, Monazir Imam,Ghulam M Mustafa, Khalid Ba-Mardouf and Hamed Al-Washmi. - Energy Systems Analysis, Simon, et al. - On an Exergy Efficiency Definition of a Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gallegos-Muoz Armando*, Zaleta-Aguilar Alejandro. - Efficiency as Enhancement of Energy-Efficiency, an LCA Perspective - Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gas and Steam Turbines at Takoradi Thermal Power Station, Charles Mborah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana

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