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GLOBALIZATION
Globalization is the system of interaction among the countries of the world in order to develop the global economy. Globalization refers to the integration of economics and societies all over the world. Globalization involves technological, economic, political, and cultural exchanges made possible largely by advances in communication, transportation, and infrastructure. Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. "Globalization" can mean: The formation of a global village - closer contact between different parts of the world, with increasing possibilities of personal exchange, mutual understanding and friendship between "world citizens", Economic globalization - "free trade" and increasing relations among members of an industry in different parts of the world (globalization of an industry), with a corresponding erosion of National Sovereignty in the economic sphere. The negative effects of for-profit multinational corporations - the use of substantial and sophisticated legal and financial means to circumvent the bounds of local laws and standards, in order to leverage the labor and services of unequally-developed regions against each other. The beneficial spread of capitalism from developed to developing nations. There are two types of integrationnegative and positive. Negative integration is the breaking down of trade barriers or protective barriers such as tariffs and quotas. The removal of barriers can be beneficial for a country if it allows for products that are important or essential to the economy. Positive integration on the other hand aims at standardizing international economic laws and policies. For example, a country which has its own policies on taxation trades with a country with its own set of policies on tariffs. Likewise, these countries have their own policies on tariffs. With positive, these countries will work on having similar or identical policies on tariffs. Effects of Globalization According to economists, there are a lot of global events connected with globalization and integration. It is easy to identify the changes brought by globalization. 1. Improvement of International Trade. Because of globalization, the number of countries where products can be sold or purchased has increased dramatically. 2. Technological Progress. Because of the need to compete and be competitive globally, governments have upgraded their level of technology. 3. Increasing Influence of Multinational Companies. A company that has subsidiaries in various countries is called a multinational. Often, the head office is found in the country where the company was established. 4. Power of the WTO, IMF, and WB. According to experts, another effect of globalization is the strengthening power and influence of international institutions such as

Globalization

2 the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank (WB). 5. Greater Mobility of Human Resources across Countries. Globalization allows countries to source their manpower in countries with cheap labor. For instance, the manpower shortages in Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia provide opportunities for labor exporting countries such as the Philippines to bring their human resources to those countries for employment. 6. Greater Outsourcing of Business Processes to Other Countries. China, India, and the Philippines are tremendously benefiting from this trend of global business outsourcing. Global companies in the US and Europe take advantage of the cheaper labor and highly-skilled workers that countries like India and the Philippines can offer 7. Civil Society. An important trend in globalization is the increasing influence and broadening scope of the global civil society. Civil society often refers to NGOs (nongovernmental organizations). Both the government and NGOs have the same goal of serving the people. The spread of globalization led to greater influence of NGOs especially in areas of great concern like human rights, the environment, children, and workers. If the trend continues, globalization will pave the way for the realization of the full potential of these two important global actors.

Explanation: Covering a wide range of distinct political, economic, and cultural trends, the term globalization has quickly become one of the most fashionable buzzwords of contemporary political and academic debate. In popular discourse, globalization often functions as little more than a synonym for one or more of the following phenomena: the pursuit of classical liberal (or free market) policies in the world economy (economic liberalization), the growing dominance of western (or even American) forms of political, economic, and cultural life (westernization or Americanization), the proliferation of new information technologies (the Internet Revolution), as well as the notion that humanity stands at the threshold of realizing one single unified community in which major sources of social conflict have vanished (global integration). Globalization has become identified with a number of trends, most of which may have developed since World War II. These include greater international movement of commodities, money, information, and people; and the development of technology, organizations, legal systems, and infrastructures to allow this movement. The actual existences of some of these trends are debated. Increase in international trade at a faster rate than the growth in the world economy Increase in international flow of capital including foreign direct investment Greater transborder data flow, using such technologies such as the Internet, communication satellites and telephones Greater international cultural exchange, for example through the export of Hollywood and Bollywood movies. Some argue that even terrorism has undergone globalization. Terrorists now have attacked places all over the world.

Globalization

3 Spreading of multiculturalism and better individual access to cultural diversity, with on the other hand, some reduction in diversity through assimilation, hybridization, Westernization, Americanization or Sinosizat ion of cultures. Greater international travel and tourism Greater immigration, including illegal immigration Development of global telecommunications infrastructure Development of a global financial systems Increase in the share of the world economy controlled by multinational corporations Increase in the number of standards applied globally; e.g. copyright laws Barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered since World War II through international agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the WTO, for which GATT is the foundation, have included: Promotion of free trade Of goods: reduction or elimination of tariffs; construction of free trade zones with small or no tariffs Of capital: reduction or elimination of capital controls Reduction, elimination, or harmonization of subsidies for local businesses Intellectual Property Restrictions Harmonization of intellectual property laws across nations (generally speaking, with more restrictions) Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions (e.g. patents granted by China would be recognized in the US)

GLOBALIZATION AND WESTERN MEDIA


Introduction: Globalization of media is not a term of global nature. As Sparks (2000) has argued, no media is genuinely global in nature. In addition, the so-called global medias audience is too small, too rich and too English-speaking to be considered inclusive. There is little evidence that supports the existence of a global public sphere and the public sphere remains largely state-oriented. There is no question that all these globalizing trends are made possible with the help of mass media at both the domestic and international level. The world is becoming a much more integrated market based in capitalist or marketplace economics. This experts pressure on nations to make media more commercial, supported by advertising, aimed on consumers and to privatize telecommunications companies that formerly were government owned. The resulting rapid changes have had a profound impact well beyond that immediate rating of Friends or the Simpsons. As we shall see, most countries produce increasing amounts of their own televisions, music and magazines. But if they produce them by drawing on U.S., British, or Japanese models and genre ideas, then those national media products are still at least somewhat globalize.

Globalization

4 And even if a national soap opera reflects largely local culture in its plot and characters, it still helps Colgate-Palmolive and other firms sell soap in yet another part of the global market

American media play a prominent role in the global scene, media industries from a number of other countries are also heavily across the world. A handful of firms dominate the globalize part of the media system. Cable and satellite TV, which has been familiar to most Americans, Canadians, and some Europeans for years, is now expanding in most other countries of the world. Among the main issues in globalization of communications media are transborder data flow, cultural imperialism, media and, the flow of information. The key issues of the power of media ability to intervene in the course of events and to affect their outcome like: Media Markets Finance Audiences Creative Content Advertisers
Geographical Proximity: Although geographical closeness or cultural proximity helps media cross borders, language and culture seem more important than geography, as the example of Europe shows. It seems that people there and elsewhere tend to look for television programming, Internet, sites, and music that are culturally proximate. Cultural proximity is the desire for cultural products as similar as possible to ones own language, culture, history, and values. Thus, even though people often like the cosmopolitan appeal of European and American television, movies, and music, they tend to choose media from their own culture or one very similar. Language is a crucial divider of media markets. Increasingly, trade in television, between countries is shaped by language (Wildman & Siwek, 1988), and language seems to be shaping music and Internet patterns as well. Language provides a strong natural barrier to media imports. The United States is a prime example. Most of what little imported television and film Americans watch comes from Great Britain, New Zealand, or Australia, culturally similar English-speaking countries. Likewise, while British pop music is widely accepted, other musicians such as Icelander Bjork have to sing in English to break into the U.S. market.. Among the few foreign, non-English- speaking film and television genres to be hits in the United States are violent action films from Hong Kong and cartoons from Japan, which are often sexy and violent. Sports are another genre with nearly universal appeal. We will also see that some elements of pop music are globalizes, while others are localized, another example that complicates the logic of cultural proximity.

The Global Media:


Twenty years ago people talked about Americanization of media in the world. Today people talk more about globalization because it is apparent that although American media play a prominent role in the global scene, media industries from a number of

Globalization

5 other countries are also heavily across the world. A handful of firms dominate the globalize part of the media system. The six largest are: AOL, Time Warner (U.S.) Viacom (U.S.) Disney (U.S.) Rupert Murdochs News Vivendi-Universal (French) Corporation (Australian) Bertelsmann (German) The other four main global firms are: AT&T (U.S.)

Microsoft (U.S.)

And two media groups that are part of much large industrial corporations: General Electric/NBC (U.S.) Sony/Columbia/ TriStar (Japanese) (Variety, 2002) Of the top 10 global media firms, then, six are American (counting News Corporations as Australian), mostly produce, distribute, and regulate almost all media outlets. These types of companies were growing and globalizing quickly. Time Warner and Disney generated around 15 percent of their income outside of the United States in 1900, a figure that rose to 30-35 percent by 2002. Behind the top global firms is a second tier of three of four dozen media firms that do between $1 billion and $8 billion yearly media-related business. These firms tend to have national or cultural- linguistic stronghold or to specialize in specific global niches, as the BBC specializes in news. About half are American (Gannet, Advanced, and Comcast). Most of the rest come from Europe (for example: Hachette, Havas, EMI, Reuters, BBC) or Canada, and a handful are based in East Asia (for example: NHK, TVB, Fuji, Asahi, Chinese, Central TV) and Latin America (TV Globo, Televisa, Clarin/Argentina). Some media industries such as the Hollywood films and TV studios represented by the Motion Picture Association of America have long been global in their operation and scope. They control a number of companies in other that distributed and exhibited (in theaters) the films that they produced in the United Sates. More recently, the owner of Hollywood itself has become globalize, as we have seen. Major recording companies are based in Great Britain (Thorn), the Netherlands (Philips), Germany (Bertelsmann-BMG), and Japan (Sony). These companies have consolidated across borders. Philips now own Polygram (formerly of the United Kingdom), and Vivendi-Universal now owns RCA (formerly of the United States), and Vivendi-Universal now owns MCA (formerly of Matsushita-Japan, originally U.U.), and AOL Time Warner owns EMI (formerly of Great Britain). Most of these companies also have large foreign branches that often produce and distribute records within other markets as well as distribute American and European music. As record companies have also been acquired by multinational companies, these firms have become more global and less national in characters. Still, there are some important distinctions in the ways that various media are organized around the world. Another example is satellite television service in Asia, Star TV owned by Rupert Murdoch, originally targeted the whole of Asia with American (MTV, film), European (BBC, sports), and

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6 Chinese-language channels. It has since begun to target more specific markets such as India, Taiwan,China, South Asia, Indonesia and Japan, with more localized programming, such as its own adoptions of the music video format and more languagespecific programs. Satellite TV and cable television are beginning to expand in Latin America and the Middle East. Again channels exported from industrialized nations (CNN, BBC, MTV, and so on) are popular, but several nations (Brazil, Hong Kong, Egypt, Mexico, Saudi Arabia) are developing their own satellite television channels aimed both at national audiences and neighbors within the same cultural- linguistic markets. For example, the Qatar Channel Al Jazeera has aimed to provide regional news to the Middle Eastern regional market of Arabic speakers. By covering the U.S. ware against Iraq in away that gave considerable coverage to Iraqi civilian casualties as well as providing pro-Palestinian coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Al Jazeera has won many viewers in the region, as well as conflict with Western governments, who found that they have little leverage over it. Other countries began to use Al Jazeera footage as a news source. Some others countries moved into fully digital television and cable TV before the United States. Japan and some European countries were operating broadcast digital TV each in 1998, and British Sky Broadcasting in Great Britain, owned by Murdoch, initiated 140 channels of fully digital TV in 1998. Like the latest cable systems in the United States, some systems in both developed and developing countries are beginning to offer two-way information services. For instances, the government of Singapore has offered broadband information services to almost all residents for several years.

Conclusion: It signifies the circle of ownership, media markets, advertisers and, leadership in the culture sphere because core countries dominate the culture of the periphery. Given the dominance of a First world countries and the extent to which global media culture represents a particular mix of cultural and social values that are associated with the Unites Sates and Western Europe, a truly global media culture that mingles cultural traditions and social values from many different countries has yet to develop.

Globalization