Está en la página 1de 10

Sedimentary Rocks and Sedimentary Basins

Reading
Stanley, S.M., 1998, Sedimentary Environments, Ch. 5. Earth Systems History Get it from the class website: http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~jtoro/Petroleum/index.htm

Sedimentary Rocks
Intro Origin of sedimentary rocks Clastic Rocks Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks Environment of deposition Sedimentary structures

What is a Sedimentary Basin?


A thick accumulation of sediment Necessary conditions:
1. A depression (subsidence) 2. Sediment Supply

Where are the Sedimentary Basins?

World Map of Sed. Basins

Our Peculiar Planet: Liquid Water and Plate Tectonics

SEDIMENT
Unconsolidated products of Weathering & Erosion Loose sand, gravel, silt, mud, etc. Transported by rivers, wind, glaciers, currents, etc.

Hydrologic Cycle Sedimentary Rock: Consolidated sediment Lithified sediment

Tectonics

3 Basic Types of Sedimentary Rocks


Detrital ( = Clastic) Made of Rock Fragments Biochemical Formed by Organisms Chemical Precipitated from Chemical Solution

Detrital Material Transported by a River

Formation of a Sedimentary Rocks


1. Weathering mechanical & chemical 2. Transport by river, wind, glacier, ocean, etc. 3. Deposition in a point bar, moraine, beach, ocean basin, etc 4. Lithification loose sediment turns to solid rock

Processes during Transport


1. Sorting Grain size is related to energy of transport Boulders Mud high energy environment

low energy

Significance for Petroleum System?


Black shales Source rocks Porous Sandstones Reservoirs

Processes during Transport


2. Rounding abrasion is progressive angular grains rounded grains near source long transport

Sorting and Rounding


Well rounded Well sorted Quartz sandstone

Bimodal rounding Poorly sorted Lithic sandstone

Lithification
Compaction
Decrease in pore space Due to increasing pressure with burial

Cementation
Pores filled quartz or calcite cements

Recrystallization
Many depositional environments with particular characteristics
No porosity left Beginning of metamorphism

Lithification
Determines the nature of the reservoir Critical for economic viability Highly variable Hard to predict ahead of the drill

Lithification of Shale
Dewatering of shale Overpressure? Expulsion of hydrocarbons?

Classification of Clastic Sediments


Based on Particle size Gravel (more than 2 mm)
Pebbles (small) (Driveway gravel) Cobbles (medium) (Plum to melon size) Boulders (large) (Melon to bus size)

Sand (2 mm - 1/16 mm) Silt (1/16 - 1/256 mm) Clay (< 1/256 mm)

Detrital Rock Names 1


Gravel Conglomerate

Naming of Sedimentary Rocks 2


Sand Sandstone Quartz sandstone, Arkose sandstone (with feldspar)

Fine Grain Detrital Rocks


Silt Mud Siltstone Mudstone or Shale

Shale
with plant fossils

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks


Carbonate Rocks Limestone calcite (CaCO3 ) Dolostone dolomite (Ca,Mg (CO3 )2) Coal

CARBONATE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS


Made of Calcium Carbonate or Mg -Ca Carbonate Precipitated from seawater Mostly by organisms (biochemical)
algae, shells, corals

In some cases chemically (inorganic)

Chalk- Microscopic algae

Chalk

White Cliffs of Dover, UK

Carbonate BankBahamas

Coral Reef Carbonates

Coral Reef

Sedimentary Section of the Grand Canyon


250 m.y.

History of Sedimentation 1

550 m.y. > 1.5 b.y.

Unconformity

History of Sedimentation 2

North Slope Basin, AK

Sedimentary Environments of Deposition

Sedimentary Environments
Type and geometry of sedimentary rocks Key to paleogegraphy Prediction of distribution of source rocks and reservoirs

Non-Marine Environments
Glacial Lakes Deserts Alluvial Fans Braided Streams Meandering Streams

How do we recognize them?


Rock Types Sedimentary Structures Fossils Geometry

Deserts
Perfect sorting Great reservoirs Rarely preserved

Alluvial Fans
Conglomerates Poorly sorted Not so great!

Types of River
Mountain Braided?

Fluvial Environments (Rivers)


Braided Stream Meandering Stream

Meandering

Meandering Stream

Development of Meanders

Time

Sandstone Mudstone

Channel Sandstone

Well Log Response

Sandstone

Conglomerate

Sea level and the Stacking of Rocks