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Xu hng hi t cc cng ngh mng vin thng v cng ngh thng tin tc ng nhiu n s pht trin ca mng vin thng, i hi mng vin thng phi c cu trc m, linh hot, cung cp nhiu loi dch v khc nhau cho ngi s dng cng nh nng cao hiu qu khai thc. Internet pht trin rt nhanh v tr nn rt ph bin trong thi gian qua. Hin nay n tr thnh phng tin thng tin rt hiu qu v tin li phc v cho mc ch gio dc, thng mi, gii tr, thng tin gia cc cng ng.. Khi mng Internet ngy cng pht trin nhu cu v lu lng mng cng nh cht lng dch v, tnh bo mt, tin cy ngy cng cao. p ng c i hi ny cc nh cung cp dch v Internet cn phi quan tm n 3 vn k thut sau: l kin trc mng, kh nng m rng mng v k thut iu khin lu lng. Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (Multi Protocol Label Switching-MPLS) l cng ngh xut pht t tng hp nht tc chuyn mch ca ATM v tnh nng kim sot ca mng da trn IP. MPLS cung cp mt nn tng cng ngh mi cho qu trnh to cc mng a ngi dng, a dch v vi hiu nng c ci tin v p ng c yu cu v cht lng dch v. MPLS l mt trong nhng cng ngh nn tng ca mng vin thng th h sau, n cung cp nhng ng dng quan trng trong x l chuyn tip gi bng cch n gin ha qu trnh x l ng thi tch hp vi kh nng qun l lu lng to ra mi trng p ng cho yu cu ca ngi s dng. Khi MPLS, vi nhng u im ca n s l mt trong nhng gii php cho mng ng trc th h mi, hin nay xu th pht trin ca MPLS l mi lu lng trn MPLS (Any Traffic Over MPLS - ATOM) c kh nng p ng bt k loi dch v no : thoi, video. Fax, dataChnh v vy ti vn hnh v bo dng mng MPLS lm ti kha lun tt nghip cung cp mt mt nn tng mng n nh, c th khai thc ti a cc li im ca MPLS, nng cao cht lng dch v.

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LI CM N
Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti Th.S Nguyn Quc Tun Ph ch nhim khoa in t vin thng kim Ch nhim b mn H thng vin thng, khoa in t vin thng Trng H Cng ngh - H Quc Gia H Ni, ngi thy tn tnh ch bo, hng dn em thc hin bi kha lun ny. Em cng xin chn thnh cm n cc thy gio, c gio trong trng H Cng ngh, n tt c nhng ngi thn trong gia nh v ton th bn b ng vin gip em trong qu trnh thc hin bi kha lun. Cui cng em xin gi li chc ti thy Nguyn Quc Tun, cc thy c gio trong khoa in t vin thng ni ring v tan th cc thy c trong trng lun lun mnh khe, cng tc tt. H ni, ngy 28/05/2008 Sinh vin Nhm c Long

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MC LC
Li m u Li cm n Cc thut ng vit tt Chng 1: C s hnh thnh ca cng ngh MPLS 1.1 Xu hng hi t ca mng vin thng 1.2 Thc trng ca mng IP truyn thng 1.3 Cng ngh ATM-m hnh hng kt ni 1.4 S hnh thnh cng ngh MPLS Chng 2: Tng quan v cng ngh MPLS 2.1 Tng quan 2.1.1 Tnh thng minh phn tn 2.1.2 MPLS v m hnh OSI 2.2 Cc khi nim c bn trong MPLS 2.2.1 Min MPLS (MPLS domain) 2.2.2 Lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC) 2.2.3 Nhn v stack nhn 2.2.4 Hon i nhn (Label Swapping) 2.2.5 ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Switched Path) 2.3 M ha nhn v cc ch ng gi nhn MPLS 2.3.1 M ha stack nhn 2.3.2 Ch Frame 2.3.3 Ch Cell 2.4 Cu trc chc nng ca MPLS 1 2 7 9 9 10 11 12 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 20

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2.4.1 Kin trc mt nt MPLS (LER v LSR) 2.4.2 Mt phng chuyn tip (mt phng d liu) 2.4.3 Mt phng iu khin 2.5 Hot ng chuyn tip MPLS 2.5.1 Hot ng trong mt phng chuyn tip 2.5.2 G nhn hop p cui PHP (Penultimate Hop Popping) 2.6 u im v ng dng ca MPLS 2.6.1 n gin ha chc nng chuyn tip 2.6.2 K thut lu lng 2.6.3 nh tuyn QoS t ngun 2.6.4 Mng ring o VPN 2.6.5 Chuyn tip c phn cp (Hierachical Forwarding) 2.6.6 Kh nng m rng (Scalability) Chng 3: nh tuyn v bo hiu trong MPLS 3.1 nh tuyn trong MPLS 3.1.1 nh tuyn rng buc (Constrain based Routing) 3.1.2 nh tuyn tng minh (Explicit Routing) 3.2 Cc ch bo hiu trong MPLS 3.2.1 Ch phn phi nhn 3.2.2 Ch duy tr nhn 3.2.3 Ch iu khin LSP 3.2.4 Cc giao thc phn phi nhn MPLS 3.3 Giao thc LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) 3.3.1 Hot ng ca LDP 3.3.2 Cu trc thng ip LDP

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3.3.4 LDP iu khin c lp v phn phi theo yu cu 3.4 Giao thc CR-LDP (Constrain based Routing LDP) 3.4.1 M rng cho nh tuyn rng buc 3.4.2 Thit lp mt CR- LSP (Constrain based routing LSP) 3.4.3 Tin trnh d tr ti nguyn 3.5 Giao thc RSVP-TE (RSVP Traffic Engineering) 3.5.1 Cc bn tin thit lp d tr RSVP 3.5.2 Cc bn tin Tear Down, Error v Hello ca RSVP-TE 3.5.3 Thit lp tuyn tng minh iu khin tun t theo yu cu 3.5.4 Gim lng overhead lm ti RSVP 3.6 Giao thc BGP 3.6.1 BGPv4 v m rng cho MPLS 3.6.2 Kt ni MPLS qua nhiu nh cung cp dch v. Chng 4: Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS 4.1 Gii thiu 4.2 Cc yu cu ca OAM MPLS

4.2.1 Pht hin v chn an cc li ca mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin. 48 4.2.2 Pht hin li trong mt ng chuyn mch nhn (LSP) 48

4.2.3 Cc gi OAM di chuyn trn cng mt tuyn nh l lu lng d liu MPLS 49 4.2.4 M t c im ca tuyn. 4.2.5 o c cc SLA 4.2.6 S nh hng ln nhau ca OAM 4.2.7 Cc MIB 4.2.8 Vic tnh ton. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Kha lun tt nghip 4.3 Vn hnh v bo dng trn MPLS 4.3.1 LSP connectivity

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4.3.1.1 Connectivity Verification (CV) 4.3.1.2 Ch th li chuyn tip gi tin (FDI) 4.3.1.3 Ch th li ngc (BDI) 4.3.2 Defect type codepoint 4.3.3 Ty chn cnh bo router v nhn cnh bo router 4.3.3.1 Ty chn cnh bo router 4.3.3.2 Nhn cnh bo router 4.3.4 Ping LSP MPLS 4.3.4.1 Cc chi tit Ping LSP 4.3.4.2 iu hnh Ping MPLS 4.3.4.3 Ping MPLS trong IOS Cisco. 4.3.5 Traceroute LSP MPLS 4.3.6 VCCV 4.3.7 IP Service Level Agreement VRF aware IP SLA 4.3.8 Netflow Accounting 4.3.9 SNMP/MIBs 4.3.9.1 Context Based Access for SNMP over MPLS VPN 4.3.9.2 Cc MIB VPN MPLS. 4.3.10 Syslog * nh x thng ip OAM (OAM Message Mapping) 4.3.11 Chuyn mch bo v (protection switching) 4.3.12 nh tuyn li nhanh (Fast rerouting) 4.3.13 MPLS v k thut lu lng Kt lun

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CC THUT NG VIT TT
AS ATM BGP CAC CBR CR-LDP Automonuos System H t tr Asynchronous Transfer Mode Ch truyn dn bt ng b Border Gateway Protocol Giao thc cng bin Connection Admission Cotrol Chc nng iu khin chp nhn kt ni Constraint Based Routing nh tuyn rng buc Constraint Routing Label Distribution Protocol nh tuyn rng buc vi giao thc phn phi nhn. CoS Class of Service Lp dch v CSPF Constraint Shortest Path First nh tuyn rng buc vi ng ngn nht. EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol Giao thc cng ngoi Egress LSR Egress Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn li vo ER Explicit Routing nh tuyn tng minh FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class Lp chuyn tip tng ng. FR Frame Relay Mt giao thc truyn tin FTN FEC to NHLFE IETF Internet Engineering Task Force Nhm lm vic v cc c cu trn Internet IGP Interior Gateway Protocol Giao thc cng ni Igress LSR Igress Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn li ra ILM Incoming Label Map Bng nh x nhn n. IP Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet ISP Internet Service Provider Nh cung cp dch v Internet LDP Label Distribution Protocol Giao thc phn phi nhn. LER Label Edge Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn bin LFIB Label Forwarding Information Base C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LSP Label Switching Path ng chuyn mch nhn LSR Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn NHLFE Next Hop Label Forwarding Switching Entry Entry chuyn tip nhn Hop tip theo. MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc. OSPF Open Shortest Path First giao thc m nh tuyn theo ng ngn nht

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PHB Per Hop Behavior - ng x theo tng chng. PHP Penuntimate Hop Popping G nhn hop p cht QoS Quality of Service Cht lng dch v RIP Routing Information Protocol Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn RSPV Rersource Rersevation Protocol Giao thc yu cu t trc cc ti nguyn SE Shared Explicit Chia s tng minh TE Traffic Engineering K thut lu lng ToS Type of Service Kiu ca dch v TTL Time To Live Thi gian sng ca gi tin UDP User Datagram Protocol Giao thc d liu ngi dng VC Virtual Circuit Mch o VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier Nhn dng knh o VP Virtual Path Tuyn o VPI Virtual Path Identifier Nhn dng tuyn o VPN Virtual Private Network Mng ring o

Chng 1

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CNG NGH MPLS


M hnh TCP/IP l nn tng ca mng truyn thng Internet ngy nay,. Vi TCP/IP cho php hot ng thng tin din ra trong bt k mt mng no trong lin mng ph hp tt nh trong hot ng truyn tin c WAN v LAN. M hnh TCP/IP hng n ti a linh hot ti lp ng dng cho ngi pht trin phn mm, vi m hnh ny s khng cn quan tm n ng dngno yu cu dch v mng v khng quan tm n giao thc vn chuyn no ang c dng, ch c mt giao thc mng l IP. TCP/IP s dng k thut chuyn tip gi IP cho php phc v nh mt giao thc a nng cho php bt k my tnh no bt c u truyn d liu vo bt c thi im no.
1.1

Xu hng hi t ca mng vin thng

Trong mng in thoi, cc in thoi thng thng ch c s dng kt ni vi mt pha i din tng ng nhm thit lp mt cuc gi. Trong truyn s liu, cc ng dy chuyn dng dng cho mt lng hn ch cc thu bao cng c s dng. Ngoi ra cc mng li in tn hin nay cng ang hot ng nh cc mng c lp vi cc h thng thng tin khc. Mt khc tm quan trng ca vic m bo cc phng tin thch hp trao i thng tin ngy cng tng khi x hi hin i ngy cng tin gn n thi i thng tin. ng u vi nhng thay i ny cc h thng chuyn mch in t ang c tch hp vi nhng c im mi ang c pht trin. Thm na vic nghin cu cc dch v mi hon ton p ng cc yu cu ca ngi s dng cng ang c tin hnh. Gn y cc c gng nhm kt hp cc hnh thc khc nhau ca cc h thng thng tin ang c thc thi nhm to c hiu qu cao khc nhau ca cc h thng thng tin ang c thc thi nhm to c hiu qu cao hn, chi ph thp hn. Ni chung mc tiu c bn ca truyn thng c th coi nh l qu trnh gi v nhn cc thng tin cn thit qua cc lai phng tin truyn thng khc nhau. ng thi s giao tip my my c s dng x l cc s liu cng nh iu khin cc tn hiu. Nhng dch v k trn c th phn lai theo chc nng thnh cc dch v chuyn mhc in thoi, video v thng tin s liu. Ty theo dng thng tin c x l m cc phng php phc v, cc c tnh lu lng, rng cc di tn tryn dn v cc c

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tnh ca cc thit b u cui s c xc nh. Do vy, tha mn nhu cu ngy cng tng, mng vin thng i hi c cu trc hin i, linh hot, cho php kt hp cc phong tin v nht l phi tha mn nhu cu v truyn ti a dch v, a phng tin nhng ng thi cng phi tn dng c c s h tng ca mng vin thng truyn thng v phi c chun ha trn ton cu ph v tnh c quyn. Nu mt mng li thng tin vi mc ch c bit v d thit k c thit lp n c th s khng linh hot p ng nhng i hi mi mt cch c hiu qu. Ngc li nu nhiu loi dch v thng tin c kt hp li thnh mt mng li duy nht hot ng th mng li cho d hi km nhiu qu i cht nhgn n vn c th d dng vn hnh, thay i v m rng. Ngoi ra cc tng i nh vy s d dng iu khin. iu ny ng ngha vi xu th pht trin ca cc h thng vin thng l hi t v mt mng vin thgn duy nht p ng c cc c im k trn chnh l mng IP.

1.2

Thc trng ca mng IP truyn thng.

M hnh TCP/IP vn c mt s hn ch nht nh l trong vn nh tuyn IP t kh nng m rng cho n vic qun l lu lng ca mng. Vi vic xt cc trng a ch cho mi ln nh tuyn, nu mng m rng cng ln th vic nh tuyn s ht sc kh khn. Th nht l vn tc v tr, chuyn tip da trn IP c in qu chm c th iu khin cc ng truyn c lu lng ln trn Internet. Tuy xut hin cc phng php nng cao tc nh s dng bng nh tuyn nhanh cho cc gi tin quan trng, tuy nhin cc gi n router vn ln hn so vi kh nng x l ca router do cc giao thc inh tuyn thng hng lu lng vo cng mt s cc kt ni nht nh v vy dn n tnh trng mt gi, mt kt ni Th hai l kh nng m rng ca mng. Vi mng internet hin nay, s lng ngi dng ngy cng tng, thit b thm vo mng ngy cng nhiu ng ngha vi vic cc router core phi hot ng nhiu hn v vic m rng mng l kh khn. Th ba l kh nng tch hp cc k thut ca cc lp vi nhau. Nh ta bit trong m hnh TCP/IP cc lp c phn ra kh c th v r rng v cc chc nng v vy m vic tch hp k thut mng lp 2 v lp 3 l tng i kh khn. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS Trng H Cng Ngh

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1.3

Cng ngh ATM M hnh hng kt ni.

ATM l cng ngh chuyn mch hng kt ni, tc l kt ni t im u n im cui phi c thit lp trc khi thng tin c gi i. Vic to kt ni mch o c th t hiu qu trong mng nh, nhng i vi mng ln th nhng vn c th xy ra: Mi khi mt router mi a vo mng li WAN th mch o phi c thit lp gia router ny vi cc router cn li m bo vic nh tuyn ti u. iu ny lu lng nh tuyn trong mng tng. Thng thng vic thit lp kt ni ny c thc hin bi giao thc bo hiu. Giao thc ny cung cp cc thng tin trng thi lin quan n kt ni cho cc chuyn mch nm trn ng nh tuyn. Chc nng iu khin chp nhn kt ni CAC (Connection Admission Control) m bo rng cc ti nguyn lin quan n kt ni hin ti s khng c a vo s dng cho cc kt ni mi. iu ny buc mng phi duy tr trng thi ca tng kt ni (bao gm thng tin v s tn ti ca kt ni v ti nguyn m kt ni s dng) ti cc node c d liu i qua. Vic la chn tuyn c thc hin da trn cc yu cu v QoS i vi kt ni v da trn kh nng ca thut ton nh tuyn trong vic tnh ton cc tuyn c kh nng p ng cc yu cu QoS . Do kh nng nhn dng mng, kh nng c lp tng kt ni vi cc ti nguyn lin quan n kt ni trong sut thi gian tn ti ca kt ni m mi trng hng kt ni c th m bo cht lng cho tng lung thng tin. Mng s gim st tng kt ni, thc hin nh tuyn li trong trng hp c s c v vic thc hin nh tuyn li ny cng phi thng qua bo hiu. T c ch truyn tin ta thy mng hng kt ni thch hp vi : Cc ng dng yu cu phi m bo QoS mt cch nghim ngt. Cc ng dng c thi gian kt ni ln. i vi cc ng dng c thi gian kt ni ngn th mi trng hng kt ni dng nh li khng thch hp do thi gian thit lp kt ni cng nh t l phn Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS Trng H Cng Ngh

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thng tin header li qu ln. Vi cc loi lu lng nh vy th mi trng phi kt ni vi phng thc nh tuyn n gin, trnh phi s dng cc giao thc bo hiu phc tp s ph hp hn.
1.4

S hnh thnh cng ngh MPLS

nh tuyn IP truyn thng c nhiu gii hn, t vn kh nng m rng cho n vic qun l lu lng v tch hp mng lp 2 tn ti trong mng ca cc nh cung cp dnh v ln. hat ng t lu. Nhng vi s pht trin nahnh chng ca mng internet v hu ht trong cc mi trng u chn IP l giao thc lp 3 th nhng nhc im ca IP truyn thng ngy cng bc l r, trong khi cng ngh ATM c tc truyn tin cao, m bo thi jan thc v cht lng dch v theo yu cu nh trc. Hn na cc dch v thng tin th h sau c chia thnh hai xu hng pht trin chnh l: hot ng kt ni nh hng v hot ng khng kt ni. Hai xu hng pht trin ny dn tim cn v hi t nhau tin ti ra i cng ngh IP over ATM. S kt hp IP vi ATM c th l gii php k vng cho mng vin thng trong tng lai. Tuy nhin, IP v ATM l hai cng ngh hon ton khc nhau, c thit k cho nhng mi trng mng khc nhau v giao thc, cch nh a ch, nh tuyn , bo hiu, phn b ti nguynkhi cc ISP cng m rng mng theo hng IP/MLPS/ATM (IP over ATM), h cng nhn r nhc im ca m hnh ny, l s phc tp ca mng li do phi duy tr hot ng ca hai h thng thit b. S bng n ca mng Internet dn ti xu hng hi t ca mng vin thng khc nh mng thoi, truyn hnh da trn Internet, giao thc IP tr thnh giao thc ch o trong lnh vc mng. Xu hng ca cc ISP l thit k v s dng cc router chuyn dng, dung lng chuyn ti ln, h tr cc gii php tch hp, chuyn mch a lp cho mng ng trc Internet. Nhu cu cp thit trong bi cnh ny l phi ra i mt cng ngh lai c kh nng kt hp cc nhng c im tt ca chuyn mch knh ATM v chuyn mhc gi IP. Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS ra i p ng c nhng nhu cu ca th trng ng theo tiu ch pht trin ca Internet mang li nhng li ch thit thc, nh giu mt bc pht trin mi ca mng Internet trc xu th tch hp cng ngh thng tin v vin thng. MPLS lin kt cc u im ca nh tuyn lp Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS Trng H Cng Ngh

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3 connectionless v chuyn mch lp 2 connection-oriented. MPLS l mt phng thc c ci tin cho vic chuyn tip cc gi tin trong bng cch s dng cc nhn c gn thm vo trong cc gi tin IP. Mc tiu chnh ca MPLS l to ra mt cu trc mng mm do cung cp cho c tnh m rng v n nh mng. iu ny bao gm k thut iu khin lu lng v kh nng hot ng ca VPN v c lin quan n cht lng dch v (QoS) v nhiu lp dch v (CoS).

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CC C TNH MNG MPLS


2.1 TNG QUAN
2.1.1 Tnh thng minh phn tn Trong mng chuyn mch knh, tnh thng minh ch yu tp trung mng li (core). Tt c nhng thit b thng minh nht u t trong mng li nh cc tng i toll, transit, MSCCc thit b km thng minh hn th t mng bin (edge), v d nh cc tng i ni ht, truy nhp Trong mng gi IP, tnh thng minh phn tn gn nh chia u cho cc thit b trong mng. Tt c cc router u phi lm hai nhim v l nh tuyn v chuyn mch. y l u im nhng cng l nhc im ca mng IP. Quan im ca MPLS l tnh thng minh cng a ra mng bin th mng cng hot ng tt. L do l nhng thnh phn mng li phi chu ti rt cao. Thnh phn mng li nn c thng minh thp v nng lc chuyn ti cao. MPLS phn tch hai chc nng nh tuyn v chuyn mch: cc router bin thc hin nh tuyn v gn nhn (label) cho gi. Cn cc router mng li ch tp trung lm nhim v chuyn tip gi tin vi tc cao da vo cc nhn. Tnh thng minh c y ra ngai bin l mt trong nhng u im ln nht ca MPLS. 2.1.2 MPLS v m hnh tham chiu OSI Nguyn l ca MPLS l tt c cc gi IP s c gn nhn v chuyn tip theo mt ng dn LSP (Label Switched Path). Cc router trn ng dn ch cn c vo ni dung ca nhn thc hin quyt nh chuyn tip gi tin m khng cn phi kim tra IP.

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2.2 2.2.1

CC KHI NIM C BN TRONG MPLS


Min MPLS (MPLS domain)

Chun RFC3031 m t min MPLS l mt tp hp cc nt mng thc hin hot ng nh tuyn v chuyn tip MPLS. Mt min MPLS thng c qun l v iu khin bi mt nh qun tr. Min MPLS c chia thnh 2 phn: phn mng li (core) v phn mng bin (edge). Cc nt thuc min MPLS c gi l router chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label Switch Router). Cc nt phn mng li c gi l transit- LSR hay core-LSR, thng c gi tt l LSR. Cc nt bin c gi l router bin nhn LER (Label Edge Router). Nu mt LER l nt u tin trn ng i ca mt gi xuyn qua min MPLS th n c gi l LER li vo (ingress-LER), cn nu l nt cui cng th n c gi l LER li ra(egress-LER). 2.2.2 Lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC) Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) l mt tp hp cc gi c i x nh nhau bi mt LSR, nh vy FEC l mt nhm cc gi IP c chuyn tip trn cng mt ng chyn mch nhn LSR cho d chng c th khc nhau v thng tin header lp mng. Hnh di cho thy cch x l ny:

Hnh 2.1. Lp chuyn tip tng ng

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2.2.3 Nhn v stack nhn RFC 3031 nh ngha nhn l mt b phn nhn dng c di ngn v c nh mang ngha cc b dng nhn bit mt FEC. Nhn c dn ln mt gi bo cho LSR bit gi ny cn i n u. Phn ni dung nhn c di 20bit khng cu trc, nh vy s gi tr nhn c th c l 2. Gi tr nhn nh ngha ch s (index) dng trong bng chuyn tip. Mt gi li c th c dn chng nhu nhn, cc nhn ny cha trong mt ni gi l stack nhn (Label Stack). Stack nhn l mt tp hp gm mt hoc nhiu li vo nhn t chc theo nguyn tc LIFO. Ti mi hop trong mng ch x l nhn hin hnh trn nh stack. Chnh nhn ny s c LSR s dng chuyn tip gi tin.

Hnh 2.2: Stack nhn

Nu gi tin cha c nhn th stack nhn l rng ( su ca stack nhn bng 0). Nu stack c chiu su l d th mc 1 s y stack (bit S trong entry nhn t ln l 1) v mc d s nh ca stack. Mt entry nhn c th c ct vo (push) hoc ly ra (pop) khi stack.
2.2.4

Hon i nhn (Label Swapping)

Hon i nhn l cch dng cc th tc chun tip gi tin. chuyn tip gi c nhn, LSR kim tra nhn trn nh stack v dng nh x ILM (Incoming Label Map) nh x nhn ny ti mt entry chuyn tip nhn NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry). S dng thng tin trong NHLFE, LSR xc nh ra ni chuyn tip gi tin v thc hin mt tc v trn stack nhn. Ri n m ha stack nhn mi vo gi v chuyn gi i.

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Chuyn tip gi cha c nhn cng tng t nhng xy ra ingress-LER. LER phi phn tch header lp mng xc nh FEC ri s dng nh x FTN (FEC to NHLFE) nh x FEC vo mt NHLFE.
2.2.5

ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Switched Path)

ng chuyn mch nhn LSP l mt ng ni gia router ng vo v router ng ra, c thit lp bi cc nt MPLS chuyn cc gi i xuyn qua mng. ng dn ca mt LSP qua mng c nh ngha bi s chuyn i cc gi tr nhn cc LSR dc theo LSP bng cch dng th tc hon i nhn. Khi nim LSP tng t nh khi nim mch o (VC) trong ATM.

Hnh 2.3: ng chuyn mch nhn LSP 2.3 M ha nhn v ch ng gi nhn

2.3.1 M ha stack nhn Khi nhn c gn ln gi, bn thn gi tr nhn l 20 bit s c m ha cng vi mt thng tin cng thm ph tr trong qu trnh chuyn tip gi hnh thnh mt entry nhn. Hnh minh ha mt dnh dng mt entry nhn trong stack nhn.

Hnh 2.4: nh dng mt entry trong stack nhn

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Mt chng nhn 32 bit bao gm cc trng sau:

Nhn: l nhn thc s, c chiu di l 20 bit. Do ta c th to ra c 220 gi tr nhn khc nhau. v.

Exp: trng Experimental c 3 bit, c dng nh ngha lp dch

S: bit S l bit bottom-of-stack (di cng ca chng nhn). Mt gi tin c th c nhiu nhn, nu nhn thm vo chng nhn l cui cng th bit ny c thit lp ln 1.

TTL: trng Time to live c 8 bit, trng ny mang ngha ging nh bn IP. Tc l n s gim i 1 khi qua mi hop ngn chn routing loop Cng thc dn nhn gi tin l: Network Layer Packet + MPLS Label Stack Label Spaces: chia lm 2 loi Per-Platform Label Space: cc interface dng chung gi tr nhn. Per-Interface Label Space: mi interface mang gi tr nhn ring 2.3.2 Ch Frame Cc k thut lp 2 nh Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, PPP khng c trng no ph hp trong header ca frame c th mang nhn. V vy stack nhn s c cha trong header chm (shim header). Shim header c chm vo gia header lp lin kt v header lp mng, nh trong hnh 11. nh stack nm lin sau header lp 2 v y stack nm lin trc header lp mng.

Hnh 2.5 : Shim header c chm vo gia header lp 2 v lp 3

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Roter gi frame phi c cch bo cho router nhn bit rng frame ny c cha shim header, cch thc ny khc nhau gia cc k thut lp 2. Ethernet s dng cp gi tr ethertype 0x8847 v 0x8848 ch th frame ang mang gi MPLS unicast v multicast tng ng. PPP s dng NCP (Network Control Program) sa i gi l MPLSCP (MPLS Control Protocol) v nh du tt c cc gi c cha shim header bng gi tr 0x8281 trong trng PPP protocol 2.3.3 Ch cell Ch cell c dng khi ta c mt mng gm c ATM-LSR (l cc chuyn mch ATM c h tr MPLS), trong n s dng cc giao thc phn phi nhn MPLS trao i thng tin VPI/VCI, trong VPI hoc VCI ca header cell ATM.

Hnh 2.6 : Nhn trong ch Cell ATM

Cell ATM gm c 5 byte header v 48 byte payload. chuyn ti gi tin c kch thc ln hn 48 byte t lp trn a xung, ATM phi gi tin thnh nhiu phn nh hn, vic ny gi l phn on (fragmentation) [4]. Qu trnh phn on do lp AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer) m trch. C th AAL 5 PDU s c chia thnh nhiu on 48byte, mi on 48byte ny c thm header 5byte to ra mt cell ATM.

Hnh 2.7 : ng gi (encapsulation) gi c nhn trn link ATM

Khi ng gi c nhn MPLS trn ATM, ton b stack nhn c t trong AAL 5 PDU. Gi tr thc s ca nhn nh c t trong trng VPI/VCI, hoc t trong Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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trng VCI nu 2 ATM-LSR kt ni nhau qua mt ng o ATM (VP). Entry nh stack nhn phi cha gi tr 0 (coi nh entry gi ch) v c b qua khi nhn. L do cc nhn phi cha c trong AAL5 PDU v header ATM l m rng su stack nhn. Khi cc cell ATM i n cui LSP, n s c ti hp li. Nu c nhiu nhn trong stack nhn, AAL5 PDU s b phn on ln na v nhn hin hnh trn nh stack s c t vo trng VPI/VCI.

2.4

CHC NNG MPLS

2.4.1 Kin trc mt nt MPLS (LER v LSR) Hnh di minh ha mt phng iu khin v chuyn tip ca LSR v LER. Mt phng iu khin c chc nng nh tuyn IP dng giao tip vi cc LSR, LER khc hc cc router IP thng thng bng cc giao thc nh tuyyn IP. Kt qu l mt c s thng tin nh tuyn RIB (Routing Information Base) c to lp gm cc thng tin miu t cc route kh thi tm cc prefix a ch IP. LER s s dng cc thng tin ny xy dng c s thng tin chuyn tip FIB (Frwarding Information Base) trong mt phng chuyn tip.

Hnh 2.8 : Cu trc ca LER v transit LSR

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Mt phng iu khin cn c chc nng bo hiu MPLS dng giao tip vi cc LSR khc bng mt giao thc phn phi nhn. Kt qu l mt c s thng tin nhn LIB (Label Information Base) gm cc thng tin lin quan n cc gn kt nhn c thng lng vi cc router MPLS khc. Thnh phn bo hiu MPLS nhn thng tin t chc nng nh tuyn IP v LIB xy dng c s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LFIB (Label Forwarding Information Base) trong mt phng chuyn tip. Mt LER c th chuyn tip cc gi IP, gn nhn vo gi (Label Push), hoc g nhn ra khi gi (Label pop) trong khi mt transit LSR ch c kh nng chuyn tip gi c nhn thm hoc b bt nhn.
2.4.2

Mt phng chuyn tip (mt phng d liu)

Mt phng chuyn tip MPLS chu trch nhim chuyn tip d liu ca ngi dng. N s dng LFIB thc hin chuyn tip cc gi c gn nhn cn c vo gi tr ca nhn nm trn nh stack nhn. 2.4.2.1. C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LFIB Trong mng IP, quyt nh chuyn tip gi c xc lp bng cch thc hin tra cu a ch ch trong bng FIB xc nh hop k tip v giao din ra. Trong mng MPLS mi LSR duy tr mt bng LFIB ring r v tch bit vi FIB. Bng LFIB c hai loi entry l ILM v FTN (FEC to NHLFE). NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry) l subentry cha cc trng nh a ch hop k, cc tc v stack nhn, giao din ra v thng tin header lp 2, ILM nh x mt nhn n mt hoc nhiu NHLFE. Nhn trong gi n s dng chn ra mt entry ILM c th nhm xc nh NHLFE. Cn FTN nh x mi FEC vo mt hoc nhiu NHLFE. Nh cc entry FTN, gi cha c nhn c chuyn thnh gi c nhn FTN, ILM v NHLFE

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Hnh 2.9 : NHLFE

Nh vy khi mt gi khng nhn thuc mt FEC i vo min MPLS, ingress-LER s s dng mt entry LFIB loi FTN chuyn gi khng nhn thnh gi c nhn. Sau ti cc transit-LSR s dng mt entry LFIB loi ILM hon i nhn vo bng nhn ra. Cui cng, ti egress-LER s dng mt entry LFIB loi ILM g b nhn n v chuyn tip gi khng c nhn n router k tip. 2.4.2.2. Thut ton chuyn tip nhn Cc nt MPLS s dng gi tr nhn trong cc gi n l ch mc tra bng LFIB. Khi tm thy entry tng ng vi nhn n, nt MPLS thay th nhn trong gi bng nhn ra v gi gi i qua giao din ra n hop k c c t trong subentry NHLFE. Nu subentry c ch nh hng i ra, nt MPLS s t gi trn hng i ch nh. Trng hp nt MPLS duy tr mt LFIB ring cho mi giao din n s dng LFIB ca giao din m gi n tra cu chuyn tip gi tin.

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Hnh 2.10 : Qa trnh chuyn tip mt gi n next hop

Nt MPLS c th ly nh v c cc thng tin chuyn tip cn thit trong LFIB ch trong mt ln truy xut b nh, tc thc thi rt cao nh cc chip ASIC. 2.4.2.3. NHLFE (Next Hop Label Frwarding Entry) NHLFE l li vo ph ca ILM hoc FTN, n cha cc thng tin sau: Hop k ca gi Tc v s c tin hnh trn stack nhn ca gi nh sau: Swap : thay nhn nh stack nhn bng mt nhn mi c ch nh Pop : bc mt nhn ra khi stack. Pusch: chng thm mt nhn vo trong stack nhn.

Mt v d NHLFE cng c th cha nhng thng tin sau: ng gi lp datalink s dng khi truyn gi Cch thc m ha stack nhn khi truyn gi Bt k cc thng tin khc cn thit x l gi mt cch chnh xc. 2.4.3 Mt phng iu khin Nhim v ca cc giao thc trong mt phng iu khin l phn phi cac thng tin cn thit cho mi LER v LSR cu hnh bng FIB v LFIB. Trong hnh 14 mt giao thc nh tuyn s dng bng thng tin nh tuyn RIB hot ng kt hp vi mt giao thc bo hiu MPLS s dng bng thng tin nhn LIB phn phi cc nhn. Vic phn tch mt phng iu khin v mt phng chuyn tip cho php ci t mt giao thc iu khin MPLS trn mt ATM switch. C vn t ra l : Ti sao MPLS cn giao thc bo hiu, trong khi router IP c in ch cn nh tuyn IP. Mt l do quan trng phi dng giao thc bo hiu MPLS kt hp vi mt giao thc nh tuyn xut pht t s cn thit phi thc hin nh tuyn rng buc ca ng chuyn mch nhn MPLS. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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2.5 CHUYN TIP MPLS

2.5.1 Hot ng trong mt phng chuyn tip FEC l mt tp con cc gi cn c theo mt s thng tin trong header IP c dng bi FIB. Mt FEC c dng thng da theo lut longest prefix mtch trn a ch IP ch. V d: cc a ch IP so trng 16bit u c dng a.b.*.* oc biu din l a.b/16 cho entry FEC u tin trong bng FIB. FEC cn c th cn c b sung theo cc trng khc trong header IP nh ToS hay Diffserv, FIB s dng FEC xc nh ra giao tip i n hop k cho cc gi tin IP, cch thc hin ging cc router c in.

Hnh 2.11: Bn trong mt phng chuyn tip MPLS

Vi cc v d v hot ng LFIB hnh trn, phn ILM ca LFIB thao tc trn mt gi c nhn v nh x mt nhn vo (incoming label) ti mt tp cc entry NHLFE. ILM c th hin trong hnh bi cc ct IN-IF v IN-LBL, nhng cng c th l mt bng ring r cho mt giao tip. FTN (FEC to NHLFE) ca FIB nh x mt FEC ti mt tp hp gm mt hoc nhiu NHLFE. Nh v d trong hnh, nhn A c y (push) ln cc gi IP thc FEC d.e/16. Lu ILM hoc FTN c th nh x ti nhiu NHLFE, chng hn dng trong cn bng ti.

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2.5.2

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G nhn hop p cui PHP (Penultimate Hop Popping)

Mt ti u ha quan trng m MPLS h tr l trnh vic tra cu nhn (label lookup) phi x l o egress-LER trong trng hp mt gi i trn mt LSP m yu cu tra cu IP (IP lookup) tip ngay sau . Trong hnh 2.11 mt gi n c nhn A c g nhn v chuyn sang FIB tra cu tip trn header IP. trnh vic x l pht sinh thm ny, MPLS nh ngha mt tin trnh gi l g nhn hop p cui PHP, trong router p cui trn LSP s g nhn thay v egress-LER phi lm vic ny. Nh vy ct gim c vic x l router cui cng trn LSP.
2.6 U IM V NG DNG CA MPLS

2.6.1 n gin ha chc nng chuyn tip MPLS s dng c ch chuyn tip cn c vo nhn c di c nh nn quyt nh chuyn tip c th xc nh ngay ch vi mt ln tra cu ch mc trong LFIB. C ch ny n gin v nhanh hn nhiu so vi gii thut longest prefix match dng trong chuyn tip gi datagram thng thng. 2.6.2 K thut lu lng u im ln nht cua MPLS l kh nng thc hin k thut lu lng (TETraffic Engineering), n m bo lu lng c nh tuyn i qua mt mng theo mt cch thc tin cy v hiu qu nht. K thut lu lng cho php cc ISP nh tuyn lu lng theo cch h c th cung cp dch v tt nht cho khch hng kha cnh thng lng v tr. MPLS TE cho php lu lng oc phn b hp l qua ton b h tng mng. Ti u ha hiu sut s dng mng. 2.6.3 nh tuyn QoS t ngun nh tuyn QoS t ngun l mt c ch trong cc LSR c xc nh trc nt ngun (LSR li vo) da vo mt thng tin v kh dng ti nguyn trhogn mng cng nh yu cu QoS ca lung lu lng. Ni cch khc, n l mt giao thc nh tuyn c m rng ch tiu chn dng bao gm cc tham s nh bng thng kh

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dng, vic s dng link v ng dn end to end, chim dng ti nguyn ca nt, tr v bin ng tr. 2.6.4 Mng rinng o VPN VPN l cho php khch hng thit lp mng ring ging nh thu knh ring nhng vi chi ph thp hn bng cch s dng mng h tng cng cng dng chung. Kin trc MPLS p ng tt c cc yu cu cn thit h tr VPN bng cch thit lp cc ng hm LSP s dng nh tuyn tng minh. Do , MPLS s dng cc ng hm LSP cho php nh khai thc cung cp dch v VPN tho cch tch hp trn cng h tng m h cung cp dch v Internet. Hn na, c ch xp chng nhn cho php cu hnh nhiu VPN lng nhau trn cng h tng mng.
2.6.5

Chuyn tip c phn cp (Hiearchical Forwarding)

Thay i ng k nht c MPLS a ra khng phi kin trc nh tuyn m l kin trc chuyn tip. S ci tin trong kin trc chuyn tip c tc ngng k n kh nng cung cp chuyn tip phn cp. Chuyn tip phn cp cho php lng mt LSP vo trong mt LSP khc (xp chng nhn hay cn gi l iu khin gi a cp). Thc ra chuyn tip phn cp khng phi l k thut mi; ATM cung cp c ch chuyn tip 2 mc vi khi nim ng o (VP) v knh o (VC). Tuy nhin MPLS cho php cc LSP c lng nhau mt cch ty , cung cp iu khin gi a cp cho vic chuyn tip. 2.6.6 Kh nng m rng Scalability Chuyn mch nhn cung cp mt s tch bit tan din hn gia nh tuyn lin min (inter domain) v nh tuyn ni min (intra domain) iu ny ci thin ng k kh nng m rng ca cc tin trnh nh tuyn. Hn na kh nng m rng ca MPLS cn nh vo FEC (thu gom lung) v xp chng nhn hp nht (merging) hoc lng nhau (nesting) cc LSP. Ngai ra nhiu LSP lin kt vi cc FEC khc nhau c th c trn vo cng mt LSP. S dng cc LSP lnhg nhau cng ci thin kh nng m rng ca MPLS.

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Chng 3:

NH TUYN V BO HIU TRONG MPLS


3.1 NH TUYN TRONG MPLS

MPLS h tr c hai k thut nh tuyn: nh tuyn tng chng hop by hop v nh tuyn rng buc (constrain based routing). nh tuyn tng chng cho php mi nt nhn dng cc FEC v chn hop k cho mi FEC mt cch c lp, ging nh nh tuyn trong mng IP. Tuy nhin nu mun trin khai k thut lu lng vi MPLS bt buc phi s dng kiu nh tuyn rng buc . 3.1.1 nh tuyn rng buc nh tuyn rng buc l mt phng tin thc hin x l t ng ha k thut lu lng, khc phc oc cc hn ch ca nh tuyn theo ch (destination based routing). Khc phc c cc hn ch ca nh tuyn theo ch (thut ton chn ng ngn nht OSPF) m cn s dng cc metric c th khc nh bng thng, tr, cost v bin ng tr. Gii thut chn ng c kh nng ti u ha theo mt hoc nhiu metric ny, thng thng ngi ta s dng metric da trn s lng hop v bng thng. ng c chn c s lng hop nh nht nhng phi m bo bng thng kh dng trn tt c cc chng lin kt, quyt nh c bn nh sau: chn ng ngn nht trong s tt c cc ng c bng thng kh dng tha mn yu cu.

Hnh 3. 1 : Mt v d v nh tuyn rng buc

nh tuyn rng buc c 2 kiu online v offline. Kiu online cho php cc router tnh ng cho cc LSP bt k lc no. Trong kiu offline, mt server tnh ng Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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cho cc LSP theo nh k (chu k c th oc chn bi nh qun tr, thng l vi gi hoc vi ngy). Cc LSP c bo hiu thit lp theo cc ng chn.
3.1.2

nh tuyn tng minh

nh tuyn tng minh (Explicit Routing) l mt tp con ca nh tuyn rng buc, trong s rng buc l i tng tuyn tng minh ER. Tuyn tng minh l mt danh sch cc nt tru tng (abstract node) m mt ng chuyn mch nhn rng buc CR-LSP phi i qua. Nt tru tng c th l mt nt a ch IP hoc mt nhm nt (nh IP prefix hoc mt AS). Nu ER ch quy nh mt nhm trong s cc nt m CR-LSP i qua th n c gi l tuyn tng minh th lng (loose ER). Ngc li nu ER quy nh ton b cc nute trn CR-LSP th c gi l tuyn tng minh ngim ngt (strict ER). CR-LSP c m ha nh l mt chui cc ER-hop (chng tng minh) cha trong mt cu trc Type-Length-Value rng buc (contraint based route TLV). Mi ERhop c th xc nh mt nhm cc nt. CR-LSP khi bao gm tt c cc nhm nt c xc nh theo th t xut hin trong cu trc TLV.

3.2

CC CH BO HIU MPLS
3.2.1 Ch phn phi nhn

MPLS cho php hai ch hot ng ca cc LSR phn phi cc nh x nhn, l phn phi khng cn yu cu (downstream unsolicited) v phn phi theo yu cu (downstream on demand). Thut ng downstream y ng rng pha downstream s thc hin gn kt nhn v thng bo gn kt cho pha upstream. 3.2.1.aPhn phi nhn khng cn yu cu (downstream unsolicited) Downstream-LSR phn phi cc gn kt nhn n upstream-LSR m khng cn c yu cu thc hin vic kt nhn.Nu downstream-LSR chnh l hop k i vi nh tuyn IP cho mt FEC c th th upstream-LSR c th s dng kiu kt nhn ny chuyn tip cc gi trong FEC n downstream-LSR. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Hnh 3.2 : Phn phi nhn khng theo yu cu

3.2.1.b

Phn phi nhn theo yu cu

Upstream-LSR phi yu cu r rng mt gn kt cho mt FEC c th th downstream-LSR mi phn phi. Trong phng thc ny, downstream-router khng nht thit phi l hop k i vi nh tuyn IP co FEC , iu ny rt quan trng i vi cc LSP nh tuyn tng minh.

Hnh 3.3 : Phn phi nhn theo yu cu

3.2.2 Ch duy tr nhn Mt upstream-LSR c th nhn cc gn kt nhn cho cng mt FEC X t nhiu downstream-LSR. C hai ch duy tr cc gn kt nhn nhn c l duy tr nhn t do (liberal label retention) v duy tr nhn bo th (conservative label retention). 3.2.2.a Duy tr nhn t do Pha upstream (LSR1) l tr tt c cc gn kt nhn nhn c, bt chp vic downstream-LSR c phi l hop k i vi nh tuyn IP hay khng. u im chnh ca duy tr nhn t do l hop k i vi nh tuyn Ip hay khng. u im chnh ca duy tr nhn t do l c th phn ng nhanh vi s thay i nh tuyn v cc gn kt nhn c sn. Nhc im l LSR phi duy tr nhiu gn kt nhn khng dng v c th gy ra loop nh tuyn tm thi khi thay i nh tuyn.

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Hnh 3.4 : Duy tr nhn t do

3.2.2.b Duy tr nhn bo th Upstream-LSR hy tt c cc gn kt nhn khc, ch gi li gn kt nhn gi t downstream-LSR ang l hop k hin hnh. Ch ny c u im l LSR ch cn duy tr s gn kt FEC nhn t hn, nhng p ng chm khi thay i nh tuyn v gn kt nhn mi phi c yu cu v phn phi lai. y l ch thch hp cho cc LSR ch h tr mt s lng nhn hn ch (nh cc chuyn mch ATM).

Hnh 3.5 : Duy tr nhn bo th.

3.2.3 Ch iu khin LSP Khi mt FEC ng vi mt prefix a ch c phn phi nh tuyn IP, vic thip lp mi kt hp gia cc gn kt nhn ti mt LSR c th thc hin theo hai cch sau:
3.2.3.a iu khin c lp

Khi mi LSR nhn dng ra mt FEC th n quyt nh gn kt ngay mt nhn cho FEC v cng b lun gn kt cho cc i tc phn phi nhn (label distribution peers). iu ny tng t nh nh tuyn IP thng thng, mi router ra quyt nh c lp v ni cn chuyn gi tin i. iu khin c lp c u im l thit lp LSP nhanh v vic kt nhn din ra song song gia nhiu cp LSR v dng lu

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lng c th bt u truyn m khng cn i cho tt c cc gn kt nhn thit lp xong.

Hnh 3.6 : iu khin c lp.

3.2.3.b iu khin tun t

Mt downstream-LSR thc hin kt nhn cho mt FEC v thng bo gn kt ch nu n l LSR li ra hoc nu n nhn c mt gn kt nhn cho FEC t router hng downstream ca n. Vic thit lp LSP tun t bt u LSR li ra v din ra ni tip theo hng ngc v LSR li vo. Cc LSP nh tuyn tng minh bt buc phi s dng kiu in khin tun t v qu trnh phn phi nhn theo chui c th t s to ra thi gian tr trc khi dng lu lng i trn LSP c th bt u. Tuy nhin iu khin tun t cung cp phng tin trnh loop v t c mc thu gom chc chn hn.

Hnh 3.7 : iu khin tun t.

3.2.4 Cc giao thc phn phi nhn MPLS Giao thc phn phi nhn l mt tp hp cc th tc m nh n mt LSR c th thng bo cho mt LSR khc bit v cc mi gn kt nhn FEC m n tin hnh. Kin trc MPLS khng ch nh mt giao thc phn phi nhn duy nht no, do c th c nhiu la chn, mi giao thc c u im v nhc im ring.

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3.3

Giao thc LDP (Label Distribution Protocol)

LDP c chun ha trong RFC 3036, n c thit k thit lp v duy tr cc LSP nh tuyn khng rng buc (unconstraint routing). Vng hot ng ca LDP c th l gia cc LSR lng ging trc tip hoc gin tip.

Hnh 3.8 : Vng hot ng ca LDP.

3.3.1 Hot ng ca LDP LDP c 4 chc nng chnh l pht hin LSR lng ging (neighbor discovery), thit lp v duy tr phin, qung b nhn (label advertisement) v thng bo (notification), tng ng vi cc chc nng trn, c 4 lp thng ip LDP sau y: Discoverry: trao i nh k bn tin hello nhm loan bo v kim tra mt LSR kt ni gin tip hoc trc tip. Session: thit lp thng lng cc thng s cho vic khi to, duy tr v chm dt cc phin ngang hng LDP. Nhm ny bao gm bn tin Initialization, keepalive.

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Advertisement: to ra , thay i hoc xa cc nh x FEC ti nhn. Nhm ny bao gm bn tin Label Mapping, Label Withdrawal, Label Release, Label Request, Label Request Abort. Notification: truyn t cc thng tin trng thi, li hoc cnh bo. Cc thng ip discovery c trao i trn UDP. Cc kiu thng ip cn li i hi pht tin cy nn dng TCP. Trng hp hai LSR c kt ni lp 2 trc tip th th tc pht hin neighbor trc tip nh sau: Mt LSR nh k gi i bn tin hello ti cc cng UDP 646 a ch multicast (tt c cc router trong subnet) Tt c cc LSR tip nhn bn tin hello ny trn cng UDP. n mt thi im no LSR s bit c tt c cc LSR khc m n c kt ni trc tip. Khi LSR nhn bit oc a ch ca LSR khc bng c ch ny th n s thit lp kt ni TCP n LSR . Khi phin LDP c thit lp gia 2 LSR. Phin LDP l phin song hng nn mi LSR hai u kt ni u c th yu cu v gi lin kt nhn.

Hnh 3.9 : Trao i thng ip LDP.

Trong trng hp hai LSR khng c kt ni lp 2 trc tip (neighbor gin tip) th LSR nh k gi bn tin hello n cng UDP bit ti a ch IP xc nh c khai bo khi lp cu hnh. u nhn bn tin ny c th tr li li bng bn tin hello khc v vic thit lp cc phin LDP c thc hin nh trn.

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Trao i thng ip LDP thc hin bng cch gi cc LDP-PDU thng qua cc phin LDP trn kt ni TCP. Mi LDP-PDU c th mang mt hoc nhiu thng ip v cc thng ip ny khng nht thit phi c lin quan vi nhau.
3.3.2.a LDP PDU

Mi PDU ca LDP bao gm mt header LDP v theo sau l mt hoc nhiu thng ip LDP. Phn header LDP c dng nh sau:

LDP header. PDU Length (2octet): s nguyn ch chiu di ca PDU theo octet, khng tnh trng Version v PDU Length. LDP Identifier (6octet): xc nh khng gian nhn c cp pht. Bn octet u l gi tr duy nht ton cc nhn dng LSR, nh a ch IP (router ID) c gn cho LSR. Hai octets sau xc nh mt khng gian nhn bn trong LSR. Hai octets ny c set v 0 cho khng gian nhn per platform.
3.3.2.b nh dng thng ip LDP

Tt c cc thng ip LDP c cng format nh sau:

Format thng ip LDP.

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Bt U: bt unknown, lun l 0 v c t LDP khng c kiu bn tin unknown. Bng sau l cc gi tr nh ngha trng message type:

Message Length: Chiu di ca cc trng sau Message Length tnh theo octet (gm Message ID, cc tham s bt buc v ty chn). Message ID i khi c dng lin kt mt s bn tin vi cc bn tin khc, v d nh mt bn tin p ng s c cng Message ID vi bn tin yu cu tng ng. Cc tham s bt buc v ty chn ph thuc vo cc loi bn tin c gi, chng thng dng kiu m ha TLV (Type Length Value). Ni chung mi th xut hin trong mt thng ip LDP c th c m ha kiu TLV, tuy nhin c t LDP khng phi lc no cng s dng lc TLV. 3.3.3 Cc bn tin LDP
-

Hello: c trao i trong sut qu trnh hot ng LDP nh trnh by trn

hnh. Initialization: c gi i khi bt u mt phin LDP gia 2 LSR trao i cc tham s, cc ty chn cho phin. Cc tham s ny bao gm: + Ch phn b nhn. + Cc ga tr b nh thi. + Phm vi cc nhn s dng trong knh gia 2 LSR .

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C 2 LSR u c th gi cc bn tin Initialization v LSR nhn c s tr li bng Keepalive nu cc tham s c chp nhn. Nu c mt tham s no khng c chp nhn th LSR tr li thng bo c li v phin kt thc. Keepalive: c gi nh k khi khng cn bn tin no cn gi m bo cho mi thnh phn LDP bit rng thnh phn LDP khc ang hat ng tt. trng hp khng xut hin bn tin Keepalive hay mt s bn tin LDP khc trong khong thi gian nht nh th LSR s xc nh i tc LDP hng hoc kt ni c s c v phin LDP chm dt. Label Mapping: c s dng qung b gn kt gia FEC v nhn. Label Withdrawal: Thc hin qu trnh ngc li vi bn tin Label Mapping, n c s dng xa b gn kt thc hin trong label mapping. Bn tin ny c s dng trong trng hp: + Khi c s thay i trong bng nh tuyn (thay i Prefix a ch), lc LSR khng cn nhn ra FEC ny na. + Thay i trong cu hnh LSR lm tm dng vic chuyn nhn cc gi trong FEC . Label Release: c s dng bi LSR khi nhn c chuyn i nhn m n khng cn thit na. iu thong xy ra khi LSR gii phng nhn thy nt tip theo cho FEC khng phi l LSR qung b lin kt nhn/ FEC . Label Request: S dng trong ch hot ng gn nhn theo yu cu, LSR s yu cu gn nhn t LSR k cn pha downstream bng bn tin ny. Label Request Abort: Nu bn tin Label Request cn phi hy b trc khi c chp nhn (do nt k tip trong FEC yu cu thay i), th LSR yu cu s loi b yu cu trc bng bn tin Label Request Abort. 3.3.4 LDP iu khin c lp v phn phi theo yu cu. V d di y minh ha vic s dng bn tin Label Request v Label Mapping trong ch cng b nhn theo yu cu v iu khin LSP c lp. Trnh t thi gian trao i cc bn tin LDP gia cc i tc (peer) thit lp mt LSP t router li vo R1 qua R2 ri n router li ra R3 cho mt FEC c Prefix a.b/16, R1 khi to tin trnh bng cch yu cu mt nhn cho FEC a.b/16 t hop k ca n l R2. V s dng iu khin c lp nn R2 tr ngay mt nh x nhn v cho R1 l R2. V s dng iu khin c lp nn R2 tr ngay mt nh x nhn v R1 trc khi R2 nhn c nh x nhn t Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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pha downstream l R3. C R2 v R3 p ng bng bn tin Label Mapping, kt qu l trong FIB ca R1 v LFIB ca R2 v R3 c cc entry gn kt nhn hnh thnh nn ng chuyn mch nhn LSP.

Hnh 3.10 : V d LDP ch iu khin c lp theo yu cu.

LDP cn h tr cc ch phn phi nhn khc. Khi cu hnh ch cng b khng cn yu cu (downstream unsolicited 0, cc router s khng dng bn tin Label Request. Nu iu khin tun t (ordered control) c cu hnh trn mi giao din, cc yu cu nhn s lm cho cc bn tin Label Mapping c tr v theo th t t R3 n R2 ri t R2 v R1. Tng qut, trong ch phn phi theo yu cu iu khin tun t, nh x nhn din ra u tin router li ra, ri sau ln lt ngc v n router li vo
3.4 Giao thc CR-LDP (Constrain based routing LDP)

CR-LDP l giao thc m rng t LDP (RFC 3212) nhm h tr c bit cho nh tuyn rng buc, k thut lu lng (TE) v cc hat gn d tr ti nguyn. Cc kh nng cu CR-LDP ty chn bao gm thng lng cc tham s lu lng nh cp pht bng thng, thit lp v cm gi quyn u tin..

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CR-LDP b sung thm cc i tng Type Length Value mi sau y (RFC 3212): + Tuyn tng minh ER (explicit Route) + Chng tng minh ER-hop (Explicit route hop) + Cc tham s lu lng + S ln chim (preemptions) + Nhn din LSP (LSPID) + Ghim tuyn (routing Pinning) + Lp ti nguyn (resource class) + CR LSP FEC Mt s th tc mi cng c b sung h tr cc chc nng cn thit nh: + Bo hiu ng (Path signalling) + nh ngha cc tham s lu lng + Qun l LSP (quyn u tin, cam kt qun tr,) CR-LDP s dng c ch gn nhn theo yu cu v iu khin tun t. Mt LSP c thit lp khi mt chui cc bn tin Label Request lan truyn t ingress-LSP n egress-LSR, v nu ng c yu cu tha mn cc rng bc (v d bng thng kh dng), th cc nhn mi c cp pht v phn phi bi mt chui cc bn tin Label Mapping lan truyn ngc v igress-LSR..Vic thit lp mt CR-LSP c th tht bi v nhiu l do khc nhau v cc li s c bo hiu bng bn tin Notification.
3.4.2

Thit lp mt CR-LSP (constrain based routing LSP)

thit lp mt LSP theo mt con ng nh trc, CR-LDP s dng i tng tuyn tng minh ER (explicit route). ER c cha trong cc bn tin Label.

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Hnh 3.11 : Thit lp LSP vi CR-LDP.

3.4.3 Tin trnh d tr ti nguyn

Hnh 3.12 : Tin trnh d tr ti nguyn.

Tin trnh d tr ti nguyn nh trong hnh . Khi mt nt CD-LDP nhn c mt bn tin Label Request, n gi Admission Control kim tra xem nt ny c cc ti nguyn c yu cu khng. Nu c ti nguyn kh dng, Admission Cotrol d tr n bng cch cp nht bng nh Resource. Sau bn tin Label Request c chuyn tip n nt MPLS k sau. Khi nt CR-LDP nhn bn tin Label Mapping, n lu thng tin nhn v giao din vo bng LIB, lu thng tin CR-LSP c yu cu vo bng c s thgn tin tuyn tng minh ERB (explicit route information base). Ri n gi resource manager to mt hng i phc v cho CR-LSP c yu cu,v l Service ID ca n vo bng ERB. Cui cng, n chuyn tip bn tin LSP Mapping ti nt MPLS k trc.

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3.5

GIAO THC RSVP-TE

RSVP c mt s c ch cn thit thc hin bo hiu phn phi nhn nhm rng buc nh tuyn. IETF chun ha phn m rng k thut lu lng RSVP-TE , nh ngha cc ng dng ca RSVP-TE nh h tr phn phi nhn theo yu cu cp pht ti nguyn cho cc LSP nh tuyn tng minh. Tng kt cch dng RSVP-TE h tr ti nh tuyn make before break, theo di ng thc s c chn qua chc nng ghi tuyn cng nh h tr u tin v ln chim. Nguyn l chc nng ca RSVP l thit lp cc d tr cho lung gi n hng. cc bn tin RSVP thng i theo con ng hop by hop ca nh tuyn Ip nu khng hin din ty chn tuyn tng minh. Cc router hiu RSVP dc theo ng c th chn v x l bt c bn tin no. RFC 2205 nh nga 3 kiu bn tin RSVP: thit lp d tr (reservation setup), tear down, v error. RSVP-TE cng nh ngha thm bn tin hello. 3.5.1 Cc bn tin thit lp d tr RSVP RSVP s dng khi nim d tr u nhn. Trc tin u gi pht ra mt bn tin Path nhn din mt lung v cc c th l lng ca n. Bn tin Path cha mt session ID, sender-template, label request, sender Tspec v ty chn l i tng tuyn tng minh ERO (explicit route object), session ID cha mt a ch IP ch i km mt nhn dng hm 16 bit (tunnel ID) nhn din mt ng hm LSP. Nh trnh by chng trc, ch c ingress LSP mi cn bit v FEC c gn vo mt ng hm LSP. Do , khng ging nh LDP, FEC nh x vo ng hm LSP khng bao gm trong bt k bn tin RVSP no. i tng label request h tr ch cng b nhn theo yu cu. sender template cha a ch IP ca u gi i km vi mt LSP ID c h tr phng thc make before break khi thay i ng i ca mt ng hm LSP. c tnh lu lng Tspec s dgn tc nh (peak rate), thgn token (token bucket) nh ngha tc v kch c bng pht, n v khng ch ti thiu (minimum policed unit) v kch thc gi ti a. Khi bn tin Path i n ch, bn nhn p ng bng mt bn tin RESV nu n ng khi to vic gn kt nhn c yu cu trong bn tin Path. Bn tin RESV c

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truyn v theo ng ngc chiu vi bn tin Path bng cch dng thng tin hop k trc trong bn tin Path. RESV cng cha cng session ID nh bn tin Path tng ng, i tng ghi tuyn ty chn (route record) v thng tin l thuc kiu d tr (reservation style). Kiu FF (fixed filter) c mt nhn v Tspec c n nh cho mi cp sender receiver. Kiu SE (shared explicit) n nh mt nhn khc nhau cho mi sender, nhng tt c chng phi p dng cng mt d tr lung r rng. i tng record route ghi nhn tuyn ng thc t c chn bi LSP bt u t egress dn ngc v ingress. N c th c mt router dng ghim mt tuyn tng minh th lng bng cch copy tuyn ghi c trong bn tin RESV sang i tng tuyn tng minh ERO trong mt bn tin Path c gi theo chiu ngc li. 3.5.2 Cc bn tin Tear down , error v hello ca RSVP-TE RSVP-TE nh ngha 2 bn tin dnh cho vic gii ta LSP l Path Tear v RESV Tear. Hai bn tin ny c gi theo chiu ngc vi bn tin Path v RESV tng ng.Bn tin Tear xa b bt k trng thi ci t lin quan n bn tin Path hay RESV. Cc bn tin Tear cng c th dng xa cc trng thi p ng cho mt li bc u tin trong hat ng ti nh tuyn. C cc bn tin thng bo li cho bn tin Path v RESV cng nh bn tin RESV Confirmation ty chn. cc bn tin li cho bit c s vi phm chnh sch, m ha bn tin hoc mt s s c khc. V d, khi mt LSP thy rng n khng th h tr Tspec c t trong mt bn tin RESV, n s khng chuyn tip bn tin RESV v cho pha upstream, thay vo n to ra mt bn tin RESVERR gi cho pha downstream xa b n lc thip lp LSP. Tuyn tng minh v cc ty chn record route ca RSVP TE c mt s cc m li phc v cho vic debug. RFC 3209 nh ngha bn tin hello ty chn cho RSVP TE, n cho php mt LSR pht hin mt neigbor b li nhanh hn khi so vi RSVP lm ti tnh trng hoc pht hin li ng truyn bng mt giao thc nh tuyn IP. iu ny kh hu ch trong vic ti nh tuyn nhanh.

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3.5.3 Thit lp tuyn tng minh iu khin tun t theo yu cu. Hnh trn v d vic trao i bn tin RSVP-TE s dng i tng tuyn tng miinh ERO (explicit route object) ci t mt LSP i qua mt con ng khng phi l ngn nht. router R1 xc nh rng n s n nh FEC a.b/16 cho mt ng hm LSP, v n tnh ra mt tuyn tng minh R4-R5-R3 i n hop k cho FEC . R1 khi to vic thit lp LSP ny bng cch pht ra mt bn tin Path n R4 vi mt ERO, Tspec, sender template (c cha a ch ca sender) v mt i tng label request. Mi bn tin RESV lin quan n ng hm LSP ny u mang session ID v filter spec nguyn thy ca sender R1 gi mi tng quan vi nhau. Tip theo, R4 tip nhn yu cu ny v gi bn tin Path n router k tip ghi trong ERO l R5. n lt mnh, R5 gi bn tin ny n egress-router R3. Ti ch n ca bn tin Path, R3 xc nh rng lin kt chng R3-R5 c th h tr cho yu cu v l hop cui cng trn ng dn cho FECa.b/16.R3 p ng bng bn tin RESV c cha ERO, Tspec ca dung lng d tr, mt filter spec tha mn bn gi, v gn mt nhn null ngm (implicit null) cho chng lin kt ny. Theo RFC 3031, nhn null l mt quy c c dng trong phn phi nhn cho php egress router (R3) bo hiu cho i tc upstream ca n bit rng y l hop p cui (penultimate hop) ca LSP, do vy cn g nhn nh ca stack (xem LFIB ca nhn LSR R5). Tip theo, R5 thu np bn tin RESV yu cu cho chng R5-R4 n nh nhn B v gi bn tin RESV n router k trc trong ERO l R4. cui cng R4 chp nhn yu cum n nh nhn A v gi bn tin RESV ngc v R1. n lc ny, ng LSP c thit lp xong v cc gi tin c nhn cho FEC a.b/16 c chuyn tip qua ng hm.

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Hnh 3.13 : Thit lp LSP vi RSVP-TE

Khc vi giao thc LDP, cc bn tin RSVP-TE khng mang FEC v ch duy nht c R1 cn bit v nh x gia FEC v ng hm LSP. 2.1.1 Gim lng overhead lm ti RSVP RSVP l giao thc trng thi mm (soft-state), tin trnh pht mt bn tin Path v bn tin RESV hi p tng ng phi c nh k lm ti, thng khong 30s mt ln. Phng php lm ti ny phng cc bn tin b mt v trong trng hp nh tuyn tng chng s t ng chuyn d tr ti nguyn sang ng mi khi c bt k thay i nh tuyn IP. Tt nhin, vic x l dnh cho khi to cc bn tin Path v RESV ln hn nhiu so vi vic lm ti trng thi mt bn tin nhn trc , tuy nhin vi mt s lng ln cc LSP th vic x l lm ti c nh hng ng k n hiu nng. Mt cch gii quyt l tng chu k lm ti, nhng cng s lm tng tr bo hiu khi mt bn tin. RFE 2961 c t mt gii php cho hn mc x l v vn tr bo hiu. C ch ny bao gm vic b gn bn tin gim ti x l, cng nh cc cch router d dng nhn dng mt bn tin khng thay i hn. Vic hi bo bn tin cng c b sung chuyn ti tin cy bn tin RSVP v x l trng hp mt cc bn tin Path Tear v RESV tear v hai bn tin ny khng c lm ti trong hot ng RSVP. Cui cng gii php ny nh ngha mt bn tin tng kt (summary) lm ti Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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trng thi m khng yu cu truyn ton b bn tin lm ti. Cc ci tin ny nhm gim lng overhead lm ti ca RSVP trong mng MPLS.

3.6

GIAO THC BGP

3.6.1 BGPv4 v m rng cho MPLS BGPv4 (Border Gateway Protocol) l mt giao thc nh tuyn gn kt tp hp cc mng cung cp dch v trn internet. V n ch l giao thc s dng gia cc nh cung cp, RFC 2107 m rng BGP h tr phn phi nhn MPLS c th thit lp cc LSP ring. BGP c mt tp thut ng ring. Mt khi nim quan trng l s AS duy nht (Autonomous System), c nh ngha l mt tp hp cc router thc hin mt chnh sch nh tuyn ngoi thng nht c th nhn thy i vi router ca AS khc. BGP khng truyn cc thgn tin topology ni gia cc AS, n ch cung cp cc thng tin v cc prefix a ch m c th tm n hoc i qu giang qua . S dng BGP gia cc router bin (border) n trong mt AS c gi l BGP ni (iBGP), cn s dng BGP gia cc router trong cc AS khc nhau c gi l BGP ngai (eBGP). BGP chy trn mt phin TCP v n cn tin cy, phn pht ng th t. N c 3 phase hot ng: thit lp phin, trao i bn tin cp nht, v chm dt phin. Trong thit lp phin, cc i tc BGP (BGP peer) trong cc AS ln cn trao i cc bn tin OPEN c cha AS number, mt gi tr keep-alive timeout, v cc tham s ty chn nh nhn thc. cc BGP peer nh k trao i bn tin keep alive, nu pht hin timeout s chm dt phin. Sau khi thit lp phin, cc BGP peer trao i cc bn tin UPDATE c cha cc prefix a ch c th n c hin hnh (reachability), c gi l NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information). Sau khi trao i ng b khi to, cc thay i nh tuyn gia tng c lin lc bng bn tin UPDATE. Ni dung bn tin BGP UPDATE gm 3 phn: cc tuyn thu hi (withdrawn route), mt danh sch cc prefix a ch NLRI, v mt danh sch ty chn cc thuc tnh lin quan. Cc BGP ngang hng to quyt nh chnh sch cc b khi xem xt cng b mt NLRI vi cc thuc tnh ng c chn hay thu hi thng co trc .

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Chnh sch thng dng l chn NLRI c Prefix a ch c t so trng nht, chn mt ng c s hop AS t nht.

Hnh 3.14 : Ni dung bn tin BGP update.

Khi bn tin UPDATE cha thng tin NLRI, mt s thc tnh ng l bt buc trong khi mt s khc l ty chn. cc thuc tnh ng bt buc l : ORIGIN, ASPATH, v NEXT-HOP. ORIGIN nhn din ngun gc ca NLRI, th d n c hc qua giao thc nh tuyn ni hay ngoi. AS-PATH lit k mt path-vector gm mt tp AS-PATH thng l yu t quyt nh chn mt tuyn, nn BGP c gi l giao thc nh tuyn path-vector. Cc router s dng AS-PATH trnh loop bng cch khng chuyn tip cc thng co tuyn c cha s AS ca chng. NEXT-HOP nhn din a ch IP ca router bin cn dng tm n NLRI. BGP c mt s tham s ty chn c th thc hin mt dng cn bng ti: LOCALPREF v MED. LOCALPREF cho php AS u gi ch nh mt s u tin (preference) nh tuyn lu lng i ra trn nhiu lin kt n AS khc; trong khi MED (multiple exit discriminator) cho php mt AS pha nhn ch nh mt u tin cho lu lng n t mt AS khc. RFC 2283 nh ngha cc m rng a giao thc cho BGP phn phi nhn MPLS nm trong mt phn ca NLRI. Cc BGP thng lng h tr cho kh nng ty chn ny vo lc thit lp phin. Th tc c bn l k sinh vic phn phi nhn theo kiu khng cn yu cu song song khi thc hin phn phi tuyn BGP. 3.6.2 Kt ni MPLS qua nhiu nh cung cp dch v. BGP c th dng thit lp phn phi nhn cho cc LSP i xuyn qua cc mng ca nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau. Hh 3 trn gm 3 h t tr l A,B,C. AS A cp pht cho khch hng Prefix a ch (FEC)a.b/16. Router C3 qung b n nh mt NLRI cho AS-A v AS-B bng bn tin BGP UPDATE c cha Next-hop v ASPATH. Bn tin update c gi bi C3 n A3 cn mang mt nh x t FEC route reflector. Nhm Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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tm cch tt nht chuyn tip cc gi n prefix a.b/16, A1 c th xc nh rng ng AS ngn nht l qua hop k A3 s dng nhn L. nh nh tuyn ni v giao thc phn phi nhn ca mnh, router A1 cungc bit rng tuyn tt nht n A3 l i qua A2 s dng nhn M. Kt qu l khi chuyn gi n prefix a.b/16, router A1 push nhn L ln gi ri push tip nhn M trn nh stack . nh vy, mt LSP c chui bn trong mt ng hm LSP khc. LSP1 bn ngai ko di t A1 n A3. Trong khi , LSP 2 ko di t AS A n AS C v c mt on chui bn trong LSP1.

Hnh 3.15 : BGP phn phi nhn qua nhiu Autonomous System.

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Chng 4:

VN HNH V BO DNG TRONG MPLS


4.1 GII THIU

Chng ta c th s dng vn hnh v bo dng MPLS (MPLS Operation and Maintenance OAM) pht hin cc li vn hnh, cho vic tnh ton v o c hiu sut trong mng MPLS. Cc vn trn mt phng iu khin c th c bo co bi cc by (traps) hoc thy c bi s la chn (polling) c s thng tin qun tr (Management Information Base MIB). iu ny c th p ng nhu cu cho cc mng IP, nhng l kh khn hn pht hin cc vn trong mt phng d liu khi mng chy MPLS. OAM MPLS l mt tp hp cc giao thc c dng pht hin cc vn trong mng MPLS mt cch d dng, nhanh chng hn v gi li du vt (keeps track) ca kt qu o c l quan trng trong cc mng m c nhng tha thun (aggreements) mc dch v (SLAs) vi cc khch hng hoc cc cng ty khc. Mc tiu ca OAM MPLS l pht hin, bo co, v v li vn trc khi mt ngi dng gi n ln (user calls it in).

4.2

Cc yu cu ca OAM - MPLS

Cc yu cu ca OAM MPLS c lit k di y: - Pht hin v chn on (diagnosis) cc li ca mt phng iu khin cng nh mt phng d liu. - Pht hin li trong mt ng chuyn mch nhn (LSP). - Cc gi OAM di chuyn trn cng mt tuyn nh l lu lng d liu MPLS. - M t c im ca tuyn (path characterization). - o c cc SLA - S nh hng ln nhau ca OAM. - Cc MIB - Tnh ton.

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4.2.1 Pht hin v chn on cc li ca mt phng d liu v iu khin Cc vn thng thng trong cc mng MPLS l vic nhn cc gi ti mt router chuyn mch nhn (label switching router LSR) vi mt nh nhn c trng cho ni m LSR khng c thng tin chuyn tip hoc thng tin chuyn tip khng chnh xc.Vn ny c th c pht hin bi thng tin iu khin m giao thc phn b nhn (Label Distribution Protocol-LDP), giao thc ReserVation ti nguyn (RSVP), giao thc nh tuyn IP, bng nh tuyn, c s thng tin nhn (LIB), v c s thng tin chuyn tip nhn (LFIB) cung cp. Tuy nhin, vn ch tr nn r rng nu lu lng thc t l ang lu chuyn v b li ti LSR no . Tinh vi hn v kh khn pht hin l mt LSR no , ni m thng tin mt phng iu khin l chnh xc nhng thng tin mt phng d liu li b li. Phn mm mt phng iu khin c th cho php sa li cho ng, vi cc vn m khng c pht hin ra bi cc cu lnh SHOW trn router, trong khi mt phng d liu lm ri (drops) hoc ngc i (mistreats) cc gi, ni m kt qu c th trong mt li chuyn tip. 4.2.2 S pht hin ra li trong mt tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSP). Mt vn thng thng l li hoc mt qung b nhn gia hai LSR. V d, LDP hng xm ngang hng c th b down gia hai LSR, ni gy ra cho cc gi b rt hoc chuyn tip i khng c nhn. Nu MPLS vn chuyn lu lng lp 2 m tr nn khng c nhn trn mt router nh cung cp, n s b rt. Tng t, nu lu lng Ipv4 tr nn khng c nhn, n c th b chuyn tip i n bng nh tuyn ton cu. Nu khng tn ti tuyn no cho a ch IP ch, gi s b b i. Nu mt entry nh tuyn tn ti, gi c chuyn tip i. Trong trng hp ny, hai vn c th xy ra l: gi c th c chuyn tip ti ng ch, hoc n c th c chuyn i n ch khng ng. Mt vn thng thng khc c th thy trong cc mng MPLS l cc vn v MTU. Bi v chng nhn c thm vo, kch thc ca gi s gim i n ln trong 4 bytes vi n l s nhn trong chng nhn. Nu t iu khin xut hin gia stack nhn v Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Nhm c Long K49A

ti trng MPLS, 4 bytes khc c thm vo. iu ny c th gy nn vn v MTU trn mt router no , bi v chng khng h tr kch thc ln hn ca MTU hoc bi v li trong cu hnh. Trong trng hp khc, min l cc gi nh hn c chuyn i, s khng pht hin c vn xy ra. Vn ch c pht hin ln u khi cc gi ln hn c pht i. Trong cc mng m c nhiu tuyn c cost l nh nhau (Equal Cost Multi PathsECMP), mt vi vn khng ai c th n mt tuyn ca cc tuyn ECMP khng c s dng. Tuy nhin, ngay lp tc lu lng lu chuyn ngang qua mt tuyn b li. S l tt nht nu pht hin cc vn trc khi mt khch hng thng bo v chng. OAM MPLS c pht trin vi nh ny. 4.2.3 Cc gi OAM lu chuyn d liu MPLS. l iu quan trng v cc gi OAM di chuyn trn cng mt tuyn nh l d liu ngi dng pht hin cc li trong mt phng d liu ca LSR. Bi vy, lu lng OAM MPLS l lu lng giao thc n v d liu ngi dng (User Datagram Protocol UDP) v khng phi l mt kiu d liu m cc router c th i x khc. ly v d, lu lng giao thc thng ip iu khin internet (Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP) s c chuyn i theo mt cch khc trn cc router so vi lu lng TCP hay UDP thng thng. Mt vi phn cng chuyn tip gi ph thuc vo kiu ca lu lng. 4.2.4 Path Characterization. Lu lng OAM c th ch ra cc c trng tuyn ca lu lng MPLS. Cc c trng ny c th bao gm cc vn sau: - X l cht lng ca dch v (Quality of Service QoS). - X l thi gian sng ca gi (Time To Live TTL) - S m (latency) - Hiu ng jitter - Trng thi ECMP (ECMP behavior) - n v pht ti a (Maximum transmission unit MTU) dc theo tuyn. - Mt mt gi.

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Nhm c Long K49A

iu ny l quan trng khi nhn vo s x l lu lng dc theo mt LSP hoc lu lng thuc v mt lp chuyn tip tng ng (Forwarding Equivalence Class FEC) m bn o c cc c tnh chnh xc. ly v d, lu lng ting ni c mt s m nh (latency) v gi tr jitter dc theo tuyn, nhng tri li, thng s ny l khng quan trng trong lu lng d liu Internet. Mt cng c tuyt vi c trng ha tuyn d liu l SLA IP, s c tho lun sau y. 4.2.5 S o c cc SLA Nu cc SLA p dng cho mng MPLS, cc c trng ca cc LSP s ph hp (correspond) vi cc SLA tin nh nghi (predefined). V d, OAM MPLS s cung cp cc k thut o c cc c trng ca cc LSP. Cho cc SLA, latency, jitter, round trip time (RTT), v mt gi l cc c trng quan trng o c cho mi LSP. Bn c th thy trong thng tin MIB thu c iu ny, hoc c th tin hnh o c n bng cch gi i cc thm d vo trong cc LSP. SLA IP c th gi i cc gi thm d (probes) o c hiu sut ca mng c bit hoc gi i theo cc khong thng xuyn (regular). 4.2.6 OAM Interworking Khi bn chuyn pht cc frames lp 2 qua m my MPLS (AtoM), mi router bin ca nh cung cp bin (PE) c cc mch gn thm vo (AC). Cc AC ny c th c cc giao thc lp 2 vi cc thng ip OAM ca chng v cc gi li. OAM MPLS phi h tr vic chuyn sang hoc nh x ca giao thc lp 2, ni sinh ra cc thng ip OAM (hoc mt tp hp con ti thiu ca chng) vo trong cc thng ip OAM MPLS c nh nghi mi. Trong cch ngc li, cc trng thi li c trng MPLS m p dng pseudowires phi c nh x n ni sinh ra cc thng ip OAM ca cc giao thc AC trn cc router PE. 4.2.7 Cc MIB Vic qun tr lun lun ng mt vai tr ht sc quan trng trong networking. iu ny l khng khc cho cc mng MPLS. Qun tr v cc MIB ng mt vai tr

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Nhm c Long K49A

quan trng trong vic ghi li du vt trng thi ca mt mng v cung cp mt cch bo sm khi c mt vi s kin khng ng xy ra. Cc MIB c trng cho MPLS v ang c pht trin. 4.2.8 Vic tnh ton (accounting) Vic tnh ton l quan trng cho cc cng vic o c mng v cc mc ch tnh cc (billing purposes). Lu lng (netflow) mng c th cung cp vic tnh ton trong IOS Cisco. Netflow to ra cho MPLS aware tnh ton lu lng c ng gi trn LSP v (and even finer than that) bi v nhiu nhn trong stack nhn c th li du vt. Netflow s c gii thch sau.

4.3

VN HNH V BO DNG MPLS.

4.3.1 LSP connetivity (lin kt LSP) Cc cng c OAM ca mt phng ngi dng yu cu xc minh rng cc LSP c kt ni chnh xc, v v vy c nng lc phn phi d liu khch hng n ch theo yu cu, c gi tr v bo m cht lng ca dch v QoS (Quality of Service), em li trong cc SLA (Service Level Agreements). Mt s cc yu cu m chng phi c h tr bi cc chc nng OAM MPLS l: - C hai, theo yu cu v s xc minh kt ni lin tc ca LSP chc chn rng cc sai st khng tn ti trn cc LSP n ch. - Mt sai st xut hin trong mt tng cho khng nn gy ra cc bo ng nhiu ln (to be raised simultaneously), hoc l gy nn cc hnh ng thiu chnh xc khng cn thit c thc hin trong cc tng client. Tng client l tng trn h thng cp bc nhn (label hierarchy) s dng tng hin hnh nh l mt tng server. - Kh nng o c tnh sn sng v s thc hin (hay kt qu) cht lng dch v (QoS) ca mt LSP. - Cc li ti thiu sau y ca mt phng ngi dng MPLS phi c pht hin :

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Nhm c Long K49A

+ Mt kt ni ca LSP n mt tng server b mt hoc mt s mt kt ni bn trong tng MPLS. + Swapped LSP trails. + S ti to li LSP khng c nh trc ca mt lu lng ca LSP vo lu lng ca mt LSP khc. + S ti to li bn thn n khng nh trc (unintended self-replication) 16 gi tr ca 20 bt ca trng Label c d tr trong tiu ca nhn cho cc chc nng c bit, nhng khng phi tt c u c ch r. Mt trong cc chc nng ny c a ra l nhn cnh bo OAM (OAM Alert Label) v c mang n gi tr s ca 14.
Layer 2 Header Label Header OAM Payload (44 octets )

Hnh 4.1 : gi OAM MPLS.

C cc loi ti trng khc nhau ph thuc vo chc nng ca OAM cha trong cc gi, nhng vn c mt cu trc chung cho cc kiu ti trng. T lc bt u, mt gi c mt trng kiu chc nng OAM ch r loi chc nng no ca ti trng . Trong mi mt gi cng ch r d liu loi chc nng ca OAM v cui ca mi gi cha mt bit (Bit Interleaved Parity BIP16) k thut pht hin li. S d BIP16 c tnh ton qua tt c cc trng ca ti trng OAM bao gm c kiu chc nng OAM v cc v tr BIP16 m n c t trc ti gi tr zero. Ti trng phi c di ti thiu l 44 octet bi v s tr nn d dng trong qu trnh x l cng nh h tr yu cu gi c kch thc nh nht trn cc cng ng lp 2. iu ny t c bng cch m cc trng d liu kiu OAM ch nh r vi tt c cc bt l 0 khi cn thit. Cc gi OAM c lm cho tr nn khc nhau t lu lng mt phng ngi dng thng thng bng vic gim mt i trong su ca chng nhn ti mt mc LSP cho ti v tr m chng c chn vo [21]. chc chn rng cc gi OAM c mt Per Hop Behavior (PHB), phi chc chn rng xc sut mt gi l thp nht, ta m ha trng EXP theo mt cch chc chn. Trng EXP nn c t tt c l 0 trong tiu OAM Alert Labeled v d th no th xc sut mt gi thp nht PHB l trc tiu chuyn tip mt phng ngi dng thng thng cho cc LSP ny [21].. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Nhm c Long K49A

Trng TTL nn c t han ton l 1 trong tiu OAM Alert Labeled. Mt l do cho iu ny l cc gi OAM s khng bao gi di chuyn vt xa hn (the LSP trail termination sink point at the LSP level they were originally generate). iu ny l c th bi v cc tiu khng c xem xt bi cc LSR tro i nhn trung gian, v ch c quan st ti cc im chm LSP (at LSP sink points). Vo thng 5 nm 2002, c ng 6 kiu khc nhau ca cc chc nng OAM v (these have the codepoints) c ch ra trn hnh 4.2 v xa hn trong cc gii thiu l c s h tr cho cc LSP a im n im, cc LSP n hop (single-hop) v ly nhn ra hop p cht.

Hnh 4.2 : OAM Function Type Codepoints

Ta c th chc chn rng cc gi CV OAM c pht ra trn tt c cc LSP theo th t pht hin ra tt c cc sai st v cung cp kh nng bo v chng li s r ri lu lng c trong v ngai cc LSP. N cng c gii thiu cc gi FDI OAM c s dng chn cc bo ng mt cch t. Cc gi BDI l mt cng c hu ch cho vic nh lng n im cui (single-ended) ca tt c cc hng v trong c mt s trng hp chuyn mch bo v. Tuy nhin, ch cc gii thiu (recommendations) v cc nh qun tr (iu hnh mng- operators) mi c th chn s dng mt vi hoc tt c cc gi OAM khi h cm thy l hp l. 4.3.1.1 Connectivity Verification (CV) thm tra tnh lin kt

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Nhm c Long K49A

Chc nng xc minh tnh kt ni (CV) c s dng pht hin v chn on tt c cc loi li kt ni ca LSP c ngun gc di y hoc bn trong cc mng lp MPLS. Dng CV c pht ra ti cc ingress LSR ca LSP vi mt tn s quy nh ca mt gi trn mt giy v pht ti cc egress LSR ca LSP. Cc gi CV OAM l trong sut (transparent) i vi cc transit LSR, c nghi l cc gi l khng b nhn thy bi cc LSR ny. Gi CV bao gm i tng nhn dng mng duy nht (network-unique identifier) Trail Termination Source Identifier TTSI v i tng nhn dng ny c s dng pht hin tt c cc kiu li c gii thch trong chng 0. iu ny t c bng vic egress LSR kim tra cc gi CV n trn LSP. Mt LSP i vo mt trng thi li khi m mt trong cc li c miu t trong hnh 4.2 . Kin trc ca LSP TTSI c nh nghi bng cch s dng mt a ch 16 octet LSR ID Ipv6 theo sau bi mt ID LSP Tunel di 4 octet. ID LSP Tunel ny c xy dng ln bi Local LSP_ID cho cc ng hm CR-LDP hoc ID ng hm (Tunel ID) cho cc ng hm RSVP. N cng c th c cu hnh bng tay. 16 bit u tin (2 octets) l cc bit quan trng nht ca ID LSP Tunel c n vo vi tt c cc bit l 0 cho php tng mt s c tnh trong trng ID Tunel. cho LSR khng h tr vic nh a ch Ipv6, mt a ch Ipv4 c th c s dng cho ID LSR s dng nh dng c miu ta trong, kin trc vic nh a ch IP phin bn 6 :
Function Type Reserved LSP TTSI Padding BIP16

1 octet

3 octets

20 octets

18 octets

2 octets

Hnh 4.3 : Kin trc ca ti trng CV (CV payload)

4.3.1.2

Du hiu li chuyn tip gi tin (Forward Deflect Indication FDI)

Du hiu li chuyn tip (FDI) c pht ra bi mt egress LSR pht hin li. Khi egress LSR pht hin ra mt li, n to ra mt gi FDI v trace n theo v hng ln theo sut mt chng LSP c t vo, chng ta cng bit rng theo h thng th t nhn th cc gi FDI OAM c pht ra trn mt danh ngha. Mc ch ban u ca cc gi FDI l chn cc bo ng trong cc mng theo lp trn ca lp xut hin cc li. c th gi cc gi FDI i ln, iu ny l quan trng rng im ln LSP (the LSP sink point) ghi nh mt vi nh x nhn LSP serverVn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Nhm c Long K49A

client m trong s tn ti trc s xut hin ca li. Theo cch ny, khi cc LSP mc cao hn pht hin s mt ca lung CV nguyn nhn do cc li trn cc LSP mc thp hn, chng ta thu c s nhn dng chnh xc ca ngun m thc s c cc li xy ra. Cc client cc lp cao hn c th khng trong cng mt vng qun tr nh l ngun li ban u. N bao gm cc trng ch ra bn cht ca cc li v v tr ca chng. Khi mt FDI khng i qua c t mt LSP lp server n cc LSP lp client ca chng, th v tr ca li (Defect Location) v trng kiu li (Deflect Type field) s c copy t FDI LSP lp server vo trong FDI LSP lp client.
Function Type Reserved Defect Type LSP TTSI Defect Location Padding BIP16

1 octet

1 octet

2 octets

20 octets

4 octets

14 octets

2 octets

Hnh 4.4 (31): FDI v kin trc ti trng ca BDI

Trong hnh 31, trng kiu li (Defect Type field) rng 2 bytes v gi tr ca trng ny c th c lit k ra. V tr ca li (Defect Location) s cha nhn dng ca mng m ti li c pht hin thy. Nhn dng s trong hnh thi ca mt s ca h t tr (Autonomuos System AS). 4.3.1.3 Ch th li ngc (Backward Deflect Indication BDI) Mc ch ca chc nng OAM BDI l thng tin ti upstream end ca mt LSP mt li downstream. BDI c pht ra t mt im ngun gii hn ca li tr li (at a return paths trail termination source point) trong s p li ca mt li c pht hin ti mt im chm gii hn ui ca mt LSP (at a LSP trail termination sink point) trong hng chuyn tip. c th gi BDI (cng l LB-Rsp) upstream, n yu cu c mt tuyn tr li. Mt tuyn tr li c th l: a. Mt LSP dnh cho s tr li (a dedicated return LSP). b. Mt LSP tr li chia s, ni chia s l gia nhiu LSP chuyn tip. c. Mt tuyn tr li khng MPLS, v d nh mt ng ngai di IP. Ty chn ny c (has potential security issues). V d ng tr li c th c gii hn trn mt

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Nhm c Long K49A

giao din LSR khc, v mt ngi dng him c tim nng c th pht ra mt BDI v gi n n ingress LSR. Bi vy kh nng t chi tn cng t dch v (DoS attack), cc tiu chun v bo mt phi c tng thm vo. Gi BDI c gi mt cch tun hon bi mt gi trn giy tr li theo (LSP trail termination sink point) mc ngang hng ca n trong hng ngc li v xa hn l i ln qua mt vi (nested LSP stack). BDI c gi nh mt hnh nh trung thc (phn nh mirror) ca FDI thch hp (dnh ring appropriate). Appropriate FDI l FDI c pht ra trn lp thp nht ni m li c pht hin. V tr ca li (Defect Location) v cc trng kiu li (Defect Type fields) l mt nh x trc tip ca nhng kt qu ny t FDI appropriate v c cc nh dng ng nht nh c m t trc cho gi OAM FDI. Hnh 4.5 minh ha 2 iu m kt ni LSP quan tm. Hai vng mu xm trong phn A0 m t cch m cc gi OAM CV c phn b t ingress n egress trn cc LSP khc nhau v su ca chng nhn. A) miu t lm th no cc gi CV c gi i bng cch s dng mc su 1 v 2 trong h thng th bc nhn (label hierachy). B) miu t iu g xy ra khi m mt li c pht hin ra, ni m LSR pht hin ra li v n thng bo nh th no n cc LSR v cc li c pht hin. Cc LSR l h hng (belongings to) vi cc LSP khc v s dng mt h thng th bc nhn (label hiararchy) hng t ingress n egress LSR.

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Nhm c Long K49A

Hnh 4.5 :

Gi nh tn ca 3 LSP trong hnh 4.5 l A, B, C. Ta c trong LSP A gia LSR4 v LSR5 c chm nhn mc 1 (stack depth of one). LSP B t LSR2 qua LSR3 v qua LSP A n LSR6 chm nhn mc 2, v cui cng LSP C t LSR1 qua LSP B qua LSR7 n LSR8 chm nhn mc 3. Xem xt mt li c pht hin gia LSR2 v LSR3. iu ny s c cc h qu (tm quan trng - consequences) cho c LSP B v LSP C. C LSR6 v LSR8 s pht hin ra rng mt li xut hin khi li thc s l ti LSP B. ngn cn cc bo ng cho LSP C ti LSR8, LSR6 thng bo cho router ny bng cch gi cc gi FDI theo cng mt ng nh l LSP C s s dng trc khi li xut hin. N khng ch cn thit (to inform the downstream egress LSRs, LSR6 have to inform LSR2), cc ingress LSR ca LSP B, ni m trong s quay v ca n s cung cp tin tc cho LSR1 v li tt nh vic s dng cc gi BDI. Cch m cc gi BDI c gi i, v d nh tm kim mt tuyn v thay i, s c tho lun di. 4.3.2 Defect type codepoint M ca kiu li (Defect type code) c m ha trong 2 octets. Octet u tin ch ra lp v octet th 2 ch ra bn cht ca li (nature of the defect). c th pht hin c cc li ny chng ta cn mt thit b trng thi sn sng trn LSP (LSP availability state machine ASM) trn c cc ingress LSR v egress LSR ca LSP. Ti ingress LSR (do we have the LSP Trail Far End Defect State and for the egress LSR the LSP Trail Sink Near-End Defect State).[21].

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Kha lun tt nghip Defect (DT) Type DT code (Hex) 01 01 02 01 02 02 02 03 02 04 Description

Nhm c Long K49A

dServer dLOCV dTTSI_Mismatch dTTSI_Mismerge dExcess dUnknown None None

02 FF 00 00 FF FF

Any server layer defect arising below the MPLS layer network Simple Loss of Connectivity Verification. Trail Termination Source Identifier Mismatch defect. Trail Termination Source Identifier Mismerge defect. Increased rate of CV OAM packets with the expected TTSI above the nominal rate of one per second. Unknown defect detected in the MPLS layer. Reserved Reserved

Hnh 4.6 : cc codepoint ca kiu li trong cc gi OAM FDI./BDI [21a]

Trong hnh 33 c 4 li trn mt phng ngi dng MPLS: dLOCV, dTTSI_Mismatch, dTTSI_Mismerge and dExcess. Khi mt trong s cc li ny xut hin, th ASM i vo trong LSP Trail Sink Near-End Defect State ni m trong s quay tr li ca n, khi cc gi BDI i n c ingress LSR, n s lm cho ingress LSR i vo Trail Far-End Defect State. 2 kiu li khc phn phi (deals) vi cc li t bn ngoi ca lp MPLS v khng nhn bit c cc li. Mi hnh ng m c cu khn s dng khi qu trnh i vo LSP Trail Sink Near-End Defect State b ngng li khi LSP Sink Near- End Defect State c thot ra . M t nghi ca mt s loi li: - dServer : mt vi li xut hin lp server bn di mng ca lp MPLS l mt li dServer. Chc nng ny ch ra rng ch c mt li trn cc lp bn di MPLS, nhng khng c thng tin g v loi ca li c tm thy. Li ny khng c pht ra bi cc k thut OAM MPLS, n l u ra cho OAM MPLS t lp server.

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Kha lun tt nghip


-

Nhm c Long K49A

dLOCV : s mt mt n (Simple Loss) ca li xc minh kt ni xut hin khi khng c cc gi OAM CV c mong i vi i tng xem xt TTSI c mong i (expected TTSI observed) trong mt vi chu k ca 3 giy lin tip nhau (period of three consecutive seconds). Nu nguyn nhn ca dLOCV l ti lp server v cng c mt tn hiu FDI n t lp server, sau codepoint DT cho dServer c s dng. Codepoint ca dLOCV ch c s dng khi cc li kt ni n gin lp MPLS xut hin trong cc LSP ca bn thn n. dTTSI_Mismatch : li Trail Termination Source Identifier Mismatch xut hin khi c mt vi gi OAM c xem xt trong mt vi chu k ca 3 giy lin tip (period of three consecutive seconds) vi mt TTSI khng c mong i v khng c gi OAM CV (observed 0 vi mt TTSI c mong ch trong cng mt chu k. Cc li ny lm mt cu hnh kt ni. iu kin ca li ny mang n quyn c u tin c trn li dLOCV v iu kin dTTSI-Mismerge trong nhng trng hp khi m chng cng xut hin.

iu ny xut hin khi m cc LSP A v B trao i nhn, n thay th cho qu trnh ca A1->A2 v B1->B2, chgn ta chuyn A1->B2 v B1->A2. ( l thay v A1>A2 v B1->B2, chng ta c A1->B2 v B1->A2). Trong trng hp ny chng ta ly mt TTSI khng c mong i ti sink point LSP v khng c TTSI c mong i ti sink point. dTTSI_Mismerge : li Trail Termination Source Identifier Mismerge xut hin khi c mt vi cc gi OAM CV vi mt TTSI khng c mong i v khng c mt gi OAM CV no m c mt TTSI c mong i xem xt (an expected TTSI observed) trong mt vi chu k ca 3 giy lin tip. Cc li ny bao gm c li nhnh (misbranching) v thay th cc li khng d tnh trc. Theo Neil Harrison t British Telecom li mt nhnh l s thay th khng d tnh trc ca mt vt ui (of a trail) v trng hp ni mt vt ui n (single trail) c th khng d tnh trc li nhnh tr li trn bn thn n (v d nh b vng lp looping). Cc li thay th khng d tnh trc xut hin khi ni LSP B (gets unintentionlly replicated, or let say duplicated, into say LSP A). trong cch ny c LSP A v B s vn

Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS

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Kha lun tt nghip

Nhm c Long K49A

chuyn lu lng trn LSP B. Misbranching c hiu nh l LSP B b mt tuyn v trn vo trong LSP A v khng bao gi n c sink point trn LSP B. Neil Harrison ni rng cc li mt trn (mismerge) ny xut hin trong 2 trng hp + Khi LSP B khng bao gi i n ti B2, nhng n mt cch khng d tnh trc ti A2. iu ny c th c minh ha bi A1+B1->A2, v 0->B2. y A2 s ly c TTSI c mong i cho LSP A v mt TTSI khng c mong i cho LSP B ti sink point ca LSP A. Trong cc gii hn ca cc li, LSP A ch ra mt li mt trn v y LSP B ch ra mt li dLOCV t B2 khng bao gi ly mt vi TTSI (never gets some TTSIs). + Khi LSP B vn n ti B2, nhng n A2 mt cch khng d tnh trc c. iu ny c th c hiu nh l A1+B1->A2, v B1>B2. y A2 s ly c mt TTSI c mong i cho LSP A v ly mt TTSI khng c mong i cho LSP B ti sink point ca LSP A. iu ny l tng t nh kch bn c nu ra trn, Trong cc gii hn ca cc li, LSP A ch ra mt li mismerge nhng LSP B khng ch ra li. - dExcess : mt li dExcess xut hin khi c mt s tng v tc , 5 gi hoc nhiu hn ca cc gi OAM CV vi TTSI c mong i bn trong mt chu k ca 3 giy lin tip. iu ny c th mang li mt v d cho cho bn thn li mismerging, mt ngun LSR c li, tn cng t chi dch v (DoS attack). - dUnknown: khng nhn bit c li pht hin trong lp MPLS. iu ny c mong i s dng cho cc li trn nt MPLS m c pht hin bn trong node (hu nh chc chn bi ngi ch) v tc ng n lu lng mt phng ngi dng. Ch rng li ny khng c pht hin bi cc OAM MPLS, xa hn n l mt u ra n OAM MPLS.

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Kha lun tt nghip

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4.3.3 Tu chn cnh bo router v nhn cnh bo router. 4.3.3.1 Ty chn cnh bo router Cc gi IP c th c mt ty chn cnh bo router c thm vo header IP. Ty chn ny l mt ty chn IP cho php router c th kim tra gi xa hn khi qu trnh chuyn tip gi, d l gi khng c a ch trc tip n router. Router khng nn ch chuyn gi bng cch kim duyt qua IP, nhng router s kim tra k hn trc khi chuyn n i. S kim tra ny khng c nh ngha, v ph thuc vo s b sung phn mm trong router. Ty chn cnh bo router l mt ty chn IP nh l cc ty chn Timestanp, Loose Source Route, v Strict Source Route. Mi ty chn IP c m ha nh l mt gi tr trng kiu (Type Length Value TLV). Nhn vo hnh 4.7 thy nh nghi kiu ca mt ty chn IP.

Hnh 4.7 : nh nghi kiu ty chn IP

Hnh 4.8 ch ra ty chn IP vi cc gi tr cho ty chn cnh bo router IP.

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Nhm c Long K49A

Ty chn cnh bo router lm vic ch khi gi l mt gi IP. Nu gi c ng nhn v nh l ton b c chuyn i bi LFIB trn LSR, LSR s khng bit rng gi c trnh din ty chn cnh bo router. Tt nhin, bn c th lp trnh cho LSR thi hnh kim tra gi su (deep packet inspection) v lun lun nhn vo thng tin tiu IP ca cc gi c ng nhn ch ra d khng bit ty chn cnh bo router c trnh by. Tuy nhin, iu ny c th dn u ti mt hiu sut chuyn tip ng c ngim trng (a serious forwarding performance impact) trn LSR, v vy n khng phi l gii php tt nht. N c th khng kh thi thc hin vic ny trong cc phng tin phn cng chuyn tip gi, hoc n c th l qu t. Mt gii php tt hn s dng mt nhn MPLS c bit nh nh nhn trong stack nhn ca cc gi m cc LSR cn ngin cu. Nhn c bit ny l mt nhn MPLS, c gi l nhn cnh bo Router. 4.3.3.2 Nhn cnh bo router. Nhn cnh bo router c mt gi tr ca 1 (has a value of 1), v n c th xut in ti mt ni no trong stack nhn tr ti v tr bottom. Khi mt LSR nhn mt gi vi nhn l nh l nh nhn, n bit rng n phi thc thi xa hn gi. Bi vy, LSR tho g nhn l v thc thi gi. LSR sau nhn vo nh nhn mi trong stack nhn v thc hin mt quyt nh chuyn tip gi bng vic nhn vo nhn trong LFIB. Quyt nh chuyn tip gi ny lm cho LSR thc hin mt cuc tro i, ly ra hoc iu hnh thm vo trn stack nhn v tri li giao din ra v hop k tip cho gi. Trc khi chuyn mch gi ra ngai khi LSR, LSR t nhn l tr li nh l nh nhn trong stack nhn v chuyn cc gi i. V vy, c nhn cnh bo router nh l nh nhn khng nh hng n quyt nh chuyn tip gi c to nn trn gi; n ch ra mt cch duy nht rng LSR phi kim tra gi. Trn cc router chy h iu hnh ca Cisco, cc gi c nhn cnh bo router c chuyn i trong phn mm, iu c nghi l cc my chuyn tip phn cng l i ng vng (bypassed). S s dng ca nhn cnh bo router cho cc gi c ng gi l tng t nh s s dng ca ty chn cnh bo router cho cc gi IP. Bi v nhn cnh bo router bt buc (forces) LSR i x vi mt gi c ng nhn trong mt cch khc hn l khi gi c ng nhn khng c nhn cnh bo router nh l nh nhn khi chuyn tip gi tin, s s dng ca n khng c tc Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Nhm c Long K49A

dng trc tip cho OAM MPLS. Nh rng mt trong cc yu cu l cho lu lng d liu ngi dng MPLS v lu lng OAM MPLS c chuyn i trong cng mt ng . iu ny r rng khng l trng hp cho lu lng ca nh nhn l nhn l c bit. V vy, nhn cnh bo router khng c s dng gi i cc gi OAM MPLS khi kim tra mt LSP. N c th, tuy nhin, c s dng cho lu lng OAM tr li. Bi v mt LSP l khng theo mt hng duy nht (unidirectional), lu lng OAM MPLS kim tra LSP trong ch mt hng duy nht. iu ny c nghi l lu lng tr li khng kim tra ci g c; n ch cn c quay tr v ngun. Lu lng tr li c th c gi i vi ty chn cnh bo router v vy n i ng vng (bypasses) qua cc my mc phn cng chuyn tip v c mt c h ln hn ca vic tr li n ngun (chance of getting back to the source). Nu lu lng tr li c ng nhn, n cng c nhn cnh bo router, v vy cc my phn cng chuyn tip gi l i theo ng vng. Cc gi chuyn tip c ng nhn (Forwarding Labeled Packets), bn nhn thy mt nhn c trng MPLS c gi l nhn cnh bo vn hnh v bo dng (Operation and Maintenance Alert Label) m c mt gi tr ca 14 (has a value of 14). Bn chn thm nhn cnh bo OAM vo stack nhn bn di nhn ca LSP di s kim tra. H iu hnh ca Cisco khng s dng nhn MPLS c bit ny bt c u c. C iu ny l bi v s gii thiu ca mt nhn c bit trong stack nhn c th nh hng ti s i x i vi gi khi n ang c chuyn i. Mt v d l trng hp ca cc gi c ng nhn load balancing, ni m trao i trong stack nhn c th gii thiu mt cch i x chuyn tip khc. Cng ging nh vy, lu lng d liu ngi dng thc s v lu lng OAM c th c chuyn tip i trong cng mt tuyn, tr li kim tra OAM tr khi trong mt vi trng hp. Mt v d th hai l s s dng ca ly nhn ra Hop p cht (penultimate) (PHP) trong mt mng MPLS trn IP r rng. Trong trng hp ny, gi n trn egress LSR vi han tan nhn cnh bo OAM trong stack nhn ni nu khng th n s nhn khng c mt stack nhn. Khng ci no ca cc k thut OAM tho lun trong chng ny v c s dng bi Cisco IOS s dng nhn cnh bo OAM.

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Kha lun tt nghip 4.3.4 Ping LSP MPLS.

Nhm c Long K49A

Ping LSP MPLS l tn gi cho mt yu cu echo MPLS v p tr echo MPLS. Ping l mt cng c gii quyt s c tt c bit n cho cc mng IP. N ging nh s dng SONAR trn tu ngm. Ping s dng ICMP, c thit k tng ln (augument) giao thc IP bi v n c th bo hiu cc iu kin li (khng n c ch) v gi thng tin qung b (redirect, address mask). Ping s dng ICMP mang thng ip yu cu v cc gi p tr. Gi yu cu echo c gi thng n ch, ni m s gi li p tr vi mt gi echo p tr. Ngun nhn echo p tr ch ra rng 2 host c th nhn thy mi host cn li trn mc mng (lp 3). Bi v MPLS khng th lm vic m khng c Ip trn mc mng, bn c th vn s dng Ping IP khi mng ang chy MPLS. Cc gi Ping c gn nhn v chuyn nhn thng qua mng. Ti sao li phi to ra Ping LSP MPLS? Ping IP l khng hiu lc cho vic thm tra s chnh xc ca LSP MPLS. Mc d n c th thm tra mt trong hai kt ni c hin din trn mc IP, n khng thm tra c hai LSP b gy. Nu bn c mt mng MPLS trn nn IP r rng (plain) v LDP b gy gia hai LSR, Ping ch ra rng khng c vn g nh l echo yu cu to nn cho chng n ch v echo tr li lm n tr li ngun. Gia 2 LSR ni m phin LDP b gy, cc gi lc ny khng cn c dn nhn. Ping ch ra mt cch gi di rng mi th u tt, khi trong s tin tng LSP l b gy.

Hnh 4.9 : LSP b gy trong mng AtoM

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thy rng iu ny c th hng dn s dng vic x l s c, th tng tng rng bn ang chuyn mt vi mt lu lng vi phng tin trn MPLS (AtoM) qua LSP ny (imagine that you are switching Any Transport over MPLS (AtoM) traffic across that LSP), v 2 LSR vi phin LDP b gy (v - broken) l cc router P trong mt mng AtoM. Hnh 4.9 a ra mt mng. Nu LSP b gy, lu lng AtoM tr nn khng c nhn gia cc LSR P2 v P3. Bi v 2 LSR khng bit rng lm th no chuyn cc frames ny i, khi chng b rt. Mt Ping t PE router n PE khc qua LSP s thnh cng, nhng lu lng AtoM s b li. c mt giao thc tng t nh giao thc Ping IP ch ra cc vn c trng vi cc LSP MPLS, Ping LSP MPLS c pht minh. Cc LSP c th lm v (break) bi mt vi l do, trong khi kt ni IP lu li trng thi bnh thng. Sau y l mt vi l do mt LSP c th b gy: - Phin LDP b down. - MPLS khng cho php trn mt LSR (hoc mt giao din). - LFIB c mt entry khng ng cho LSP ny (nhn vo/ra sai hoc sai thng tin n trm k tip). - Phn mm v phn cng LFIB c s khng thng nht (discrepancy). Trong nhng trng hp nh trn, cc gi mt nhn, cc nhn khc c l do chuyn mch nhn, nhng khng ng cch. l l do ti sao bn cn mt k thut kim tra u cui LSP v mang n mt vi s tr gip phn hi khi LSP b gy. Khi bn ang gii quyt vn ca LSP, ta cn bit ni LSP b gy v li l g. Ping LSP MPLS pht hin cc vn trong mt phng chuyn tip, nhng n cng kim tra mt phng iu khin ngc li thng tin trong mt phng d liu. 4.3.4.1. Cc chi tit giao thc Ping LSP. Ping LSP tng t nh Ping IP trong n cng s dng mt echo yu cu v echo p tr. Ping LSP MPLS c nh dng gi khc hon ton v c nhiu thng tin gii quyt vn hn cc gi tr li. Mt echo yu cu MPLS c gi i bi ni gi v kim tra mt FEC ring bit. Echo yu cu gi stack FEC ch th, ci m FEC ang

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c kim tra .Stack FEC c th gi mt hoc nhiu hn cc nhn m ni nhn c dng xc minh. Ni nhn sau s xc minh rng stack FEC trn echo yu cu l chnh xc cho FEC. Cng theo cch ny, thng tin mt phng d liu cho FEC c xc minh vi thng tin mt phng iu khin. Mt echo yu cu MPLS l mt gi UDP vi mt cng ch ca 3503 v mt cng ngun c chn bi ni gi. N c mt ty chn cnh bo router. ngn cn gi t mt vi chuyn mch xa hn nh l mt gi IP nu LSP b gy nhng tuyn IP vn tt, TTL IP ca gi c t ln 1 v a ch IP ch ca gi l t khong 127.0.0.0/8. Khong a ch 127.0.0.0/8 l cho a ch IP cc b cho host; bi vy, cc gi m c mt a ch IP ch t khong ny s khng bao gi thy trn wires mng. Mt LSR khng bao gi chuyn tip ton b gi IP nu LSP b gy, v khng mt ci no lm egress LSR ca LSP. Egress LSR gi gi n module phn mm UDP ang chy trn router nge ngng UDP cng 3503. a ch IP ngun l mt s la chn hp l a ch IP ca ni gi. Hnh 4.10 ch ra nh dng ca mt echo MPLS yu cu:

Hnh 4.10 : nh dng gi echo MPLS

Ch c mt phin bn duy nht. Trng Global Flags hin hnh ch c mt bt c nh nghi. LSB l c V (Validate FEC stack). Nu c V c t, ni gi mun ni nhn ph chun (validate) stack FEC. Message Type l 1 cho mt echo MPLS yu Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Nhm c Long K49A

cu hoc l 2 cho mt echo MPLS p tr. Mode Reply ch ra c bao nhiu echo MPLS p tr s c tr li. C 4 kh nng tn ti, nha ta c th nhn thy trn bng 4.1 .

Bng 4.1 : mode reply

Mode Reply 1 c s dng ch nu cc p tr echo khng cn quay tri li. N c th c ai nh lng ch bng nghi ca mt thit b phn mm thy c nu cc yu cu echo MPLS to ra n, v vy s tr li ca cc p tr echo l khng cn thit. p tr mode 2 l mode p tr khng thay i (regular reply mode). Reply Mode 3 l tng t nh Reply Mode 2, nhng cc gi echo p tr c tr li vi ty chn cnh bo router. Nh gii thch trong cc phn trc, bn c th s dng iu ny chc chn rng gi c s ng cao nht mt cch chc chn tr li, trong trng hp ca vn chuyn tip dc theo tuyn tr li. Reply Mode 4 l mt mode p tr nm ngai band. Ch rng Ping LSP MPLS kim tra mt LSP. Bi v cc LSP l theo mt phng duy nht, ch cc yu cu echo l kim tra LSP MPLS. Cc gi echo p tr khng kim tra mt ci g na; chng c yu cu n gin ly thng tin tr li ni gi. Cng nh vy, mng khng cn tr li cc gi p tr echo dc theo cng mt tuyn trong hng ngc li. Mng c th gi tr li chng nh cc gi IP. Mt handle hoc sos ch nh ai gi chng. Sequence Number nhn dang cc yu cu echo n sau v cc p tr echo c gi bi cng mt LSR. Timestamp c a ra (compose) ca 2 trng: mt trong vi giy v mt trong khong vi micro giy. Timestamp Sent ch nh thi gian ca ngy m ni gi gi cc yu cu echo, v Timestamp Received ch ra thi gian ca ngy m ni nhn nhn c yu cu echo. Timestamp l c hiu lc s dng, bn cn ng b ha ng h ca ni gi v ni nhn. Cc trng cui cng vn chuyn cc TLV.

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Ta c th thy cc gi tr c th ca m tr li trong bng 4.2. RSC quy cho (refer) n cc m con (subcode) tr li. M con tr li ch ra su ca nhn cho tr li thch hp. su ca nhn l 1 cho y ca nhn v l 2 cho nhn trn vand so on.

Bng 4.2 : cc m tr li

Ni gi lun lun t m tr li l 0. Ni nhn c th t m tr li nh l phn hi n ni gi ca yu cu echo. Nu ni nhn qu thc l egress LSR thch hp cho FEC di s kim tra, n s tr li gi p tr echo vi mt m tr li ca 3. l m tr li bn s nhn thy nu Ping MPLS lm vic tt. Mt b nhn s bit nu n l egress LSR thch hp (proper) bng cch so snh thng tin trong stack FEC ca yu cu echo vi thng tin thc t trn LSR. Code tr li 8 c nghi l gi c mt stack nhn ch ra rng mt s iu hnh ly nhn ra hay tro i nhn c thc hin v n l tt cho chuyn tip i mt gi c ng nhn. Mt m tr li ca 9 ch ra mt s iu hnh nhn, nhng l cc gi c ng nhn khng c chuyn mch ra ngai. Mt m tr li ca 4 c nghi l nhn trong stack l khng bit LSR (a return code of 4 means that the label in the stack is unknown to the LSR). Mt m tr li ca 5 c nghi l i tng nh x downstream c cung cp bi LSR upstream khng phi l ci m LSR downstream mong i. Ch rng Ping LSP MPLS c ch r trong RFC 4379, pht hin li mt phng d liu ca chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (detecting Multi-Protocol Label Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Switched Data Plane Failures). Cc gi tr m tr li ca 6 v 7 c mt nghi khc trong cc phin bn trc ca phc tho c c xut bi RFC. M tr li 6 c nghi router p tr l mt trong cc router downstream, v nh x ca n cho FEC ny trn giao din nhn l do nhn mang li. M tr li 7 c nghi router p tr l mt trong cc router downstream nhng nh x ca n cho FEC ny khng c mang li bi nhn. Cui cng, gi echo MPLS c cc TLV. Bng 4.3 lit k cc TLV khc nhau c th c mang bi cc gi echo MPLS.

Bng 4.3 : cc TLV

4.3.4.2. iu hnh Ping LSP. Yu cu echo MPLS cho mt Ping MPLS gi cc thng tin sau y: - Tiu Echo MPLS - Target FEC Stack TLV - A PAD TLV (optional) p tr echo gi cc thng tin sau y: - Tiu Echo MPLS - Mt Error Code TLV (optional) - A PAD TLV (optional) - Target FEC Stack TLV t yu cu echo (optional) Yu cu echo MPLS cho mt Ping MPLS b p buc vo trong FEC ti ni gi. LSR khng thc hin vic ny qua mt qu trnh tm kim a ch IP n gin trong

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Nhm c Long K49A

bng CEF. a ch IP ch l t khong a ch 127.0.0.0/8 (anyway), v vy (this is not even possible). ch n ca gi c chuyn pht t a ch IP m cu lnh ngi dng hoc mt thit b phn mm cung cp. iu ny xem xt ni stack nhn c y ln gi. Gi c chuyn ra ngai ca LSR theo thng tin ny. Ti mt mc ti thiu, TTL ca nh nhn c t ti 255. khi ni nhn nhn yu cu echo MPLS, n phi thc hin cc tc v sau y: - Kim tra cc li nh dng trn yu cu echo. - Ch giao din m gi nhn c. - Ch stack nhn ca gi nh li vo ca LSR. - Kim tra (whether) stack nhn trn gi l cng nh mt (check whether the label stack on the packet is the same as the one in the Target FEC Stack TLV - Kim tra LSR egress LSR qu thc cho FEC ny. - Kim tra (whether) giao thc phn b FEC c ch nh vi giao din n. - Gi mt p tr echo , tr khi Reply Mode l 1. Nu Reply Mode l Reply thng qua mt gi UDP Ipv4/Ipv6 vi cnh bo router, ty chn cnh bo router phi c xut hin. iu ny c nghi l nu p tr echo c ng nhn, gi c nhn cnh bo router nh l nh ca nhn. a ch IP ch ca gi p tr echo l a ch IP ngun ca gi yu cu echo. TTL IP c t ti 255, v cc cng UDP l 3503. 4.3.4.3. Ping MPLS trong IOS Cisco Trong IOS Cisco, bn c th gi mt Ping LSP MPLS vi lnh Ping mpls, C th thy rng c 3 ty chn tn ti: Ipv4, traffic eng, v pseudowire. Ty chn pseudowire l cho thm tra kt ni mch o (Virtual Circuit Connection Verification VCCV), s c gii thch sau. Ty chn Ipv4 l cho vic gi i mt yu cu echo cho mt LSP m c gii hn vi mt tin t Ipv4 (that is bound to an Ipv4 prefix). FEC c la chn bi vic ch r tin t Ipv4 (mng v mt n mng). Cng nh vy, tng ng vi stack nhn cho tin t Ipv4 ny l t trn yu cu echo. a ch IP ch ca yu cu l mc nh bi 127.0.0.1. V vy, router s dng a ch FEC mc tiu (Target FEC Address) bn g trong vo hnh dng m stach nhn t ln trn gi v trn LSP no m chuyn gi i; n khng c s dng nh l a ch IP ch tht s trong tiu IP.

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Nhm c Long K49A

4.3.5 Du vt tuyn LSP MPLS Mc tiu ca traceroute l kim tra tuyn, nhng tri li mc tiu ca ping l kim tra kt ni. Mc tiu ca traceroute LSP MPLS l kim tra tuyn ca LSP v xc minh mt phng iu khin v mt phng d liu trn mi LDR dc theo tuyn ca LSP. Mt traceroute LSP MPLS khng l g nhiu hn mt yu cu echo MPLS. S khc nhau vi Ping LSP MPLS l traceroute LSP MPLS gi mt vi gi yu cu echo MPLS vi s gim dn TTL MPLS. u tin s iu tra traceroute LSP MPLS c TTL MPLS l 1 v cho mi iu tra sau , TTL gim i 1. Mt TLV b sung l bao gm vi yu cu echo cho traceroute LSP MPLS l TLV nh x Downtream. Nu mt LSR nhn yu cu echo MPLS vi TTL 1, n p tr ti n (? It replies to it). Nu LSR khng l egress LSR cho FEC v mi kim tra u tt, cc p tr LSR nh l mt trong cc router downstream. Bi vy, n p tr vi mt m tr li ca 8 v thng tin TLV downstream thch hp (MTU, Address Type, Downstream IP Address, Downstream Interface Address, Multipath Information, Downstream Label, v Protocol) lp y trong . Nu LSR l egress LSR cho FEC, n khng cn lp y thng tin nh x Downstream nhng s p tr vi mt m tr li ca 3. Yu cu echo MPLS cho mt Traceroute MPLS gi cc thng tin sau: - Tiu echo MPLS - Target FEC Stack TLV - Downstream Mapping TLV - A PAD TLV (optional) p tr echo s gi cc thng tin sau: - Tiu echo MPLS - An Error Code TLV (optional) - A PAD TLV (optional) - Downstream Mapping TLV

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Ni gi ca cc gi Traceroute LSP MPLS copy TLV nh x Downstream (Downstream Mapping TLV) nhn c vo trong yu cu echo tip theo gi i. Nh vy, ti mi hop, cc nhn c hi vng bo co bi LSR mt hop upstream c kim tra vi nhn trn gi nhn c trn LSR downstream. 4.3.6 VCCV VCCV c ch nh kim tra v xc minh mt phng d liu ca pseudowires. VCCV i hi cc th tc to nn mt knh iu khin gia cc router PE m cung cp dch v AtoM. Lp mng c th thc t l MPLS, L2TPv3, hoc l IP. Bi v sch ny bao ph ch MPLS, n ch (deals) sau vi MPLS nh l lp mng khi nhn vo VCCV. Nu MPLS l lp mng, VCCV s dng li Ping LSP MPLS thm tra kt ni ca cc pseudowire. VCCV to ra mt knh iu khin gia cc router PE nh cc gi VCCV c gi i qua nh cc gi IP. Bn c th s dng 3 lai knh iu khin sau: - VCCV Inband - VCCV Out of band - TTL expiry VCCV Phng thc u tin s dng VCCV Inband. Cc gi trn VCCV Inband mang mt t iu khin. D liu AtoM c th mang mt t iu khin gia stack nhn v ti trng MPLS. Nibble u tin ca t iu khin ny l (then) 0000. cho cc gi trn knh iu khin, tuy nhin, nibble u tin ca t iu khin l 0001. T iu khin sau ng vai tr nh i tng nhn dng ti trng (hoc giao thc trng ID). i tng giao thc l 0x21 cho cc gi Ipv4 hoc 0x57 cho cc gi Ipv6. Tuy nhin, s c mt ca t iu khin l khng b p t, v vy ty chn ny l khng phi lun lun kh d (sn dng possible). Phng thc th 2 s dng VCCV Out of band. VCCV out of band khng da trn x xut hin ca t iu khin nhng xa hn trn s xut hin mt cch ngay lp tc ca nhn cnh bo router trn nhn VC. Vn vi s gn n ny l nhng s b sung xc nh quyt nh load balancing da trn mt nhn ti mt vi su trong stack nhn c th sa i quyt nh ny bi v s xut hin ca nhn vi

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gi tr bng 1. Nu lu lng d liu AtoM v lu lng OAM AtoM lu lng VCCV ly mt tuyn khc, s kim tra l khng tht s c hiu lc . Phng php th 3 v phng php cui cng s dng s ht hn ca TTL (TTL expiry). V bn cht, gi tr TTL ca nhn VC c t n 1 v vy TTL ca gi c gn nhn ht hn ti egress PE router, v LSR s kim tra gi bi v chuyn tip xa hn. Tuy nhin, TTL ca nhn VC c th c vit ln khi nhn ng hm c g ra. Bi vy, phng php th 3 l khng thch hp. Phng php th nht l s mt m IOS Cisco s dng. Ch : IOS Cisco khng ghi ln gi tr TTL ca 1 trong nhn VC khi nhn ng hm c ly ra ti LSR hop p cht. VCCV s dng tiu gi Ping LSP MPLS v cc TLV. Target FEC Stack TLV c s dngl n ch ra mt Pseudowire. FEC 128 Pseudowire (new) c s dng cho VCCV trong IOS Cisco. Kh nng h tr mt knh iu khin v kiu ca knh ny l bo hiu gia (tn hiu signaled) cc router PE. iu ny c thc hin bi mt thng s VCCV TLV (VCCV parameter TLV) trong mt TLV giao in VC FEC cho LDP. LDP l giao thc bo hiu gia cc router PE cho AtoM. VCCV parameter TLV gi mt kiu knh iu khin (CC) v mt kiu xc minh iu khin (control verification CV). CC ch ra mt vi lai sau y: - Mt t iu khin vi nibble u tin l 0001 v mt i tng nhn dng ti trng. - Nhn cnh bo router MPLS. - Mt nhn VC vi TTl c t ln 1. Kiu CV ch ra mt s iu sau y: - Ping ICMP - Ping LSP - Bo v chuyn tip gi hai hng (bidirectional Forwarding Detection) - VCCV s dng Ping ICMP khi giao thc mng l IP hoc L2TPv3.VCCV s dng Ping LSP khi giao thc mng l MPLS, nh n l cho AtoM. Cui cng, Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS Trng H Cng Ngh

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VCCV c th s dng hai hng gia hai nn (platform) xc minh phin gia hai router PE. BFD c th c s dng cho mt vi ca ba giao thc mng (any of the three network protocols) IOS Cisco s dng phng thc u tin khi gi i cc gi VCCV AtoM, gi u tin (the one with) vi t iu khin vi nibble u tin l 0001 v mt n v nhn dng ti trng. 4.3.7 IP Service Level Agreement Cisco IP Service Level Agreement (IPSLA) l mt cng c o c hiu sut mng m c nhng trong IOS Cisco. IP SLA cho php ngi iu hnh mng nh lng hiu sut mng mt cch thng tho v c th nhn thy c nu cc SLA c tham gia vo. Cc c tnh mng m bn c th o c bao gm hiu ng jitter, trn trn mt tuyn, RTT, v s mt mt cc gi. Nhng s o c ny c th c hon thnh trn lp ca dch v (class of service). IP SLA o c mng bng cch gi i nhng thm d mt cch tun han. Cc thm d c th l cc gi giao thc khc nhau, v d nh ICMP, UDP, HTTP, Domain Name System (DNS), FTP, DHCP, v nhiu hn na. S o c hiu ng jitter v RTT c th l quan trng c bit nu mng c lu lng Voice over IP (VoIP), bi v loi lu lng ny yu cu mt gi tr jitter nh. Bn cng c th s dng IP SLA nh l mt cng c g ri, bi v n c th thu thp thng tin o c t mng trong thi gian thc trn ton b mng. Cng nh vy, ngi qun tr mng c th xc nh vn vi tc tt hn khi khng c IP SLA c xut hin. IP SLA yu cu mt ngun IP SLA v mt thit b ch lm vic. Thit b ngun lun lun l mt router Cisco, nhng thit b ch khng cn l mt router n c th l mt host IP. Tuy nhin, bn c th thu thp hu ht thng tin hu ch nu thit b ch l mt router Cisco m ng vai tr nh mt p ng SLA IP. IP SLA c bt trn 2 router bin khch hng (customer edge CE): newyork CE v sydney CE. Hai kiu ca cc IP SLA c iu khin (monitor) bng cch cu hnh hai loi iu tra rtr1 v rtr2. Router newyork CE l router ngun, v sydney CE l router ch. Rtr1 v rtr2 c cu hnh trn router newyork CE. Rtr1 l mt lu lng ICMP n gin, v vy router ch khng cn phi l mt b p ng (responder). Tuy nhin, rtr2 o c jitter vi cc gi UDP. cho iu ny, router ch phi l mt b p ng (responder).

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Kha lun tt nghip * VRF Aware IP SLA.

Nhm c Long K49A

IP SLA to ra VRF aware. iu ny c nghi l n c th chy bn trong mt VRF trn cc router PE. Bi vy, bn c th s dng IP SLA o c hiu sut ca mng bn trong VPN t cc router PE. IP SLA c th, cho v d, o c RTT gia cc router PE bn trong VRF khch hng. T router PE, cc gi iu tra IP SLA c chuyn tip i s dng bng nh tuyn VRF. (equally), IP SLA c th chy trn cc router a VRF CE (multi VRF CE). to ra IP SLA chy trn VPN MPLS, bn phi t iu tra rtr vo trong VRF chnh xc. Nhn vo hnh 4.11 thy mt mng bn trong ci m ngun IP SLA t ln router PE. Bn c th t IP SLA trong cc trng hp (v d - instance) a VRF v o c hiu sut mng thng n cc router CE t xa hoc cc router PE nu bn t p ng IP SLA trong VRF thch hp (appropriate).

Hnh 4.11 : IP SLA cho VPN MPLS

Cho s chnh xc ca cc o c, n l thch hp rng bn s dng cc router c dnh cho IP SLA. Cc router ny thng c a ra ng vai tr nh cc router v hnh (as shadow routers). Bi v cc router ny c dnh cho IP SLA, chng khng c bao gm trong chuyn tip gi v c th tiu tn tt c qu trnh x l ca CPU ca chng trn IP SLA. Nu cc router shadow c gn vo trong cc router PE nh l cc router CE v bn c mt router shadow trn im ca s xut hin (POP), bn c th o c hiu sut ca mng backbone VPN MPLS t mi POP n mi POP

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khc. Nu cc router ny c gn vo cc router PE nh l cc router multi VRF CE, chng c th thc s thc hin cc o c CE to CE qua mng VPN MPLS cho mt vi cc VPN. Sau n p ng nhu cu c mt router shadow trn POP trong mng. Nhn vo hnh 4.12 cho mt mng VPN MPLS vi cc router CE IP SLA shadow o c hiu sut ca POP n POP.

Hnh 4.12: Cc router CE IP SLA v hnh (shadow)

4.3.8 Net flow Accounting. Netflow cung cp mt nghi tnh ton trong cc mng IP, ni m c th s dng cho vic qun tr mng, lp k hoch v tnh cc. D liu thu thp c l mt tp hp ca cc thng k v lu lng, nh l giao thc, cng, thng tin v cht lng ca dch v (QoS). Bn c th ly thng tin m bn thu thp c vo trong lu lng mng n mt b collector Netfow phn tch v tin hnh cc qu trnh khc. Mt lu lng (dng flow) l theo mt hng duy nht v c nh nghi nh l mt tp hp ca a ch IP ngun, a ch IP ch, cng ngun, cng ch, giao thc, byte ToS, v giao din li vo. Netfow cung cp vic tnh ton trong cc mng IP, nhng n cng c th cung cp vic tnh ton trong cc mng MPLS. Nhn vo hnh 4.13 cho mt ci nhn v ni m Netfow c th iu hnh cc mng MPLS.

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Hnh 4.13 : Netflow trong cc mng MPLS.

Netflow cng c th theo di (track) cc dng IP to label trn ingress LSR. N khng c nga quan trng (matter) d l giao din cuc gi n (incoming) l mt IP tan cu thng l hay l mt giao din VRF. Ti egress LSR, Netflow c th cung cp vic tnh ton egress Netflow cho cc gi m i vo LSR nh l cc gi c gn nhn v i ra LSR nh l cc gi IP; l tuyn nhn n IP (label to IP). N c gi l Netflow egress bi v cc gi c sp t ca stack nhn trn ng ra ngai ca router ca chng. Giao din egress trn LSR c th l giao din IP tan cu thng l hoc l giao din VRF. Bi vy, bn c th tm thy Netflow egress trn cc router PE egress trong cc mng VPN MPLS. Cui cng, Netflow c th thc hin vic tnh ton trong tuyn nhn ti nhn (label to label). Trong cc t khc, n c th thc hin vic tnh ton cho cc gi c gn nhn trn router P trong cc mng MPLS. D liu c th c xut trong nh dng xut phin bn 9 ca Netflow. Trong vic b sung cho d liu thng dng m bn c th thu thp, bn c th (track up) n 3 nhn MPLS trong stack nhn. Cc thng tin theo di c l gi tr ca cc nhn, gi tr cc bit experimental, ng dng MPLS (VPN MPLS, AtoM, TE MPLS, and so on) ny c kt hp vi nh nhn, v tin t m c kt hp vi nh ca nhn. N l quan trng m ti trng MPLS khng c (khng phi l IP). Netflow MPLS aware c th theo di cc gi c ng nhn m mang ti trng khng phi IP, v d nh cc gi AtoM. cho php vic tnh ton Netflow trn mt router, bn phi cu hnh cu lnh ip route-cache flow trn giao din ra. Bn c th nhn thy cc thng k Netflow trn router vi cu lnh show ip cache [verbose] flow. Trn ingress LSR ca mt mng Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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MPLS, bn c th cu hnh ip route-cache flow trn giao din ingress, ngay c nu n l mt giao din VRF. cu hnh vic tnh tan egress Netflow, bn phi cu hnh cu lnh giao din mpls netflow egress trn giao din egress ca egress LSR. cu hnh Netflow MPLS aware, cu hnh cu lnh global ip flow-cache mpls label-positions [label-position-1 [label-position-2 [label-postion-3]]] [mplslength] [no-ip-fields]. Bn c th ch r v tr ca nhn nh l l ang ln n nhn th 6 trong stack nhn. Mt yu cu tin quyt cho c tnh ny l cho php Netflow trn giao din vi dng lnh ip route-cache flow [input]. thy mt nh chp nhanh ca cache Netflow MPLS-aware trn router, bn phi s dng lnh show ip cache verbose flow. 4.3.9 SNMP/MIBs SNMP l mt giao thc m cung cp giao tip gia mt nh qun tr SNMP (thng thng l vy) v tc nhn SNMP trong cc mng IP. Tc nhn SNMP l mt phng tin phn mm m chy trn mt thit b c qun tr. SNMP cung cp mt framework c chun ha cho vic qun tr cc thit b trong mng. Mt phn ca framework l cc MIB v kin trc ca thng tin qun tr (Structure of Management Information SMI). SMI cung cp cc k thut nh nga MIB. S phong ph ca cc MIB l sn dng, v nhng ci mi vn lun lun ang c nh nghi. Hu ht cc giao thc c s hu cc MIB ca chng. Tuy nhin, cc MIB khc khng c rng buc cho mt giao thc no , nhng xa hn mt cng c phn mm no trn tc nhn SNMP. Bn c th truy cp cc MIB SNMP bng cch s dng mt lnh n gin trn mt trm qun tr (management station) hoc bi mt b phn phc tp ca phn mm vi mt giao din ngi dng ha ang chy trn trm qun tr ang qun ln n hng ngn cc thit b trong mng. MIB qu tht c bao gm ca mt tp hp cc i tng m tham kho (refer) cho mt thc th c qun tr trn thit b. Gi tr ca cc i tng c th c c bi mt lnh GET hoc GETNEXT c pht ra t trm qun tr. Trong mt vi trng hp, bn c th t i tng c qun tr vi mt lnh SET t trm qun tr. Nhn vo hnh 4.14 cho mt ci nhn tng quan v giao thc SNMP. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Hnh 4.14 : Tng quan v giao thc SNMP

SNMP c th qun tr cc node trong mng trong hai kiu: mt kiu polling v mt kiu iu khin ngt (interrupt-driven). Trong kiu (polling), mt trm qun tr la chn mt cch tun han hoc cht vn cc thit b trong mng. Mt vn l tn s ca vic bu chn cc thit b khi nh lng trng thi cu cc thit b mng v d nh cc router. Nu mt s kin khng r rng xut hin, v d nh mt giao din b down, n c th ly mt giao din khc trong khi trc khi trm bu ch ti s kin xut hin Bi vy, kiu th hai (second fashion) l iu khin ngt. Ngay khi mt s kin xut hin trn thit b c iu khin, SNMP gi i mt by n trm qun tr bo cho n bit v s thay i. Mt MIB l mt tp hp ca cc i tng c qun tr, mi mt i tng vi mt tn (gi tr), trng thi, truy cp, v c php. Nhiu MIB l sn dng, mt vi trong s c nh nghi bi cc body chun v mt vi thuc quyn s hu (propietary) hoc c nng cao vi cc thng tin quyn s hu. Di y ch lit k ch cc MIB m c lin quan ti MPLS v chng c h tr trong IOS Cisco. Sau y l cc MIB m ph hp vi iu ny: MPLS LDP MIB MPLS TE MIB MPLS VPN MIB

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Kha lun tt nghip CISCO IETF PW MIB CISCO IETF PW MPLS MIB CISCO IETF PW TC MIB

Nhm c Long K49A

N nn l rnh mch m hu ht cc MIB trnh by bi nhn vo tn ca chng. MPLS LDP MIB l MIB m c cc i tng lin quan ti LDP. N gi cc i tng m lin quan ti ID router LDP, thng tin ngang hng LDP, v cc phin. MPLS LSR MIB gi cc i tng m lin quan ti cc b m, LFIB, cc nhn chun b ti v chun b i ra ngoi, and so on. Ni ngn gn, MPLS LSR MIB c th mang n cng mt thng tin nh nhn thy vi cu lnh show mpls forwarding-table. MPLS TE MIB l MIB m gi cc i tng lin quan ti TE. MPLS VPN MIB l MIB m chia vi cc i tng VRF specific. PW trong mt vi MIB (stand for) pseudowrie; cc MIB lin quan ti AtoM nu c t di giao thc mng l MPLS. IF MIB l tn ca MIB giao din. N c nng cao trong IOS Cisco h tr lp MPLS. Nh v d, cc thng k c th thc hin vic bu cho lu lng nhn m ang c chuyn qua router. Ta c th kim tra trng thi iu hnh ca MPLS trn mt giao din v MTU MPLS ca mt giao din bng cch s dng MIB ny. Mt vi MIB m lin quan ti vic nh tuyn l khng thc s lin quan ti MPLS mt cch trc tip. Tuy nhin, khng c nh tuyn, MPLS l khng kh thi; bi vy, khi ni v vic qun l cc mng MPLS, l cn thit qun l vic nh tuyn IP. l l do ti sao nu bn ang chy OSPF trong mng ca bn, bn s thy th v vi OSPF MIB. Nu bn ang chy VPN MPLS, cc MPLS BGP4 MIB v CISCO BGP4 MIB s l hp dn. Khi bn ang chy MPLS TE, RSVP MIB s lm bn hi lng. By gi l thi im tt nhn vo mt v d t MIB MPLS TE. Mt i tng gi li cc s chuyn i trng thi ca ng hm TE. Tn i tng l mpls Tunel State Transitions, v nhn dng i tng (Object Identifier OID) l 1.3.6.1.3.95.2.2.1.26. OID ny nh ngha duy nht i tng. N nh nghi t chc no n nh MIB, phn loi MIB, v ch ra i tng no l t MIB . OID l mt danh sch ca cc s nguyn, c t tri qua phi, n ch ra mt cch duy nht i tng c qun tr. Hnh 4.15 ch ra cy OID ca i tng mpls Tunel State Transitons. Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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Hnh 4.15 : OID ca MPLS Tunel State Transitions

Tt c cc OID ca tt c cc MIB c th c trnh by trong ton b cy OID. Trong v d ny, 1.3.6.1.3.95.2.2.1.26 bin dch ti iso (1).org (3).dod (6).internet(1).experimental(3).mplsTeMIB (95).mpls TeObjects(2);mplsTunelTable(2); mplsTunelEntry (1); mplsTunelStateTransitions(26). 4.3.9.1Context Based Access for SNMP over MPLS VPN Hn na, SNMP truy cp n cc thit b mt cch ton cu, c nghi l SNMP truy cp cho tan b thit b. Tuy nhin, vi s gii thiu ca VPN MPLS, bn thy khi nim ca cc VPN v cc VRF trn cc router PE. VPN cung cp mt bng nh tuyn VRF, bng VRF CEF, v cc giao din VRF trn cc router PE. VRF khng phi l mt phn ca phm vi tan cu ca router PE, nhng xa hn phm vi VRF. Vn l khi lu lng SNMP i vo trong router PE thng qua cc giao din VRF hoc khi cc by ri router PE thng qua cc giao din VRF. Cc trm qun tr bn trong cc VPN khch hng c th truy cp phm vi qun tr ton b ca router PE, ngay c nu SNMP yu cu vo trong router PE thng qua mt giao din VRF. Cc trm qun tr khch hng trong

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VPN s khng cho php thy c ton b router PE hoc phm vi ton b (ton cu) ca router thng qua cc giao thc qun tr. cho php khch hng VPN truy cp ch d liu MIB m c lin quan (pertain) ti VRF ca khch hng ny, nh cung cp dch v c th cu hnh mt phm vi SNMP cho VRF ny. Bi th (consequently), khch hng ch c th truy cp d liu SNMP trong phm vi v khng th truy cp d liu MIB t cc khch hng VPN khc trn cng mt router PE. T kha phm vi di s cu hnh IP VRF c s dng kt hp c vit hoc thng bo ci nhn SNMP (notify SNMP view) vo trong mt phm vi SNMP. Bn cng c th ngn cn truy cp ti mt s cy MIB no . iu l quan trng ch rng cho s truy cp da trn phm vi (context based access) cho SNMP trn VPN MPLS lm vic cho mt MIB no , MIB ny cn to ra (context aware). 4.3.9.2Cc MIB VPN MPLS. MIB ny c s dng mt cch c bit thit lp hoc ly cc i tng lin quan ti VPN MPLS l MIB VPN MPLS. MIB VPN MPLS c cc i tng lin quan ti cc VRF trn router PE. Tan b cc i tng lin quan ti VRF, cc giao din VRF, bng nh tuyn VRF, v thng tin BGP. v d, i tng mplsVpnVrfRouteTable vi OID 1.3.6.1.3.118.1.4.1 cho php trm qun l mng t nh cung cp dch v ly cc bng nh tuyn VRF t cc router PE. Thng tin ny bao gm tin t, metric tuyn, thng tin hop k tip, giao thc, v mt s khc t cc bng nh tuyn VRF. V d khc l miu t ca VRF trn router PE. Nu bn cu hnh mt m t cho cc VRF trn cc router PE, bn c th ly li n vi i tng mplsVpnVrfDescription. i tng ny c nh nghi trong v d 4.1 V d 4.1: i tng mplsVpnVrfDescription 4.3.10 Syslog Syslog l mt phng thc gi i cc thng ip t router n host m ang chy mt deamon syslog. Tuy nhin, bn cng c th lu tr cc thng ip syslog cc b trn router. Nu bn gi i cc thng ip syslog n mt host thu thp cc thng Vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS
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ip t tt c cc thit b trong mng, bn thy mt khung cnh ton b v bn c th lu tr cc thng ip mt cch bo mt v qun l chng tt hn. Bn c th nhn vo v thao tc file syslog v vy n cung cp s qun l v g ri tt hn. Cc thng ip syslog c mt s th t gia 0 v 7, trnh din s ngim ngt (severity) ca thng ip. Bn c th s dng s th t ny gii hn s thng ip gi n server syslog ty theo mc quan trng ca thng ip. Bng 4.4 mang n mt ci nhn tng quan ca cc mc ngim ngt ca cc thng ip syslog.

Bng 4.4 : Logging Priorities.

Mc u tin cao nht l mc 0, v mc thp nht l mc 7. Nu bn ch nh r mc ca ngim ngt (severity), cc thng ip vi s ch mc ngim ngt ny v cc mc thp hn c gi n server syslog hoc lu tr mt cch cc b. Nu, v d, bn ch r mc 3 cho cc thng ip c gi i n server syslog, tt c cc thng ip m c mc ngim ngt 3,2,1,0 c gi i. nh dng ca thng ip syslog nh sau:

* nh x thng ip OAM (OAM Message Mapping) nh x thng ip OAM l quan trng trong trng hp ca AtoM. Trong cc mng AtoM, pseudowires hoc cc VC vn chuyn cc frame lp 2 qua m my MPLS. Hng v cc m my lp 2 t nhin (toward the native Layer 2 clouds) trn

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mi mng MPLS l cc AC vi s ng gi lp 2 ring bit. Mt kha cnh quan trng khi qun tr dch v ny l vic nh x ca cc thng ip OAM ca cc AC ln trn cc thng ip OAM pseudowire c nh nghi mi nht trn cc pseudowire v (vice versa). Cc ch th cnh bo c trng c th c chuyn vn gia cc router PE, ch ra trng thi ca cc pseudowire v cc AC. Mi giao thc lp 2 trn AC c th c tp hp cc cnh bo v thng ip bo li. V d, ATM c nhiu cc ch th qun l li hn Frame Relay. Mi mt thng ip t nhin nh c nh nghi bng giao thc lp 2 s c nh x ln trn cc thng ip OAM pseudowire c nh nghi mi nht. Cc thng ip OAM pseudowire ny c chuyn vn qua cc pseudowire gia cc router PE v c th ch ra trng thi ca cc AC hoc cc pseudowire. nh x ny l cn thit cung cp mt dch v cnh tranh (emulate) ca cc giao thc lp 2 t nhin u cui qua mng MPLS. nh x ny l quan trng khi cc mch lp 2 t nhin c hon thnh (gii hn terminate) trn cc router PE. Khi cc mch lp 2 l khng c hon thnh trn cc router PE v d, Frame Relay tng mode port trn MPLS cc thng ip OAM t nhin c chuyn vn qua cc pseudowire mt cch trong sut (transparently). Trong trng hp ny, n l khng cn thit nh x cc thng ip ti cc router PE. Router PE c th nhn c cc cnh bo t cc AC ch th cc vn hoc trng thi ca mch hoc lin kt c th n gin l b down. Router cn phi chuyn vn trng thi ny qua pseudowire. Pseudowire co th b down hoc b li v mt s l do khc nhau. Router sau phi bin dch trng thi ny trong cc thng ip OAM m c gi ln trn cc AC. Router PE c th pht hin mt cch trc tip mt vn vi pseudowire nu giao din nm bn di b down hoc nu nhn VC c mt vn . Tuy nhin, n c th cng pht hin qua mt giao thc khc no , v d nh Ping LSP. Mc tiu l m bo c vic nh lng kim tra u cui ca mng. Ly v d, nu mt router PE pht hin rng PVC Frame Relay cc b l khng hot ng, n c th nh x vo mt thng ip trng thi pseudowire, ci m c gi n router PE t xa. Router PE t xa sau s thng dch thng ip trng thi pseudowire ny vo cc cnh bo Frame Relay tng ng m c gi ra ngai ln trn n egress PVC Frame Relay.

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ATM s dng cc cell OAM sau y: - Cc cell Loopback - Cc cell kim tra s lin tc (continuity check CC) - Cc cell tn hiu ch th cnh bo (Alarm Indication Signal AIS) - Cc cell ch th pht hin t xa (Remote Detection Indication RDI) Cc cel AIS c gi (downstream) ca li, v cc cell RDI c gi upstream. Cc router PE phi nhn vo cc cnh bo v nh x chng vo cc thng ip trng thi pseudowire v (vice versa). Trong IOS Cisco cc router PE c th p ng ti cc cell OAM cui cng (the PE router cann respond to End OAM cells) nu oam-ac emulation-enable c bt ln; trng hp ngc li, chng c gi i mt cch tron sut qua pseudowire. Cc router PE c th p ng (to the segment OAM cells if the OAM segment Endpoint feature is configured) . Cu lnh cu hnh cn thit cho iu ny l oam-ac segment endpoint. 4.3.11 Chuyn mch bo v (protection switching) Chuyn mch bo v l mt thut ng m ITU-T ang s dng. H cng nhn rng chc nng chuyn mch bo v l quan trng nng cao hiu lc v tnh tin cy ca cc mng MPLS. Chuyn mch bo v ng (imply) rng c nh tuyn v ti nguyn c tnh ton v n nh (allcate) bt u bo v LSP trc cc li xut hin. Chuyn mch bo v v vy a ra mt s m bo mnh m ca (of being able to re-obtain the required network resources post-failure). Ti thi im xut hin chc nng cho chuyn mch bo v l gii hn cho cc ng hm LSP im n im (point to point) v c hai loi kin trc c xut l: kiu 1+1 v kiu 1:1. Cc chc nng khc v kiu kin trc khc l cho vic ngin cu sau ny. Kiu kin trc 1+1 s dng mt LSP bo v c ginh cho cho mi LSP ang lm vic. Ti ingress LSP ca vng c bo v, LSP lm vic c ni ln LSP bo v. Lu lng trn cc LSP lm vic v cc LSP bo v c pht cng mt lc n egress LSR ca vng c bo v. Khi lu lng n egress LSR ca vng c bo v vic la chn gia LSP lm vic v LSP bo v l da trn mt vi tiu chun c xc nh trc, v d nh du hiu ca li c th no .

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Trong kiu kin trc 1:1, mt LSP bo v c cho mi mt LSP lm vic. Lu lng lm vic c pht n mi LSP hoc l LSP lm vic hoc l LSP bo v. Phng thc cho s la chn gia cc LSP bo v v LSP lm vic ph thuc vo k thut v c thc hin bi ingress LSR ca vng c bo v. LSP bo v c th c s dng mang lu lng m rng khi n khng c s dng truyn pht lu lng lm vic. Chuyn mch bo v s c xy dng khi: -

c khi to bi ngi qun tr iu khin. Li tn hiu c trnh by (declared) trn LSP kt ni, LSP lm vic hoc LSP bo v v khng c th hin trn cc LSP khc. Li ny c th c pht hin bng cch s dng cc gi CV. Thi gian i phc hi ht hiu lc v li tn hiu khng c th hin trn LSP lm vic.

Hai kin loi kin trc bo v c gii thch trn l chuyn mch bo v LSP ni mt chuyn mch t thc th lm vic n thc th bo v phi c thc hin khi mt li c pht hin v tn hiu ho. Cng c mt ngh khc t mt k hoch bo v chuyn mch ca ITU-T. l mt k hoch bo v tuyn 1+1 mc gi, c xut bi Lucent Technologies. N cung cp mt s khi phc mt cch tc thi t cc li m khng c s mt gi in-transit trn LSP b li. Cc li c gp vo bao gm mt vi cc li n trong lp vt l, lp lin kt v lp MPLS. cung cp dch v bo v 1+1 mc gi gia hai edge LSR mng MPLS, l ingress LSR v egress LSR, mt cp ca LSP MPLS c thnh lp dc theo cc ng tho ri ra. Cc gi c cung cp 2 ln ti ingress node vo trong 2 LSP v nh km thm s th t hng i vo n. Khi gi n ingress node, mt trong hai bn copy c la chn. Trong cch ny s khng c s mt mt cc gi in-transit trn LSP b li. S phn bit gia bo v 1+1 mc gi v 2 k hoch bo v chuyn mch truyn thng c a ra bi ITU-T l khng cn thit cho s pht hin li mt cch tng minh, bo hiu v chuyn mch bo v gia 2 LSP v k hoch coi mi LSP nh l cc LSP lm vic.

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Trong th t thy c s cn thit ca cc ng dng thi gian thc nh l hi ng video v cc dch v khc, IETF Network Working Group tm kim (finds it highly desirable) cho php gi li lu lng ngi dng vo trong cc ng hm LSP d phng trong khong chc mili giy. Trong chng nh ny chng ra ang vit v cc LSP nh tuyn tng minh. Cc LSP d phi c t cng gn im li cng tt, khi bo co li gia cc node c th phi tr gi ng k v tr. C mt on d phng cho mi lin kt v chng c tnh ton v phn b trc khi xy ra li. Khi mt li xut hin trn mt lin kt hoc mt node th lu lng trn lin kt s nhanh chng chuyn qua on d phng v cng mt thi im ingress LSR s c thng bo. N s tnh ton mt tuyn thay i cho LSP th cp. Lu lng s ngay lp tc c chuyn vo ng LSP mi thay th cho lu lng trn on d phng. Ta s dng thut ng sa cha cc b khi a n cc cng ng thc hin iu ny, v a n LSP rng kt hp ng hm d phng nh l mt LSP c bo v. N h tr cho cho kiu im n im theo mt phng duy nht (unidirection), nhng im n a im v a im n im l cho cc mc ch ngin cu cho CR-LDP. C 2 cch ci t cc ng hm d phng. l one-to-one backup v facility backup cho RSVP-TE [35] v cho CR-LDP [7] c quyn (exclusive) v chia s bo v bng thng tng ng (shared bandwidth protection respectively). Lu lng s c chuyn vo on d phng khi li xut hin ti LSP c bo v v s c chuyn tr li v LSP c bo v khi m tuyn c sa cha. Chin lc u tin iu hnh trn c s ca LSP d phng cho mi LSP c bo v. Mt tuyn chuyn mch nhn c thit lp ct ngang ng hm u tin mt vi ni downstream ca im ca lin kt hoc li node. Cho rng mi LSP c c sao lu, tuyn LSP d phng c thnh lp. Cho ngha th hai ca cc LSP d phng, mt LSP n c to ra cung cp cho tuyn d phng mt tp hp cc LSP, thay th cho s to ra mt LSP tch bit cho mt LSP d phng.Chng ta gi mi mt ng hm LSP l mt ng hm thng gii.

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C th pht hin ra li lin kt thng qua mt k thut pht hin li lp 2. D li node c hon thnh thng qua s mt IGP ca node lin kt hoc cc thng ip RSVP hello m rng nh c nh nghi. 4.3.13 MPLS v k thut lu lng iu hnh hoc qun tr, nh ta vn thng thy, cc t m t cng mt chc nng. Rt nhiu nhng tc v m k thut lu lng c, gii quyt mt cch chnh xc vng iu hnh ny. Kha cnh ca MPLS ang quan tm l o c v iu khin. iu ny mang n cho cc nh iu hnh mng mt s mm do quan trng trong vic iu khin cc tuyn ca dng lu lng qua mng ca h v cho php cc iu khon (policies) c b sung m c th kt qu trong vic ti u ho hiu nng ca cc mng. Nhng tt nhin rng c mt s gii hn vic iu hnh ca bao nhiu cc LSP trong thc t cn thit. Mt s ln ca cc ng hm LSP cho php iu khin tt hn qua s phn b ca lu lng qua mng, nhng lm tng s phc tp ca vic iu hnh mng. Mt ng t mt node ny n node khc phi c tnh ton, v d nh tuyn c th cung cp QoS cho lu lng IP v lp y cc yu cu khc v lu lng c th co. Mi mt tuyn c tnh ton, k thut lu lng, ni l mt subnet ca s rng buc da trn nh tuyn, l c th p ng cho vic thnh lp v bo dng cho trng thi chuyn tip gi tin dc theo tuyn. Trong th t lm thp hn s s dng ca cc kt ni b tc ngn v tr gip nhng ngun tc ngn, mt ngi qun tr c th s dng phng php TE nh tuyn mt subnet ca lu lng t cc lin kt ln trn rt nh cc yu t topo mng tc ngn. y c th l v d cho vic to cc ng hm LSP mi xung quanh vng b tc ngn ring bit. Phng php TE c th c p dng phn b mt cch hiu qu tp hp lu lng ti trng lm vic thng qua cc lin kt song song gia cc nodes. Trong cch ny n c th khai thc ti nguyn mng trit hn. Ngi ta c th s dng cc thng s bng thng LSP iu khin t l ca yu cy i qua mi lin kt. N cng c th dng cu hnh tng minh cc tuyn cho cc ng hm LSP phn b cc tuyn

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thng qua cc lin kt song song, v s dng nhng im tng ng (similarities) nh x cc LSP khc ln trn nhng lin kt khc. [3]. i khi ngi ta ngn cn cc loi no ca lu lng chc chn cc kiu ca cc lin kt, hoc ngn chn cc kiu no tng minh ca cc lin kt cho cc tuyn cho mt vi loi ca lu lng. iu ny l c ch khi ngn cn cho trng hp lu lng lc a i ngang qua i dng. Trong mt v d khc, c th chc chn ngn chn lu lng t mt subnet ca cc mch gi cc LSP lin vng, lun lun t cc mch m chng b o ngc cho lu lng.

Hnh 4.16 v d v k thut lu lng

V d, trong v d v k thut lu lng a ra trn hnh 4.16, c 2 tuyn t router C n router G. Nu router chn 1 trong s cc tuyn nh l tuyn ngn nht, n s mang ton b lu lng d nh n cho router G thng qua tuyn ny. Khi lu lng kt qu thu c trn tuyn c th gy nn tc nghn, trong khi tuyn khc th li khng s dng ht ti (under- loaded). ti a ho hiu sut ca ton b mng, ta c th dch mt vi phn ca lu lng t mt kt ni n mt kt ni khc.

Hnh 4.17 : BGP phn phi nhn qua nhiu Autonomous System.

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Trong v d n gin ny ta c th t cost ca tuyn t C-D-G cn bng vi cost ca tuyn C-E-F-G. V vy mt s gn tin n cn bng ti tr nn kh khn, nu c th, trong cc mng vi mt topology phc tp. Cc tuyn c nh tuyn tng minh, thc hin bng cch s dng MPLS, c th c s dng nh l mt cch n gin hn v mm do ca vn nh a ch ny, cho php mt vi phn ca lu lng trn mt tuyn tc ngn c ri i n mt tuyn t tc nghn nht. BGP c th dng thit lp phn phi nhn cho cc LSP i xuyn qua cc mng ca nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau. Hnh 4.17 trn gm 3 h t tr l A,B,C. AS A cp pht cho khch hng Prefix a ch (FEC) a.b/16. Router C3 qung b n nh mt NLRI cho AS-A v AS-B bng bn tin BGP UPDATE c cha Next-hop v ASPATH. Bn tin update c gi bi C3 n A3 cn mang mt nh x t FEC route reflector. Nhm tm cch tt nht chuyn tip cc gi n prefix a.b/16, A1 c th xc nh rng ng AS ngn nht l qua hop k A3 s dng nhn L. nh nh tuyn ni v giao thc phn phi nhn ca mnh, router A1 cng bit rng tuyn tt nht n A3 l i qua A2 s dng nhn M. Kt qu l khi chuyn gi n prefix a.b/16, router A1 push nhn L ln gi ri push tip nhn M trn nh stack . Nh vy, mt LSP c chui bn trong mt ng hm LSP khc. LSP1 bn ngai ko di t A1 n A3. Trong khi , LSP 2 ko di t AS A n AS C v c mt on chui bn trong LSP1.

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KT LUN
Bi kha lun trnh by mt cch tng quan v cng ngh MPLS v cc k thut vn hnh v bo dng cho mng MPLS. Mc tiu c bn ca cng ngh ny l tch hp k thut nh tuyn IP v chuyn mch ATM vo thnh mt k thut n nht. MPLS gii quyt tt vn tc nghn, tn dng ti a ti nguyn mng, gp phn nng cao QoS trn mng, cho php cc nh khai thc vin thng gim bt chi ph vn hnh, n gin ha vic qun l lu lng v h tr cc dch v IP lin kt vi nhau. Ni dung chnh ca bi kha lun l trnh by v cng vic vn hnh v bo dng (OAM) trn cc mng MPLS. Nu ra c cc yu cu ca OAM cho mng MPLS. ng thi a ra cc cng c thc hin cc k thut OAM. Thy c k thut Ping LSP v Traceroute LSP MPLS cng nh nhng c trng ca chng c s dng trong IOS Cisco. Thy c cng c VCCV c s dng nh th no kim tra mt phng d liu ca cc mng AtoM. Bi kha lun nu ra c mt s cng c cho vic o c IP SLA, tnh ton cho cc mng MPLS. S dng cc cng c nh MIB, SNMP, traps, syslog trong vic qun tr cc mng VPN MPLS c trng. Cui cng, ginh mt phn ngn cho vic trnh by v nh x cc thng ip OAM, ci m nh x cc thng ip giao thc lp 2 t nhin ln cc thng ip OAM pseudowire. Qua qu trnh tm hiu thc hin ni dung ca bi kha lun, em hiu thm c tm quan trng ca vic vn hnh v bo dng cc mng MPLS, duy tr s hat ng mt cch n nh v hiu qu ca mng, nng cao cht lng dch v, khai thc tt li th vt tri m cng ngh MPLS ny mang li. Do iu kin v thi gian hn hp, em cha th thc hnh c trn cc dng router c h tr MPLS, cng nh cha th thc hin m phng c, v vy ni dung bi kha lun vn l tm hiu trn l thuyt. c bit l vi ti vn hnh v bo dng trong MPLS, t trc cha c sinh vin no thc hin, nn ti liu ting Vit l cha c, em tng hp v dch t mt s ti liu ting Anh. Mc d n lc rt nhiu khc phc kh khn ny nhng cng khng th trnh khi nhng sai st. Em rt mong nhn c nhng ng gp ca cc thy c gio cng nh cc bn sinh vin em hon thin kin thc, nm chc c v cng ngh ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


Cc sch tham kho [1]. Dini, P.; Hasan, M.Z.; Morrow, M.; Parr, G.; Rolin, P.. (2002). Mechanisms for OAM on MPLS in Large IP Backbone Networks, Master thesis Information and Communication Technology, Agder University College [2]. Mnh Quyt, Phng Vn Vn, Nguyn Tt c. (2003). Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc [3]. Leone, L. (GARR) & Suin, S. (SERRA) Deployment of a Virtual Private LAN Service using Ethernet over MPLS technology [4]. Medhi, D. & Ramasami, K. Network routing algorithms protocols and architects [5]. Mitchel, S. (2006) MPLS Fundamentals Cisco Press Nev [6]. Nguyn Th T Uyn. (2006). Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc Tng hp thng tin t mt s trang Web: (Khng r ngy xut bn) [7]. Tp ch bu chnh vin thng trc tuyn http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn [8]. Trang web chuyn ngnh cng ngh in t vin thng ca http://vnexperts.net [9]. Trang web v cng ngh Vit Nam http://vnpro.org

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