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C LNG KNH TRUYN TRONG H THNG OFDM

CHNG 1 GII THIU


1.1 Gii thiu chung
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao l mt k thut truyn m trong tp
hp nhng sng mang trc giao vi nhau ri truyn ng thi. ng dng k thut
OFDM, ta c kh nng truyn thng tin tc cao, s dng bng thng hiu qu, chng
c nhiu lin k t ISI, nhiu lin sng mang ICI, chng c fading chn lc tn s.
K thut OFDM c bit n cch y khong 40 nm nhng m n mi c ng dng
rng ri nhng nm gn y. Nhng sn phm ng dng k thut OFDM c th k n
WIMAX (Worlwide interoperationability for Microwaves Access), WLAN (Wireless
Local Area Network) 802.11, x-DSL (x-Digital Subcriber Line) v DVT (Digital Video
Broadcasting).
OFDM l mt ng c vin sng gi cho cc h thng thng tin tc cao, do
ngy cng c nhiu h thng thng tin ng dng k thut OFDM. Vic c lng knh
truyn ng vai tr quan trng trong cc h thng thng tin ni chung v h thng OFDM
ni ring. Vi nim am m trong lnh vc DSP, cng vi ham mun tm hiu k thut
OFDM, em chn ti nghin cu ny cho n tt nghip ca mnh.
1.2 Mc ch ca n
n tm hiu v k thut c lng knh truyn trong h thng OFDM. Trong
, n tp trung nghin cu hai loi c lng tng i n gin l MMSE v LS, so
snh 2 phng php c lng knh li bnh phng trung bnh nh nht (MMSE) v
bnh phng t nht (LS) cng nh tc ng ca cc loi nhiu v cc hin tng a
ng n h thng thng tin.
1.3 B cc ca n
n chia lm 5 chng :
Chng 1 : Gii thiu khi qut n
Chng 2 : Trong chng ny s ln lt trnh by v cc khi nim c bn trong
OFDM, s khc nhau gia OFDM v FDM, tnh trc giao, cu trc OFDM, s khi
h thng OFDM, vn ng b trong OFDM, u nhc im ca h thng OFDM, k
thut iu ch s dng trong OFDM. Phn cn li ca chng s trnh by cc bc thit
k h thng OFDM v cc kt qu m phng
Chng 3 : Trong chng ny s ln lt trnh by v cc khi nim c bn trong knh
truyn v tuyn, khi nim knh truyn dn phn tp a ng, p ng xung ca knh
khng ph thuc thi gian v knh ph thuc thi gian, cc m hnh knh c bn, quan




h gia tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu v m hnh knh, knh truyn dn trong mi trng
nhiu trng v mt s kt qu m phng. Ngoi ra vn v dung lng knh v tuyn
cng c cp n.
Chng 4 : Trong chng ny s trnh by v k thut c lng knh truyn trong h
thng OFDM , trong i su vo hai phng php c lng knh li bnh phng
trung bnh nh nht ( MMSE ) v bnh phng t nht ( LS ).
Chng 5 : Kt lun v hng pht trin ti trong tng lai




CHNG 2 K THUT OFDM
2.1 Gii thiu chng
Trong chng ny s ln lt trnh by v cc khi nim c bn trong OFDM, s khc nhau
gia OFDM v FDM, tnh trc giao, cu trc OFDM, s khi h thng OFDM, vn
ng b trong OFDM, u nhc im ca h thng OFDM, k thut iu ch s dng trong
OFDM.. Phn cn li ca chng s trnh by cc bc thit k h thng OFDM v cc kt
qu m phng
2.2 Khi nim OFDM
K thut OFDM l k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing). l s kt hp gia m ha v ghp knh. Thng
thng ni ti ghp knh ngi ta thng ni ti nhng tn hiu c lp t nhng ngun
c lp c t hp li. Trong OFDM, nhng tn hiu c lp ny l cc sng mang con.
u tin tn hiu s chia thnh cc ngun c lp, m ha v sau ghp knh li tao
nn sng mang OFDM.
OFDM l trng hp c bit ca FDM (Frequency Divison Multiplex). Ta c th
lin tng knh truyn FDM ging nh mt dng nc ang chy, nc chy thnh mt
dng ln; knh truyn OFDM ging nh nc chy vi sen, chia ra thnh tng dng nc
nh. Ta c th dng tay chn dng nc t vi nc thng thng nhng khng th lm
tng t vi nc chy ra vi sen. Mc d c hai k thut cng thc hin chung mt cng
vic nhng m li co nhng phn ng khc nhau i vi nhiu.
Ta cng c th lin tng ti s vn chuyn hng ha bng xe ti . Ta c hai phng
n, dng mt chic xe ln ch tt c hng ha (FDM) hoc dng mt on xe nh (OFDM).
C hai phng n u ch cng mt loi hng ha nhng trong trng hp tai nn xy ra
nu ta dng on xe nh th ch c hng ha b mt mt.


Hnh 2.1: Minh ha s khc nhau ca OFDM v FDM




2.3 So snh FDM v OFDM
OFDM khc vi FDM nhiu im. Tt c cc sng mang th cp trong tn hiu OFDM
c ng b thi gian v tn s vi nhau, cho php kim sot tt can nhiu gia cc sng
mang vi nhau. Cc sng mang ny chng lp trong min tn s nhng khng gy can nhiu
gia cc sng mang (ICI: inter-carrier interference) do bn cht trc giao ca iu ch. Vi
FDM, tn hiu truyn cn c khong bo v tn s ln gia cc knh m bo khng b
chng ph, v vy khng c hin tng giao thoa k t ISI gia nhng sng mang. iu ny
lm gim hiu qu ph. Tuy nhin vi OFDM nhm khc phc hiu qu ph km khi c
khong bo v (guard period) bng cch gim khong cch cc sng mang v cho php ph
ca cc sng mang cnh nhau trng lp nhau. S trng lp ny c php nu khong cch
gia cc sng mang c chn chnh xc sao cho nh ca sng mang ny s i qua dim
khng ca sng mang kia tc l cc sng mang trc giao nhau nhng tn hiu c khi
phc m khng giao thoa hay chng ph.

Hnh 2.2:K thut a sng mang chng xung v khng chng xung.

Hnh 2.3: Ph ca OFDM v FDM




2.4 Tnh trc giao
Mt tn hiu c gi l trc giao nu n c quan h c lp vi tn hiu khc. Tnh trc
giao l mt c tnh cho php truyn mt lc nhiu thng tin trn mt knh chung m khng
gy ra nhiu. Chnh s mt tnh trc giao l nguyn nhn gy ra s suy gim tn hiu trong
vin thng .
OFDM t c s trc giao bng cch cp pht cho mi ngun thng tin mt s sng
mang nht nh khc nhau. Tn hiu OFDM t c chnh l tng hp ca tt c cc sng
sin ny. Mi mt sng mang c mt chu k sao cho bng mt s nguyn ln thi gian cn
thit truyn mt k hiu (symbol duration). Tc l truyn mt k hiu chng ta s cn
mt s nguyn ln ca chu k. Hnh 2.4 l trng hp ca tn hiu OFDM vi 4 sng mang
ph.

Hnh 2.4: Cu trc ca mt tn hiu OFDM
Cc hnh (1a), (2a), (3a), (4a) l min thi gian ca cc sng mang n tn vi cc ch s 1,
2, 3, 4 l s chu k trn mi k hiu. Cc hnh (1b), (2b), (3b), (4b) l min tn s nh s
dng bin i Fourier nhanh ca tn hiu. Hnh pha di cng l tn hiu tng hp ca 4
sng mang ph.

Tp hp cc hm c gi l trc giao nu tha mn biu thc (2.1)
}

= <=>
= <=>
= =
T
j i
j i
j i C
j i C dt t S t S
0
0
) ( * ) ( ) ( o (2.1)
Nhng sng mang ny trc giao vi nhau v khi nhn dng sng ca 2 sng mang bt k v
sau ly tch phn trong khoang thi gian T s c kt qu bng khng.
2.5 Cu trc OFDM
Cu trc min tn s OFDM gm 3 loi sng mang con :
- Sng mang con d liu cho truyn d liu




- Sng mang con dn ng cho mc ch c lng v ng b
- Sng mang con v dng (null) khng truyn dn, c s dng cho cc bng bo v v
cc sng mang DC.

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc OFDM trong min tn s
Trong mt h thng OFDM, ti nguyn sn c trong min thi gian chnh l cc symbol
OFDM v trong min tn s chnh l cc sng mang con. Cc ti nguyn ny c t chc
thnh cc knh con (sub-channel) cp pht cho ngi dng.

Hnh 2.6: Cu trc knh con OFDM

Hnh 2.7: Cu trc lt OFDM
Cu trc knh con OFDM c pht ho hnh (2.6). Trong k t OFDM th 1 v th 3,
nhng sng mang con bn ngoi ca mi lt u l nhng sng mang con dn ng v c
th c lng p ng knh ti nhng tn s ny bng vic so snh vi nhng sng mang
dn ng tham chiu bit trc. p ng tn s ca hai sng mang bn trong c th
c c lng bng php ni suy tuyn tnh trong min tn s. tnh ton p ng tn s




ca nhng sng mang lin kt vi k t OFDM th hai, ta c th ni suy trong min thi
gian t s c lng cho k t OFDM th 1 v th 3
2.6 S khi ca h thng OFDM
Nhng tn hiu OFDM c to ra trong min tn s v kh to ra nhng bank ln cc b
dao ng v nhng b thu kha pha trong min tng t. Hnh 2.8 l s khi ca b pht
v thu OFDM c bn. Phn my pht bin i d liu s cn truyn, nh x vo bin v
pha ca cc ti ph. Sau n bin i biu din ph ca d liu vo trong min thi gian
nh s dng bin i Fourier ri rc o (inverse Discrecte Fourier Transform). Bin i
nhanh Fourier o (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) thc hin cng mt thut ton nh
IDFT, nhng n hiu qu hn nhiu v do vy n c s dng trong tt c cc h thng
thc t. truyn tn hiu OFDM tn hiu min thi gian c tnh ton c nng ln tn
s cn thit. My thu thc hin thut ton ngc li vi my pht. Khi dch tnh hiu RF
xung bng c s x l, sau s dng bin i Fourier nhanh (FFT) phn tch tn
hiu trong min tn s. Sau bin v pha ca cc ti ph c tch ra v uc bin i
ngc li thnh d liu s.

Hnh 2.8: S khi ca qa trnh pht v thu OFDM
2.6.1 B chuyn i ni tip song song
D liu cn truyn thng c dng dng d liu ni tip tc cao do vy giai on
bin i song song thnh ni tip l cn thit bin i dng bit ni tip u vo thnh
d liu cn truyn trong mi k hiu OFDM. D liu c phn phi cho mi k hiu ph
thuc vo s iu ch c s dng v s sng mang. C th ni bin i ni tip song
song bao hm vic lm y cc d liu cho mi ti ph. Ti my thu mt qu trnh ngc
li s c thc hin, vi d liu t cc ti ph c bin i tr li thnh dng d liu ni
tip gc.




Khi truyn dn OFDM trong mi trng a ng (multipath), fading chn lc tn s c
th lm cho mt s nhm ti ph b suy gim nghim trng v gy ra li bit. ci thin
ch tiu k thut phn ln cc h thng OFDM dng cc b xo trn d liu (scramber) nh
mt phn ca giai on bin i ni tip thnh song song. Ti my thu qu trnh gii xo
trn c thc hin gii m tn hiu.
2.6.2 M ha knh v sp xp (Coding & Mapping) trong h thng OFDM
2.6.2.1 M ha knh
Trong h thng thng tin s ni chung, m ha sa sai theo phng php FEC (Forward
Error Correcting) c s dng nng cao cht lng thng tin, c th l m bo t s li
trong gii hn cho php , iu ny cng th hin r knh truyn b tc ng ca AWGN.
Trong OFDM, theo mt s khuyn ngh, ngi ta cn kt hp m ha vi k thut xen r
(interleaving) trn gin thi gian tn s khc phc li chm (burst error) thng
xut hin trong thng tin a sng mang do hin tng Fading la chn tn s. Cc li chm
khng th c sa bi cc loi m ha knh. Nh vo k thut xen r, ngi ta chuyn
li chm (nu c xy ra) thnh cc li ngu nhin v cc li ngu nhin ny d dng c
khc phc bi cc loi m ha knh.
2.6.2.2 nh x (mapping)
Sau khi c m ha v xen r, cc
dng bit trn cc nhnh s c iu
ch BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, hoc 64-
QAM. Dng bit trn mi nhnh c sp
xp thnh cc nhm c N
bs
(1, 2, 4, 6) bit
khc nhau tng ng vi cc phng php
iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM,
64-QAM. Hay ni cch khc dng iu
ch c quy nh bi s bit ng vo
v cp gi tr (I, Q) ng ra.
Chng hn : khi ta s dng phng
php iu ch 64-QAM th s c 6 bit u vo c t chc thnh mt nhm tng ng cho
mt s phc trn th hnh sao c trng cho kiu iu ch 64-QAM (64-QAM
constellation). Trong 6 bit th 3 bit LSB (b
0
b
1
b
2
) s biu th cho gi tr ca I, cn 3 bit
MSB (b
3
b
4
b
5
) biu th cho gi tr ca Q .
Bng 2.1 : Cc gi tr trong m ha 64-QAM
b
0
b
1
b
2
I b
3
b
4
b
5


Q
000 -7 000 -7
001 -5 001 -5
011 -3 011 -3
010 -1 010 -1
110 1 110 1
111 3 111 3
101 5 101 5
100 7 100 7




2.6.3 ng dng k thut IFT/FFT trong OFDM
Nh cp trong phn khi nim v OFDM, ta bit OFDM l k thut iu ch
a sng mang, trong d liu c truyn song song nh rt nhiu sng mang ph.
lm c iu ny, c mi knh ph, ta cn mt my pht sng sin, mt b iu ch v mt
b gii iu ch. Trong trng hp s knh ph l kh ln th cch lm trn khng hiu qu,
nhiu khi l khng th thc hin c. Nhm gii quyt vn ny, khi thc hin chc
nng bin i DFT/IDFT c dng thay th ton b cc b to dao ng sng sin, b
iu ch, gii iu ch dng trong mi knh ph. FFT/IFFT c xem l mt thut ton
gip cho vic thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT nhanh v gn hn bng cch gim s php
nhn phc khi thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT v gip tit kim b nh bng cch tnh
ti ch (inplace).
Ta quy c : Chui tn hiu vo X(k) , 0 k N-1 ,
Khong cch tn s gia cc sng mang l : f
Chu k ca mt k t OFDM l : Ts
Tn s trn sng mang th k l f
k
= f
0
+ kf

Tn hiu pht i c th biu din di dng :

=
A + H
=
1
0
) ( 2
0
) ( ) (
N
k
t f k f j
e k X t x
,
s
T t s s 0 (2.2)
=

=
A H [
1
0
2 2
) (
0
N
k
ft k j t f j
e k X e

trong :

=
A H
=
1
0
2
) ( ) (
N
k
ft k j
a
e k X t x
l tn hiu bng gc.
bng gc:
+Nu ly mu tn hiu vi mt chu k T
s
/N, tc l chn N mu trong mt chu k tn hiu,
phng trnh (2.2) c vit li nh sau :

=
A H
= =
1
0
/ 2
) ( ) ( ) (
N
k
N fT nk j
s N
n
a a
s
e k X T x t x
(2.3)
+Nu tha mn iu kin 1 = A
s
fT ,
) (
1
s
T
f = A
, th cc sng mang s trc giao vi
nhau, lc ny, phng trnh (2.4) c vit li :




{X(k)} . ) ( ) (
1
0
/ 2
IDFT N e k X n x
N
k
N nk j
a
= =

=
H
(2.4)
Phng trnh trn chng t tn hiu ra ca b IDFT l mt tn hiu ri rc cng c chiu di
l N nhng trong min thi gian.
Ti b thu, b DFT c s dng ly li tn hiu X(k) ban u
Tht vy, ta c :
N nk j
N
n
a
e n x n DFT k X
/ 2
1
0
a
*
) ( } ) ( {x ) (
H

= =

=
H
=
1
0
1
0
/ ) ( 2
1
) (
N
n
N
m
N k m n j
N
e m X

=
H
= =
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
/ ) ( 2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
N
m
N
n
N
m
N
N k m n j
N
k m N m X e m X o

=

=

1
0
) ( ) (
N
m
k m m X o = ) (k X (2.5)
y, hm ) ( k m o l hm delta, c nh ngha l :

=
=
=
0 0
0 1
) (
n khi
n khi
n o (2.6)
2.6.4 Tin t lp CP (Cyclic Prefix)
i vi mt bng thng h thng cho tc k hiu ca tn hiu OFDM thp hn
nhiu tc k hiu ca s truyn n sng mang. V d i vi iu ch n sng
mang BPSK tc k hiu tng ng vi tc bit. Tuy nhin vi OFDM bng thng h
thng c chia cho N
c
ti ph do tc k hiu c gim N
c
ln so vi truyn n
sng mang. Tc k hiu thp lm cho OFDM chu ng tt vi nhiu giao thoa k hiu
(ISI) gy ra bi hiu ng a ng. C th gim ti thiu nh hng ca ISI ti tn hiu
OFDM bng cch thm khong bo v pha trc mi k hiu. Khong bo v l bn copy
tun hon theo chu k, lm m rng chiu di ca dng sng k hiu. Mi k hiu OFDM
khi cha b sung khong bo v, c chiu di bng kch thc IFFT (c s dng to
tn hiu) bng mt s nguyn ln chu k ca sng mang ph . Do vy vic a vo cc
bn copy ca k hiu ni ui nhau to thnh mt tn hiu lin tc, khng c s gin on
ch ni. Nh vy vic sao chp u cui ca k hiu v t n vo im bt u ca mi k
hiu to ra mt khong thi gian k hiu di hn.





Hnh 2.9: Thm khong bo v vo tn hiu OFDM
Gi T
FFT
l c ca IFFT dng to tn hiu OFDM, T
G
di ca khong bo v th lc
s dng phng php chn khong bo v di ca k hiu s l:
T
s
= T
FFT
+ T
G
(2.7)
iu ny gip tng di k hiu do chng c nhiu giao thoa k hiu, ngoi ra
khong bo v cng gip chng li li lch thi gian ti u thu.
2.6.5 iu ch RF
Ti u ra ca b iu ch OFDM, l tn hiu c bng tn c bn. N cn c nng
tn trc khi truyn dn. Vic nng tn c th thc hin bng k thut tng t hoc k
thut s.
2.7 ng b
ng b l mt trong nhng vn ang rt c quan tm trong k thut OFDM bi n c
ngha quyt nh n kh nng ci thin cc nhc im ca OFDM. Chng hn, nu
khng m bo s ng b v tn s sng mang th s dn n nguy c mt tnh trc giao
gia cc sng mang nhnh, khin h thng OFDM mt i cc u im c trng nh s trc
giao ny. Trong h thng OFDM, ngi ta xt n ba loi ng b khc nhau l : ng b
k t (symbol synchronization), ng b tn s sng mang (carrier frequency
synchronization), v ng b tn s ly mu (sampling frequency synchronization).
2.7.1 ng b k t
ng b k t nhm xc nh chnh xc thi im bt u mt k t OFDM. Hin nay, vi
k thut s dng tin t lp (CP) th ng b k t c thc hin mt cch d dng hn.
Hai yu t cn c ch khi thc hin ng b k t l li thi gian (timing error) v
nhiu pha sng mang (carrier phase noise).
Li thi gian
Li thi gian gy ra s sai lch thi im bt u mt k t OFDM. Nu li thi gian
nh sao cho p ng xung ca knh vn cn nm trong chiu di khong tin t lp (CP)




th h thng vn m bo s trc giao gia cc sng mang. Trong trng hp ny th thi
gian tr ca mt k t c xem nh l dch pha ca knh truyn v dch pha ny
c xc nh nh k thut c lng knh. Trong trng hp ngc li, nu chiu di ca
CP nh hn li thi gian th h thng s xut hin li ISI. C hai phng php thc hin
ng b thi gian, l : ng b thi gian da vo tn hiu pilot v ng b thi gian da
vo tin t lp.
Phng php ng b thi gian da vo tn hiu pilot c p dng cho cc h thng
OFDM m tn hiu c truyn i bng k thut iu tn. Trong phng php ny, bn pht
s m ha mt s tn hiu bit trc thng tin v pha v bin trn mt s sng mang
ph. Phng php ny sau c iu chnh s dng cho c h thng OFDM m tn
hiu truyn i c truyn theo k thut iu bin. Thut ton ng b thi gian s dng tn
hiu pilot gm 3 bc l : nhn bit cng sut (power detection), ng b th (coarse
synchronization) v ng b tinh (fine synchronization). Trong bc nhn bit cng sut,
tin hnh so snh cng sut tn hiu thu c v gi tr ngng xc nh xem tn hiu
nhn c c phi l tn hiu OFDM hay khng. Trong bc ng b th, tn hiu thu c
s c cho tng quan vi bn sao tn hiu bn pht (do bit trc) xc nh nh t
tng quan thc hin ng b vi chnh xc khng cao (gi tr ti nh tng quan c
gi tr ln nht v t ti gc ta ). Trong bc ng b tinh, do qua qu trnh ng b
th nn gi tr ca li thi gian lc ny nh hn chiu di CP. ng b tinh s thc hin
s cn bng gia cc knh truyn ph c mang thng tin pilot v gi tr c lng knh.
Trong phng php ng b thi gian s dng tin t lp CP, ngi ta i xt s sai bit gia
hai mu tn hiu thu cch nhau N khong ly mu. t gi tr sai lch ny l d(k) = r(k)-
r(k+N). Khi mt trong hai mu nm trong khong CP, mu cn li nm trong phn tn hiu
c ch ca k t OFDM th chng l bn sao ca nhau nn d(k) c gi tr rt b cng sut
ca d(k) rt b. Nu khng nm trong trng hp trn (tc l cc mu khng cng nm
trong khong thi gian truyn ca mt k t OFDM) th d(k) c gi tr lncng sut ca
d(k) kh ln. Nu dng mt ca s trt c chiu di ng bng chiu di ca tin t lp th
cng sut ra c gi tr b nht khi bt u mt tn hiu OFDM mi xc inh c thi
im bt u mt k t OFDM.
Nhiu pha sng mang
Nhiu pha sng mang l hin tng khng n nh v pha ca cc sng mang do s
khng n nh ca b to dao ng bn pht v bn thu.
2.7.2 ng b tn s sng mang




Trong b tn s sng mang, hai vn chnh c quan tm n l : li tn s
(frequency error) v thc hin c lng tn s.
Li tn s
Li tn s c to ra do s khc bit v tn s gia hai b tao dao ng bn pht v
bn thu, do dch tn Doppler, hoc do nhiu pha xut hin khi knh truyn khng tuyn
tnh. Hai nh hng do li tn s gy ra l : suy gim bin tn hiu thu c (v tn hiu
khng c ly mu ti nh ca mi sng mang hnh sin) v to ra nhiu xuyn knh ICI
(v cc sng mang b mt tnh trc giao).

Hnh 2.10: nh hng ca li tn s (F) n h thng : suy gim bin tn hiu (o)
v b tc ng nhiu ICI ()
c lng tn s
Tng t nh k thut ng b k t, thc hin ng b tn s, c th s dng tn
hiu pilot hoc s dng tin t lp. Trong k thut s dng tn hiu pilot, mt s sng mang
c s dng truyn nhng tn hiu pilot (thng l cc chui gi nhiu). S dng nhng
k t bit trc v pha v bin s gip ta c lng c quay pha do li tn s
gy ra. tng chnh xc cho b c lng, ngi ta s dng thm cc vng kha pha
(Phase Lock Loop-PLL).
Nhn xt : Mt vn cn c quan tm n l mi quan h gia ng b k t v ng
b tn s sng mang. gim nh hng ca s mt ng b tn s sng mang th c th
gim s lng sng mang, tng khong cch gia hai sng mang cnh nhau. Nhng khi
gim s sng mang th phi gim chu k ca mi k t trn mi sng mang, dn n vic
ng b k t rt kh khn v phi cht ch hn. iu chng t hai vn ng b trn
c quan h cht ch ln nhau, cn phi c s dung ha hp l h thng t c cc ch
tiu k thut ra.




2.7.3 ng b tn s ly mu.
Ti bn thu, tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian thu c ly mu theo ng h bn thu, v vy s
xut hin s bt ng b gia ng h bn pht v bn thu. Ngi ta a ra hai phng
php khc phc s bt ng b ny. Phng php th nht l s dng b dao ng iu
khin bng in p (Voltage Controlled Oscillator-VCO). Phng php th hai c gi l :
ly mu khng ng b; trong phng php ny, cc tn s ly mu vn c gi nguyn
nhng tn hiu c x l s sau khi ly mu m bo s ng b.
2.8 u nhc im ca h thng OFDM
2.8.1 u im
K thut OFDM c nhiu li ch m cc k thut ghp knh khc khng c c.
OFDM cho php thng tin tc cao bng cch chia knh truyn fading chn lc tn s
thnh cc knh truyn con fading phng. Nh vic s dng tp tn s sng mang trc giao
nn cc sng mang nn hin tng nhiu lin sng mang ICI c th c loi b, do cc
sng mang ph trc giao nhau nn cc sng mang ny c th chng ln ln nhau m pha thu
vn c th tch ra c dn n hiu qu s dng bng thng h thng rt hiu qu. Khi s
dng khong bo v c tnh cht cyclic prefix ln hn tri tr ln nht ca knh truyn a
ng th hin tng nhiu xuyn k t ISI s c loi b hon ton. Nh vo khong bo
v c tnh cht cyclic prefix nn h thng s dng k thut OFDM ch cn b cn bng min
tn s kh n gin. IFFT v FFT gip gim thiu s b dao ng cng nh gim s b iu
ch v gii iu ch gip h thng gim c phc tp v chi ph hin thc, hn na tn
hiu c iu ch v gii iu ch n gin, hiu qu hn nh vo FFT v IFFT
2.8.2 Nhc im
OFDM l mt k thut truyn dn a sng mang nn nhc im chnh ca k thut
ny l t s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio)
ln. Tn hiu OFDM l tng hp tn hiu t cc sng mang ph, nn khi cc sng mang ph
ng pha, tn hiu OFDM s xut hin nh rt ln khin cho PAPR ln. iu ny khin cho
vic s dng khng hiu qu b khuych i cng sut ln HPA (high-power amplifier).
Mt nhc im khc ca OFDM l rt nhy vi lch tn s, khi hiu ng dch tn Doppler
xy ra tn s sng mang trung tm s b lch, dn n b FFT khng ly mu ng ti nh
cc sng mang, dn ti sai li khi gii iu ch cc symbol. ng thi OFDM i hi ng
b tn s v thi gian mt cch chnh xc.
2.9 OFDM trong h thng
Ta bt u phn nh ny bng cch m t mt vi kha cnh cn phi cp n khi thc
hin h thng OFDM. Trong hu ht h thng di ng, khng ring h thng OFDM , mt




vi dng m ha knh truyn c dng gim BER (bit error rate) bng cch to ra s
d tha. cng l vn ca h thng OFDM bi v phn u ca m ha knh thng l
nh hn rt nhiu so vi vic phi truyn li ton phn tin tc b li.
Thng thng s truyn thng s din ra theo 2 hng, v d gia BS(base station) v user
hoc ngc li. C hai cch chnh thc hin iu trong h thng OFDM l:
FDD(Frequency Divison Duplex) v TDD(Time Division Duplex) . Trong h thng FDD,
ng xung (t BS n user) v ng ln (t user n BS) c phn cch nhau bi hai
di tn s khc nhau. Trong h thng TDD, ng ln v ng xung cng tn s nhng
c tri trong nhng khong thi gian khc nhau.
Nh ni phn u, mt vi dng ca m ha knh truyn thng c dng gim
BER(bit error rate). Khng nhng th, mt h thng OFDM cn i hi thm b c lng
dch tn s v c lng knh truyn t c cht lng ti u. B c lng
dch tn s i hi phi m nh hng ca s chnh lch tn s gia b dao ng ni v
tr thu v v tr nhn (s chnh lch ny c th ph hy s trc giao ca h thng). Nu nh
cc sng mang con khng trc giao, chng s gy ra ICI v do thng tin gi i s rt kh
khn khi phc li . Bi v mc ch ca n l c lng knh truyn cho nn dch
tn s c xem nh l tng . Trong trng hp c lng knh truyn, u tin ta s c
lng trong min tn s (sau khi gii m tn hiu OFDM).
Cch thng hay s dng nht c lng knh truyn v dch tn s l dng k hiu
pilot. K hiu pilot l k hiu c bn thu v bn nhn bit trc . Tng quan gia
fading k hiu pilot v fading ca k hiu thng tin d liu c gi i gn vi k hiu pilot
trong min thi gian v trong min tn s l rt mnh m. Di y l mt v d v s phn
b pilot

K hiu d liu
K hiu pilot
K hiu null
Hnh 2.11: Mt v d v s phn b pilot
Thi gian


Sng
mang
con




Ta lm quen vi mt khi nim mi, l k hiu null. K hiu null thng thng c gi
trn sng mang con null, n gin l sng mang con khng c ni dung. Mt vi h
thng truyn thng OFDM sng mang con null nh l mt khong bo v sao cho h thng
OFDM khng nhiu sang h thng khc c tn s hot ng gn ging nhau. Ct thng
ng trn hnh trn tng ng vi mt k hiu OFDM , trong v d trn ta c 8 k hiu
OFDM..
2.10 Cc bc thit lp mt h thng OFDM
1) Xc nh bng thng dnh cho knh truyn (B)
2) Xc nh gi tr tri tr ln nht ca knh truyn
d
t
3) Chn khong thi gian tin t vng
cp
T cho mi mt k t OFDM phi ln hn gi tr
tri tr ln nht
d
t , thng thng chn
cp
T = 4.
d
t

loi b nhiu ISI, nhiu ICI
4) Chn khong cch gia cc sng mang 1/
s
f T A = m bo tnh trc giao gia cc
sng mang
5) Xc nh thi gian tng cng ca mt k t OFDM :
f s cp
T T T = +
6) Xc nh s sng mang ph (s knh con) l

/ N B f = A
2.11 Mt s ng dng ca OFDM
Mc d OFDM c pht minh t nhng nm 60, nhng h thng khng th hin
thc vo thi im , do vic iu ch d liu ln cc sng mang mt cch chnh xc, cng
nh vic tch cc sng mang ph qu phc tp, cc thit b bn dn phc v cho vic hin
thc h thng cha pht trin. Tuy nhin sau 20 nm c pht minh, k thut OFDM c
th d dng hin thc vi chi ph r v c ng dng rng ri nh vo s pht trin ca
php bin i Fourier nhanh FFT v IFFT. Cng ging nh k thut CDMA, k thut
OFDM c ng dng u tin trong lnh vc thng tin qun s. n nhng nm 1980 k
thut OFDM c nghin cu nhm ng dng trong modem tc cao v trong truyn
thng di ng. K t nm 1990, OFDM c ng dng trong truyn dn thng tin bng rng
nh HDSL (High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line), ADSL, VHDSL (Very-high-bit-rate
Digital Subscriber Line) sau OFDM c ng dng rng ri trong pht thanh s DAB v
truyn hnh s DVB.
Nhng nm gn y OFDM s dng trong cc chun truyn dn mng v tuyn 802.11
v 802.16 ca IEEE v tip tc c nghin cu ng dng trong chun i ng 4G.
OFDM ang chng t nhng u im ca mnh trong cc h thng vin thng trn thc t,
c bit l trong cc h thng v tuyn i hi tc cao nh thng tin di ng v c trong
truyn hnh s.




Cc ni c a hnh phc tp nh vng nng thn, ngoi , cc thnh ph ng dn c,
vv nh hng ln n kh nng truy cp khng dy bng rng khi trin khai trong thi
gian thc. Mt h thng truy cp v tuyn bng rng chc chn chnh l h thng c nhiu
tnh nng cao v kh nng truyn dn tt trong cc iu kin kt ni rng ln, gip cc nh
cung cp dch v vin thng ph sng trn din rng hn vi s trm gc gim i. Vi tnh
u vit ca n, k thut OFDM ang c cc hng vin thng trn th gii ng dng rt
hiu qu vo mt s sn phm nhm p ng cc yu cu t n gin n chuyn dng nh
kt ni mng Lan, camera gim st, h thng hi ngh truyn hnh s (DVB) hay k thut
truy cp WiFi v Wimax ..
Cc sn phm ny c thit k c bit cho cc ng dng im-im, im-a im trong
cc iu kin b che chn.
S kt hp cng ngh modem OFDM v iu ch thch nghi linh hot ch c trong th
trng cng ngh truy cp v tuyn bng rng v l cc yu t chnh to nn tnh nng ni
tri trong cc sn phm vin thng.
2.12 M phng
Trong phn m phng, ta s ln lt m phng c tnh ca knh truyn, tn hiu
OFDM pht, thu trong min tn s, thi gian. ng thi, thy r u im ca k thut
OFDM, ta cng s m phng tn hiu QAM n sng mang (vi cng mt chui nh phn
pht nh trong k thut OFDM) trong min thi gian v min tn s, t xc nh t l
BER khi truyn bng k thut OFDM v khi truyn bng iu ch 16-QAM n sng mang.

Hnh 2.12 c tnh knh truyn
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-10
-5
0
5
Dap ung bien do cua kenh
Tan so
B
i
e
n

d
o

(
d
B
)
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-40
-20
0
20
40
Dap ung pha cua kenh
Tan so
P
h
a
(
d
o
)





Hnh 2.13 Tn hiu OFDM pht v thu.


Hnh 2.14 Tn hiu OFDM pht v thu trong min tn s
0 10 20 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Tin hieu nhi phan OFDM phat
0 10 20 30
0
0.5
1
Tin hieu nhi phan OFDM thu
0 50 100 150
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
Tin hieu OFDM phat
0 50 100 150
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
Tin hieu OFDM thu
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
tin hieu OFDM thu trong mien tan so
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
tin hieu OFDM phat trong mien tan so
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-10
-5
0
5
D
a
p

u
n
g

b
i
e
n

d
o

c
u
a

k
e
n
h






Hnh 2.15 Tn hiu QAM pht v thu

Hnh 2.16 Tn hiu QAM pht v thu trong min tn s
Kt qu tnh BER khi truyn d liu bng k thut OFDM v QAM
Hien thi ket qua
OFDM: BER=0 %
va so bit loi la =0
QAM: BER=25.9 %
va so bit loi la =7
0 10 20 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Tin hieu nhi phan QAM phat
0 10 20 30 40
0
0.5
1
Tin hieu nhi phan QAM thu
0 50 100 150
-4
-2
0
2
4
Tin hieu QAM phat
0 50 100 150
-5
0
5
Tin hieu QAM thu
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
20
40
60
Tin hieu QAM thu trong mien tan so
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
20
40
60
Tin hieu QAM phat trong mien tan so
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
-10
-5
0
5
D
a
p

u
n
g

b
i
e
n

d
o

c
u
a

k
e
n
h





Nhn xt :
Qua kt qu m phng, ta nhn thy r u im ni tri ca k thut OFDM so vi
k thut QAM n sng mang. Vi cng mt cht lng knh truyn nh nhau th OFDM
cho t l BER thp hn nhiu so vi QAM. C th, trong kt qu hin th trn, t l BER =
0 tng ng vi OFDM v t l BER = 25.9% tng ng vi QAM.

2.13 Kt lun chng
Trong chng ny trnh by nhng vn c bn ca mt h thng OFDM : m
hnh h thng, chc nng tng khi, cc bc thit lp thng s, mt s kt qu m phng
h thng OFDM bn pht v bn thu. Nhn mt cch khi qut, h thng OFDM mang
trong n rt nhiu u im, ha hn s l mt gii php k thut c p dng rng ri
trong cc mng vin thng tc cao trong tng lai. Trong chng tip theo, s trnh by
v mt trong nhng vn quan trong nht trong h thng l c lng knh truyn.




CHNG 3 L THUYT V KNH TRUYN
3.1 Gii thiu chng
Trong chng ny s ln lt trnh by v cc khi nim c bn trong knh truyn v tuyn,
khi nim knh truyn dn phn tp a ng, p ng xung ca knh khng ph thuc thi
gian v knh ph thuc thi gian, cc m hnh knh c bn, quan h gia tn hiu pht, tn
hiu thu v m hnh knh, knh truyn dn trong mi trng nhiu trng v mt s kt qu
m phng. Ngoi ra vn v dung lng knh v tuyn cng c cp n.
3.2 c tnh chung ca knh truyn tn hiu OFDM
Knh truyn tn hiu OFDM l mi trng truyn sng in t gia my pht v my thu.
Trong qu trnh truyn, knh truyn chu nh hng ca cc loi nhiu nh : nhiu Gauss
trng cng (AWGN-Additive White Gaussian Noise), Fading phng, Fading chn lc tn
s, Fading nhiu tiaTrong knh truyn v tuyn th tc ng ca tp m bn ngoi
(external noise) v nhiu giao thoa l rt ln. Knh truyn v tuyn l mi trng truyn a
ng (multipath environment) v chu nh hng ng k ca Fading nhiu tia, Fading la
chn tn s. Vi c tnh l truyn tn hiu trn cc sng mang trc giao, phn chia bng
thng gc thnh rt nhiu cc bng con u nhau, k thut OFDM khc phc c nh
hng ca Fading la chon tn s, cc knh con c th c coi l cc knh Fading khng
la chn tn s. Vi vic s dng tin t lp (CP), k thut OFDM hn ch c nh
hng ca Fading nhiu tia, m bo s ng b k t v ng b sng mang.
3.3 Khi nim knh truyn dn phn tp a ng

Hnh 3.1: Minh ha phn tp a ng




Tn hiu t anten pht c truyn n my thu thng qua nhiu hng phn x khc nhau.
Tn hiu my thu l tng ca tn hiu nhn c t cc tuyn truyn dn khc nhau .
Mi tuyn truyn dn nh vy s c tn s khc nhau. Ta c th d dng nhn thy rng tn
hiu thu c mi tn s khc nhau l khc nhau cho d my pht pht i hai tn hiu
cng bin . Hin tng ny chnh l hin tng fading min tn s. Knh truyn phn
tp a ng gy nn hiu ng fading min tn s gi l knh ph thuc tn s (frequency
selective channel). Thc cht ca hin tng ph thuc tn s l hm truyn t ca knh
ph thuc vo gi tr tn s ca tn hiu pht .
3.4 p ng xung ca knh ph thuc thi gian (time_invariant channel impulse)
3.4.1 Khi nim v knh khng ph thuc thi gian:
Knh khng ph thuc thi gian l knh truyn dn trong
trng hp khng c s chuyn ng tng i gia my pht v my thu. i vi knh
ny, c p ng xung v hm truyn t ca n u khng ph thuc thi gian.
3.4.2 Khi nim v p ng xung ca knh (channel impulse response)
p ng xung ca knh l mt dy xung thu c my
thu khi my pht pht i mt xung cc ngn gi l xung Dirac ) (t o (Dirac impulse).
*nh ngha ca xung Dirac:
Xung ) (t o c nh ngha l xung Dirac nu n tha mn hai iu kin sau:
= ) (t o

=
0 # , 0
0 ,
t
t
(2.1)
V
}
+

=1 ) ( dt t o (2.2)
Vi nh ngha ca xung Dirac, p ng xung ca knh khng ph thuc thi gian v mt
ton hc c biu din nh sau:
h ) ( ) (
1
k
Np
k
k
a t t o t =

=
(2.3)
Trong :
+k ch s ca tuyn truyn dn
+h ) (t p ng xung ca knh
+t bin tr truyn dn
+
k
t tr truyn dn tng ng vi tuyn k
+
k
a h s suy hao
+Np s tuyn truyn dn.




3.5 Hm truyn t ca knh khng ph thuc thi gian (time-invariant channel
transfer function)
Hm truyn t ca knh l

k
j
Np
k
k
j
e a d e h H
et et
t t e

=
+

}
= =
1
) ( ) ( (2.4)
Da vo hm truyn t ca knh ta c th nhn bit c min tn s no
tn hiu b suy hao tng ng vi fading ln (deep fading), hoc min tn s no tn
hiu t b suy hao. Thc cht hu ht cc h thng truyn dn bng rng trong mi trng
truyn dn phn tp a ng u c fading min tn s. ph thuc vo tn s ph
thuc vo tr truyn dn ca knh v b rng bng tn tn hiu.
3.6 B rng n nh v tn s ca knh (coherence bandwidth of the channel)
B rng n nh v tn s ca knh c nh ngha nh sau:

rms C
f t / 1 ) ( = A (2.5)
phng trnh trn
C
f ) (A l b rng n nh tn s ca knh cn
rms
t l tr truyn
dn hiu dng ca knh. Ty thuc vo b rng bng tn ca h thng so vi b rng n
nh tn s ca knh m knh c nh ngha l knh ph thuc tn s hay khng.
Nu b rng n nh tn s ca knh ln hn nhiu so vi b rng bng tn ca h
thng:

C
f ) (A >> B (2.6)
th knh c nh ngha l khng ph thuc vo tn s (non-frequency selective channel).
Trong trng hp ngc li:

C
f ) (A << B (2.7)
th knh c nh ngha l knh ph thuc tn s (frequancy selective channel)
3.7 Hiu ng Doppler
Hiu ng Doppler gy ra do s chuyn ng tng i gia my pht v my thu. C th l
: khi ngun pht v ngun thu chuyn ng hng vo nhau th tn s thu c s ln hn
tn s pht i, khi ngun pht v ngun thu chuyn ng ra xa nhau th tn s thu c s
gim i. Bn cht ca hin tng ny l ph ca tn s b x dch i so vi tn s trung tm
mt khong gi l tn s Doppler. S dch tn s ny nh hng n s ng b ca nhiu
h thng. c bit trong OFDM vn ng b ng vai tr kh quan trng. Hiu ng




Doppler cn gy ra s ph thuc thi gian ca knh v tuyn (time-variant channel) s
c gii thiu mc sau.
Gi thit gc ti ca tuyn k so vi hng chuyn ng ca my thu l
K
| , khi tn s
Doppler tng ng ca tuyn ny l :
) cos(
0 K D
f
c
v
f
K
| = (2.8)
Trong :
+
0
f : tn s sng mang ca h thng.
+v : vn tc chuyn ng tng i ca my thu so vi my pht.
+c : vn tc nh sng
Nu
K
| =0 th tn s Doppler ln nht s l:

0 max ,
f
c
v
f
D
= (2.9)
3.8 Knh ph thuc thi gian
S dch chuyn tng i gia my pht v my thu gy ra hiu ng Doppler v hin
tng ph thuc vo thi gian ca knh. S ph thuc vo thi gian ca p ng xung ca
knh v tuyn c biu din phng trnh di y:
)) ( ( ) , (
1
) 2 (
t e a t h
K
Np
k
f j
K
K
K
D
t t o t
u t
=

=
+
(2.10)
Trong :
+
K
D
f : tn s Doppler
+t: thi gian tuyt i (lin quan n thi im quan st knh)
Trong trng hp knh truyn dn l qu trnh dng th thi im quan st knh
khng ng vai tr quan trng.
p ng xung ca knh l php biu din ton hc ca knh min thi gian. Bin i
Fourier ca p ng xung ca knh cho ta hm truyn t ca knh. Vy hm truyn t l
php bin i ton hc ca knh min tn s. Hm truyn t ca knh do vy c biu
din nh sau:

) (
) 2 (
) , ( ) , (
t j
f j
K
t j
K
K
K
D
e e a d e t h t j H
et
u t
e
t t e

+
+


}
= = (2.11)
thng tin v tuyn, fading co c min thi gian v min tn s. Ni c th hn tc
l tn hiu thu c tn s ny cao nhng co th tn s khc li thp. Tng t vy co
nhng thi im tn hiu li cao cn tn hiu khc tn hiu li thp. iu ny d pht hin
ra khi chng ta bt sng i AM v i xe p.




3.9 B rng n nh v thi gian ca knh (coherence duration of the channel)
nh ngha v n nh thi gian ca knh
) 2 /( 1 ) (
max , D C
f t = A (2.12)
Ty thuc vo s so snh gia b rng n nh v thi gian ca knh vi di
mu tn hiu s cho ta kt qu liu knh v tuyn oc gi l knh ph thuc thi gian hay
khng.
Nu b rng s n nh v thi gian ca knh ln hn nhiu so vi di mt mu tn
hiu ca h thng
S C
T t >> A ) ( (2.13)
th knh truyn dn ca h thng c coi l khng ph thuc thi gian (time-invariant
channel)
Trong trng hp ngc li, c ngha l

S C
T t << A ) ( (2.14)
th knh truyn dn ca h thng c coi l ph thuc thi gian (time-variant channel)
3.10 Cc m hnh knh c bn
3.10.1 Knh theo phn b Rayleigh
Hm truyn t ca knh thc cht l mt qu trnh xc sut ph thuc c thi gian v tn
s. Bin hm truyn t ca knh ti mt tn s nht nh s tun theo phn b Rayleigh
nu cc iu kin di y ca mi trng truyn dn c tha mn:
+Mi trng truyn dn khng c tuyn trong tm nhn thng, c ngha l khng c
tuyn c cng sut tn hiu vt tri.
+Tn hiu my thu nhn c t v s cc hng phn x v nhiu x khc nhau.
Hm mt xc sut ca knh phn b Rayleigh
) (r f
y
=

s
>

0 , 0
0 ,
2
2
2
2
r
r e
r
R
r
R
o
o
(2.15)

Hnh 3.2 : Phn b Rayleight




3.10.2 Knh theo phn b Rice
Trong trng hp mi trng truyn dn c tuyn truyn dn trong tm nhn thng th cng
sut tn hiu t tuyn ny vt tri so vi cc tuyn khc. Xc sut ca bin hm truyn
t ca knh s tun theo phn b Rice
3.11 Quan h gia tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu v m hnh ca knh
Trong mc ny ta phn loi ra hai loi tn hiu pht: Tn hiu pht thuc v lp hm xc
nh (deterministic function) v tn hiu pht thuc v lp cc hm xc sut.
3.11.1 Tn hiu pht l hm xc nh



Hnh 3.3: M hnh knh tuyn tnh
Hnh (3.3) m t quan h gia tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu v knh. Do knh truyn dn l
tuyn tnh nn quan h ny c biu din phng trnh sau y:
y(t) = x(t)* ) (t h =
}
+

) ( ) ( t t h t x (2.16)
Trong x(t) l mt hm xc nh no v l tn hiu pht, y(t) l tn hiu thu v ) (t h l
p ng xung ca knh. min tn s thay v php cun ca tn hiu pht vi knh truyn
l php nhn nh phng trnh sau
f j H j X j Y t e e e e 2 ); ( ) ( ) ( = = (2.17)
H thng truyn dn do vy l tuyn tnh (linear system) v nhn qu (casual system)
3.11.2 Tn hiu pht l mt hm xc sut
M hnh ca tn hiu pht v thu cng c m t tng t nh hnh(y) , tuy nhin tn
hiu pht c gi thit l mt qu trnh xc sut ) (t v do tn hiu thu cng s l mt
qu trnh xc sut ) (t q . Khi mi quan h gia tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu v knh truyn
thng qua php ly tch phn nh phng trnh s khng tn ti. i vi cc qu trnh xc
sut s khng tn ti php bin i Fourier, do vy mi lin h gia hm truyn t ca
knh, tn hiu pht v thu nh phng trnh (x) s khng cn ph hp. xy dng mi

) (
) (
e
t
j H
h

x(
t)


y(t)
Tn hiu
pht
M hnh knh
Tn hiu thu




lin h ny ngi ta s dng cc hm tng quan v cc hm tng quan cho ca cc qu
trnh xc sut, v php bin i Fourier c th thc hin c cho cc hm tng quan.
3.11.3 Mi lin h gia hm tng quan cho ca cc tn hiu vo v ra ca knh
min thi gian, mi quan h ny c th vit c
) (t
q
= ) (t

* ) (t h (PT) (2.18)
Vi
) (t
q
= t t E )] ( ) ( [
*
t + (2.19)
c nh ngha l hm t tng quan ca qu trnh ) (t v
)] ( ) ( [ ) (
*
t q t
q
+ = t t E (2.20)
c nh ngha l hm tng quan cho ca qu trnh u vo v u ra ca knh.
min tn s mi quan h PT c vit li
) ( ) ( ) ( e e | e |
q
j H j j = (2.21)
Trong ) ( e |
q
j v ) ( e |

j ln lt l bin i Fourier ca ) (t
q
v ) (t

.
3.11.4 Mi lin h gia hm tng quan ca cc tn hiu vo v ra ca knh
Mi lin h ny min thi gian c th hin bi phng trnh sau
) ( * ) ( * ) ( ) ( t t t t
qq
= h h (2.22)
min tn s c biu din di dng

2
) ( ) ( ) ( e e | e |
qq
j H j j = (2.23)
Quan h trn l quan h Wiener-Lee, th hin mi quan h gia cc hm t tng quan ca
cc qu trnh u vo v u ra ca knh

Da vo cc hm t tng quan, ngi ta tnh cng sut tn hiu u vo v u ra ca knh
nh sau.
Cng sut tn hiu pht:
e e |
t


d j t E P ) (
2
1
) 0 ( )] ( [
2
}
+

= = = (2.24)
Tng t ta c th tnh cng sut ca tn hiu thu nh sau:
e e |
t
q
qq qq
d j t E P ) (
2
1
) 0 ( )] ( [
2
}
+

= = = (2.25)







3.12 Knh truyn dn trong mi trng nhiu trng
3.12.1 Khi nim v nhiu trng
Hnh 3.4:
Mi trng truyn dn vi s c mt ca nhiu trng
Mi trng truyn dn thc t khng ch c tc ng ca hiu ng phn tp a ng v
hiu ng Doppler, m cn c s tc ng ca nhiu trng nh trnh by hnh (2.4). Nhiu
trng c th do nhiu ngun khc nhau gy ra nh do thi tit, do b khuch i my thu,
do nhit , hay do con ngi. Tn hiu thu do vy c vit li nh sau:
) ( ) ( * ) ( ) ( t n h t x t y + = t (2.26)
phng trnh trn n(t) l tc ng nhiu trng. Vy bn cht ca nhiu trng l g? c c
tnh ph v hm mt phn b nh th no? ti sao gi l nhiu trng? Nhng vn ny
s c trnh by mc tip theo.
3.12.2 Cc php biu din ton hc ca nhiu trng
V mt ton hc, ngun nhiu trng n(t) c th m hnh bng mt bin xc sut x tun theo
phn b xc sut Gauss vi gi tr k vng (gi tr trung bnh xc sut) bng khng v
lch chun
2
o . iu ny c ngha l:
:= E[x] =0 (2.27)
v

2
o :=E[(x- )
2
] (2.28)
Do k vng bng 0 nn lch chun cng l phng sai (variance) ca bin ngu nhin x.
C th hn nhiu trng c cng sut khng i v l
2
o .
Nh ton hc Gauss ngi c tm ra quy lut phn b xc sut ca nhiu trng do vy
hm phn b ny c mang tn ng. Nhiu trng cng c gi l nhiu Gauss
(additive white Gaussian noise). Hm phn b ny c vit li phng trnh di y
[Pro95, Pap9]:
x(t)
y(t)
M hnh knh
Tn hiu thu

) (
) (
e
t
j H
h

n(t)
Tn hiu pht





2
2
2
2
1
) (
o
o t
x
n
e x p

= (2.19)


Hnh 3.5: Phn b Gauss
phn b Gauss, thng s xc nh im gia ca phn b v thng s
2
o xc nh
rng ca hm phn b.
3.12.3 Ph cng sut ca nhiu trng c bng tn gii hn
V mt l thuyt, nhiu trng c bng tn v hn v cng sut nhiu l bng nhau mi tn
s. V mt thc t khng tn ti h thng c bng tn v hn.








Hnh 3.6: Mt ph cng sut nhiu.
hnh trn ta gi s h thng c bng tn gii hn B=2
g
e , vi chu k ly mu l
a
t . Mt
ph cng sut ca nhiu nh hnh Z c vit li nh sau:

t
F j
g
g a
nn nn

>
<
= =
e e
e e o
t e |
, 0
,
)} ( { ) (
2
(2.30)
a
t
2
o
) ( e | j
nn

g
e
g
e




Ch rng tt c cc bin ngu nhin u khng tn ti php bin i Fourier m ch tn
ti hm t tng quan v mt ph cng sut, trong hm mt cng sut l php bin
i Fourier ca hm t tng quan. phng trnh trn ) ( e | j
nn

L hm mt cng sut nhiu cn ) (t
nn
l hm tng quan ca nhiu vi nh ngha:
) (t
nn
:=E[ )] ( ) ( t + t n t n = t e o
g
si
2
(2.31)

Theo phng trnh trn, hm t tng quan l bin i Fourier ngc ca hm mt ph
cng sut. Do hm mt ph cng sut c dng hnh ch nht, kt qu bin i Fourier
ngc ca hm hnh ch nht cho ta hm s Si().
Cng sut nhiu c th tnh c bng c t hm mt cng sut nhiu hoc hm t
tng quan ca nhiu nh sau
P
n
=E[n ) (
2
t ]=
}
+

= =
2
) (
2
1
) 0 ( o e e |
t
d j
nn nn
t (2.32)
Khi t s tn hiu trn tp m c tnh theo cng thc sau:
SNR=
n
S
P
P
(2.33)
Vi
S
P l cng sut tn hiu co ch. T s ny quyt nh cht lng tn hiu v dung lng
knh .
S can thip ca nhiu trng n knh truyn dn, c th hn l t s cng sut tn hiu trn
tp m, nh hng trc tip n thng lng ca knh v cht lng tn hiu thu.
3.12.4 nh hng ca AWGN n h thng OFDM
Nhiu tn ti trong knh vt l ca tt c cc h thng thng tin, bao gm thng tin v
tuyn. Cc ngun nhiu chnh l nhiu nhit, nhiu in trong cc b khuch i my thu v
can nhiu gia cc t bo. Ngoi ra nhiu cn c th to ra bn trong cc h thng thng tin
nh l kt qu ca can nhiu gia cc symbol ISI, can nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI v mo
xuyn iu ch IMD (Inter-Modulation Distortion). Cc ngun nhiu ny lm gim t s tn
hiu/nhiu, gii hn ng k hiu qu ph ca h thng. Tt c cc loi nhiu trn lm gim
cht lng truyn dn trong thng tin v tuyn. Do vy vic nghin cu cc nh hng ca
nhiu n t l li thng tin v mt s bin php dung ha gia mc nhiu v hiu qu ph
h thng l rt quan trng.
Hu ht cc dng nhiu trong h thng thng tin v tuyn c m hnh ha chnh xc nh
dng nhiu trng Gauss.
3.13 Nhiu xuyn k t ISI




ISI, c nh ngha l xuyn nhiu (crosstalk) gia cc k t trong khong thi gian T ca
cc frame FFT lin tip (trong min thi gian), ngha l cc k t cnh nhau s giao thoa vi
nhau dn n mo dng k t v my thu c th quyt nh sai v k t ny. Hin tng a
ng lm cho mi sng con tri nng lng i vi nhng knh k cn, iu ny lm cho
tn hiu c gi trc s gy nhiu ln tn hiu ang gi hin hnh. Bng vic chn tin t
vng, vn ny s c gii quyt.
V d v ISI c cho hnh (3.7). Chui 0 c pht t BTS. Nu tn hiu phn x n
chm hn ng mt bt so vi tn hiu i thng th my thu k hiu l 1 tn hiu phn x
s giao thoa vi k hiu 0 ca tn hiu i thng v my thu s quyt nh nhm l k hiu
1

Hnh 3.7: V d v ISI
3.14 Nhiu ICI (Inter-carrier interference)
Nhiu giao thoa lin sng mang, c nh ngha l xuyn nhiu (crosstalk) gia cc
sng mang ph ca cng mt frame FFT (trong min tn s). ICI ph hy tnh trc giao ca
sng mang. Nhiu ICI c loi b hon ton nh s dng tp tn s trc giao lm tp tn
s ca cc knh ph.
3.15 Dung lng knh v tuyn
Dung lng ca knh cho ta bit tc ti a ca tn hiu c th truyn c qua knh m
khng b li. Do vy dung lng knh s ph thuc vo b rng bng tn ca knh v cc
tc ng ca cc loi nhiu. Phn ny s trnh by vn tt cc khi nim v dung lng knh
ca Shanon.
3.15.1 L thuyt v dung lng knh s ca Shannon
Gi thit my pht pht i trm tn hiu l { }
N
a a a U ,..., ,
2 1 1
= , khi lng tin
(entropy) ca khi tin ny c tnh l
H (
1
U ) =

=
N
l
a p a p
1
1 2 1
) ( log ) ( (2.34)
Trong ) (
1
a p l xc sut xy ra s kin mu tin
1
a c truyn i. Lng tin ) (
1
U H do
vy co tnh cht ) ( log ) ( 0
2 1
N U H s s .




Lng tin mt mt khi pht i mu tin
1
a nhng li nhn c mu tin
1
b l
) / ( ) , (
1 1 1 1
b a p b a p , vi - ) , (
1 1
b a p l xc sut lin hp, cn ) / (
1 1
b a p l xc sut iu kin.
Tng lng tin mt mt l:
) / (
2 1
U U H = ) / ( log ) , (
' '
'
2
1
l
l
l
N
l
N
l
l
b a P b a p

=
(2.35)
Thng lng knh tng ng vi lng tin khng b tht thot
C= max {H( )
1
U - H( ) /
2 1
U U } (2.36)
Thng lng knh l tc truyn d liu ln nht khng li qua mt knh truyn dn
cho trc.
Trong trng hp knh khng nhiu th lng tin tht thot bng khng, c ngha l
) / (
2 1
U U H = 0 (2.37)
Vi nh ngha trn, Shannon a ra gii hn trn ca tc d liu ca mt knh truyn
dn vt l. Gii hn ny l nn tng cho nhiu lnh vc khc nhau nh l thuyt m knh, l
thuyt iu ch, v l thuyt thng tin.
L thuyt v lng thng lng knh ca Shannon cho chng ta bit t l li bt ca tn hiu
nhn c c th c gim n mt mc nh ty bng cc k thut m knh v k thut
iu ch, chng no m tc tn hiu vn cn nh hn thng lng knh
3.15.2 Thng lng knh tng t c bng tn gii hn
Shannon a ra l thuyt v thng lng ca mt knh truyn dn c bng tn gii hn
nh sau:
Thng lng ca mt knh vi b rng bng tn l B v b can nhiu trng vi t s ca
cng sut tn hiu trn tp m trung bnh l
n
S
P
P
c tnh bi :
C = ) 1 log( ) 1 log( SNR B
P
P
B
n
S
+ = + (2.38)
Nu t l cng sut tn hiu trn tp m c tnh bng dB, th thng lng knh
c gn ng ha bng cng thc sau:
C B
3
1
~ SNR
dB
(2.39)
3.16 Kt lun chng
Chng ny trnh by v cc khi nim c bn trong knh truyn v tuyn, v ci m chng
ta c lng trong n ny. Chng tip theo s l ni dung chnh ca n ny, cc k
thut c lng knh truyn v ni suy.