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Cerebellum 1. Function a. Regulates the motor pathways b. Damage to this structure manifests as uncoordinated and erratic movement c.

Compares the information about the intention of an upcoming event with what actually occurs d. Provides major input to the brain stem and cortical pathways for limb, trunk, and eye movement control e. Serves non motor functions as well f. Planning of movements g. Impairment in language h. Decision making i. Affect 2. Gross anatomy a. Dorsal to the Pons and Medulla b. Separated by a tough flap in the Dura = Tentorium cerebelli c. Inferior surface is incompletely divided by the POSTERIOR CEREBELLAR INCISURE d. Outer cortex (gray matter) contains neuronal cell bodies i. 2 neurons 1. Purkinje cells (projection neurons) 2. Granule cells (granule cells) a. Most cerebellar neurons belong to this class e. Inner white matter contains myelinated axons, predominantly i. Axons to and from the cerebellar cortex ii. Arbor vitae (tree of life) branching white matter to the cerebellum iii. Embedded here are the bilaterally paired DEEP NUCLEI (vestibular nuclei): Fastigial INTERPOSED Globose NUCLEI = G&E Emboliform Dentate *PNEMONIC: FGED = Father Gambles Every Day *These nuclei are key elements in the neural circuit of the cerebellum 1. Axons to and from the cerebellum go through the peduncles a. Superior Cerebellar Peduncle (Brachium conjunctivum) i. Mostly efferent b. Middle Cerebellar Peduncle (Brachium pontis) i. Only afferent c. Inferior cerebellar peduncle (Restiform body) i. Both afferent and efferent *different peduncles would not be seen if a single cut is done f. Folia (leaves) = gyri in the cerebrum i. Lobules groups of Folia ii. Lobules appear from the roof of the 4th ventricle

iii. There are 10 lobules g. 2 fissures i. Deep and divide lobules into 3 lobes 1. Primary fissure a. Separates the anterior lobe from the posterior lobe i. Anterior love control of limb and trunk movements ii. Posterior lobe planning of movements and nonmotor functions 2. Posterolateral fissure a. Flocculonodular lobe separated from the posterior lobe i. Flocculonodular lobe consists of: 1. Nodulus 2. 2 Flocculi ii. This lobe plays a key role in maintaining balance and controlling eye movement h. 2 shallow grooves from rostral to caudal divide the cerebellar cortex into: i. Vermis 1. Along the midline ii. 2 hemispheres 3. Functional anatomy of the Cerebellum All 3 functional divisions display a similar (but not exactly the same) inputoutput organization Named for their major sources of information a. Spinocerebellum i. Receives somatic sensory inputs from the spinal cord ii. Important in controlling posture and movements of the trunks and limbs iii. Division: 1. Vermis = controls the axial muscles, also receives direct projection from primary vestibular sensory neurons, visual, and auditory a. Projects to the Fastigial nuclei 2. Intermediate hemisphere of both anterior and posterior lobe = controls the limb muscles a. Projects to the Interposed nuclei 3. Fastigial nuclei a. Projects through the INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE then gives rise to MEDIAL DESCENDING PATHWAYS (reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts) 4. Interposed nuclei (Globose and Emboliform) a. Projects through the SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE to the magnocellular component of the RED NUCLEUS to the motor areas of the frontal lobe via the ventrolateral thalamus. This gives rise to the LATERAL

DESCENDING PATHWAYS (Rubrospinal and lateral corticospianl tracts) *both nuclei influence motor neurons primarily. iv. Also receives information other than the spinal cord v. Corresponds to the anterior lobe vi. Spinocerebellar tract 1. Transmit somatic sensory information FROM the limbs and trunk to the spinocerebellum 2. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract a. Origin of tract: Clarkes nucleus b. Body parted from: leg and lower trunk c. Information: somatic sensory d. Decussation: uncrossed 3. Cuneocerebellar tract a. Origin of tract: Accessory cuneate nucleus b. Body parted from: arm and upper trunk c. Information: somatic sensory d. Decussation: uncrossed *both tracts project to the IPSILATERAL cerebellum via the INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE *both tract axons synapse in the FASTIGIAL and Interposed nuclei 4. Ventral spinocerebellar a. Origin of tract: Ventral horn neurons (gray matter) b. Body parted from: Leg and lower trunk c. Information: internal feedback signal (correcting inaccurate movements) d. Decussation: crossed 5. Rostral spinocerebelar a. Origin of tract: Ventral horn neurons (gray matter) b. Body parted from: arm and upper trunk c. Information: internal feedback signal (correcting inaccurate movements) d. Decussation: crossed *both tracts decussate in the spinal cord and enter the cerebellum primarily through the SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE. *both axons DECUSSATE AGAIN and terminate in the IPSILATERAL cerebellum 6. Trigeminocerebellar pathways a. Origin of tract: Trigeminal nucleus b. Cerebrocerebellum i. Receives input directly from the cerebral cortex ii. Planning of movement; iii. Division: 1. Lateral hemisphere of both anterior and posterior lobe

2. Dentate nucleus iv. Posterior lobe v. Cerebrocerebellar tract 1. Major input is from to CONTRALATERAL CEREBERAL CORTEX (motor, sensory, and association areas) 2. The projection is relayed by neurons in the pontine nuclei, then projects to the CONTRALATERAL CEREBELLAR CORTEX through the MIDDLE CEREBRAL PEDUNCLE 3. The efferent projection is to the dentate nucleus (largest and most lateral of the deep nuclei). Neurons of the dentate nucleus project their axons to 2 main sites: a. Ventrolateral nucleus (motor relay nucleus of the thalamus) b. Red nucleus (PARVOCELLULAR division) i. This projects to the IPSILATERAL inferior olivary nucleus (major source of input to the cerebellum ii. Note that in the Spinocerebellum, the component involved in the Red nucleus is the MAGNOCELLUAR division that gives rise to the rubrospinal tract (lateral descending) c. Vestibulocerebellum i. Receives input from the vestibular labyrinth or primary vestibular afferent and secondary vestibular neurons 1. Vestibular afferents are the only primary sensory neurons that project directly to the cerebellum 2. The vestibular nuclei play a role in neck muscle control, via the medial vestibulospinal tract and also in eye movement control via the fiber in the medial longitudinal fasciculus ii. Maintains balance and controlling of head and eye movements; also controls gaze iii. Flocculonodular lobe iv. NO DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEUS *Cerebrocerebellum and Vermis of the posterior love play a role in the nonmotor functions of the cerebellum *2 major sets of inputs to the cerebellum are directed to the deep nuclei (vestibular) and cortex of the cerebellum *Output of the cerebellum originates from the deep nuclei 4.