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CHAPTER ONE Overview of the Study 1.

0 Introduction This chapter the researcher will introduce the objective of the study that aim to find the contributing factors towards poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania and its implication to the economic growth in different countries in the world, Africa as far as Tanzania is concerned. So the researcher will asses the different factors like shortage of rainfall, poor technology, soil infertility, conflicts between agriculturalist and pastoralist and the introduction of the structural adjustment program as well as marketing constraints that lead to poor performance of agriculture 1.1 Background of the Study African Economic Research Consortium (2007) argued that since 2004 many sub Sahara African Countries have been experiencing a rare phenomenon boom in the price of their primary commodity export. Ngeno (2007) showed that agriculture share in value added has fallen sharply since 1965 from 39% to 17% with a popular collapse in oil economies .Olomola (20070) commended that the agriculture production and export have grown considerably and many commodities have seen price boom in recent years. Willey (1986) commended that the tropical Africans spans the greater part of African continent. It covers the area of about 2100 millions and has the population of over 300 Millions, the characteristic feature of economic activities is nomadic and transhumance pastoralist based in cattle, camels, sheep and goats. The report by Mlowe (2007) commended that Tanzania economy is agricultural dominated, with other sector following. In 2004 the agriculture sector contributed to about 46% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Produces about 51% of the foreign exchange earnings and 75% of the total employment. (URT 2004).Tanzania has been going through a wide ranging of social economic policy changes, into the transformation of economy for a quit sometime now. The transformation process was triggered by the crisis of 1980s which lay the ground for the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAPs). Following the structural adjustment programme, the agricultural marketing was gradually deregulated to allow the private sector to perform the roles in the marketing of agricultural produces.

1.2 Statement of the problem Ngdeno (2007) showed that agriculture share in value added has fallen sharply since 1965 from 95% to 17% with a popular collapse in oil economies in connection with the fact that the African primary commodity have been experiencing a price boom in several areas. The report by Mwaibasa (2007) argued that the dependence in the cash crop economy has not delivered. It has failed to generate revenue for a development, while income from agriculture sector has been declining and job has been lost. In the face of increasing population in rural areas, no new employment has been created. According to National Commission of the United Republic of Tanzania (2006) which argued that the main reasons for the weak growth in agriculture sector in Tanzania are the reliance by the small scale farmers on hand hoe cultivation, lack of technology on farming and overdependence on rain fed agriculture, and also the decline in agriculture production has been attributed by falling in price of agriculture produces as compared to industrial t products, also lack of access to market of the agricultural produces. Despite of the fact that the agriculture is playing a greater role to the national economy, but the performance of the sector is still poor, though different writers have tried to explore the factors that contribute to poor performance of agriculture, but only little little research have been done to assess the factors for poor performance of agriculture as far as Tanzania is concern. Therefore the interest of this study is to find out the contributing factors for poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. 1.3 Objectives of the study The general objective is to assess the factors that contribute to the poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. 1.4.1 Specific objectives I) To assess the availability of agriculture inputs like fertilizers and insecticides. ii) To identify the accessibility of market for agricultural produces.

iii) To examine the socio economic factors that affects the performance of agriculture. iv) To assess the environmental factors affecting the performance of agriculture. 1.4 Research Questions Basing on those research objectives, the study will address the following research questions; i) Is there any agricultural inputs available? And if any, is to what extend? ii) Are the markets accessible by agricultural producers? iii) What are socio economic factors that affect the performance of agriculture? iv) What environmental factors which affect the performance of agriculture? 1.5 Significance of the study This study will help to provide more knowledge and awareness among the involved stakeholders in the agriculture sector. In this case more knowledge are going to be gathered with the use of community group in contributing to social, and economic development. The study will provide common understanding on the current performance of agriculture and developing a strategy to take measure on the current poor performance of agriculture. From the practical point of view, this study will help the development practionner such as Extension services, planers, policy makers, Government and non governmental organization (NGOs) to provide an effective means and strategies of developing the agriculture performance in Tanzania.

CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Instruction Agriculture is the science, arts or practices of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and in varying degrees the preparation and marketing of the resulting products (Rubenstein 2003). Agriculture activities means the cultivation of soil, planting the crops, growing of fruits trees, including the harvesting of such farms products and other farms activities and practices performed by the farmer in conjunctions with farming operation done by persons on whether naturally or juridical (Philip 2010). The agriculture is the foundation of the Tanzania economy, it account for about half of the national income, three quarter of the merchandised exports is a source of food and provides employments opportunities to about 80% of the Tanzanian. It has linkages with the non farms sectors through forward linkages to agro processing, consumptions and export that provides raw materials to industries and markets for manufactured goods. (URT 2008) 2.1 Policy Implication The government of Tanzania has adopted an agricultural sector development strategy (ASDS) which set the framework for achieving the sector objectives and targets and taking an intensive strategy to address the poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania, under the Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries (ASLMs) that provides the overall framework and process for implementing the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS). (URT 2001) In order to address the problem of the poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. The national policy has set various strategies and approach as a means of controlling the low performance of agriculture, these strategies includes Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS), Agricultural Sectors Lead Ministries (ASLMs) and the District Agriculture Development Plans (URT 2002) The micro economic policy has large positives effects on prices based on agriculture produces products. The produces share of the border prices declines over this periods for some key exports

crops like Tobacco, Tea and Cottons, this indicates that the sartorial policy did little to improves the export prices incentives of the agricultural produces over the late 1980s and early 1990s (URT 2002) 2.2 The Key Features of Agricultural Sector policy Development strategy Sustained agricultural growth targets of at least 5% annually to be achieved through the transformation from subsistences to commercial agricultural, Transformation to promote sector led through an improved enabling environment for enhancing the productivity and profitability of agriculture with the removal of constraints to private sector involvement, Sector development to be facilitated through public or private partnership, including increased contract farming (vertical integration with the delineation of public or private role), Focus on participatory planning and implementation using the framework of the district agricultural development plans (DADPs) which are part of the district development plans (DDPs), Decentralization of service delivery responsibilities to local government authorities, Mainstreaming of the cross cutting and cross sect oral issues in agriculture development operations. The national policy on agriculture performance in Tanzania has further said on the contributions of Village Extensions Offices (VEO) towards addressing those problems related to poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania, that these people play a significance roles in training, facilitating and supporting the farmers group formation, farmers networking and assisting the group and farmers to develop services contracts proposal and plans in order to improve the performances of agricultural sector in Tanzania (URT 2002) 2.3 Environmental Factors on Poor Performance of Agriculture Mtenga (2001), argued that the poor performance of agriculculture has been contributed by many factors, This happens particularly in tropic Africans as the results of the soil fertility constraints (SFC) the inherent low continent of nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) Organic matters (OM) and mineral nutrients. It is estimated that about 62 millions in Africa are affected by the activities. The continuous cropping without external inputs lower crop yields due to the net removal of nutrients from the soils by the crops. The problems are even severe in semi Aids areas where soil with low organic matters, moisture and nutrients Phosphorus and other mineral nutrients are common. With the rapid escalating population, most farmers can not practice sufficient long natural fallow periods

to permits complete regeneration of soil fertility. These trends are resulting in shorter fallow periods and some cases continuous cultivation, rapid soil degradation and decreasing crop yield. The agricultural sector is very crucial that, maintaining the sustainability of agriculture ion these areas is therefore require a frequent additions of nutrients and organic material for maintaining crop yield and growth The United Republic of Tanzania (2007), argued that in Tanzania context the problem is not very much severe as the case in semi arid areas. In Tanzania there is a prt of productive areas that have not yet been explored and most of these land is arable areas which has a fertile soil for agricultural practices, though the increasing population in many parts of the country reduced the area for cultivating, hence the farmers can not practices long term fallowing periods. World Bank (2002) commended that the agriculture is perfuming poorly because of heavily dependency on the vagaries of climate. The poor farmers also rely on their own savings and the help from the families or friends when floods or drought strikes. But this insurance mechanism is of little use when savings are meager or when the entire circle of families and friends suffer from the same disaster. The important things is that the farmers should buy insurances protect their crops against risk. Example the wealthier farmers and those in rich countries can purchase a farm of disaster insurance and benefits from the public subsidies when struck by adversities. World Bank also noted that the government and the communities plays an important rule in building an effective institution to raise farmers return and lower their risk by reducing uncertainties toward future income. . These institution are responsible for generating and disseminating the agricultural technology, directly affect the yield and risk inherent in agricultural production, Also the extension services are crucial in enhancing the agricultural productivity since the main function of extension services are twofold; To inform the farmers of new products and techniques and to gather and transfer information from one farmer to another participants. Hahhblad (2003), commended that despite the agricultural sector is performing poor, it has proven to be the main sources of alternatives for most of the poor African societies. About 70% to 90% of the African societies are living in rural areas and their main economic activities are agriculture. The farms productivity and production costs largely determines the price of the basic food stuffs, which account for 60% to 70% of the total consumptions expenditure by the low income group. The agricultural growth has been mainly threatened by the population growth in sub Sahara

African countries. Example the population growth in Africa ranges to 2.7% per year over past 40 years compared with 2% in developing Asia and 2.2% in Latin America, so with regard t population increase the agriculture performance in Africa has remained poorly compared with the other places, for example over the past 40 years ago the value of aggregate agricultural outputs has only increased by 2.5% in Africans compared with the 2.9% in Latin America and 3.5% in developing Asia. The important things in order to overcome the poor performance of agriculture in Africa is to ensure the transparent on the distribution of tax and other rent from the agricultural products; Given that the government should not tax the farmers as monetary rather than fiscal because farmers will initially directly saving into financial assets before investing. The International Cooperatives Alliance (2003), argued that though the agriculture sector is performing poorly in East African Countries; Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, this sector still remain the backbone of the countrys economy. The main problems of agriculture in these countries is that, it is characterized by small scale farming comprised of 60% to 80% 0f the small holder farmers with less than one hectors a land. With regard to the poor performances of agriculture , these countries have adopted deferent mechanism that aims to promote the agricultural development which includes; Community Empowerment and Enterprises Development Through Cooperatives (CEEDCO) in Kenya, Institutional and Capacity Buildings in Primary Societies and Other Groups for Member Empowerment and Enterprises Development in Cooperatives in Tanzania (MEMCOOP) in Tanzania and Farmers Empowerment Through Agricultural services(FATES) in Uganda. African Economic Research Consortium (2007) Commended that the agriculture is performing poor in many African Countries due to the fact that these counties have historically suffered from urban bias in public policy. For example state marketing board in several African countries resembled the system used by colonialist to gather food during the Second World War. This system subsidized urban consumers of food by requiring farmers to sell their output at less than the market prices. The public investment in infrastructure, Education and other services in rural area also tend to be lower than in urban areas. The low investment increases transactions costs in marketing in which can be major institutional constraints to developing agricultural productivity.

Karvaria([2010), his idea is based on the performance of agriculture in Tanzania and nearby countries like Kenya and Uganda, the agriculture in Tanzania is performing poorly most of the farmers hold the land of 0.5 to 2.5 hectors and most of these farmers are women . The farmers in Tanzania faces a lot of constraints despites of the fact that these people are extremely poor , they also suffer from poor infrastructure, lack of enough capital and lack of markets for agricultural produces outputs , so these are the main factors for poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. However the solution for most African countries is to have a clear plan for them. In 2003 African put in place a Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Plan (CAADP) which aimed to improve whose small holder famers. The local initiatives such as UWAMWIMA based in Zanzibar which aimed to join the group of famers to work in collaboratively manner in order to empower themselves. The T Tanzania have current adopted kilimo kwanza which intends to make a green revolution in agriculture as the way of recovering problems of poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. 2.4. Marketing Constraints on Agriculture Performance The result of the poor performance of marketing in the agriculture sector in the early of 1990s as part of the process of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAPs). The government undertook a series of major reforms. These reforms included the decontrol of marketing of non traditional exports . Through this changes has not created any impacts as the results the producers are not guaranteed of markets of their crops in all localities due the to among other factors, like weaknesses of cooperatives societies, lack of farmers association, inadequate number of competing buyers and absence of regulatory institutions to oversee the quality and standards for non traditional exports and food crops. Consequently the producer has not received enumerative prices which intensified the rural poverty and unemployment levels (URT 2008). 2.5 Empirical Studies The report by Kimaro (2010) commended that the African countries in general have passed through three major policies which have a significant impacts on agriculture performance. These phases are colonial policy on agriculture production. The post colonial era before market liberalization and the free market economy era which have spilled over to date. All of these policy

changes had a significant impact on agricultural production due to differences in philosophies of each phases. So the writer focused only on the colonial policy towards agricultural performance, but there are other colonial attributes that contributed to poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania for example the content of education which extremely does not intended to develop agriculture performance in Africa as far as Tanzania is concerned. The report by Bee (2007), argued that despite the outstanding contribution of agriculture to the national economy: but still the performance of this sector has not been impressive, although the government has implemented a series of adjustment policies and institutional reforms based on market economic principles, but there have been a little improvement in agricultural productivity and small holder livelihood. According to Bareja (2011), about 70 percent of the Tanzania are cultivated by the hand hoe, where the average farm land size is about 0.9 hectors and 3.0 hectors each, thereafter the poor performance of agriculture has significantly contributed by the dominance of small holder farmers. So despite the prevailing small holder farmers but there are other factors associated with these small holding farmers like the application of poor technology, dependence on unreliability and irregular whether condition has significant contributed to poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. The report by Smale (2006), showed that the East Africa is a largest Banana and maize producing and consuming region in Africa, but the problem most producers are small holder farmers who grow banana mainly for food, the other factors associated with the poor performance of this sector is pest and diseases like weevils, Nematodes, Sigatoka and funga disease that normally affects the growth of banana plants, they cause the failure of failure through the death of young banana plants. So these diseases have been found to be the contributing factors that affect the performance of agriculture in Tanzania. The report by Ethiopia Institute of agriculture (2010), commended that the introduction of the land reforms in Ethiopia and its marketing and distribution policies had a significant impacts on the performance of agriculture, since the reforms caused the agriculture production to go down in

Ethiopia. The study of this has been conducted in Orimia and Gambela region, where these regions are the main producer of coffee in Ethiopia. In many parties of the continent particularly the Sub Sahara African Countries a greater problem on agriculture production due to the climate condition. A case of Zimbabwe the Government has put a lot of initiatives to improves the agriculture performance, the initiatives was based on distributing seeds among the farmers in Marange Region where about 400 of the total of 2400 farmers in Marange, but the agriculture performance in Zimbabwe is still poor due to the fact that the area is facing the problem of rain shortage which result almost in poor harvest. 2.6 Conceptual Framework Conceptual framework is a research tool intended to assist a researcher to develop awareness and understanding of the situation under scrutiny, and to communicate this when clearly articulated. A conceptual framework has a potential usefulness as a tool to assist a researcher to make meaning of subsequent finding (Kombo et al 2010). The independent variable are factors for poor performance, which actually influence the other variable to happens, these factors includes application of poor technology, overdependence on rainfall, market constraints and the soil infertility. The dependent variable are agriculture sector in Tanzania which cannot stand as an independent variable since it is influenced by other variable, it usually occur as a result of performance of the other variable.


Illustration of the conceptual framework Independent variables Application of poor technology Dependent variable

Overdependence of rainfall

Poor performance of agriculture sector in Tanzania

Market constraints

Soil infertility

Source: The researcher 2012


CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction Under this chapter a researcher will explore the various techniques or methods that he will use in collecting the information from various sources, Qualitative and quantitative data are both used during the collection of data from the field, and also the researcher will determine the research design in order to complement with the available resources like time and funds. 3.1 Research Design In order to cover a variety of ideas and in depth knowledge and informations based in a single institution, Thereafter a research should use a case study design. Under this case study design the information is basically collected in a single institution, Example ministry of agriculture and food security. 3.2 Description of the Study Area The region is bordered in the north by Singida and Dodoma regions, Morogoro regions in the east, Ruvuma region and Nyasa in the west. Iringa name came from Wahehe word lilinga meaning fort. 3.2.1 Geographical Features The Municipal stretches along the hilltop overlooking the Ruaha River to the south and spreads along ridges and valleys to the north. Iringa Manspal is situated in the plateau that ranges from 1500metres to 2500metres above the sea level. The highway distances from Iringa to Dar Es Salaam is 502kilometers or 312miles. The municipal lies along the latitude 70 south of equator and longitude 340 east of the Greenwich meridian, the municipal cover the area of 162 square kilometers (Kilale 2007)

3.3 Data Collection


A Researcher will use different tools in collecting the data from the field. Some of these data will collected from the documented materials and other data will be collected from the field directly where various techniques for data collection is going to be used such as Interview, Observation, and Focus Group Discussion(FDGs) 3.3.1 Questionnaire Is a list of grouping of a written question in which the respondent answers, A questionnaire can be closed ended or an open ended questionnaire Open ended questionnaire In some cases a researcher will use open ended questionnaire in order to make a respondent more flexible with a divergent answer in the questions provided. Closed ended questionnaire The researcher will use closed ended questionnaire order to save time and resources which are normally scarcity. So the respondent will be supposed to provide a short and clear answer based on the questions provided. 3.4.1 Types of Data The Researcher will be obliged to collect the data of both primary and secondary data whereby he will be obliged to go direct to the field and obtain the data for the first time, at the same time he is supposed to review different documentation materials in order to get more informations. 3.4.2 Sources of Data A researcher will obtain the data from different sources like the documented information from the ministry of agriculture and food security and the agriculture marketing cooperatives, apart from the documented materials also the researcher will collect the data directly from the respondent through various techniques such as Observation, Interview, and Focus Group Discussion 3.4.3 Techniques of Data Collection


Under the data collection techniques the researcher will use various techniques for collecting the data. He will use Interview, Observation and Focus Group Discussion and the review from the documentations. The researcher will use observation methods or techniques in searching the information in illicit circumstances, he will use his eyes to observe direct from the field. Focus Group Discussion Under the focus group discussion the researcher will organize the group of people of about six to eight people where each people will be encouraged to participate by sharing knowledge and skills. Interview The researcher will use interview techniques in collecting the data where the tools which will be going to be used is questionnaire, where a list set of questions are provided to the respondent and the respondent are supposed to fill it in a short descriptions 3.5 Sampling Sampling is the process whereby one makes estimates or generalizations about the population based on the information contained in a partial or sample of the entire population (Adam et al 1991). The researcher will use sampling in order to save the resources such as time and money where few people or a sample are going to be selected to represent the whole population 3.5.1 Sampling frame Refer to those sources of materials from which a sample is drawn. It is the list of all those within a population who can be sampled (Jessen 1978). The researcher will draw the sample from various sources example ministry of agriculture and food security, from the farmers themselves and from other stakeholders like teachers and local l, leaders. 3.5.2. Sample size

A researcher will draw up a sample from each category of the population, and the sample size will vary depending on the level of each category of the populations. A researcher will have a total size of 40 sample size, that will be drown from various categories, example5 from the staff of the Ministry of Agriculture and food Security, 5 are teachers, 5 students, 5 religious leaders, 5 village leaders and the rest are the common people. 3.5.3 Sampling Techniques In research there are various methods of obtaining a sample. In this case the researcher will use non probability sampling, whereby a researcher will be subjective to only those people to whom they are expected to have better information relating to the research study. 3.6 Data Analysis Techniques After the collection of data the researcher will analyze the data through the use of various techniques in order to provide a good interpretation. He will use the following tools to analyze the data which includes, frequency distribution table, histogram etc through the use of SPSS computer program.

REFERENCES Adam et al (1991), Understanding research methods, second edition, New York African Economic Research Consortium (2003), Managing commodity Booms in sub Sahara

African, Nairobi. Bareja B.G (2011), Participatory Agriculture Development and Empowerment Project: Environmental and social framework approach Bee K.F (2009), Analysis of agricultural marketing constraints and strategies for Developing domestic, agricultural markets in Tanzania, Moshi. Bee K. B. (2007), Impacts of agricultural policies in farming business by members of rural producers organization in Tanzania, MUCCOBS Ethiopia Institute of Agriculture Production (2010), coffee production in

Ethiopia. Haggblade H. (2003), Building on success in African agriculture, Washington International Cooperative Alliance (2004), International Cooperative Alliance Regional Workshop on Agricultural Marketing, Moshi. International Cooperative Alliance (2003), International Cooperative Alliance Regional Workshop on agricultural marketing, Nairobi. Kimaro P.J (2010), Maize Marketing in Changing Agricultural Policy Environment, MUCCOBS Mlowe et al (2007), crop diversification, An emerging opportunity among the rural producer Organization in Tanzania, MUCCOBS .$ons J. W.(1986), Economic of agricultural development in Tropical African, New York. Smale M (2006), Genetic Resource Policies, Promising Crop Biotechnologies for Small Holder Farmers in East Africa Tanzania and UNESCO (2007), National Commission of the United Republic of Tanzania Magazine no3, Dar es Salaam.










Strategy. %2025%2005%2006%20(2).pdf. Retrieved on 09/10/2012 United Republic of Tanzania (2002), Agriculture Sector Development Program, Dar es salaam United Republic of Tanzania (2008), Agriculture marketing situation and current

constraintshttp,// go tz/document/agriculturalmantentingpolicy/.pods Framework and process documents, %20docs/ASP

%20FINAL%2025%2005%2006%20(2).pdf .Retrieved on 09/10/2012 World Bank (2002), Building institutions for marketing, New York. Joyce et al (2005), an approach to social research methods, fourth edition, New York .

Im Fredrick Samson Mlelwa, Perusing Bachelor of Arts in Community Economic Development (BA CED) with registration number of FCCDS/BA CED.257/09, at Moshi University College of Cooperatives and Business Studies, Carrying out a Research on Factors for Poor Performance of

Agriculture in Tanzania. This is for partial fulfillment of the award of the Bachelor of Arts in Community Economic Development Im requesting for your participation towards the success of this research. Please respond to the following questions carefully and answer them giving your comment where necessary


a/ Personal details information 1/ name 2/ age. 3/ residence; a/urban 4/ occupation; a/ student b/ employee c/ employer d/ teacher e/ religion leader 5/ gender; a/ male ( ) b/ female ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) b/ rural ( )

6/ marital status; a/ single

) b/ married (

7/ is your body physically fits ; a/ yes b/ information about the economic status 8/how much salary do you receive per month? ....................................

) b/ no

9/ how do you use your salary to manage your family expenses . .. .. 10/do you have any income generating activities?; a/ yes

b/ no

11/if yes which activities do you perform? a/ . b/ . c/ . 12/ how much do you earn from those income generating activities?. . 13/ do you have any saving? a/ yes b/ no ( )

14/ if yes which social economic group did you engaged? . 15/ how do you benefits as a member from that social economic group?. a/ .. b/ c/ .. c/ information about the agricultural performance 16/how many hectors of farm do you own or rent? . 17/ do you receive any incentives/ subsidies of grains / fertilizers from the Government? a/ yes ( ) b/ no

18/ If yes how you benefits do from the subsidies / incentives you are receiving .

. 19/ basing on your experience, how many bags of maize do you harvest per Hector? 20/ are you producing for consumption only? a/ yes ( ) b/ no

21/if no, are you facing any constraints / difficulties / challenges in selling Your products? a/ yes ) 22/ if yes, which problems do you encounters? a/ . b/ . c/ . 23/ do you think the environmental condition has the impacts on agricultural Performance? a/ yes ( ) b/ no b/ no (

24/ if yes, explain how does it impacts the performance the of Agriculture in your locality? .


.. 25/ do you think the income level affects the performance of agriculture? a/ yes ( ) 26/ if yes, explain how the level of income affects the performance of Income? .. .. 27/ do you think is there any other factors that contributes to poor Performance of agriculture? a/ yes ) 28/ if yes, which are those? a/ b/ c/ . d/ b/ no ( b/ no

Im Fredrick Samson Mlelwa , Perusing Bachelor of Arts in Community Economic Development (BA CED) with registration number of FCCDS/BA CED.257/09,at Moshi University College of Cooperatives and Business Studies, Carrying out a Research on Factors for Poor Performance of Agriculture in Tanzania. This is for partial fulfillment of the award of the Bachelor of Arts in Community Economic Development

Im requesting for your participation towards the success of this research. Please respond to the following questions carefully and answer them giving your comment where necessary QUESTIONNAIRES TO MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY a/ personal details information 1/ name 2/ age .. 3/ residence; a/ urban 4/ occupation; a/ employee b/ rural b/ employer ( ( ) )

5/ gender; a/ male 6/ marital status; a/ single

b/ female

( (

) ) ( )

b/ married (

7/ is your body physically fits ; a/ yes

) b/ no

b/ Information about the social economic status 8/ how much salary do you receive per month? 9/ how do use your salary to manage your family consumption? . .. 10/ do you have any income generating activities? a/ yes b/ no ( )

11/ if yes, which activities do you perform? a/ .. b/ c/


12/ how much do you earn from those income generating activities? ........................... 13/ do you have any saving account? a/ yes 14/ if yes, which financial institution? a/ NBC BANAK c/ NMB BANK ( ) 15/ are you a member of any social economic group? a/ yes b/ no ( ) b/ CRDB d/POSTAL BANK b/ no ( )

16/ if yes, which social economic group do you belong? .. 17/ do you benefits as a member from such social economic group? a/ . b/ .. c/ c/ information about the agricultural performance 18/ does the government provides incentives / subsidies on grains and fertilizers to Farmers? a/ yes b/ no ( )

19/ if yes, how do they benefits from those subsidies / incentives they receive? ... .. 20/ basing on your experience, how many maize of bags do the farmers harvest per

Hector? .. 21/ basing on your experience, do these farmers produces products for their own Consumption only? a/ yes b/ no

22/ if no, do they face any constraints / problems in trying to market their products? a/ yes b/ no ( )

23/ if yes, which are those problems do they encounter? a/ b/ c/ .. d/ . 24/ do you think the environmental conditions has the impacts in the agricultural Performance? a/ yes b/ no ( )

25/ if yes, explain how does it affects the performance of agriculture? . .. 26/ do you think the income level affects the performance of agriculture? a/ yes )

b/ no

27/ if yes, explain how the level of income affects the performance of agriculture? . 28/ do you think is there any other factors that contributes to poor performance of Agriculture in Tanzania? a/ yes 29/ if yes, which are those? a/ . b/ . c/ .. b/ no ( )