Está en la página 1de 42

MC LC CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V THNG TIN QUANG ................................................... 3 1.1 Khi nim thng tin quang ..................................................................................... 3 1.

2 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang ................................................................. 3 1.3 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang ........................................................................ 4 1.4 u nhc im v cc ng dng ca thng tin quang ........................................ 5 1.4.1 u im .............................................................................................................. 5 1.4.2 Nhc im ........................................................................................................ 7 1.4.3 ng dng ............................................................................................................ 8 CHNG 2. HIN TNG TN SC .......................................................................... 10 2.2 Cc loi tn sc ...................................................................................................... 11 2.2.1 Tn sc mode (Modal Dispersion): .................................................................. 11 2.2.2 Tn sc trong si n mode .............................................................................. 14 2.2.3 Tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD Group Velocity Dispersion) ............................ 15 2.2.4 Tn sc vt liu (Material Dispersion) ............................................................. 17 2.2.5 Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion)................................................ 18 2.2.6 Tn sc bc cao hn (Higher-Order Dispersion) .............................................. 21 2.2.7 Tn sc phn cc mode (Polarization Mode Dispersion) .............................. 22 2.3 nh hng ca tn sc trong h thng thng tin quang: ................................. 23 CHNG 3: CC PHNG PHP B TN SC TRONGTHNG TIN QUANG ... 27 3.1 S cn thit ca vic qun l tn sc ................................................................... 27 3.2 K thut b tn sc trc (Precompensation):................................................... 29 3.3 K thut b tn sc trn ng dy (In-line) ..................................................... 30 3.3.1 B tn sc bng si quang DCF ....................................................................... 30 3.3.2 B tn sc bng b lc quang ........................................................................... 33 3.3.3 B tn sc bng tn hiu quang lin hp pha OPC ........................................... 34 3.3.4 B tn sc bng cch t Bragg(c trong ti liu khc) ..................................... 35 3.4 K thut b sau (post compensation) .................................................................. 36 KT QU THU C TRONG CHUYN I THC TP .......................................... 38 1

1. 2.

Thit b o ........................................................................................................... 38 S liu thc t thu c ..................................................................................... 41

CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V THNG TIN QUANG 1.1 Khi nim thng tin quang Thng tin quang l mt h thng truyn tin thng qua si quang. iu ny c ngha l thng tin c chuyn thnh nh sng v sau nh sngc truyn quasowij quang. Ti ni nhn n li c bin i thnh thng tin ban u. 1.2 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang Khi u ca thng tin quang l kh nng nhn bit ca con ngi v chuyn ng hnh dng mu sc thng qua i mt. Tip mt h thng thng tin, iu ch thng tin n gin xut hin bng cch s dng cc n hi ng cc n tn hiu. K tip l s ra i ca mt my in bo quang. Thit b ny s dng kh quyn nh mt mi trng truyn n v do chu nh hng ca cc iu kin thi tit, gii quyt vn ny ngi ta ch to ra my in bo v tuyn lin lc gia hai ngi cch xa nhau. Nm 1960 cc nh nghin cu ch to thnh cng ra laze v n nm 1966 ch to ra si quang c tn tht thp (1000dB/km). Bn nm sau Karpon ch to ra cp si quang trong sut c suy hao truyn dn khooangr20dB/km. T thnh cng rc r nayfcacs nh nghin cu trn khp th gii bt u tin hnh nghin cu, pht trin v kt qu l cng ngh mi v gim suy hao truyn dn, v tng di thng v cc laze bn dn c pht trin thnh cng vo nhng nm 70. Sau gim tn tht xung cn 0,18dB/kmcn laze bn dn c kh nng thc hin giao ng lin tc nhit khai thc c ch to, tui th ko di hn 100 nm. C th lch s pht trin ca thng tin quang nh sau: 1790 : claude chappe, k s ngi Php xy dng mt h thng in bo quang (optical telegraph). H thng ny gm mt chui cc thp vi cc n bo hiu di ng trn . Thi y tin tc c truyn bng h thng ny vt chng ng 200 km trong vng 15 pht. 1870 : John Tyndall, nh vt l ngi Anh chng t rng nh sng c th dn c theo vi nc un cong, th nghim ca ng s dng nguyn l phn x ton phn, iu ny vn cn p dng cho si quang ngy nay. 1880 : Alexander Graham Bell, ngi M, gii thiu h thng photophone, qua ting ni c th truyn c qua mi trng khng kh m khng cn dy, tuy nhin h thng ny cha c p dng trn thc t v cn qu nhiu ngun nhiu lm gim cht lng ca ng truyn. 1934 : Norman R.French, k s ngi M, nhn c bng sng ch v h thng thng tin quang, phng tin truyn dn ca ng l cc thanh thy tinh. 3

1958 : Arthur Schawlow v Charles H.Townes, xy dng v pht trin laser. 1960 : Theodor H.Maiman a laser vo hot ng thnh cng. 1962 : Laser bn dn v photodiode bn dn c tha nhn, vn cn li l phi tm mi trng truyn dn quang thch hp. 1966 : Charles H.Kao v Gooeorge A.Hockham, hai k s phng th nghim Standard telecommunications ca Anh, xut vic dung thy tinh truyn dn nh sng. Nhng do cng ngh ch to si thy tinh thi y cn hn ch nn suy hao ca si qu ln (suy hao xp x 1000 dB/km). 1970 : Hng Corning Glass works ch to thnh cng si quang loi si c suy hao nh hn 20dB/km bc sng 633nm. 1972 : Loi si Gi c ch to vi suy hao 4dB/km. 1983 : Si n mode (sm) c xut xng M. Ngy nay si n mode c s dng rng ri. suy hao ca loi si ny ch cn khong 0,2 dB/km bc sng 1550nm. Da trn cng ngh si quang v cc laze bn dn gi y c th gi mt khi lng ln tn hiu m thanh d liu n cc a ch cch xa nhau hng trm km bng mt si quang c dy nh mt si tc, khng cn cc b ti to. Hin nay cc hot ng nghin cu ang c tin hnh trong mt lnh vc gi l photon hc l mt lnh vc ti quan trongjtrong thng tin quang, c kh nng pht hin v x l trao i v truyn dn thng tin bng cc phng tin nh sng. Photon hc c kh nng s c ng dng rng ri trong cc lnh vc in t v vin thng trong th k 21. 1.3 Cu trc h thng thng tin quang Di y l cu hnh c bn ca h thng thng tin quang: B bin i in quang
Ngun pht tn hiu

lp ng dy cp quang
Ngunt hu tn hiu

E/O

O/E

E/O

O/E

cp quang

b bin i quang in tn

hiu quang tn hiu in 4

B bin i in quang (E/O) bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang truyn trong mi trng cp quang ( bin i xung in thnh xung quang). Yu cu thit b E/O bin i trung thc ( nh sng b iu bin theo quy lut ca tn hiu in). Cp quang: l mi trng dng truyn dn tn hiu l nh sng, c ch to bng cht in mi c kh nng truyn c nh sng nh si thch anh, si thyur tinh, si nha. Yu cu: tn hao nng lng nh, rng bng tn ln, khng b nh hng ca ngun sng l ( khng b nhiu). B bin i quang in (O/E): Thu cc tn hiu quang b suy hao v mo dng trn ng truyn do b tn x, tn sc, suy hao bi c ly bin i thnh cc tn hiu in v tr thnh ngun tin ban u. Yu cu: nhy thu cao, thi gian p ng nhanh, nhiu nh, tiu th nng lng in t. Cc trm lp: c s dng khi khong cch truyn dn ln. Trm lp bin i tn hiu quang thu c thnh tn hiu in khuch i. Tn hiu c khuch i c bin i thnh tn hiu quang tip tc truyn trn cp si quang. 1.4 u nhc im v cc ng dng ca thng tin quang Thng tin quang cng nh nhiu loi thng tin khc n cng c nhng u v nhc im ring. c bit hin nay si quang tr thnh mt phng tin thng dng cho nhiu yu cu truyn thng. N c nhng u im vt tri hn so vi cc phng php truyn dn in thng thng. Bn cnh th vn c mt s nhc im. C th nh sau: 1.4.1 u im Dung lng ln: Cc si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin. Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi khong 600 cuc m thoi. Mt cp si quang c th cha c khong 200 si quang, s tng c dung lng ng truyn ln 6000.000 cuc m thoi. So vi cc phng tin truyn dn bng dy thng thng, mt cp gm nhiu i dy c th truyn c 500 cuc m thoi, Mt cp ng trc c kh nng vi 10.000 cuc m thoi v mt tuyn viba c th mang c 200 cuc gi ng thi. 5

Kch thc v trng lng nh: So vi cp ng c cng dung lng, cp si quang c ng knh nh hn v khi lng nh hn nhiu. Khng b nhim in: Truyn dn bng si quang khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t hay nhiu tn s v tuyn v n khng to ra bt k su nhiu ni ti no. Cc cng ty ddienj lc s dng cp qaung dc theo cc ng dy in cao th cung cp ng thng tin r rng gia cc trm bin p. Cp si quang cng khng b xuyn m. Thm ch nh sng b bc x ra t mt si quang th n khng th xm nhp vo si quang khc c. Tnh cch in: si quang l mt vt cch in. Cp si quang lm bng cht in mi thch hp khng cha vt dn in v cho phepa cahs in hon toanfcho nhiu ng dng. N c th laoij b c nhiu gy bi cc dng in chy vng di t hay nhng trng hp nguy him gy bi su phng in trn cc ng dy thng tin nh st nh hay nhng trc trc v in. y thc s l mt phng tin an ton thng c dng ni cn cch in. Tnh bo mt: Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao. Mt si quang khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phn tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin di dng tn hiu quang. Cc tia sng truyn tm si quang v rt t hoc khng c tia no thot khi si quang. Thm ch nu trch vo si quang c ri th n c th b pht hin nh kim tra cng sut nh sng thu c ti u cui. Trong khi cc tn hiu v tinh hay viba c th d dng thu v gii m c tin cy cao v d bo dng: si quang l mt phng tin truyn dn ng nht v khng gy ra hin tng phading. Nhng tuyn cp quang c thit k thch hp c th chu ng c nhng iu kin v nhit v m khc nghit v c th hot ng c di nc. Si quang c thi gian hot ng lu, c tnh trn 30 nm vi mt s cp. Yu cu v bo dng i vi mt h thng cp quang l t hn so vi yu cu ca mt h thng thng thng do cn t b lp in hn trong tuyn thng tin; trong cp khng c dy ng(yu t c th b mn dn v gy ra hn tng lc c lc mt tn hiu); cp quang cng khng b nh hng bi su ngn mch, su tng vt v in p ngun hay tnh in. Tnh linh hot cc h thng thng tin quang kh dng cho hu ht cc dng thng tin s liu, thoi v video. Cc h thng ny u c th tng thch vi cc chun RS.232, RS422, V35, Ethernet, ARCnet, FDDI, T1, T2, T3, Sonet, thoi 2/4 dy, tn hiu E/M, video tng hp v cn nhiu na.

D dng nng cp khi ch cn thay th thit b thu pht qaung cn h thng cp si quang vn c th gi nguyn. S ti to tn hiu: cng ngh ngy nay cho php thc hin nhng ng truyn thng baengf cp quang di trn 70km trc khi cn ti to tn hiu, khong cch ny cn c th tng ln 150km nh s dng cc b khuch i laze. Trong tng lai, cng ngh c th m rng khong cch di hn na. chi ph tit kim c s dng t cc b lc trung gian v vic bo dng c th l kh ln. ngc li, cc h thng cp in thng thng c vi km c th cn mt b lp. 1.4.2 Nhc im Hn ni kh khn hn cp kim loi, mun hn cp quang phi s dng my hn chuyn dng. Do cp quang thng v lng bng nn yu cu cht lng mi hn rt cao. Gin, d gy: si quang s dng trong vin thng c cht to t thy tinh nn gin v d gy. Nu h thng thng tin quang b hng th vic sa cha i hi phi c mt nhm k thut vin c k nng tt cng cc thit b thch hp. Mun cp ngun t xa cho cc trm lp cn c thm dy ng bn trong si quang. Khi c nc, hi m lt vo cp th s nhanh chng b hng v cc mi hn mau lo ha lm tng tn hao. Do si c kch thc nh nn hiu sut ca ngun quang thp. V c tnh bc x khng tuyn tnh ca laze diode nn hn ch truyn analog Khi truyn tn hiu trn h thng thng tin quang hay b li tn hiu khi chuyn i quang in v in quang. Thit b thu pht quang t . Vn an ton lao ng khi hn ni cp quang cng cn ht sc ch . V khi hn ni si quang cn cc mnh ct vo l kn trnh m vo tay, v khng c phng tin no c th pht hin mnh thy tinh trong c th. Ngoi ra, khng c nhn trc din vo u si quang hay cc khp ni h phng nga c nh sng truyn trong si quang chiu trc tip vo mt. nh sng s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l nh sng hng ngoi, mt ngi khng cm nhn c nn khng th iu tit khi c ngun nng lng ny v s gy nguy hi cho mt.

1.4.3 ng dng Nh nhng u im trn m si quang c ng dng trong cc mng li in thoi, s liu, my tnh v pht thanh, truyn hnh ( dch v bng rng) v s c s dng trong ISDN ( l mng kt hp gia k thut chuyn mch knh vi k thut chuyn mch gi), trong in lc cc ng dng y t qun s v cng nh trong cc thit b o. Hin nay thng tin quang c ng dng rng ri: S dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn quc t, kt ni Vit Nam vi cc nc trn th gii. c th c cc tuyn chnh nh: TVH(kt ni Thi Lan, Vit Nam v Hng Kong); SEA-ME-WE 3(ni cc nc ng Nam , Trung ng v Ty u); tuyn cp quang lin D n cp quang bin AAG, c chiu di gn 20.000 km, bt u t Malaysia (TM) v kt cui ti M (AT&T). AAG c cc im cp b ti Mersing (Malaysia), Changi (Singapore), Sri Racha (Thi Lan), Tungku (Brunei), Vng Tu (Vit Nam), Currimao (Philippines), South Lantau (Hong Kong), Guam (M), Hawaii (M)...c tc dng kt ni internet quc t. Nhnh cp r vo Vit Nam c chiu di 314 km, cp b ti Vng Tu. Hin Vit Nam c 4 thnh vin tham gia AAG gm: FPT Telecom, VNPT, Viettel v SPT. S dng trong cc tuyn truyn dn lin tnh v ni tnh kt ni thng tin gia cc tng vi nhau. C th nh cc tuyn quc l 1A, tuyn cp quang trn ng 500KV(in lc), tuyn cp quang ng H Ch Minh, ng 5 S dng mng truy nhp cung cp ng truyn tc cao ti cc c quan, doanh nghip c nhn c nhu cu. V d, cung cp dng truyn tc cao hoc kt hp vi cp ng trong cc mng truyn hnh cp. Mng ng trc xuyn quc gia. Mng ng trc quc gia ca VNPT bao gm mng cp quang Bc - Nam dung lng 360 Gbps, cp quang dc theo tuyn 500 KV, cp quang ven bin. Mng c kt ni vng Ring m bo thng tin lin lc thng sut trong mi tnh hung. V Viettel cng v ang xy dng mng truyn dn ng trc Backbone vi dung lng 2,5Gb/s c nng cp ln 10Gb/s, s dng cng ngh ghp bc sng WDM v phn cp s ng b SDH. Vi vic s dng cp quang trn ng dy 500 KV v phi hp vi Tng Cng ty ng st Vit nam xy dng mi ng trc cp quang dc tuyn ng st Bc Nam, mng ng trc Bc Nam ca Viettel pht trin theo cu hnh bao gm cc mng vng vu hi WDM SDH vi tin cy v kh nng d phng cao. Mng truyn s liu, mng LAN 8

Mng truyn hnh cp cung cp cho ngi s dng dch v truyn hnh cht lng cao thng qua dng cp quang hay cp ng trc kt ni nh cung cp vi ngi s dng. Hin nay cc nh mng s dng dch v truy nhp internet siu tc da trn cng ngh cp quang FTTH. Vi dch v ny, cc nhu cu v truyn ti d liu, truy nhp tc cao vi bng thng rng c p ng mt cch hon ho v chi ph hp l. y l cng ngh tin tin hin nay v ang c cc quc gia trn th gii tin dng, nh Hn Quc, Nht Bn, Hoa K,

CHNG 2. HIN TNG TN SC

2.1.Khi nim tn sc Tn sc l hin tng tn hiu quang truyn qua si quang b gin ra. Nu xung gin ra ln hn chu k bt s dn ti s chng lp gia cc bt k cn nhau. Kt qu l u thu khng nhn din c bt 1 hay bt 0 c truyn i u pht, dn ti b quyt nh trong u thu s quyt nh sai, v khi t s BER tng ln, t s S/N gim v cht lng h thng gim. Hnh di y minh ha cho s m rng xung do tn sc.

Gi D l tn sc tng cng ca si quang, n v l giy (s). Khi D c xc nh bi trong Ti, T0 ln lt l rng ti im mt na cng sut cc i ca xung ng vo v ng ra ca si quang (n v l s). tn sc qua mi km si quang c tnh bng ns/km hoc ps/km. i vi loi tn sc ph thuc vo b rng ph ca ngun quang th lc n v c tnh l ps/km-nm.

Tn sc gy ra tng BER 10

2.2 Cc loi tn sc Trong Thng Tin Quang ngi ta chia ra thnh 3 loi tn sc nh sau: tn sc mode,tn sc phn cc mode v tn sc sc th (trong tn sc sc th bao gm tn sc ng dn sng v tn sc vt liu). Khi si truyn dn l a mode (tc loi si quang c th truyncng lc nhiu mode sng khc nhau trong li) th ta c tt c cc loi tn sc ni trn. Nhng khi cng ngh ch to si pht trin th si n mode ra i v n khc phcc tn sc mode ca si a mode. Tuy nhin, v bn cht chit sut Silica l ph thucvo bc sng, hn na ngun pht khng th pht ra nh sng n sc (nh sng ch cmt bc sng) m l mt chm tia sng vi mt rng ph no . Chnh v th trong si n mode vn cn tn ti tn sc, l tn sc phn cc mode v tn sc sc th. Ngy nay, vi cng ngh ch to pht trin mnh m ngi ta ch to ra c cc loi si quang mi c mc tn sc gim ng k. Nhng si ny c dng lp t trong cc mng mi cn tc bt cao v c ly ln. Sau y ta s tm hiu khi nim c bn v cc loi tn sc trong si quang. Hnh sau y m t s cc loi tn sc trong si quang

2.2.1 Tn sc mode (Modal Dispersion): Mt mode sng c th c xem l mt trng thi truyn n nh ca nh sng trong si quang. Khi truyn trong si quang, nh sng i theo nhiu ng khc nhau, trng thi n nh ca cc ng ny c gi l nhng Mode sng. C th hnh dung gn ng mt mode sng ng vi mt tia sng.Tn sc mode l do nng lng ca nh 11

sng b phn tn thnh nhiu mode. Mi mode li truyn vi vn tc nhm khc nhau, nn thi gian truyn n u thu ca cc mode khc nhau l khc nhau gy ra tn sc. R rng ta thy tn sc mode ch tn ti si a mode, do mun loi b tn sc mode th ta phi s dng si n mode. V vy khi xt n tn sc mode ta ch xt si a mode. Nh ta bit, khu s (NA) biu din kh nng thu nh sng ca si quang. Khu s cng ln th cng d hng nh sng vo si quang. Nh vy ta c cm gic nh khu s cng ln th cng tt. Nhng iu ny l khng ng, c mt tr ngi khin ta khng th tng khu s ln. hiu c iu ny ta hy xem xt cc mode trong si quang. S tht l nh sng ch c th truyn trong si quang nh mt tp hp ca nhng lung sng hoc nhng tia sng ring l. Ni cch khc, nu ta c kh nng nhn vo si quang ta s thy mt tp hp nhng lung sng truyn vi gc bin thin t 0 n c nh c minh ha hnh sau:

Cch thc cc lung sng tng ng vi cc mode i trong si quang Nhng lung sng khc nhau c gi l nhng mode. Ta phn bit cc mode bng gc truyn ca chng, hay nh s th t ch nhng mode ring bit. Nguyn tc l: gc truyn ca mode cng nh th s th t ca mode cng thp. Nh vy mode truyn dc theo tm si l mode 0 (hay cn gi l mode c bn) v mode truyn gc truyn ti hn (c) l mode c s th t ln nht c th ca si quang. Nhiu mode c th cng tn ti trong si quang, v si quang c nhiu mode truyn c gi l si a mode. S lng mode: s lng mode ca si quang ph thuc vo c tnh quang v hnh hc ca si. Nu ng knh li cng ln, li cng cha c nhiu mode sng. V bc sng nh sng cng ngn th si quang cng cha c nhiu mode sng. Nu khu s cng ln th s lng mode sng si thu c cng nhiu. Nh vy c th kt lun l s lng mode sng trong si quang t l thun vi ng knh si (d), khu s (NA)v t l nghch vi bc sng nh sng s dng (). Gi V l tn s chun ha, ta c:

12

th s lng mode c tnh nh sau: N=V2/2 (i vi si SI), N= V2/4(i vi si GI) Nh vy ta thy i vi si a mode khi lung sng pht ra t ngun quang i vosi quang chia thnh mt tp hp mode. Trong si, cng sut quang tng cng c mang bi nhiu mode ring l, v ti u ra nhng phn nh hp li thnh lung ra vi cng sutca n. Hnh sau s minh ha cho vn trn (vi 4 mode lm v d)

Cch thc cng sut quang c mang bi cc mode truyn trong si quang v gy tn sc T hnh trn ta thy rng xung tn hiu sau si quang c bt u bng mode 1v kt thc bng mode 4. Do tr v thi gian gia cc mode nn xung tn hiu b gin ra (T0>Ti).

13

Tn sc trong si SI

Tn sc mode trong si GI 2.2.2 Tn sc trong si n mode Nh ta xt phn trn, tn sc mode l nguyn nhn ch yu gy ra s hn ch tc bt trong h thng Thng Tin Quang s dng si a mode. iu ny khng c ngha l trong si a mode ch c tn sc mode, m n cn chu nh hng ca nhiu loi tn sc khc. Tuy nhin do tn sc mode c nh hng ln hn c nn ta ch xt tn sc mode trong si a mode. khc phc tn sc mode ngi ta ch to ra loi si quang ch truyn mt mode sng, si quang nh th c gi l si n mode (SMF- Single Mode Fiber). R rng ta thy si n mode khc phc c hon ton tn sc mode. V th tc truyn dn c ci thin ng k v tng c c ly thng tin. Tuy nhin v si n mode vn c ch to t Silica nn n s cn chu nh hng ca cc loi n sc khc nh tn sc sc th v tn sc phn cc mode. Trong tn sc sc th l nguyn nhn chnh gy hn ch tc bt. By gi ta s i kho st hin tng tn sc sc th trong si quang. y khng mt tnh tng qut khi ta xt tn sc sc th trong si n mode. C th ni nguyn nhn 14

su xa ca tn sc sc th l do b pht quang (LED, LAZER) khng pht ra nh sng n sc (nh sng ch c mt bc sng), m n pht ra mt chm tia sng c bc sng trung m (ti cng sut pht cc i) v cc bc sng bin, hay cn gi l rng ph ngun pht. Tc l ngun pht pht ra nh sng nm trong mt di tn (di bc sng). M nh ta bit th chit sut ca si lm t Silica l mt hm ph thuc vo bc sng (hay tn s), nn vn tc lan truyn ca cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau l khc nhau, v n ph thuc vo bc sng theo cng thc sau: Tn sc sc th c hai nguyn nhn sinh ra n: Th nht nh ta bit l cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau di chuyn vi vn tc khc nhau, v tn sc do nguyn nhn ny ngi ta gi l tn sc vt liu, y l nguyn nhn ch yu ca tn sc sc th. Tuy nhin cn c thnh phn tn sc th hai l tn sc ng dn sng, m nguyn nhn sinh ra n l do nng lng nh sng truyn i c mt phn trong li v mt phn trong lp bc. S phn b nng lng gia li v lp bc l mt hm ca bc sng, c th l nu bc sng di hn th nng lng trong lp bc nhiu hn. Nh vy nu bc sng thay i, s phn b nng lng s thay i v kt qu l h s lan truyn cng thay i. y chnh l s gii thch cho tn sc ng dn sng. Bn cnh tn sc sc th v tn sc phn cc mode, trong si quang cn tn ti mt loi tn sc khng km phn quan trng l tn sc vn tc nhm. Nh ta bit, u im chnh ca si n mode l khng c tn sc mode bi v nng lng a vo xung ch c chuyn ch bi mt mode n duy nht. Tuy nhin s m rng xung khng bin mt hon ton, v vn tc nhm ca mode c bn th ph thuc vo tn s do tn sc sc th. Kt qu l cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung truyn c vn tc nhm khc nhau mt cht, v tn sc c nguyn nhn nh trn c gi l tn sc vn tc nhm. 2.2.3 Tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD Group Velocity Dispersion) Xt si n mode c chiu di L. Mt thnh phn ph ring bit ti bc sng c tn s gc l s n ng ra cui si quang sau mt tr v mt thi gian l T=L/vg Trong vg l vn tc nhm v c nh ngha l:

(1) Bng cch p dng c th tnh c ( l hng s lan truyn) vo phng trnh(1) ta trong ng l chit sut nhm v c cho bi : 15

(2) S ph thuc vo tn s ca vn tc nhm dn n s m rng xung, n gin l biv cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung b tn sc trong sut s lan truyn v khng n ng ra ca si cng mt lc. Nu l rng ph ca xung th phm vi m rng xung i vi si c chiu di L c cho bi:

(3) trong phng trnh (1) c s dng bin i. Tham s c gi l tham s tn sc vn tc nhm . N quyt nh xung quang b m rng bao nhiu khi lan truyn trong si. Trong mt s h thng Thng Tin Quang, s tri ra v mt tn s c quyt nh bi di cc bc sng pht bi ngun quang. Thng thng ta s dng thay cho Bng cch s dng

Phng trnh (3) c th c vit li:

(4) trong

(5) D c gi l h s tn sc v c n v l ps/km-nm. [1] nh hng ca tn sc ln tc bt B c th c c tnh bng cch s dng iu kin B. T<1. Bng cch s dng T trong phng trnh (4) th iu kin ny tr thnh: (6) Phng trnh ny cho ta mt c tnh v tch B.L ca si quang n mode. i vi si quang n mode chun th D tng i nh trong vng bc sng 1,3m (D xp x1ps/km-nm) . i vi Lazer bn dn c rng ph t 2 n 4nm th gi tr B.L c 16

th vt qu 100Gbps-km . Trong thc t ta c cc h thng hot ng ti bc sng1,3m ctc bt l 2Gbps vi khong cch trm lp t 40 n 50km. Gi tr B.L ca si n modec th vt qu 1Tbps-km khi Lazer bn dn n mode c s dng gim di1nm. H s tn sc D thay i ng k khi bc sng lm vic dch ra khi 1,3 m. S ph thuc vo bc sng ca D l do s ph thuc vo tn s ca chit sut mode n. T phng trnh (5) D c th c vit li:

(7) trong phng trnh (2) c s dng bin i. Ngi ta chng minh c D c th c vit nh l tng ca hai s hng: [1] D = DM + DW (8) trong DM l tn sc vt liu, DW l tn sc ng dn sng v c cho bi:

(8)

(9) y n2g l chit sut nhm ca lp bc, V l tn s chun ha, b l hng s lantruyn chun ha, l s chnh lch chit sut tng i gia li v lp bc. Trong cc phng trnh t (8) n (10) th tham s c xem l c lp vi tn s. 2.2.4 Tn sc vt liu (Material Dispersion) Tn sc vt liu xy ra do chit sut ca Silica (nguyn liu c s dng ch to si quang) thay i theo tn s quang (tc ph thuc vo bc sng tn hiu). Hnh sau y s cho thy s ph thuc vo bc sng ca chit sut (n) v chit sut nhm (ng) trong di t 0,5m n 1,6m i vi si Silica nng chy.

17

S thay i ca chit sut n v chit sut nhm ng theo bc sng ca silica nng chy Tn sc vt liu (DM) c lin h vi dc ca ng bi cng thc (9) nh sau:

M v dng /d= 0 ti bc sng 1,276m nn DM = 0 ti ZD=1,276m (ZD c gi l bc sng tn sc 0). H s tn sc DM m khi < ZD v dng khi > ZD. Trongdi bc sng t 1,25 n 1,66 m th DM c th c xp x bng cng thc : (11) Lu : ZD ch bng 1,276 m i vi si Silica thun khit. Gi tr ca ZD c th thay i trong di t 1,27 n 1,29 m i vi si quang m li v lp bc c pha tp cht thay i chit sut. Bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) ca si quang cng ph thuc vo bn knh li (a) v bc nhy chit sut () ca si quang. 2.2.5 Tn sc ng dn sng (Waveguide Dispersion) Trong si a mode, tn sc ng dn sng l mt phn nh trong tn sc tng, do thng thy thut ng tn sc sc th v tn sc cht liu c th s dng hon chuyn cho 18

nhau khi xt si a mode. Nhng i vi si n mode th tn sc ng dn sng li l mt thnh phn tn sc quan trng. Tn sc vt liu v tn sc ng dn sng ph thuc ln nhau v do ta phi xt chng cng nhau . Do xp x nn ta c th b qua s ph thuc xt ring chng. Tn sc ng dn sng xut hin l do nh sng c truyn bi cu trc l si quang.C ch gy ra tn sc ng dn sng trong si n mode nh sau: Sau khi i vo si quang,mt xung nh sng mang thng tin s c phn b gia li v lp bc nh c minh ha hnh sau:

S phn b cng nh sng trong si n mode. MDF l ng knh trng mode. Hai thnh phn nh sng trong li v lp bc truyn vi vn tc khc nhau (do li vlp bc c chit sut khc nhau), nn n cui si quang vo cc thi im khc nhau gyra tn sc.T hnh trn ta thy tn sc ng dn sng ph thuc vo s phn b trng modegia li v lp bc, tc ph thuc vo ng knh ca trng mode (MFD Mode FieldDiameter) m MFD li ph thuc vo bc sng, do tn sc ng dn sng l ph thucvo bc sng. Tn sc ng dn sng (DW) c tnh nh trong phng trnh (10) v ph thucvo tham s V ( tn s chun ha ) ca si.

Hnh sau cho thy s thay i ca d(Vb)/dV v Vd2(Vb)/dV2 theo V

19

Tn s chun ha V T hnh ta thy c d(Vb)/dV v Vd2(Vb)/dV2 u dng nn theo cng thc (10) th DW m trong ton b di bc sng t 0 n 1,6m. Hnh sau y s cho thy DM , DW v tng ca chng D= DM + DW ca mt si quang n mode thng thng.

Tn sc tng cng D v s phn b tng i ca tn sc cht liu (DM) v tn sc ng dn sng (DW) ca si n mode thng. Bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) dch n gi tr cao hn nh s phn b ng dn sng. Ta thy tn sc ng dn sng (DW) lm cho bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) dch khong 30 n 40nm tn sc tng (D) bng 0 gn bc sng 1,31m. Ngoi ra, tn sc ng dn sng cn lm gim tn sc tng t gi tr tn sc vt liu (DM) trong di bc sng t 1,3m n 1,6m. Gi tr tiu biu ca D l t 15 n 18ps/(km-nm) gn bc sng1,55m. Khi D ln s hn ch hot ng ca h thng ti bc sng 1,55 m. V DW 20

ph thuc vo tham s si nh bn knh li a v s chnh lch chit sut nn ta c th thit k si bc sng tn sc 0 dch n ln cn gi tr 1,55m. Si nh th gi l si dch tn sc. Ta cn c th ghp s phn b ng dn sng D tng i nh qua mt di bc sng t 1,3m n 1,6m, si loi ny gi l si san bng tn sc. Hnh sau y cho thy cc v d tiu biu v s ph thuc bc sng ca D i vi si chun (si thng), si dch tn sc v si san bng tn sc.

S ph thuc vo bc sng ca h s tn sc D i vi si chun, si dch tn sc v si san bng tn sc. 2.2.6 Tn sc bc cao hn (Higher-Order Dispersion) T phng trnh (6) ta thy gi tr B.L ca si n mode c th tng ln n v cng khi hot ng ti bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) v D=0. Tuy nhin cc nh hng tn sc khng bin mt hon ton ti bc sng tn sc 0. Cc xung quang vn b tri rng do nh hng ca tn sc bc cao hn. Tn sc tng (D) khng th bng 0 ti tt c cc bc sng trong di ph ca mt xung tp trung ti bc sng tn sc 0. R rng l s ph thuc vo bc sng ca D s ng mt vai tr quan trng trong s m rng xung. Cc nh hng ca tn sc bc cao hn b chi phi bi dc tn sc S=dD/d, tham s S cn c gi l tham s tn sc vi phn. Gi tr ca dc tn sc (S) ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic thit k cc h thng WDM hin nay. V S > 0 i vi hu ht cc loi si, cc knh khc nhau c gi tr GVD hi khc nhau. iu ny gy kh khn cho vic b tn sc tt c cc knh cng mt lc. gii quyt vn ny, cc loi si quang mi c pht trin, chng c S khng nhng nh ( dc tn sc gim) m cn m (si tn sc ngc). Bng sau cho ta danh sch cc c tnh ca cc loi si hin c trn th trng. 21

c tnh ca mt s loi si quang c tnh thng mi trn th trng:

T phng trnh (6) ta thy gii hn tc bt ca knh hot ng ti bc sng tn sc 0 (ZD) l v cng ln. Tuy nhin khng ng nh th, v S s tr thnh nhn t gii hn trong trng hp ny. Chng ta c th c tnh tc bt gii hn bng vic ch l i vi ngun c rng ph gi tr hiu dng ca h s tn sc tr thnh D=S.[1]v phng trnh (6) tr thnh : (12)

i vi Lazer bn dn a mode c = 2nm v mt si quang dch tn sc c S=0,05ps/(km-nm2) ti bc sng 1,55m th B.L t 5Tbps-km (gi tr ny s c ci thin nu dng Lazer bn dn n mode). 2.2.7 Tn sc phn cc mode (Polarization Mode Dispersion) Ngun gc ca s m rng xung trong trng hp ny c lin quan n s khc x hai ln (Birefringence) ca si ( ln lt l chit sut mode ca cc mode phn cc trc giao). S khng i xng trn ca li to ra s phn x hai ln do chit sut mode ng vi cc thnh phn phn cc trc giao ca mode c bn l khc nhau. Nu xung ng vo kch c hai thnh phn phn cc th n tr nn rng hn do hai thnh phn tn sc dc theo si c vn tc nhm khc nhau. Hin tng ny gi l tn sc phn cc mode (PMD). Trong nhng si c Bm l hng s (v d si duy tr phn cc) s m rng xung c tnh t tr v mt thi gian gia hai trng thi phn cc trong sut qu trnh lan truyn xung l T. i vi si c chiu di L th T c cho bi:

22

(13) trong x, y dng ch hai mode phn cc trc giao; 1c lin h vi chnh lch vn tc nhm ca hai trng thi phn cc. Phng trnh (1) c s dng c s lin h gia vgvi hng s lan truyn , v T/L l i lng nh gi PMD. i vi si duy tr phn cc th T/L ln (khong 1ns/km) khi hai thnh phn c kch bng nhau ti ng vo ca si, nhng c th gim n 0 nh a nh sng dc mt trc chnh . i vi si thng th hi khc v Birefringence thay i dc theo chiu di si mt cch ngu nhin. i vi mt xung quang, trng thi phn cc cn khc i vi cc thnh phn ph khc nhau ca xung. Trng thi phn cc cui cng khng l s quan tm i vi hu ht cc h thng Thng Tin Quang v Photodetector dng trong b thu khng nhy vi trng thi phn cc tr khi s dng tch sng Coherent. Vn nh hng n cc h thng nh th ny khng phi l trng thi phn cc ngu nhin nhng xung li b m rng do s thay i ngu nhin ca Birefringence. Mt xung quang khng c phn cc dc theo hai trng thi chnh chia lm hai phn lan truyn vi tc khc nhau. tr nhm vi sai T ln nht i vi hai trng thi phn cc chnh

2.3 nh hng ca tn sc trong h thng thng tin quang: Khi s dng EDFA trn tuyn th vn suy hao c gii quyt, c ly truyn dn c nng ln r rt, nhng tng tn sc cng tng ln. Do , li yu cu phi gii quyt vn tn sc, nu khng, khng th thc hin c vic truyn thng tin tc cao v truyn dn c ly di. By gi, nh hng ca hiu ng tn sc si quang li l mt yu t hn ch ch yu, nht l i vi h thng tc cao li cng th hin r rt. V d, si quang G. 652 tn sc tc 2,5 Gbit/s c ly b hn ch khong 928 km, nu tc 23

tng ln 10 Gbit/s th c ly truyn dn b hn ch ch cn 58 km. Bng 2.4 ni v c ly b hn ch bi tn sc khi khng c trm lp.Bn cht ca tn sc l s gin rng xung tn hiu khi truyn dn trn si quang. Tn sc nh hng n cc si n mode bao gm: tn sc vn tc nhm, tn sc phn cc mode, tn sc bc cao v tn sc dn sng.

Phng php xc nh nh hng ca tn sc n h thng thng tin quang thng qua tnh ton qu cng sut h thng PB bng vic thit k di tuyn c thit lp theo cng thc (14). (14) Trong Pt(t) : cng sut tn hiu pht c tnh c nh hng chirp phi tuyn. G: khuch i ca cc b EDFA. PM : cng sut d phng ca h thng PD : cng sut tn tht do tn sc, y chnh l cng sut tng ng do nng lng ph ca xung tn hiu b dn ra ngoi khe thi gian nh sinh ra. Pp : cng sut n b lng cng sut mt mt. Ps (G,NF): nhy thu c tnh c nh hng ca b khuch i v nhiu ca EDFA Ns , Nc l s mi hn v s mi ni quang

24

Hnh sau y l kt qu tnh ton tm thy s mt mt cng sut ca h thng do tn sc gy ra i vi h thng 1 Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s. Kt qu cho thy h thng 2,5 Gbit/s b tn tht cng sut h thng nhiu hn so vi h thng 1 Gbit/s vi cng mt gi tr tn sc. i vi tc bt 2,5 Gbit/s, cng sut b mt mt l khng ng k khi tn sc nh hn 100ps/nm. Tuy nhin, mt mt cng sut tng dn dn trong khong t 100ps/nm n200ps/nm. Khi tn sc vt qu 200ps/nm, lng cng sut quang b tn tht rt nhanh. gi tr 300ps/nm th cng sut mt mt ln ti 4dB. Trong khi tc 1 Gbit/s, s mt mt cng sut trong trng hp ny gn bng 0 khi tn sc nh hn 100ps/nm, ti gitr 760ps/nm thi cng sut mt mt l 4 dB. Nh vy, r rng rng tn sc lm gii hn ng k tc truyn dn ca h thng thng tin quang.

Kt qu tnh ton lng cng sut b tn tht ph thuc vo tn sc cho h thng 1Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s. Hnh di l kt qu tnh ton xc nh lng cng sut tn hiu b mt mt cho cc h thng thng tin quang 2,5Gbit/s vi cc Laser c ph rng 0,1 nm, 0,2 nm, v 0,3 nm. T kt qu thu c c th thy rng nhn chung, lng cng sut b tn tht s tng nhanh khi c ly truyn dn tng.

25

Cng sut quang b mt khi tng c ly truyn dn ca h thng 2,5 Gbit/s. Nh vy, mc d cc h thng cng b mt cng sut khi c ly truyn dn tng. Tuynhin, cc ngun pht khc nhau s gy ra s mt tn hiu cng khc nhau. Khi rng phngun pht l 0,1 nm, mt mt cng sut xy ra l 4,5 dB khi c ly truyn dn di 52 km. i vi cc h thng c ph ngun pht pht rng 0,2 nm v 0,3 nm, cng sut b tn thttng ng l 4,5 dB ti 26 km v 6,2 dB ti c ly ch cn 18 km. Khi tng c ly vt qu cc gi tr trn, tn hiu b mt qu ln v khng th thit k c h thng thc tin k cc s dng khuch i quang si. y l cc h thng s dng si G.652 c h tn scD=18ps/km.nm. Nh vy, trong h thng thng tin quang, ngoi suy hao quang, c nhiu tham s tng tc ti tn sc si gy nh hng ti h thng v lm mt i ng k lng cng sut tn hiu. l cc tham s: C ly truyn dn, tham s tn sc, tc bt ca h thng v ph ngun pht.

26

CHNG 3: CC PHNG PHP B TN SC TRONGTHNG TIN QUANG 3.1 S cn thit ca vic qun l tn sc Nh chng ta xem xt Chng 2 nh hng ca tn sc c tc ng rt ln ncht lng h thng thng tin quang ni chung v h thng thng tin quang tc caoWDM ni ring. Tn sc gy ra hin tng dn rng xung, gy mo tn hiu, lm tng ccli bit xy ra, nh hng ln n tc truyn dn ca h thng. C th gim thiu nhhng ca tn sc vn tc nhm ( GVD ) nu s dng cc laser ph hp v khi cng gn vi bc sng tn sc zero ZD ca si quang. Tuy nhin khng phi lc no cng kt hp gia bc sng hot ng v ZD . C th ly v d v cc h thng trn mt t thuc th hth ba hot ng gn bc sng =1,55 m.V s dng cc thit b pht quang laze hitip phn tn ( DFB ). Nhng h thng nh vy nhn chung u s dng mng li cpquang c xy dng trong nhng nm 1980 bao gm hn 50 triu km chiu di ca sin mode tiu chun vi ZD 1,31m. Do tham s tn sc D 16 ps/(km.nm) trong di bc sng 1,55mca si n mode, do GVD s hn ch tnh nng khi tc bitvt qu 2Gb/s. iu bin trc tip laze DFB, chng ta c th s dng phng trnh:B.L.|D|. 1/4 (vi l rng ph ngun RMS trong ca ngun) c tnh khongcch truyn dn ti a nh sau: (1) Trong s l rng RMS ca ph xung c dn rng ng k bi dch tns. Khi s dng D = 16 ps/(km.nm) v s = 0,15 nm trong phng trnh (1), cc h thng sng nh sng hot ng tc 2,5 Gb/s u b gii hn mc L 42 km. Thc t,nhng h thng nh th thng s dng cc thit b ti to in t nm cch nhau 40 km,v khng tn dng c tnh kh dng ca cc b khuch i quang. Ngoi ra, tc bitca chng cng khng th vt qu 2,5 Gb/s v l do c ly ca thit b ti to l qu nh c th m bo kh thi v mt kinh t. Tnh nng ca h thng c th c ci thin ng k bng cch s dng thit b iuch ngoi, nh vy c th trnh c hin tng dn rng ph do dch tn s. Cch nyc ng dng cc loi my pht laze DFB thng mi vi mt b iu ch tch hp gnlin. Vi s = 0 hn ch c hn ch khi my pht s dng loi si tiu chun. Khongcch truyn gii hn khi s c tnh nh sau: (2)

27

Trong 2 l h s GVD lin quan ti D. Nu thay gi tr 2 = -20 ps2/km, ti bcsng 1,55m, th L < 500 km v t tc 2,5 Gb/s. Mc d c ci thin ng k sovi laze DFB iu ch trc tip, nhng gii hn tn sc ny vn ng c lu tm khi ccthit b khuch i ng truyn c s dng b suy hao. Hn na, nu tc bit t10 Gb/s, khong cch truyn gii hn GVD s gim xung ch cn 30 km, y l mc quthp cc thit b khuch i quang c th c s dng trong vic thit k cc h thng bc sng nh sng nh vy. T phng trnh 2 ta c th thy rng gi tr GVD tng iln ca si n mode tiu chun s lm hn ch tnh nng ca cc h thng 1,55m cthit k s dng trong mng li vin thng hin c khi tc bit t 10 Gb/s hoc caohn na. c mt s m hnh qun l tn sc c a ra gii quyt vn mang tnhthc tin ny. Nn tng ca nhng m hnh l kh n gin v c th hiu c da trn phng trnh lan truyn c vit nh sau:

(3) Trong A l bin bao xung. Nhng nh hng ca tn sc bc ba c k hiul 3. Trong thc t, k hiu ny c th s khng c s dng nu |2| ln hn 0,1 ps2/km.Gii phng trnh (3) s c kt qu nh sau :

(4) Xt khi 3= 0, ta c kt qu nh sau:

Vvv Trong , (0, )l khai trin Fourier ca A (0, t).

(5)

S suy bin gy ra tn sc ca tn hiu quang l do h s pha t gi tr exp(i2z/2) bi cc thnh phn ph ca xung trong qu trnh lan truyn trong si. Tt c cc m hnhqun l tn sc u c gng loi b h s pha ny nhm phc hi li cc tn hiu u vo, c p dng trong my pht, my thu hoc dc theo ng truyn si quang.

28

3.2 K thut b tn sc trc (Precompensation) K thut ny da trn nguyn l chung l sa c tnh xung ng vo ca b pht trc khi a vo si, l thay i bin ph ca xung ng vo (0,) nh sau:

trong L l chiu di si. Khi tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) s c b chnhxc v xung vn gi nguyn dng ti ng ra.K thut ny gm c k thut Prechirp, k thut m ha Novel v k thut Prechirp phi tuyn. iu ch FM v AM tn hiu quang cng mt lc th khng cn thit i vi vic btn sc, nn ngi ta dng kha dch tn (FSK) cho vic truyn tn hiu. Tn hiu FSK cthc hin bng vic chuyn mch bc sng ca Lazer lch nhau mt lng l gia bt0 v bt 1. Hai bc sng s lan truyn trong si vi tc hi khc nhau. Thi gian tr gia bt 1 v bt 0 ph thuc vo vic dch bc sng v c tnhtheo cng thc:

v ta chn sao cho S tr ny to ra tn hiu quang ba mc ti u thu. Hnh sau y cho ta thy s trhon mt bt to ra tn hiu quang ba mc nh th no. Do tn sc ca si nn tn hiu FSK s chuyn sang tn hiu c bin c iu ch. V tn hiu ny c th c gii m uthu nh s dng b tch phn in kt hp vi mch quyt nh bt.

B tn sc dng m ha FSK: a) Tn s quang v cng sut tn hiu pht; b) Tn s v cng sut tn hiu thu v d liu in c gii m. Mt phng php khc l m ha cp nh phn c th lm gim bng thng ca tnhiu cn 50%. Trong phng php m ha ny, hai bt k tip nhau trong chui nh 29

phngp li hnh thnh mt m cp nh phn ba mc tc bt ch bng mt na. V tn scvn tc nhm (GVD) ph thuc vo rng bng ca tn hiu, nn khong cch truyn cth tng nh gim bng tn ca tn hiu.Tc bt 10Gbps s dng m ha cp nh phn th c ly truyn dn c th tngthm 30 n 40km so vi m ha nh phn.M ha cp nh phn c th kt hp vi k thut lch tn trc.Trong thc t truyn c tn hiu tc bt 10Gbps qua c ly 160km si thngnh kt hp m ha cp nh phn vi b iu ch ngoi c C > 0. 3.3 K thut b tn sc trn ng dy (In-line) 3.3.1 B tn sc bng si quang DCF Cc k thut b tn sc trc c th tng khong cch ln gp i nhng nkhng thch hp cho cc h thng c c ly ln, trong tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) phic b dc theo ng dy truyn dn theo chu k. Cc k thut b trn cc h thng nhth ny phi m bo ch ton quang, t trn si (ch khng phi t trn b pht hay b thu). V mt loi si c bit n l si b tn sc.Trong thc t nng cp cc h thng thng tin quang s dng si chun hin c,ngi ta thm vo mt on si b tn sc (vi chiu di t 6 n 8km) i vi cc bkhuch i quang t cch nhau 60 n 80km. Si b tn sc s b tn sc vn tc nhm(GVD), trong khi b khuch i s m ng nhim v b suy hao cho si. Ngi ta thng s dng si DCF kt hp vi cc b khuch i OA (thng sdng b EDFA) b tn sc trn tuyn quang, v ty vo v tr t DCF m c cc kiu b nh sau:

S dng si DCF trn tuyn quang Chi tit v si DCF s c ni r chng sau.

30

K thut b bng cch s dng cc b b tn sc quang in t c th tng khongcch truyn ln 2 ln, tuy nhin n li khng ph hp vi cc h thng ng di, h thngny yu cu GVD phi c b lin tc theo chu k dc theo ng truyn. c bit trongcc h thng ton quang vic s dng cc b b tn sc quang in t l khng ph hp. Vth ngi ta ngh ra mt si quang c bit gi l si quang b tn sc (DCF :Dispersion Compensating Fiber). Vic s dng si DCF cho cc h thng ton quang c th b GVD mt cch ng k nu cng sut quang trung b?nh c gi nh th cc hiung phi tuyn bn trong si l khng ng k. Vic s dng si DCF b tn sc ht sc n gin l ch cn t si DCF xen vogia, do c im ca si DCF l c tn sc m, ngha l khi tn hiu xung nh sng iqua si ny th xung nh sng s co li dn, hin tng ny ngc vi si SMF xungnh sng b gin ra do tn sc, do vic xung nh sng b gin ra gii quyt c. Si quang DCF phi c h s tn sc GVD(Group-Velocity Dispersion ) 1,55ml D2<0 cn trong si quang thng thng D1>0. Hn na chiu di si quang cng cla chn tha iu kin :

Trong thc t ngi ta c gng chn L2 nh nht nu c th, trng hp ny xykhi si DCF c gi tr m D2 rt nh (hay |D2| rt ln) H s tn sc D c gi tr -420ps /(nm.km) bc sng 1550nm v thay i nhiu cc bc sng khc. y l mt c tnh quan trng cho php b tn sc bng rng. Nimt cch tng qut si DCF c thit k D tng theo bc sng. S ph thuc vo bc sng ca h s tn sc D l mt c tnh quan trng DCF c th hot ng trongcc h thng WDM.

31

Ph tn sc ca si DCF y l phng php n gin nht qun l tn sc trong cc h thng WDM dunglng cao vi s lng knh ln ngha ca ng bao tn sc c hiu t iu kin

Nhng ch p dng cho mt knh, khi c nhiu knh tha mn cho tt c cc knhth cn iu kin :

Trong : n l bc sng ca knh th n. D1 tng vi bc sng tng cho c hai si chun v si dch tn sc, kt qu l tnsc tch ly D1L1 l khc nhau cho mi knh. Nu cng mt DCF phi lm vic cho tt ccc knh, ng bao tn sc ca n nn m v c gi tr tha mn cho tt c cc knh.ng bao tn sc ca DCF:

Trong : S l ng bao tn sc (ps/(nm2km)T s S/D l ng bao tn sc quan h (1/nm)Vi si chun D16ps/nm.km v S0.05ps/nm.km, t s ny khong 0.003nm-1.Vth, cho DCF vi D- 100ps/nm.km th ng bao tn sc khong -0.3 ps/nm2km.

32

b tn sc cho mt khong cch 90 Km cho si G.652 ta cn phi s dng xp x9 Km DCF. Thng s suy hao in hnh ca DCF thng thng gp ti trn 3 ln so vi siquang chun, h s tn sc phn cc mode PMD cng gp i, do din tch hiu dngca DCF l v cng nh.

3.3.2 B tn sc bng b lc quang Nguyn l ca phng php ny nh sau: gi s hm truyn t ca b lc quang lH() th nh hng ca n i vi pha ca xung tn hiu c th hin bi cng thc

Bng cch trin khai pha ca H() theo chui Taylor v gi s hng bc hai s c:

y 33

m = 0, 1,... c c lng ti tn s sng mang quang 0 Pha hng s v tr thi gian s khng nh hng n dng xung v c th b qua. Pha phdo si sinh ra c b bng cch chn b lc quang sao cho c

khi xung cth c phc hi hon ton

C nhiu loi b lc quang c hm truyn t ph hp vi yu cu ny v c thc s dng lm cc b b tn sc trong c bit ni bt l cc loi b lc cu trc bung cng hng Fabry Perot v b lc giao thoa k Mach Zehnder. 3.3.3 B tn sc bng tn hiu quang lin hp pha OPC K thut OPC (Optical phase conjugation) lin hp pha quang i hi 1 phn tquang phi tuyn m c th to ra tn hiu pha lin hp. Thng thng ngi ta dng phng php trn 4 bc sng (FWM- Four wave mixing) trong vng phi tuyn, v bnthn si quang t n l mt mi trng phi tuyn, (cch n gin l dng mt si quang divi km c thit k mt cch c bit ti a hiu ng FWM).Tim nng ca k thut OPC c chng minh mt th nghim 1999 vi 1 bkt hp c bn FWM c s dng b tn sc vn tc nhm GVD tc 40 Gb/s trnchiu di 140 km si quang tiu chun. Hu ht cc cuc th nghim v b tn sc c nghin cu trn khong cch truynl vi trm km. i vi ng truyn di hn n t ra vn k thut OPC c th b tnsc vn tc nhm GVD cho chiu di ln n hng ngn km si quang m c dng cc b khuch i b suy hao c hay khng. Trong 1 th nghim m phng, tn hiu tc 10 Gb/s c th truyn trn 6000 km trong khi ch s dng cng sut trung b?nh di mc3mW gim hiu ng phi tuyn si quang. Trong 1 nghin cu khc cho thy b khuch i ng 1 vai tr quan trng. Vi khong cch truyn trn 9000 km c th thc hin c bng cch gi cc b khuch i cho mi on 40 km. S la chn bc sng hot ng, c bit l bc sng tn sc khng c ngha then cht. Trong vng tn sc d thng, cng sut ca tn hiu bin i tun hon dc chiu di si quang. iu ny c th dn ti vic to ra cc (di bin) sideband do hin tng bt n iu ch. 34

Tnh khng n nh ny c th c trnh nu thng s tn sc tng i ln(D>10 ps/(km-nm)). y l trng hp i vi si quang chun bc sng gn 1.55m. Hin nhin rng khong cch truyn ti a lun l vn quan trng i vi nhiu hang snxut, nh k thut trn 4 bc sng FWM, khong cch dng b khuch i c th gim xung di 3000 km. 3.3.4 B tn sc bng cch t Bragg(c trong ti liu khc) Nguyn l ch to si cch t b tn sc da trn iu kin phn x Bragg:
2n

3.1

Trong : n = 1, 2, 3, ... l bc ca cch t l bc sng nh sng

Hnh 3.1. Nguyn l phng php b tn sc bng cch t si Bragg Si cch t Bragg c ch to bng cch dng tia t ngoi chiu qua mt mt n nh sng vo si quang n mode chun to ra cc vng c chit sut khc nhau phn b dc theo chiu di z ca si. b li tn sc vn tc nhm GVD, chu k quang ca cch t c ch to sao cho n gim dc theo di ca n cho ra GVD chun (2>0). Trong si quang n mode tiu chun, cc thnh phn tn s cao ca xung s lan truyn nhanh hn cc thnh phn tn s thp. V bc sng Bragg gim dc theo di cch t cho nn cc thnh phn tn s cao s di chuyn thm vo cch t trc khi c phn x v phi chu tr nhiu hn cc thnh phn tn s thp. Nh vy tr tng i c xut hin do cch t s b li GVD do si v b c tn sc si. Tham s tn sc 35

Dg ca cch t c di Lg c xc nh bng mi lin h sau


TR Dg Lg

3.2

Trong TR l thi gian i vng bn trong cch t v l s sai khc v cc bc 2 Lg sng Bragg ti hai u ca cch t. V biu thc sau
Dg TR 2n Lg c

Tg

cho nn tn sc cch t c cho bi

3.3

Trn thc t cc loi si b tn sc cch t Bragg c thng mi ha rng ri trn th trng v chng c u im l thit b hon ton th ng, kch thc nh gn trong khi b c lng tn sc ln, d dng trong vic ghp ni vi si quang v suy hao xen nh. Tuy nhin chng cng c mt nhc im l cn s n nh v nhit cao do ch mt thay i nh v chiu di si cch t cng c th lm thay i hon ton c tnh b tn sc ca chng. 3.4 K thut b sau (post compensation) Cc k thut trong min in c th c dng b tn sc vn tc nhm (GVD) trong my thu. Ta d dng cn bng nh hng ca tn sc bng k thut in nu si quang hot ng nh mt h thng tuyn tnh Vic b s d dng hn nu b thu Heterodyne c s dng tch tn hiu: b thu ny u tin chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu vi ba ti tn s trung tn IF IF v vn gi thng tin v bin v pha. Mt b lc thng di hot ng tn s vi ba vi p ng xung c hm truyn t l:

trong L l chiu di si. B lc ny s khi phc li dng tn hiu ban u ca tn hiu nhn c. K thut ny thc t nht i vi h thng Coherent. Nhng ta bit l b thu Coherent thng khng thc t (v mt s l do) so vi b tch sng trc tip, v mch in tuyn tnh khng th b GVD trong trng hp ny. Vn l do thng tin v pha b mt khi tch sng trc tip do b tch sng ch p ng bin quang. Khi mt k thut cn bng khng tuyn tnh c th c s dng.

36

Mt phng php khc na l vic quyt nh mt bt c thc hin sau khi xem xt dng sng (dng tng t) qua mt khong nhiu bt xung quanh bt ta cn quyt nh. Kh khn ca k thut ny l i hi mch in logic hot ng ti tc bt ca tn hiu v tnh phc tp ca n tng theo hm m ca s lng bt qua n (s lng bt m mt xung quang b tri rng ra do GVD).K thut cn bng v mt in thng b gii hn do tc bt t c thp v khong cch truyn ngn. Mt k thut cn bng quang in da trn mt b lc ngang (transversal filter) c a ra. Trong k thut ny b chia cng sut ti my thu chia tn hiu quang nhn c thnh nhiu nhnh, cc nhnh c tr khc nhau. Tn hiu quang trn mi nhnh c chuyn sang dng in nh s dng cc photodetector c nhy c th thay i, v tng dng in quang c s dng cho mch quyt nh bt. K thut ny c th tng khong cch truyn dn ln gp ba ln i vi h thng hot ng tc 5Gbps.

37

KT QU THU C TRONG CHUYN I THC TP 1. Thit b o ti ca em nghin cu v tn sc v b tn sc, hin tng tn sc c nh hng n vic suy hao cng sut quang trn ng truyn dn. Nn trong chuyn i thc t em thc tp v vic o suy hao cng sut quang da trn my o quang ODTR(optical time-domain reflectometer). My o cp quang l my o cc thng s v cp quang, y c th l thng s v im t, v suy hao im hn, suy hao ton tuyn, suy hao adaptor, suy hao u ni, cng sut phat, cng xut thu, nhy, gc, ng knh si, tn x, nhn bit si quang, o thng mch... OTDR c kh nng hin th hnh nh dng ha kt qu o, c kh nng tnh ton s l kt qu quang mt cch t ng, chnh xc, v l do x l hnh nh v tnh ton chnh xc ln my OTDR c tch hp rt nhiu cc module o, x l d liu. Chnh v l do ny ngi vn hnh my OTDR phi l ngi c hun luyn, o to chuyn su. Cc kt qu o OTDR thng c lu tr cn thn trong trng hp si quang b h hng hoc c yu cu bo hnh. Si quang hng c th gy thit hi nghim trng, trong c hai hai trng hp sa cha trc tip, v do hu qu ca vic mt dch v. Cc kt qu o OTDR thng c lu tr cn thn trong trng hp si quang b h hng hoc c yu cu bo hnh. Si quang hng c th gy thit hi nghim trng, trong c hai hai trng hp sa cha trc tip, v do hu qu ca vic mt dch v. Di ng quang ca mt my OTDR c gii hn bi s pha trn cc yu t nh rng xung, nhy u vo, cng sut u ra, v thi gian phn tch tn hiu. Cng sut u ra xung quang cng cao v nhy u vo cng tt, th s lm tng di o, v chng thng c tch hp v c c nh sn trn mi mt thit b ring l. Tuy nhin rng xung quang v thi gian phn tch tn hiu l do ngi dng c th hiu chnh c, v yu cu phi c cn bng vi mi ng dng ring bit. Mt OTDR c cng rng xung nh sng ln th vic o suy hao v phm vi o s trong phm vi cng rng. v d nh: Dng mt xung c rng ln s o xc nh c tnh c si quang c chiu di 100 km, tuy nhin cc s kin o ch xut hin t 1km tr ln, trong phm vi di 1km s khng xc nh c g. iu ny rt thch hp o c tnh ca on di nhng vi s kin ngn th khng n cht no. V vy ln OTDR phi c di cc xung c th o thay i cc on cn xc nh, on ngn th dng xung 38

ngn, on di dng xung di hn. Vng m khng xc nh c c tuyn, khng o c, gi l vng cht - hay vng m s kin. V mt l thuyt OTDR s o c tnh si mc chnh xc tt khi phn mm v b pht xung chun thch anh i km c chnh xc nh hn 0.01%. Hnh nh

39

Vic o suy hao cng sut quang c th s dng : Kim tra cc ch tiu k thut (specs). Kim tra sau lp t hay di chuyn Ghi nhn iu kin tt nht (bc sng hot ng hiu qu, bng thng ph hp). Kim tra li Xc nh v tr li Sa li Cc thi im cn o quang l: Ti nh my Khi nhn cp Sau khi lp t Sau v trong khi hn ni Nghim thu Bo dng nh k Sa cha v ng cu thng tin

40

Vic o quang c thc hin thng xuyn theo thng v tng cng do quang vo nhng thi im cao im. C th l mi thng o 2 ln, vo nhng khong thi gian cao im nh nhng dp l tt nhu cu s dng cc dch v tng cao th mi tun o mt ln. Nu pht hin s c xy ra s thc hin o quang kim tra xc nh v tr gp s c. Cc bc sng quang c dng ngy nay trong thng tin quang l: 850nm, 1300nm, 1310nm v 1550nm. Cng vic phi lm khi o quang l: Kim tra thng mch (continuity) Mt mt trung bnh (Average loss-dB/km) Mt mt v v tr ca mi hn Phn x (Optical return loss - ORL) Suy hao ton tuyn (end to end atten) Chiu di tuyn

2. S liu thc t thu c Suy hao bc sng 1310nm:

Suy hao bc sng 1550nm:

wavelength (nm) 1310 wavelength (nm) 1310 wavelength (nm) 1550

distance (km) 35 distance (km) 35 distance (km) 35

pulse width (ns) 100 pulse width (ns) 100 pulse width (ns) 100

splice loss 0.06 splice loss 0.11 splice loss 0.11

total loss 11.081 total loss 11.081 total loss 11.081

average loss (dB/km) 0.3166 average loss (dB/km) 0.3166 average loss (dB/km) 0.3166

41

wavelength (nm) 1550

distance (km) 35

pulse width (ns) 100

splice loss 0.11

total loss 11.081

average loss (dB/km) 0.3166

42