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! The part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences.!
ADVERBS of MANNER
The adverbs of manner indicate the way in which something happens: kindly , badly, well, fast, nicely, quickly, etc. An adverb of manner can usually be paraphrased by 'in a... manner'. When an adverb form exists, it is usually preferred over such a corresponding cognate prepositional phrase with 'manner' or 'way': He always writes carelessly, (preferred to He always writes in a careless manner). Adverbs of manner answer to the question 'How?': "How was your boy dressed up?" "Oh, cowboy-style." Adverbs of manner are usually formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective: wonderful ^wonderfully. Past participles form adverbs in -edly with the pronunciation [idli]: marked^* markedly learned=>learnedly assuredly assuredly Adjectives in '-ary' form adverbs in -arily with shift of stress to the antepenultimate syllable: secondary => secon 'darily 'primary => primarily AD VERBS OF MANNER ARE PLACED: After the direct object, if there is one They speak English flawlessly. After the verb, if there is no direct object: He was walking slowly. Before the verb, when this is in the passive: Discussions have been tentatively begun. Tear gas was indiscriminately sprayed on the protesters. Unmodified 'well' when preceded by 'can', 'could', 'may', or 'might' must be in a positive declarative clause; the effect is to imply probability where the auxiliary alone connoted only possibility: It may/might/can/could well be true that he beat her. (= it is quite likely to be true).
ADVERBS of PLACE
Adverbs of place indicate position: here, there, in the room, on the table, etc. They answer to the question: 'Where?'. Adverbs of place may be formed with the suffix '-wards': south => southwards The adverbs 'south', 'southwards', 'southward' (Am.E.) correspond to the prepositional phrase towards the south/east, etc.: The window faces south/southwards. This type of adverbs are placed: After the direct object if there is one: Mary brought her brother here. After the verb, when there is no direct object: / looked everywhere, but I couldn 'tfind my glasses. After an adverb of manner, if this exists in the sentence: The children were playing happily in the garden.
ADVERBS of TIME
Adverbs of time indicate the time at which something happened: then, yet, still, now, today, in the afternoon, etc. They answer to the question: When? ADVERBS OF TIME ARE PLACED: At the very beginning of the clause: Last night I went to the Opera. Then they went home. At the very end of the clause to which they belong. The end position is more usual: I met Tom yesterday.
etc. In other words.: He generally leaves home at seven. frequency responds to 'How often?'There are two major subclasses of time adjuncts of frequency: those showing definite frequency and those referring to indefinite frequency. 'periodically'. Phrases with'since' mark a period lasting till now. Low frequency 'occasionally'. 'invariably'. 'work' :I will lie down till in the afternoon. 'He'. Phrases with 'till' or 'until' are used to refer to any time before and not later. always. (= you can certainly. If 'still' is stressed in speech. 'leave' only in the negative:I will not finish till tomorrow. 'often'. We normally go to bed before midnight. 'commonly'. seldom.'yearly'.STILL' AS AD VERB OF TIME MEANING:'Still' means during the time of speaking. 'never' etc.'every other week/month etc. ADVERBIAL PHRASES of DURATION Adverbial phrases of duration indicate the period over which a certain activity evolves.': I shall be in my office every other day. 'rarely'. They are used:With continuity verbs: 'learn'. 'wait'. 'twice a week/month etc. 'seldom'.'.'normally'. 'ordinarily'. ever.'nightly'. etc. After the verb 'tobe':He is still abroad. USAGE Adverbs of time can be combined with the following elements to express duration:'SINCE' + an adverb indicating a point in time: / haven't seen him since January.. 'repeatedly':I have often told them to relax more. 'rain'. 'generally'. DEFINITE FREQUENCY USAGE: ADVERBS OF DEFINITE FREQUENCY express: Explicitly the times by which the frequency is measured 'hourly'. Frequency can sometimes be conceived in absolute terms without concern for the period of time or implied span of time. USAGE:'Still' is used to emphasize that the action or state continues: He is still abroad. POSITION:'Still' is usually placed: Before the main verb: He still studies to become a doctor. never. A past action lasting up to the present: / haven't seen her for three days. 'finish'. 'Always' when preceded by 'can' or 'could' must be in a positive declarative clause:You can always sleep on the floor.'regularly'. 'FOR'+ a period of time: I haven't seen him for 5 years. Phrases with 'ago' mark the start of a period going back from now.'biennially'. With point of time verbs: 'arrive'. sometimes.'daily'. 'sleep'. ADVERBS of FREQUENCY Adverbs of frequency indicate the frequency with which an action is performed: often. POSITION: THE INDEFINITE FREQUENCY ADVERBS ARE PLACED: . Phrases with 'for' can refer to: The past: / worked in the US for 5 years. rarely. INDEFINITE FREQUENCY USAGE: ADVERBS OF INDEFINITE FREQUENCY may indicate:Usual occurrence: 'usually'.'monthly'..) ADVERBS OF INDEFINITE FREQUENCY may indicate: High frequency: frequently'. 'come'. The future:We will be staying therefor two weeks. it expresses surprise or irritation: He is 'still in the bathroom. Period of time +'AGO': I talked to her 5 minutes ago.: We very seldom see our elder son these days.
emphasizers do not require that the constituent concerned be gradable. 'well'. Some emphasizers are:'actually'.'honestly'. ADVERBS OF DEGREE ARE USED to modify: Adjectives: He is quite a shy boy. the adverb of frequency is usually placed before the auxiliary:She hardly ever 'has met him. 'terribly'. 'virtually'. The adverbs 'in'. 'up'. Verb.'entirely'.'plainly'. etc. 'fully'. we don't worry if they are late. 'highly'. An intensifying adverb indicates a point on an abstractly conceived intensity scale.'Enough' follows the adjective or adverb that it modifies: He is tall enough to reach the ceiling. 'bitterly'. Before the verb or after the first auxiliary in case of compound forms:I am just going. and 'just'. 'obviously'. 'quite'. the constituent emphasized is gradable. INTENSIFIERS Intensifiers are broadly concerned with the semantic category of degree. For emphasis the adverb is placed at the beginning of a sentence: Normally.etc. 'hardly'.'For certain' and 'for sure' are. 'all but': . They apply to a predicate or to some part of the predicate. 'scarcely'. 'deeply'. 'completely'. I usually can. 'totally'. 'practically'. 'over'. which denote a high degree 'badly'. Adverbs: The dress looks quite well on you. 'enormously'. etc. 'round'. When the auxiliary is stressed. Downtoners have a generally lowering effect on the force of the verb or predication and many of them apply a scale to gradable verbs. They can be divided into four groups: Approximators: 'almost'. nevertheless.'barely'. EMPHASIZERS These adverbs are concerned with expressing the semantic role of modality.'indeed'.'literally'.'clearly'. Before the simple tenses of all the other verbs: We sometimes have guests for dinner. too. After the first auxiliary with tenses consisting of more than one verb:She can never understand. 'utterly':They fully appreciate our problems. Adverbs of frequency are often placed before auxiliaries when these are used alone. They may be amplifiers and downtoners.'really'. The verbs in question are largely expressive of attitude. Boosters.however. 'perfectly'. When.. 'thoroughly'. ADVERBS OF DEGREE ARE PLACED: Before the adjective or adverb it modifies: The play was fairly interesting. when placed at the beginning of a sentence are followed by verb + subject in that order:In came Tom. nearly. Amplifiers can be subdivided into: Maximizers. 'Used to' and 'have to' prefer the adverb in front of them: You hardly ever have to remind him. Adverbs of degree may be:emphasizers or intensifiers. 'nearly'. in addition to remarks or in answer to questions: Can you park your car here? Yes.'for certain'. 'forward'. 'by far':They greatly admire his music. 'extremely'.'simply'. I know I should take more exercise but I never do.quite. the adverbial takes on the force of an intensifier.'intensely'. In adding to the force of a constituent. Most emphasizers precede the item they emphasize:Joan will certainly object and so will Mary.'certainly'. and the ppint indicated may be relatively low or relatively high.Down fell half a dozen apples. They have a reinforcing effect on the truth value of the clause or part of the clause to which they apply. 'a great deal'. the following adverbs can modify verbs 'almost'. 'a good deal'.'surely'. 'strongly'. placed at the end: They don't know for certain. 'back'. 'severely'.'of course'(all these imply that what is being said is true) 'frankly'.'definitely'. ADVERBS of DEGREE Adverbs of degree make the word they modify weaker or stronger in meaning:almost.After the simple tense of 'be':He is never careful with the things he borrows. 'out'. 'nearly'. 'a lot'.'for sure'. 'altogether'. 'down'. just. which can denote the upper extreme of the scale 'absolutely'.
in cases such as: He did his sums wrong(ly)in that the last word in this sentence may be regarded either as the result of the verbal action's effect on the object or as a description of the course of the action.than: The rain cleared more quickly than I expected the. 'only'. the grammatical subject is the object of perception) The flowers loo wonderful. etc. Compromisers: 'kind of. etc. How we make comparisons using adverbs Adverbial comparisons can be made with the following: as. Minimizers: 'in the least'. 'slightly'. uniquely. extremely only really. 'somewhat'. A large number of adjectives + prepositions have become prepositional phrases and are found unchanged also where not attached to a noun. As most adverbs of manner have two or more syllables.:I didn 't enjoy it in the least. then there. 'a bit'. 'SHORTLY' means briefly' or 'soon'. (adj. Diminishers: 'partially'. 'little'. 'WARMLY'. 'least of all'. 'enough'.) Some of these when adding '-ly' to them change their meaning:'NEARLY' means almost'.:It rained more and more heavily comparative: Dave drives faster than anyone I know superlative: I work fastest when I'm under pressure ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES Some words can be used either as adjectives or adverbs without '-ly': It was a fast train. 'sufficiently'.'exclusive of 'preparatory to'.g.'contrary to'. 'rather'. as well as the verbs 'look' and 'sound' which do duty for 'see' and 'hear' are followed by: An adjective if they describe the subject (i.I almost resigned. 'at all'. earlier earliest).. Gradable adverbs form comparatives and superlatives as follows: adverb comparative superlative Same form as adjective: fast faster fastest -ly adverbs of manner: easily more easily most easily Some adverbs of frequency. rarely more rarely most rarely Exceptions: badly worse worst far farther farthest Many adverbs like early..: I kind of like him. 'barely'. Some adverbs of frequency form their comparative and superlative with more'less most/least (e. form their comparatives and superlatives in the same way as shorter adjectives (e. regardless of expense.. often has two comparative forms: more often and (less common) oftener.g. 'to some extent'..e... (adv. they form their comparatives and superlatives with more/less and most/least Other examples: more-'less/most'least briefly clearly guickly. There may be approximation between an adjective attached to an object and an adverb. PRESENTLY' means soon'. The verbs of perception 'smell'. 'HOTLY'. 'sort of. fast. 'COOLLY' and COLDLY' are used mainly in an emotional sense:He was deeply hurt.)The train went fast. etc. most seldom). because they are not gradable. more seldom. The comparison of adverbs Only gradable adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms Comparison is not possible with adverbs such as daily. 'hardly'. 'feel'.and.'pursuant to' 'regardless of'. 'partly'.:I partly agree with you.'merely'. 'taste'. 'simply'. . These expressions are:'according to'.. even though the adjectives in question otherwise add ly when used adverbially: Every known precaution has been adopted. 'in the slightest'... 'a bit'.as:Sylvia sings as sweetly as her sister .the:The faster I type the more mistakes I make . DEEPLY'. etc..
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