Está en la página 1de 7

CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC MPLS

I. Tng quan v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS 1. Lch s ra i: Khi mng Internet pht trin v m rng, lu lng Internet bng n. Cc ISP x l bng cch tng dung lng cc kt ni v nng cp b nh tuyn (router) nhng vn khng trnh khi nghn mch. L do l cc giao thc nh tuyn thng hng lu lng vo cng mt s cc kt ni nht nh dn n kt ni ny b qu ti trong khi mt s ti nguyn khc khng c s dng. y l tnh trng phn b ti khng ng u v s dng lng ph ti nguyn mng Internet. Cng ngh MPLS ra i trong bi cnh ny p ng c nhu cu ca th trng ng theo tiu ch pht trin ca Internet mang li nhng li ch thit thc, nh du mt bc pht trin mi ca mng Internet trc xu th tch hp cng ngh thng tin v vin thng trong thi k mi. 2.MPLS l g?

Hnh 1: MPLS v m hnh tham chiu OSI MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) l mt phng thc c ci tin cho vic chuyn tip cc gi tin trong mng bng cch s dng cc nhn c gn thm vo trong cc gi tin IP (IP packet). Cc nhn c chn vo gia header ca lp 3 v header ca lp 2 trong trng hp s dng k thut da trn khung lp 2. i vi cc k thut da trn t bo nh ATM, th n s cha c trng VPI v VCI. Min MPLS:

Hnh 2: Min MPLS Min MPLS c chia ra lm 2 phn: phn li (Core) v phn mng bin (Edge). Cc nt thuc min MPLS c gi l Router chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label Switch Router). Cc nt phn mng li c gi l transit-LSR hay cn gi l core-LSR. Cc nt bin gi l Router bin nhn LER (Label Edge Router). II. c im cng ngh: MPLS l s kt hp ca k thut chuyn mch lp 2 v k thut nh tuyn lp 3. Mc tiu chnh ca MPLS l to ra mt cu trc mng mm do cung cp cho c tnh m rng v n nh ca mng. iu ny bao gm k thut iu khin lu lng v kh nng hot ng ca VPN v c lin quan n Cht lng dch v (QoS) vi nhiu lp dch v (Cos). MPLS c th c xem nh l mt tp cc cng ngh hot ng vi nhau phn pht gi tin t ngun ti ch mt cch hiu qu v c th iu khin c. N s dng cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP chuyn tip lp 2 m c bo hiu bi cc giao thc inh tuyn lp 3.

Hnh 3: M hnh chung v chuyn tip v chuyn mch ti b inh tuyn c im mng MPLS: + Khng c MPLS API. cng khng c thnh phn giao thc pha host. + MPLS ch nm trn cc Router. + MPLS l mt giao thc c lp nn c th hot ng cng cc giao thc khc IP nh IPX, ATm, Frame Relay, + MPLS gip n gin ha qu trnh nh tuyn v lm tng tnh linh ng ca cc tng trung gian.

III. c im chuyn mch Trong mng MPLS, cc gi tin vo c gn nhn bi mt B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn bin (Edge Label Switched Router Edge LSR). Cc gi tin c gi theo mt ng chuyn mch nhn (Label Switched Path - LSP), y l con ng

m mi LSR s dng chuyn tip da trn cc i x ring bit cho tng nhn. Ti mi chng, LSR g b cc nhn c sn v thm vo mt nhn mi, sau thng bo cho chng k tip bit chuyn tip gi tin. Nhn s c g b ti LSR bin v gi tin s tip tc c chuyn tip n ch cn n. Thc hin chuyn tip d liu vi MPLS bao gm cc bc sau : + Gn nhn MPLS (trn LSR). + Giao thc phn phi nhn (LDP Label Distribution Protocol hay TDP Tag Distribution Protocol) thc hin gn nhn v trao i nhn gia cc LSR trong min MPLS thit lp c phin lm vic. Vic gn nhn c th gn cc b trn Router hoc trn giao tip ca Router. + Thit lp LDP/TDP gia LSR/ELSR. + Mc nh trn Router s dng LDP.

Hnh 4: Gi IP i qua mng MPLS IV. nh gi kh nng ng dng Nhng u im ca MPLS:

-Tc v tr: Chuyn mch nhn c cung cp gii quyt vn v tc v tr mt cch hiu qu. Chuyn mch nhn nhanh hn nhiu chuyn mch IP c in bi v gi tr nhn c t trong header ca gi n, c s dng qun l bng nh tuyn theo cch nhn s c s dng l ch mc trong bng. Vic tm kim ny yu cu ch mt ln l tm ra, ngc li nh tuyn c in c th phi tm trong bng vi nghn ln. Kt qu, trn lung vn chuyn, cc gi c gi thng qua mng nhanh hn thng thng, gim thi gian tr, v p ng thi gian cho ngi dng. -Kh nng m rng (Scalability): N cng c th cung cp kh nng m rng, tc l iu tit mt s lng ln v ngy cng tng nhanh chng cc user trn mng Internet. Chuyn mch nhn ngh mt cch gii quyt cho vn pht trin mng mt cch nhanh chng nh vy bng cch cho php mt s lng ln cc a ch IP c lin kt vi nhau trn mt hay mt vi nhn. Cch tip cn ny s ct gim bt bng nh tuyn v cho php mt router phc v nhiu ngi dng hn ti mt thi im v cng khng cn i hi kh nng x l cao ca cc router. -n gin: MPLS chuyn tip mt gi da trn nhn ca gi .Chuyn mch nhn c th c thc hin trong mt phn mm, trong cc mch in t tch hp hay trong mt vi x l c bit. -Mc s dng ti nguyn: C ch iu khin thit lp mt nhn phi khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn. N khng c lm mt nhiu ti nguyn v chuyn mch nhn th hon ton khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn thc thi vic thnh lp mt con ng chuyn mch nhn cho ng dn. Vy, Vi cc khuyt im thuc v bn cht v ngy cng bc l ra khi s pht trin mng ngy cng nhanh v tc v s lng th TCP/IP c in ang ng trc nhng vn ht sc kh khn. Tuy nhin, vi s xut hin ca chuyn mch
6

nhn a giao thc MPLS cng cc u im c nu trn v nu nh c p dng vo thc t cho cc mng ng trc ln ca cc nh cung cp dch v th c th gii quyt nhanh chng cc bi ton m TCP/IP c in ang mc phi. V thc t chng minh iu khi c mt s nh cung cp dch v ng dng MPLS vo mng ng trc ca mnh v thu c kh nhiu li ch.