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TWINS

Causes of Twins
There are two types of twins. Fraternal twins are produced when two eggs are released and two separate sperm fertilize them. These twins are not identical, although they may still look alike because they are siblings. Identical twins are produced when one egg is fertilized by one sperm. During the zygote stage, the egg splits into two. This creates two separate embryos and thus the children will be identical copies of each other. The same exact chromosome match. When a woman becomes pregnant, the thing she may be most curious about aside from the sex of the baby is how many babies there are. Multiple pregnancies that occur through natural methods are a mystery to some people. It is interesting to learn about what causes twin babies in order to determine if it is a possibility for everyone. Twins that are conceived without the use of fertility drugs are made in two ways. The first is the release of multiple eggs or more than one ovulation at the same time. Each of the eggs is fertilized by a separate sperm, resulting in fraternal (non-identical) twins. The second way is when only one egg is released and fertilized, which then splits into two. This splitting of the egg creates identical twin embryos within the uterus.

Different Kinds of Twins


Monozygotic Twins When a single zygote fuses with a sperm and splits into two separate embryos, the final product of this fertilization is what we scientifically call monozygotic twins. They are consistently identical to the human eye, sharing the same physical features due to matching genetic information. Since they stem from the same zygote containing either a male (XY) or female (XX) sex chromosome, their genders can never differ. However, in a few out of the ordinary cases of genetic mutation, a male fetus loses the Y chromosome and develops as a female with a deterred growth of ovaries. One-third of all twins are reported to be monozygotic. Dizygotic twins This occurrence is set off by the release of more than one egg in an ovulation cycle. When two separate eggs are fertilized by two separate sperms, fraternal twins are nine months away from earth! Also known as dizygotic twins, separate placentas, chorions and amnions confirm their type in the womb. Around two-thirds of all the twins in this world are fraternal. Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins or Siamese twins are essentially monozygotic twins that are joined in-uteri. This rare and heartbreaking phenomenon is elucidated by unfinished division of the fertilized ovum. The two individuals will be stuck to one another till death brings them apart. Unless they

consider surgery, which carries cautioned risks. Connected at certain parts of the body, Conjoined twins usually share the same organs, limbs and tissues. Dicephalus (Two Headed) Conjoined Twins Abigail and Brittany Hensel are about to turn sixteen. Theyve shared every single moment of their lives, but it wasnt a matter of choice. These twin sisters are joined for life. Polar Body Twins Sometimes, the egg first splits. Later, each half collides with a sperm. These twins might be extremely alike in several ways including looks but their DNA wont be 100% compatible. Mirror Image Twins Coming from a single fertilized egg, mirror image twins develop reverse asymmetric features. This can be attributed by a delayed split of the fertilized egg, often surpassing a week. 25% of identical twins tend to be mirror image twins. One will be left-handed and the other, right handed. They may possess matching birthmarks on opposite sides of their bodies and suck opposite thumbs. The name springs from the fact that if face to face, they would be seeing exact mirror reflections of themselves! Same Face, Different Birthday What if a Labor begins at the peak hours of New Years Eve and the second twin is still on the way while the first one is already inhaling monoxides? The clock strikes twelve and Oops! Forget their birthdays being one day apart. Picture this- Molly was born in 1983 and her twin sister Polly in 1984! In certain cases, preterm labor forces the delivery of one baby while the other ones can be controlled. Semi-Identical Twins Identified in a pair of three-year old kids, these rare twins developed when two sperms fertilized one egg and later split. One twin was born a hermaphrodite while the other is anatomically male.

MULTIPLE BIRTH
A multiple birth occurs when more than one fetus is carried to term in a single pregnancy. Different names for multiple births are used, depending on the number of offspring. Common multiples are two and three, known as twins and triplets. These and other multiple births occur to varying degrees in most animal species, although the term is most applicable to placental species. Multiple birth siblings are either monozygotic or dizygotic. The former result from a single fertilized egg or zygote splitting into two or more embryos, each carrying the same genetic material(genes). Siblings created from one egg are commonly called identical. Since identical multiples share the same genetic material, they are almost always the same sex. Dizygotic or fraternal multiples instead result from multiple ova being ripened and released in the same menstrual cycle by a woman's ovaries, which are then fertilized to grow into multiples no more genetically alike than ordinary full siblings. Multiples called polyzygotic represent some

combination of fraternal and identical siblings. For example, a set of triplets may be composed of identical twins from one egg and a third sibling from a second egg. Identical triplets or quadruplets are very rare and result when the original fertilized egg splits and then one of the resultant cells splits again (for triplets) or, even more rarely, a further split occurs (for quadruplets). Alternatively the original fertilized egg can split twice (to produce four embryos) and all four may survive, to produce identical quadruplets, or one of the embryos may not survive and result in triplets. Quadruplets result from the rare occurrence when four eggs are released and fertilized at once, or when one egg splits into four, or one egg splits into three with the fourth one fertilized, two eggs split into two, or one egg splits and two are fertilized. One famous set of quadruplets includes the Genain quadruplets who were identical quadruplets who all developed schizophrenia.