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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same

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A Technical Seminar Report on

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information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology, which can distinguish between registered legitimate users and imposters, is now generating interest.

Currently, passwords, Personal Identification Numbers (4-digit PIN numbers) or identification cards are used for personal identification. However, cards can be stolen, and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To solve these problems, biometric authentication technology, which identifies people by their unique biological information, is attracting attention. In biometric authentication, an account holders body characteristics or behaviors (habits) are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate.

Fujitsu has researched and developed biometric authentication technology focusing on four methods: fingerprints, faces, voiceprints, and palm veins. Among these, because of its high accuracy, contact less palm vein authentication technology is being incorporated into various financial solution products for use in public places.

The Palm Secure sensor developed by Fujitsu is a biometric authentication solution offering optimum levels of security. Palm Secure detects the structure of the pattern of veins on the palm of the human hand with the utmost precision.

Each and every person will have different patters of pal veing.Even if they are twins they will have difference in their palm veins. In order to identify a person complicated vascular pattern is very much helpful and thats why it is having quite differentiating features for persons identification.One of the greater advantages of palm vein is that they do not adopt any change during the life of a human because they lie under the skin.It is a very much secure method for identification and authentication.

Department of Information Technology

A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

1.2 HISTORY
Palm vein scanner Function: Persons palm vein image is captured by special kind of sensor. During reflection,illumination of palm takes place with the help of infrared rays and captures the light given off after diffusion through the palm. The deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm vein vessels absorbs the infrared rays and causing the palm veins to appear as a black pattern. This vein pattern is then verified against preregistered pattern to authenticate the human. This recognition method provides high level of security.

The major advantage with this technology is that it is difficult to forge because of palm veins are inside the superficial skin. So impossible to copy the palm veins. It is highly accurate and capable of 1:1 and 1: many matching.

There are only seven companies in the world, who manufactures Palm Vein Recognition equipment and Mantra Softech India is one of them. We are also First in INDIA in Palm Vein manufacturing. We sell palm vein identification and authentication equipment to Germany, France, Great Britain [England], Sweden, Norway, Finland, The netherlands, Poland, Iceland, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, Denmark, austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Hungary, Luxembourg, Portugal, Turkey, Vetican city etc.

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

2. BACKGROUND

The ability to verify identity has become increasingly important in many areas of modern life, such as electronic government, medical administration systems, access control systems for secure areas, passenger ticketing, and home office and home study environments. Technologies for personal identification include code numbers, passwords, and smart cards, but these all carry the risk of loss, theft, forgery, or unauthorized use. It is expected that biometric authentication technology, which authenticates physiological data, will be deployed to supplement - or as an alternative to - these other systems.

The Fujitsu Group has developed biometric authentication technologies based on fingerprints, voice, facial features, and vein patterns in the palm, and has also combined two or more of these capabilities in multi-biometric authentication systems. Although biometric authentication is already being used to some extent by companies and government authorities, for it to gain wider acceptance, it needs to be considered less intrusive, and concerns about hygiene need to be addressed.

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

For that reason, there is a market need for voice or facial recognition systems and other biometric authentication technology that can read physiological data without requiring physical contact with sensor equipment, and the development of such systems that are both practical and offer greater precision.

Forget about signatures and photo IDs, forget about PIN numbers, forget about fingerprint, voiceprint, iris scan, or facial recognition security technologies to counter forged or stolen user IDs. Enter Fujitsu's palm vein ID authentication, which uses an infrared sensor to capture the user's vein pattern unique to every individual's palm for an exquisitely sensitive biometric authentication technique. Fujitsus novel ID technology has a few other advantages over other biometric technologies. The palm vein scanner has no deleterious effect on the body, nor does it require that the device be touched, unlike current fingerprint scanners, which proved to be disadvantageous because of sanitary and/or psychological issues related to hygiene or association with criminals, as well as reasons of usability (frequent use may increase the rejection rate of the system).

Other limitations of various other technologies are related to measuring external features. Aging or the camera angle could affect facial recognition systems; fingerprints can be forged, as shown by a University of Tokyo study. On the contrary, palm vein recognition seems not to be affected by aging; neither cuts, scars, tattoos, nor skin color affect the scans outcome; and, given that veins are internal, they can hardly be tampered with.

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

3. TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY
Palm vein authentication works by comparing the pattern of veins in the palm (which appear as blue lines) of a person being authenticated with a pattern stored in a database.Vascular patterns are unique to each individual, according to Fujitsu research evenidentical twins have different patterns. And since the vascular patterns exist inside the body, they cannot be stolen by means of photography, voice recording or fingerprints, thereby making this method of biometric authentication more secure than others. An individual first rests his wrist, and on some devices, the middle of his fingers, on the sensor's supports such that the palm is held centimeters above the device's scanner, which flashes a near-infrared ray on the palm. Unlike the skin, through which near-infrared light passes, deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins absorbs near-infrared rays, illuminating the hemoglobin, causing it to be visible to the scanner. Arteries and capillaries, whose blood contains oxygenated hemoglobin, which does not absorb near-infrared light, are invisible to the sensor. The still image captured by the camera, which photographs in the nearinfrared range, appears as a black network, reflecting the palm's vein pattern against the lighter background of the palm. An individual's palm vein image is converted by algorithms into data points, which is then compressed, encrypted, and stored by the software and registered along with the other details in his profile as a reference for future comparison. Then, each time a person logs in attempting to gain access by a palm scan to a particular bank account or secured entryway, etc., the newly captured image is likewise processed and compared to the registered one or to the bank of stored files for verification, all in a period of seconds. Numbers and positions of veins and their crossing points are all compared and, depending on verification, the person is either granted or denied access.

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

Figure: 3.0 Shows the usage of Palm Vein Technology On the basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu declared that the new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01% (i.e., only one out of 10,000 scans were incorrect denials for access), and a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% (i.e., incorrect approval for access in one in over a million scans). Also, if your profile is registered with your right hand, don't log in with your left - the patterns of an individual's two hands differ. And if you registered your profile as a child, it'll still be recognized as you grow, as an individual's patterns of veins are established in utero (before birth). No two people in the world share a palm vein pattern - even those of identical twins differ (so your evil twin won't be able to draw on your portion of the inheritance!)

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

3.1 PATTERN AUTHENTICATION


Hemoglobin in the blood is oxygenated in the lungs and carries oxygen to the tissues of the body through the arteries. After it releases its oxygen to the tissues, the deoxidized hemoglobin returns to the heart through the veins. These two types of hemoglobin have different rates of absorbency.Deoxidized hemoglobin absorbs light at a wavelength of about 760 nm in the near-infrared region. When the palm is illuminated with near infrared light, unlike the image seen by the human eye, the deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm veins absorbs this light, thereby reducing the reflection rate and causing the veins to appear as a black pattern.In vein authentication based on this principle, the region used for authentication is photographed with near-infrared light, and the vein pattern is extracted by image processing and registered. The vein pattern of the person being authenticated is then verified against the preregistered pattern.

Figure 3.1.01 Visible Ray Image

Figure: 3.1.02 Infrared Image Department of Information Technology 8

A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

Figure: 3.1.03 Extracted Palm Vein Pattern

3.2 REGISTRATION THROUGH PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY


Step 1: Palm Vein Technology consists of a small Palm Vein scaner that is easy and natural to use, fast and highly accurate. Simply hold your palm a few centimeters over the scaner and within a second it reveals your uniequevein pattern. A vein picture is taken and palm pattern is registered.

Figure: 3.2.01 How scanning is done Department of Information Technology 9

A Technical Seminar Report on Step 2:

Palm Vein Technology

The registered palm pattern is stored into the database along with the personal details of the client.

Figure 3.2.02 Pictures of normal and infrared image

3.3 WORKING OF THE TECHNOLOGY


1. One should place his/her palm near to the scanner.

Figure: 3.3.01 Scanner scanning the hand Department of Information Technology 10

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2. The scanner will make use of a special characteristic of reduced heamoglobin coursing through the pal veing. It absorbs the near infrared light. This makes it possible to take asnap short of whats beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or steal.

Figure 3.3.02 How Palm Identification works

3. The integrated optical system in palm vein sensor uses this phenomenon to generate an image of the palm vein pattern and the generated image is digitized, encrypted and finally stored as a registered template in the database.

3.4 WHAT HAPPENS IF THE PALM IS DAMAGED??


There may be a chance that the palm we had registered may getdamaged then we cannot use this technology,so during the time of registration we take the veins of both the hands so that if one gets damaged we can access through the secondhand. When hands get damaged upto large extent we can get veins because deeper into the hand veins are obtained.

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A Technical Seminar Report on

Palm Vein Technology

4. ADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY
ADVANTAGES
In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the back of the hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers the widest area. Because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern. The palm also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or the back of the hand, where the color can darken in certain areas.

The new technology has many potential applications (some of which are already in use) such as an ultra secure system for ATMs and banking transactions, a PC, handheld, or server login system, an authorization system for front doors, schools, hospital wards, storage areas, and high security areas in airports, and even facilitating library lending, doing away with the age-old library card system. Fujitsu is planning to continue the development of the palm vein technology, shrinking the scanner to fit a mobile phone. Fujitsu hopes that its success might usher in a new age in personal data protection techniques, which is especially important when sales of Smartphones and other handhelds are skyrocketing. TFOT had a quick word with Mr. H. Watanuki of Fujitsu's Biometric Business Development Department about the application of their palm vein technology. Other advantages are:

Contactless authentication is hygienic and non-invasive Fast and easy enrolment (under one minute) Fast, easy, and secure authentication (under one second) No Residual Trace Technology No biometric footprint left behind after authentication Encrypted repository for template storage Enterprise level event logging capability Compatible with Microsoft Active Directory

4.1 FALSE RATE/ACCEPT RATE (TYPE 1)


The false rejection rate (FRR) referred to as a Type I Department of Information Technology 12

A Technical Seminar Report on

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This error is the measure of the likelihood that the biometric security system will incorrectly reject an access attempt by an authorized user. A systems FRR typically is stated as the ratio of the number of false rejections divided by the number of identification attempts.For PalmSecure this is impressively rated at 0.01%.

4.2 FALSE ACCEPT RATE (TYPE 2)


This is typically considered the most serious of biometric security errors, as it gives unauthorized users access to systems that expressly are trying to keep them out. A systems FAR typically is stated as the ratio of the number of false acceptances divided by the number of identification attempts. Advanced authentication algorithm produces a high level of accuracy. For PalmSecure this is impressively rated 0.00008. In addition to this the ability of the system was measured by the following: 1. Data from people ranging from 6 to 85 years old including people in variousoccupations in accordance with the demographics realized by the Statistics Center of theStatistics Bureau. 2. Data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographicsreleased by the unitednations. 3. Data taken in various situations in daily life

4.3 CONTACTLESS PALM VEIN AUTHENTICATION DEVICE:


The completely contactless feature of thisDevice makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required .It also eliminates any hesitation peoplemight have about coming into contact with something thatother people have already touched. In addition to being contactless and thereby hygienic and user-friendly inthat the user does Not need to physically touch a surface and is free of such hygieneconcerns, palm vein Authentication is highly secure in that the veins are internal to the body and carry a wealth of

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A Technical Seminar Report on Security thereby being extremely difficult to forge.

Palm Vein Technology

In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using thevascular pattern on the back of a hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is themost complex and covers the widest area, because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern . The palm also has no significant variations inskin color compared with fingers or back of the hand, where the color can darken incertain areas.

4.4 ADVANTAGES
There are two methods of photographing veins: reflection and transm ission. Fujitsu employs the reflection method.

The reflection method illuminates the palm and photographs the light that is reflected back from the palm, while the transmission method photographs light that passes straight through the hand. Both types capture the near-infrared light given off by the region used for identification after diffusion through the hand.

An important difference between the reflection method and transmission method is how they respond to changes in the hands light transmittance. When the body cools due to a lowered ambient temperature, the blood vessels (in particular the capillaries) contract, decreasing the flow of blood through the body.This increases the hands light transmittance, so light passes through it more easily. If the transmittance is too high, the hand can become saturated with light and light can easily pass through the hand. In the transmission method, this results in a lighter, lesscontrasted image in which it is difficult to see the vessels. However, a high light transmittance does not significantly affect the level or contrast of the reflected light. Therefore, with the reflection method, the vessels can easily be seen even when the hand/body is cool.

The system configurations of the two methods are also different. The reflection method illuminates the palm and takes photographs reflected back from the palm, so the illumination and photography components can be positioned in the same place. Conversely, because the Department of Information Technology 14

A Technical Seminar Report on

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transmission method photographs light that passes through the hand, the illumination and photography components must be placed in different locations. This makes it difficult for the system to be embedded into smaller devices such as notebook PCs or cellular phones. Fujitsu has conducted an in-depth study of the necessary optical components to reduce the size of the sensor, making it more suitable for embedded applications.

4.5 PSYCHOLOGICAL RESISTANCE


Fujitsu is a pioneer in designing a completely contactless palm vein authentication device. With this device, authentication simply involves holding a hand over the vein sensor.The completely contactless feature of this device makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required, such as in public places or medical facilities. It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into contact with something that other people have already touched.

4.6 AUTHENTICATION ACCURACY


Using the data of 140,000 palms from 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu has confirmed that the system has a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% and a false rejection rate of 0.01%, provided the hand is held over the device three times during registration, with one retry for comparison during authentication. In addition, the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1) data from people ranging from 5 to 85 years old, including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics released by the Statistics Center of the Statistics Bureau; 2) data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the United Nations; 3) data taken in various situations in daily life, including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside, and waking up.

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5. APPLICATIONS
5.1 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Financial damage caused by fraudulent withdrawals of money using identity spoofing with fake bankcards has been rapidly increasing in recent years, and this has emerged as a significant social problem2. As a result, there has been a rapid increase in the number of lawsuits filed by victims of identity theft against financial institutions for their failure to control information used for personal identification. The Act for the Protection of Personal Information came into effect in Japan on May 1, 2005, and in response, financial institutions have been focusing on biometric authentication together with IC (smart) cards as a way to reinforce the security of personal identification.

Vein authentication can provide two types of systems for financial solutions, depending on where the registered vein patterns are stored. In one method, the vein patterns are stored on the server of a client-server system. The advantage of this system is that it provides an integrated capability for managing vein patterns and comparison processing. In the other type, a users vein pattern is stored on an IC card, which is beneficial because users can control access to their own vein pattern. Suruga Bank uses the server type for their financial solutions, and The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi uses the IC card system. In July 2004, to ensure customer security, Suruga Bank3 launched its Bio-Security Deposit the worlds first financial service to use PalmSecure. This service features high security for customers using vein authentication, does not require a bankcard or passbook, and prevents withdrawals from branches other than the registered branch and ATMs, thereby minimizing the risk of fraudulent withdrawals. To open a Bio-Security Deposit account, customers go to a bank and have their palm veins photographed at the counter. In order to guarantee secure data management, the palm vein data is stored only on the vein database server at the branch office where the account is opened. In October 2004, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi4 launched its Super-IC Card TokyoMitsubishi VISA. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money Department of Information Technology 16

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and palm vein authentication. From a technical and user-friendly point of view, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishin arrowed the biometric authentication methods suitable for financial transactions to palm veins, finger veins and fingerprints. The bank then mailed a questionnaire to 1,000 customers and surveyed an additional 1,000 customers who used devices in their branches. Finally, the bank decided to employ Palm Secure because the technology was supported by the largest number of people in the questionnaire. The Super-IC Card contains the customers palm vein data and vein authentication algorithms, and performs vein authentication by itself. This system is advantageous because the customers information is not stored at the bank. When a customer applies for a Super-IC card, the bank sends the card to the customers home. To activate the palm vein authentication function, the customer brings the card and his or her passbook and seal to the bank counter, where the customers vein information is registered on the card. After registration, the customer can make transactions at that branchs counter and any ATM using palm vein authentication and a matching PIN number.

In 2006, Fujitsu reduced the Palm Secure sensor to 1/4 of its current size for its next generation product. By using a smaller sensor on existing ATMs there will be room on the operating panel for a sensor for Felica mobiles, a 10-key pad that meets the DES (Data Encryption Standard), as well as an electronic calculator and other devices. The downsized sensor can also be mounted on ATMs in convenience stores. In addition to product development for financial solutions, Fujitsu has started to develop product applications for the general market .Two products are in great demand in the general market. One is for a physical access control unit that uses Palm Secure to protect entrances and exits, and the other is a logical access control unit that uses Palm Secure to protect input and output of electronic data. This section describes the features of these applications.

5.2 ACCESS CONTROL


The Palm Secure access control unit can be used to control entry and exit for rooms and buildings .This unit integrates the operation and control sections. The operation section has a vein sensor over which the palm is held, and the control section performs authentication Department of Information Technology 17

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processing and issues commands to unlock the door. The system can be introduced in a simple configuration by connecting it to the controller of an electronic lock. Palm Secure units are used to control access to places containing systems or machines that manage personal or other confidential information, such as machine rooms in companies and outsourcing centers where important customer data is kept.

Due to increasing concerns about security, some condominiums and homes have started using this system to enhance security and safety in daily life.For both of these applications, the combination of the following features provides the optimum system: a hygienic and contactless unit ideal for use in public places, user-friendly operation that requires the user to simply hold a palm over the sensor, and an authentication mechanism that makes impersonation difficult.

Figure 5.2.01 Optimum System

5.3 OTHER APPLICATIONS


The palm vein authentication login unit controls access to electronically stored Information As with the units for financial solutions, there are two types: a server type and an IC card type. Because the PalmSecure login unit can also be used for authentication using conventional IDs and passwords, existing operating systems and applications can continue to be used. It is also possible to build the unit into an existing application to enhance operability. In the early stage of introduction, the units were limited to businesses handling personal information that came under the Act for the Protection of Personal Information enforced in April 2005. However, use of the units is now expanding to leading-edge businesses that handle confidential information.

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Because of the importance of personal identification, we can expect to see the Development of new products for various applications, such as: Access control to medication dispensing Identification of doctors and nurses when accessing protected health records Patient identification management Settlement by credit card Obtaining various certificates using the Basic Resident Register Card entication Retrieval of checked luggage Driver authentication Checking attendance in schools Clocking in and out of the workplace.

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CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSION
This paper explains palm vein authentication. The Fijitsu Palmsecure is a palm-vein based authentication system that utilizes the latest in Biometric Security Technology. Answering a worldwide need from governments to the private sector, this contactless device offers an easy-touse, hygienic solution for verifying identity. This technology is highly secure because it uses information contained within the body and is also highly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to each individual. Moreover, its contactless feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies. This paper also describes some examples of financial solutions and product applications for the general market that have been developed based on this technology.In this report we have discussed all about Palm Vein Technology. Palm vein technologyis the new face of the biometric. It provides the maximum security as compared to other biometric technologies because it uses information contained within the body and is alsohighly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to eachindividual. It also gives least FRR, FAR, EER among them. Also verification time is lessas compared to other technologies. Since in this technology ICP method is used which isfree from orientation and rotational problems of the image. Also there is no disadvantage.As discussed earlier, by using multimodal of fusion of other technology with PVT willmake it more secure.Moreover, its contactless feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies.This paper also describes some examples of financial solutions and product applications for the general market that have beendeveloped based on this technology. Many of customers have favourably evaluated thistechnology and have experienced no psychological resistance to using it. This has encouraged manufacturers and developers to start development of new products for various applications, beginning with financial solutions and followed by access controlunits and login units.

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REFERENCES
Palm Secure TM by Thomas Bengs, product manager EMEA.2. Biometric security - Fujitsu Palm Vein Technology by Bao Nguyen, Henrik Nilsen, Yoonjin Kim (Information Technology Department NNK Investment &Banking).3. White Paper Palm Vein Authentication. 2006 Fujitsu Computer Products for America, Inc,4. Analysis of Palm Vein Biometric System by Kenneth Wong, Thomson Lai,Bosco Lee, Frankie Shum.5. BIOMETRICS by Alvaro E. Escobar.6. Vascular Pattern Analysis towards Pervasive Palm Vein Authentication byDebnath Bhattacharyya (Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India ),Poulami Das (Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India), Tai-hoon Kim(Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea), Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay (Universityof Calcutta, Kolkata, India).7. A New Palm Vein Matching Method Based on ICP Algorithm Haifen ChenGuangming Lu Rui Wang Bio-Computing Research Centre, HIT ShenzhenGraduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen, China8. Did I Do That? A Current Analysis of Biometric Technologies by Jalaynea A.Cooper.9. Report on Fingerprint Recognition by NTSC (National Science and TechnologyCouncil).10. Emerging Biometric Technologies fromwww.indiasafe.com/image/pdf-mar10/64.pdf 13. Report on Vascular Pattern Recognition by NTSC (National Science andTechnology Council).14. Fast ICP algorithms for shape registration Timothe Jost and Heinz Hgli PatternRecognition Group, Institute of Micro technology, University of Neuchtel,Breguet, CH-2000 Neuchtel, Switze

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