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ADSORPTION

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DEFINITION
Adsorption is the adhesion of molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solids to a surface This process creates a film of the adsorbate (the molecules or atoms being accumulated) on the surface of the adsorbent.

Adsorption process

Adsorbate

Adsorbent

Adsorption
Physisorption: characteristic of weak van der Waals interaction Chemisorption: characteristic of ionic or covalent bonding

Physisorption
a. The fundamental interacting force of physisorption is caused by van der Waals force b. Reversible adsorption

c. Interaction energy is very weak d. The adsorbed species are chemically identical with those in the fluid phase, so that the chemical nature of the fluid is not altered by adsorption and subsequent desorption

Chemisorption
a. The phenomenon is characterized by strong interactions include chemical bonds of the ionic or covalent variety, depending on chemical specificity b. Adsorption takes place only in a monolayer

c.The

chemical nature of the adsorptive(s) may be altered by surface dissociation or reaction in such a way that on desorption the original species cannot be recovered; in this sense chemisorption may not be reversible

A self assembled monolayer (SAM) is an organized layer of amphiphilic molecules in which one end of the molecule, the head group shows a special affinity for a substrate. SAMs also consist of a tail with a functional group at the terminal end

ION EXCHANGE
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Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ioncontaining solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic 'ion exchangers'.

Ion exchangers can be unselective or Ion exchangers have binding preferences for certain ions or classes of ions (dependent on the size of the ions, their charge, or their structure) Ion exchange is a reversible process and the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions

Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are:


H+ and OH Single charged monoatomic ions (Na+, K+ or Cl-) Double charged monoatomic ions like Ca2+ or Mg2+ Polyatomic inorganic ions like SO42- or PO43Organic bases, usually molecules containing the amino functional group NR2 H+ Organic acids, often molecules containing COO(carboxylic acid) functional groups Biomolecules which can be ionized: amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc.

Typical ion exchangers are


ion exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites, montmorillonites, Clays, soil humus